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1

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

2

Spectrum agile radios: utilization and sensing architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the largest and most desirable portion of the radio spectrum is allocated to licensed services, which has resulted in the well-known profound scarcity of this resource for emerging applications. With the rapid growth of wireless technologies, current spectrum scarcity has become a serious problem as more and more wireless applications compete for very little spectrum. On the other hand,

Sai Shankar N; Carlos Cordeiro; Kiran Challapali

2005-01-01

3

The Efficiency of the FCC Spectrum Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

From July 1994 to July 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) conducted nine spectrum auctions, raising about $20 billion for the U.S. Treasury. The auctions assigned thousands of licenses to hundreds of firms. Were the auctions efficient? Did they award the licenses to the firms best able to turn the spectrum into valuable services for onsumers? There is substantial evidence

Peter Cramton

1998-01-01

4

The effects of geography on spectrum-orbit utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With over forty satellites in geostationary orbit, and many more planned, it is becoming increasingly difficult to find suitable orbit positions for new systems operating at 4 and 6 GHz. Efficient spectrum-orbit utilization can be achieved with frequency-reuse techniques - orthogonal polarization, earth-station antenna discrimination, and satellite antenna discrimination - provided that service-area geography is considered. Service arc - that portion of the orbit which affords useful service to all points in a given area - is a function of the area's climate, terrain, and location as well as its size and shape. Of the three techniques, satellite antenna discrimination is the most sensitive to these factors. According to the BSS (broadcasting-satellite service) antenna reference pattern, the maximum discrimination possible is the on-axis gain, which can be as high as 49 dB for a beamwidth of 0.6 degrees, or as low as 32 dB for a 3.5-degree beamwidth. Unlike the Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS), the BSS will normally have beams that cover no more than one or two time zones.

Sawitz, P. H.

1979-01-01

5

The waveform design for dynamic spectrum access of CUWB with high bandwidth efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive waveform design for dynamic spectrum access of CUWB is the keystone for realizing the Cognitive UWB system. For increasing the bandwidth efficiency while satisfying the dynamic spectrum mask, a novel waveform design method and a new modulation scheme are proposed in this paper. Utilizing the band-limited and time-limited character of bandpass Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions (PSWF), a set of

Xiguo Liu; Hongxing Wang; Zhiyong Zhao; Jiafang Kang; Zhaonan Chen

2010-01-01

6

Concentrating and spectrum splitting optical device in high efficiency CPV module with five bandgaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system. Currently, most concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems concentrate the solar spectrum onto triple junction cells to strive for high conversion efficiencies and low cost. Other approaches to high efficiency use spectrum splitting. Triple junction systems are limited in efficiency and spectrum splitting systems are usually too costly for mass production. The objective is to design a spectrum splitting solar concentrator, using reverse ray tracing methods, to overcome the efficiency and cost limitations of current systems by using a single low cost optical device to concentrate and split the solar spectrum onto a large number of target photovoltaic (PV) cells. Dispersive properties of standard optical materials, such as glass or plastic, are utilized to achieve the desired spectral separation. Reverse ray tracing is used to simultaneously optimize the shape of the top and bottom interfaces of the solar concentrator to achieve the desired split spectrum at the target PV cells. Additional strategies to increase system efficiency and minimize optical losses, including draft surface shading and corner rounding losses, are explored. A CPV module, including the spectrum splitting solar concentrator and five PV cells of different bandgaps, is proposed. This spectrum splitting CPV system has a calculated aggregate cell conversion efficiency that exceeds 45%, has the potential to be mass produced, and meets the need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system.

Taudien, Jerker Y.; Kern, Ludwig A.

2013-09-01

7

A Proposal for Efficient Use of the Television Spectrum  

E-print Network

It is widely recognized that broadcast spectrum is utilized inefficiently. The principle technical cause of this inefficiency is inexpensive receiver design. In addition, the economics of the industry are such that users ...

Weiss, Martin

2002-07-22

8

Spectrum pooling: an innovative strategy for the enhancement of spectrum efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the technical challenges that have to be met when implementing the interesting new technology of spectrum pooling. This notion represents the coexistence of two mobile radio systems within the same frequency range. It enables the secondary utilization of already licensed frequency bands as aimed at by several regulatory authorities worldwide. The goal of spectrum pooling is to

T. A. Weiss; F. K. Jondral

2004-01-01

9

Predicting health utilities for children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Comparative effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that incorporates costs is lacking due to the scarcity of information on health utility scores or preference-weighted outcomes typically used for calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). This study created algorithms for mapping clinical and behavioral measures for children with ASDs to health utility scores. The algorithms could be useful for estimating the value of different interventions and treatments used in the care of children with ASDs. Participants were recruited from two Autism Treatment Network sites. Health utility data based on the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) for the child were obtained from the primary caregiver (proxy-reported) through a survey (N?=?224). During the initial clinic visit, proxy-reported measures of the Child Behavior Checklist, Vineland II Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (start measures) were obtained and then merged with the survey data. Nine mapping algorithms were developed using the HUI3 scores as dependent variables in ordinary least squares regressions along with the start measures, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, to measure severity, child age, and cognitive ability as independent predictors. In-sample cross-validation was conducted to evaluate predictive accuracy. Multiple imputation techniques were used for missing data. The average age for children with ASDs in this study was 8.4 (standard deviation?=?3.5) years. Almost half of the children (47%) had cognitive impairment (IQ???70). Total scores for all of the outcome measures were significantly associated with the HUI3 score. The algorithms can be applied to clinical studies containing start measures of children with ASDs to predict QALYs gained from interventions. PMID:25255789

Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Kuhlthau, Karen A; van Exel, N Job; Kovacs, Erica; Bellando, Jayne; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Brouwer, Werner B F

2014-12-01

10

UNINTERRUPTED NETWORK COMMUNICATION WITH EFFICIENT RESOURCE UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

A challenging issue for network communication is to provide uninterrupted network services even when a link failure occurs. Path protection offers a promising solution by employing a link-disjoint secondary backup path to protect the primary path. Existing path protection mechanisms can be classified into 1+1 protection, 1:1 protection 1:N protection and M:N protection. However, their implementation either consumes too much network resources, or cannot respond to link failure quickly enough without much awareness of users. In this paper, a resourceefficient protection scheme, referred to as ?+1 protection, is introduced. In ?+1 protection, only critical information of the primary path is duplicated and transferred through the secondary path. The benefit of ?+1 protection is twofold. Firstly, it reduces the redundancy of data transmission, and hence improves the efficiency of resource utilization. Secondly, ? is a flexible parameter that can be adjusted according to the requirements of different services or networks. Index Terms — Link-disjoint paths, path protection, QOS, reliable routing

Ming-lee Gan; Soung-yue Liew

11

Encouraging the Construction of Energy Efficient Homes - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

ENCOURAGING THE CONSTRUCTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT HOMES - A UTILITY PERSPECTIVE G. H. Kimmons. Jr. and Paul W. Burch Tennessee Valley Authority ABSTRACT Historically an industry with a supply side orientation, electric utilities are becoming...

Kimmons, G. H.

1985-01-01

12

Efficient Energy Utilization in the Industrial Sector - Case Studies  

E-print Network

EFFICIENT ENERGY UTILIZATION IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR - CASE STUDIES Dr. Stephen R. Davis GMI Engineering & Management Institute Flint, Michigan ABSTRACT The need for more efficient use of the world's energy resources has become one...

Davis, S. R.

1984-01-01

13

Efficient Seed Utilization for Reseeding based Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main drawbacks of the conventional reseeding architecture is the limited seed efficiency due to the variance in the number of specified bits per vector. This paper proposes a new LFSR reseeding architecture that essentially solves this problem, resulting in a significant compression ratio. The compression ratio is very close to the entropy in terms of #total bits

Erik H. Volkerink; Subhasish Mitra

2003-01-01

14

Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotropical fruit bats consume figs (Ficus spp.) and other fruit in small bites which they suck dry and drop as pellets. The swallowed juice transits the short digestive system in 0.5 h or less. The efficiency of this unusual mode of feeding was determined by comparing the nutritional content of pellets, feces and urine of captive Artibeus jamaicensis to that

Douglas W. Morrison

1980-01-01

15

Land mobile spectrum utilization: San Francisco, California and Chicago, Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency utilization by Federal Communication Commission licenses in the San Francisco and Chicago urbanized areas is described. The license include among others: police and fire departments; hospitals; public utilities; marine; and common carrier users. The extent of frequency utilization is described in terms of four occupancy categorizations (zero, low, substantial and very high). The rationale for these categories and their relationship to measured usage data is given. Summary tables enable direct comparison of the use by various individual, radio services, e.g., police, business, taxicab, etc. Separate analyses are given for utilization by each of the land mobile radio services and for each frequency band.

Reed, L. D.

1980-08-01

16

Maximizing the utility of radio spectrum: Broadband spectrum measurements and occupancy model for use by cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.

Petrin, Allen J.

17

75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...entitled, ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies. '' The complete text...privacy issues arising from the deployment of smart grid technologies, can be found at: http...communications will surely play in the deployment of smart grid technologies. At this spectrum...

2010-11-18

18

Acoustic Feature Selection Utilizing Multiple Kernel Learning for Classification of Children with Autism Spectrum and Typically  

E-print Network

Acoustic Feature Selection Utilizing Multiple Kernel Learning for Classification of Children method using a multiple kernel learning (MKL) algorithm is proposed for classification between children (ASD) has also been focused on. An autistic spectrum obstacle is a congenital cerebral dysfunction

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

19

Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting  

E-print Network

Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials to enable novel, flat optical components and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces at visible frequencies has been a significant challenge due to high plasmonic losses and difficulties in high-uniformity nanofabrication. Here, we propose a highly-efficient yet simple metasurface design comprising of single gradient antenna as unit cell. We demonstrate visible broadband (450 - 850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting with 85% conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction was calculated to be ~ 103 and measured to be ~ 10. The anomalous reflected photons and spectrum splitting performance have been visualized using CCD and characterized using angle-resolved measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed here is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic resonators, and coul...

Li, Zhongyang; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

2014-01-01

20

Increasing the fuel utilization efficiency of RBMK-1000 reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic results of the measures taken to increase the fuel utilization efficiency of RBMK reactors and the promising directions\\u000a for developing them are examined. The results of a staged increase of fuel enrichment and the introduction of a consumable\\u000a absorber (erbium) into the fuel are presented. It is shown that the work performed not only greatly improved the cost-effectiveness

V. G. Aden; A. A. Petrov; A. I. Kupalov-Yaropolk; E. K. Kovalenko; D. V. Severinov; V. M. Panin; A. M. Fedosov; A. V. Krayushkin; E. V. Burlakov

2007-01-01

21

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

22

BINGO: a code for the efficient computation of the scalar bi-spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We present a new and accurate Fortran code, the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO), for the efficient numerical computation of the scalar bi-spectrum and the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} in single field inflationary models involving the canonical scalar field. The code can calculate all the different contributions to the bi-spectrum and the parameter f{sub NL} for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. Focusing firstly on the equilateral limit, we illustrate the accuracy of BINGO by comparing the results from the code with the spectral dependence of the bi-spectrum expected in power law inflation. Then, considering an arbitrary triangular configuration, we contrast the numerical results with the analytical expression available in the slow roll limit, for, say, the case of the conventional quadratic potential. Considering a non-trivial scenario involving deviations from slow roll, we compare the results from the code with the analytical results that have recently been obtained in the case of the Starobinsky model in the equilateral limit. As an immediate application, we utilize BINGO to examine of the power of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} to discriminate between various inflationary models that admit departures from slow roll and lead to similar features in the scalar power spectrum. We close with a summary and discussion on the implications of the results we obtain.

Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sriramkumar, L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Martin, Jérôme, E-mail: dhiraj@apctp.org, E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in, E-mail: jmartin@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2013-05-01

23

Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sharing in Relay-Assisted Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sharing in Relay-Assisted Cognitive Radio Systems (Invited Paper) Mariem of a relevant spectrum game. Two energy-efficient sources communicating with their respective destination energy-efficient sources. Keywords: resource allocation, cognitive radio, cooperative transmission, Nash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement  

SciTech Connect

By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

Smith, Brennan T [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.] [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.] [Mesa Associates, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy] [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.] [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

25

Clinical Utility of Autism Spectrum Disorder Scoring Algorithms for the Child Symptom Inventory4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies examine the clinical utility of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rating scales for screening referrals to child\\u000a psychiatry clinics. Parents\\/teachers from Long Island, NY, completed the Child Symptom Inventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating\\u000a scale for 6- to 12-year-old clinical referrals with an ASD (N = 317) or nonASD psychiatric (N = 191) diagnosis. Two separate groups of children attending public school, regular education classes

Kenneth D. Gadow; Joseph Schwartz; Carla DeVincent; Greg Strong; Simone Cuva

2008-01-01

26

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...frequency bands must meet the following modulation standards: (a) All...

2010-10-01

27

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...frequency bands must meet the following modulation standards: (a) All...

2012-10-01

28

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...frequency bands must meet the following modulation standards: (a) All...

2011-10-01

29

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...and 788-805 MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements...frequency bands must meet the following modulation standards: (a) All...

2013-10-01

30

Network efficiency in autism spectrum disorder and its relation to brain overgrowth  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of evidence links differences in brain size to differences in brain organization. We have hypothesized that the developmental aspect of this relation plays a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder which involves abnormalities in brain growth. Children with ASD have abnormally large brains by the second year of life, and for several years thereafter their brain size can be multiple standard deviations above the norm. The greater conduction delays and cellular costs presumably associated with the longer long-distance connections in these larger brains is thought to influence developmental processes, giving rise to an altered brain organization with less communication between spatially distant regions. This has been supported by computational models and by findings linking greater intra-cranial volume, an index of maximum brain-size during development, to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity in individuals with ASD. In this paper, we further assess this hypothesis via a whole-brain analysis of network efficiency. We utilize diffusion tractography to estimate the strength and length of the connections between all pairs of cortical regions. We compute the efficiency of communication between each network node and all others, and within local neighborhoods; we then assess the relation of these measures to intra-cranial volume, and the differences in these measures between adults with autism and typical controls. Intra-cranial volume is shown to be inversely related to efficiency for wide-spread regions of cortex. Moreover, the spatial patterns of reductions in efficiency in autism bear a striking resemblance to the regional relationships between efficiency and intra-cranial volume, particularly for local efficiency. The results thus provide further support for the hypothesized link between brain overgrowth in children with autism and the efficiency of the organization of the brain in adults with autism. PMID:24368901

Lewis, John D.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Townsend, Jeanne; Evans, Alan C.

2013-01-01

31

Energy-efficient spectrum sensing for cognitive sensor networks  

E-print Network

and standardization bodies aimed at permitting the use of portable devices and low-power sensors to operate detection at an individual cognitive sensor. Distributed spectrum sensing schemes based on soft and hard

Leus, Geert

32

An Efficient Spectrum Sensing Scheme for Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

multiterminal source coding with uniform scalar quantization and systematic turbo codes for Slepian-Wolf coding the spectrum for `unused' or white bands, and `low energy use' or grey bands. In an environment where multiple

Cheng, Samuel

33

Efficiency of sunlight utilization: tubular versus flat photobioreactors  

PubMed

The light saturation effect imposes a serious limitation on the efficiency with which solar energy can be utilized in outdoor algal cultures. One solution proposed to reduce the intensity of incident solar radiation and overcome the light saturation effect is "spatial dilution of light" (i.e., distribution of the impinging photon flux on a greater photosynthetic surface area), but consistent experimental data supporting a significant positive influence of spatial light dilution on the productivity and the photosynthetic efficiency of outdoor algal cultures have never been reported. We used a coiled tubular reactor and compared a near-horizontal straight tubular reactor and a near-horizontal flat panel in outdoor cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under defined operating conditions for optimum productivity. The photosynthetic efficiency achieved in the tubular systems was significantly higher because their curved surface "diluted" the impinging solar radiation and thus reduced the light saturation effect. This interpretation was supported by the results of experiments carried out in the laboratory under continuous artificial illumination using both a flat and a curved chamber reactor. The study also showed that, when the effect of light saturation is eliminated or reduced, productivity and solar irradiance are linearly correlated even at very high diurnal irradiance values, and supported findings that outdoor algal cultures are light-limited even during bright summer days. It was also observed that, besides improving the photosynthetic efficiency of the culture, spatial dilution of light also leads to higher growth rates and lowers the cellular content of accessory pigments; that is, it reduces mutual shading in the culture. The inadequacy of using volumetric productivity as the sole criterion for comparing reactors of different surface-to-volume ratio and of the areal productivity for evaluating the performance of elevated photobioreactors operated outdoors is stressed; it is furthermore suggested that the photosynthetic efficiency achieved by the culture also be calculated to provide a suitable parameter for comparison of different algal cultivation systems operated under similar climatic conditions. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099193

Tredici; Zittelli

1998-01-20

34

The Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) used for DBS plan analysis at RARC '83  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the history, functions, and usage of the program that was used to analyze the plans for direct broadcast satellite service developed in the course of the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference for ITU Region 2. Given the requirements for direct broadcast service by the administrations, the conference delegates (1) developed the appropriate technical parameters; (2) made tentative assignments to the orbit locations, frequencies, and polarizations of space stations, (3) calculated the interferences and margins of such assignments through the use of the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP); and (4) iterated this procedure until an acceptable plan was found.

Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

1985-01-01

35

A combined irradiance-transmittance solar spectrum and its application to photovoltaic efficiency calculations.  

PubMed

SOLTRAN is a flexible computer model for the direct solar beam intensity spectrum at the earth's surface. It has been derived by combining the extra-terrestrial solar spectrum with the atmospheric transmittance spectrum. Application of SOLTRAN to the calculation of the potential efficiency of photovoltaic cells demonstrates the effect of atmospheric absorption bands. These bands prevent unequivocal assignment of optimum energy gap values. PMID:17839483

Ireland, P J; Wagner, S; Kazmerski, L L; Hulstrom, R L

1979-05-11

36

Promoting Energy Efficiency in Industry: Utility Roles and Perspectives  

E-print Network

; commercial refrigeration incen Northeast Utilities (NU) -- The tives; and lighting conversion Energy Check program consists of incentives. The energy manage computer-assisted audits that ment utilization audit is a key identify a wide range of opera...

Limaye, D. R.; Davis, T. D.

1984-01-01

37

Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of utility and state demand-side management (DSM) programs that address efficient motor systems (EMS). The paper discusses the incentive structures in place at the state and utility level to encourage...

Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

38

Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustained growth of data traffic volume calls for an introduction of an efficient and scalable transport platform for links of 100 Gb\\/s and beyond in the future optical network. In this article, after briefly reviewing the existing major technology options, we propose a novel, spectrum- efficient, and scalable optical transport network architecture called SLICE. The SLICE architecture enables sub-wavelength,

Masahiko Jinno; Hidehiko Takara; Bartlomiej Kozicki; Yukio Tsukishima; Yoshiaki Sone; Shinji Matsuoka

2009-01-01

39

Optimization of gas utilization efficiency for short-pulsed electron cyclotron resonance ion source  

SciTech Connect

Numerical analysis of {sup 6}He atoms utilizing efficiency in the ion source with powerful gyrotron heating is performed in present work using zero-dimensional balanced model of ECR discharge in a magnetic trap. Two ways of creation of ion source with high gas utilization efficiency (up to 60%-90%) are suggested.

Izotov, I. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

40

An efficient algorithm for optimal reservoir utilization in probabilistic production costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and accurate algorithm is presented which determines optimal storage reservoir utilization (pumped hydro) in probabilistic production cost models with multiple storage, thermal, and limited-energy units. The algorithm exploits the special nature of the production cost function, which is piecewise linear with respect to the reservoir utilization levels. It achieves the same accuracy as previously developed, less efficient, approaches

A. J. Conejo; M. C. Caramanis; J. A. Bloom

1990-01-01

41

Molecular Control of Sucrose Utilization in Escherichia coli W, an Efficient Sucrose-Utilizing Strain  

PubMed Central

Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the W?cscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in W?cscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236

Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K.

2013-01-01

42

Molecular control of sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli W, an efficient sucrose-utilizing strain.  

PubMed

Sucrose is an industrially important carbon source for microbial fermentation. Sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli, however, is poorly understood, and most industrial strains cannot utilize sucrose. The roles of the chromosomally encoded sucrose catabolism (csc) genes in E. coli W were examined by knockout and overexpression experiments. At low sucrose concentrations, the csc genes are repressed and cells cannot grow. Removal of either the repressor protein (cscR) or the fructokinase (cscK) gene facilitated derepression. Furthermore, combinatorial knockout of cscR and cscK conferred an improved growth rate on low sucrose. The invertase (cscA) and sucrose transporter (cscB) genes are essential for sucrose catabolism in E. coli W, demonstrating that no other genes can provide sucrose transport or inversion activities. However, cscK is not essential for sucrose utilization. Fructose is excreted into the medium by the cscK-knockout strain in the presence of high sucrose, whereas at low sucrose (when carbon availability is limiting), fructose is utilized by the cell. Overexpression of cscA, cscAK, or cscAB could complement the W?cscRKAB knockout mutant or confer growth on a K-12 strain which could not naturally utilize sucrose. However, phenotypic stability and relatively good growth rates were observed in the K-12 strain only when overexpressing cscAB, and full growth rate complementation in W?cscRKAB also required cscAB. Our understanding of sucrose utilization can be used to improve E. coli W and engineer sucrose utilization in strains which do not naturally utilize sucrose, allowing substitution of sucrose for other, less desirable carbon sources in industrial fermentations. PMID:23124236

Sabri, Suriana; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

2013-01-01

43

Energy Efficient Scheme for Cognitive Radios Utilizing Soft AbdulRahman Alabbasi , Zouheir Rezki , Basem Shihada  

E-print Network

Energy Efficient Scheme for Cognitive Radios Utilizing Soft Sensing AbdulRahman Alabbasi , Zouheir sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function

Shihada, Basem

44

Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

2014-01-01

45

Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

2014-01-01

46

High Efficiency Spectrum Splitting Prototype Submodule Using Commercial CPV Cells (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes progress on the design, fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept, prototype spectrum splitting CPV submodule using commercial CPV cells, aimed at demonstrating an independently confirmed efficiency above 40% at STC (1000 W/m2, AM1.5D ASTM G173-03, 25 degrees C).

Keevers, M.; Lau, J.; Green, M.; Thomas, I.; Lasich, J.; King, R.; Emery, K.

2014-11-01

47

Reviewing the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves--a reductionist approach.  

PubMed

The efficiency of protein utilization for growth in preruminant calves is decreasing with increasing body weight. In contrast to calves weighing less than 100 kg of body weight, heavy preruminant calves do not respond in protein retention to an increased intake of indispensable amino acids in dose-response studies. The marginal efficiency of protein utilization is low compared with pigs and milk-fed lambs at a similar stage of maturity. A reductionist approach was taken to perceive the potential mechanisms for the low protein utilization in preruminant calves. Neither an imbalance in the dietary protein to energy ratio nor a single limiting indispensable amino acid was responsible for the low efficiency. Also, amino acids were not specifically used to detoxify ammonia. Alternative hypotheses to explain the low efficiency are discussed and result in (i) a reduced post-absorptive supply of amino acids: e.g. by fermentation of milk in the (premature) rumen or preferential amino acid utilization by specific tissues; or (ii) a reduced post-absorptive amino acid utilization: e.g. by decreased insulin sensitivity, utilization of amino acids for gluconeogenesis or an asynchronous nutrient supply. In conclusion, several mechanisms for the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves were excluded. Other physiological processes which are potentially involved remain to be studied, because the large potential for improving protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves asks for further exploration of their amino acid metabolism. PMID:16597419

van den Borne, Joost J G C; Verdonk, Johannes M A J; Schrama, Johan W; Gerrits, Walter J J

2006-01-01

48

Efficient hemodynamic event detection utilizing relational databases and wavelet analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a temporal query framework for time-oriented medical databases has hitherto been a challenging problem. We describe a novel method for the detection of hemodynamic events in multiparameter trends utilizing wavelet coefficients in a MySQL relational database. Storage of the wavelet coefficients allowed for a compact representation of the trends, and provided robust descriptors for the dynamics of the parameter time series. A data model was developed to allow for simplified queries along several dimensions and time scales. Of particular importance, the data model and wavelet framework allowed for queries to be processed with minimal table-join operations. A web-based search engine was developed to allow for user-defined queries. Typical queries required between 0.01 and 0.02 seconds, with at least two orders of magnitude improvement in speed over conventional queries. This powerful and innovative structure will facilitate research on large-scale time-oriented medical databases.

Saeed, M.; Mark, R. G.

2001-01-01

49

High Efficiency Resonant DC/DC Converter Utilizing a Resistance Compression Network  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new topology for a high-efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network (RCN) to provide simultaneous zero-voltage switching and near-zero-current switching ...

Inam, Wardah

50

Implications of the Public Utility Regulatory Act for Energy Efficiency in Texas  

E-print Network

to prepare energy efficiency plans. In their plans, utilities must consider the potential for economically producing capacity through supply? side and demand-side alternatives to new power plant construction. These alter? natives are identified... in the definition of energy efficiency included in the Rules. Supply-side alternatives are: optimizing existing and planned generation, transmission, and distribution facilities; purchasing power from cogenerators and small power producers; utilizing direct...

Biedrzycki, C. J.

51

Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

52

An efficient moving target detection algorithm based on sparsity-aware spectrum estimation.  

PubMed

In this paper, an efficient direct data domain space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm for moving targets detection is proposed, which is achieved based on the distinct spectrum features of clutter and target signals in the angle-Doppler domain. To reduce the computational complexity, the high-resolution angle-Doppler spectrum is obtained by finding the sparsest coefficients in the angle domain using the reduced-dimension data within each Doppler bin. Moreover, we will then present a knowledge-aided block-size detection algorithm that can discriminate between the moving targets and the clutter based on the extracted spectrum features. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through both numerical simulations and raw data processing results. PMID:25222035

Shen, Mingwei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

2014-01-01

53

An Efficient Moving Target Detection Algorithm Based on Sparsity-Aware Spectrum Estimation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, an efficient direct data domain space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm for moving targets detection is proposed, which is achieved based on the distinct spectrum features of clutter and target signals in the angle-Doppler domain. To reduce the computational complexity, the high-resolution angle-Doppler spectrum is obtained by finding the sparsest coefficients in the angle domain using the reduced-dimension data within each Doppler bin. Moreover, we will then present a knowledge-aided block-size detection algorithm that can discriminate between the moving targets and the clutter based on the extracted spectrum features. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through both numerical simulations and raw data processing results. PMID:25222035

Shen, Mingwei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

2014-01-01

54

Directed Evolution of a Highly Efficient Cellobiose Utilizing Pathway in an Industrial Saccharomyces  

E-print Network

Directed Evolution of a Highly Efficient Cellobiose Utilizing Pathway in an Industrial an overwhelming challenge in metabolic engineering. Here we report a novel strategy combining directed evolution and promoter engi- neering for rapid and efficient multi-gene pathway optimiza- tion. As proof of concept

Zhao, Huimin

55

MECHANISMS OF PLANT ZINC EFFICIENCY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOCHEMICAL ZINC UTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is widespread in numerous crops and results in significant yield losses around the world. Application of Zn fertilizers is not an economically viable solution for this problem; therefore more efficient utilization in zinc efficient genotypes may be a more reasonable solution. Th...

56

An Efficient Single-Pass Trace Compression Technique Utilizing Instruction Streams  

E-print Network

An Efficient Single-Pass Trace Compression Technique Utilizing Instruction Streams ALEKSANDAR of new ideas and design prototypes. Efficient trace compression and fast decompression are crucial-gzip compression ratio is from 80 to 35,595, and the SBC-bzip2 compression ratio is from 75 to 191,257. Moreover

Milenkovi, Aleksandar

57

Computational electromagnetics applied to analyzing the efficient utilization of the RF transmission hyperspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

New spectrum sharing techniques for wireless systems have recently been investigated that enable the joint utilization of all orthogonal electromagnetic (EM) transmission resources, including, but not limited to rime, frequency, geographic space, modulation\\/code, and polarization. This multi-dimensional environment is referred to as the transmission hyperspace (TH), a term intended to convey the notion of a multi-dimensional resource space, expressed as

Andrew L. Drozd; Irina P. Kasperovich; Clifford E. Carroll; Andrew C. Blackburn

2005-01-01

58

Utility Goals for the Efficiency Resource: Impact of PUC Rulemaking Project No. 39674 on Future Programs  

E-print Network

Utility Goals for the Efficiency Resource: Impact of PUC Rulemaking Project No. 39674 on Future Programs Amy Martin CATEE Conference October 10, 2012 Overview ? Frontier Associates ? EUMMOT ? Utility Program Overview and Results to Date... that ALL programs must be cost-effective, not simply the overall portfolio; only leeway exists with first year (Pilot) MTPs and LI (which must be cost-effective under SIR method) Cost-effectiveness calculation (d)(1) (d)(1) Similar to current rule; new...

Martin, A.

2012-01-01

59

Evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey’s renewable energy sources during 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey’s renewable energy sources (RESs) during 2001 by using energy and exergy analyses, giving a brief outlook on the utilization of RESs. Total energy and exergy inputs are calculated to be 3203.22 PJ and 3139.07 PJ, while renewable energy and exergy production values are determined to be 428.62 PJ and 395.68 PJ,

Arif Hepbasli; Zafer Utlu

2004-01-01

60

RADIATIVE EFFICIENCY AND THERMAL SPECTRUM OF ACCRETION ONTO SCHWARZSCHILD BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion onto black holes (BHs) have shown that, contrary to the basic assumptions of the Novikov-Thorne (NT) model, there can be substantial magnetic stress throughout the plunging region. Additional dissipation and radiation can therefore be expected. We use data from a particularly well-resolved simulation of accretion onto a non-spinning BH to compute both the radiative efficiency of such a flow and its spectrum if all emitted light is radiated with a thermal spectrum whose temperature matches the local effective temperature. This disk is geometrically thin enough (H/r {approx_equal} 0.06) that little heat is retained in the flow. In terms of light reaching infinity (i.e., after allowance for all relativistic effects and for photon capture by the BH), we find that the radiative efficiency is at least {approx_equal} 6%-10% greater than predicted by the NT model (complete radiation of all heat might yield another {approx_equal} 6%). We also find that the spectrum more closely resembles the NT prediction for a/M {approx_equal} 0.2-0.3 than for the correct value, a/M = 0. As a result, if the spin of a non-spinning BH is inferred by model fitting to an NT model with known BH mass, distance, and inclination, the inferred a/M is too large by {approx_equal} 0.2-0.3.

Noble, Scott C. [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schnittman, Jeremy D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hawley, John F., E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: jhk@jhu.edu, E-mail: jeremy.d.schnittman@nasa.gov, E-mail: jh8h@virginia.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

2011-12-20

61

Radiative efficiency and thermal spectrum of accretion onto Schwarzschild black holes  

E-print Network

Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion onto black holes have shown that, contrary to the basic assumptions of the Novikov-Thorne model, there can be substantial magnetic stress throughout the plunging region. Additional dissipation and radiation can therefore be expected. We use data from a particularly well-resolved simulation of accretion onto a non-spinning black hole to compute both the radiative efficiency of such a flow and its spectrum if all emitted light is radiated with a thermal spectrum whose temperature matches the local effective temperature. This disk is geometrically thin enough (H/r ~= 0.06) that little heat is retained in the flow. In terms of light reaching infinity (i.e., after allowance for all relativistic effects and for photon capture by the black hole), we find that the radiative efficiency is at least ~=6-10% greater than predicted by the Novikov-Thorne model (complete radiation of all heat might yield another ~6%). We also find that the spectrum more closely resembles the Novikov-Thorne prediction for a/M ~= 0.2--0.3 than for the correct value, a/M=0. As a result, if the spin of a non-spinning black hole is inferred by model-fitting to a Novikov-Thorne model with known black hole mass, distance, and inclination, the inferred a/M is too large by ~= 0.2--0.3.

Scott C. Noble; Julian H. Krolik; Jeremy D. Schnittman; John F. Hawley

2011-05-13

62

On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

63

UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

64

Optical concentration effects on conversion efficiency of a split-spectrum solar cell system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is presented to exhibit the possibility of a split-spectrum solar cell system to improve solar energy conversion above 50% and to explain the important role of optical concentration in such a system. The analysis is based on numerical simulation using a solar cell capacitance simulator. In the analysis, it is assumed that an ideal optical system is used to split the solar spectrum and concentrate the radiation into a six-solar-cell system. The parameters of the assumed and used materials are obtained from literature. The analysis shows that an efficiency of 45.39% can be achieved without concentration. This can reach 47.35% with 10 Sun concentration and 49.84% with 100 Sun concentration.

Hossain, Mohammad I.; Bousselham, Abdelkader; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

2014-02-01

65

Assessment of global functioning in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale.  

PubMed

Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale in a sample of higher functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and comorbid anxiety disorders enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (n = 30). Pretreatment Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale scores correlated with severity of autism spectrum disorders core symptoms (r = -.388, p = .034), pragmatic communication (r = .407, p = .032), and verbal ability (r = .449, p = .013) and did not correlate with severity of anxiety symptoms or with parent-reported adaptive behavior. Change in Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale scores during treatment was associated with autism spectrum disorders symptomatic improvement (r = .414, p = .040) and with improved general communication (r = .499, p = .013). Results support the importance of assessing global functioning in addition to symptom change and treatment response in clinical trials. PMID:23965288

White, Susan W; Smith, Laura A; Schry, Amie R

2014-05-01

66

Spectrum splitting using multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a high-efficiency dispersive mirror based on multi-layer dielectric meta-surfaces. By replacing the secondary mirror of a dome solar concentrator with this dispersive mirror, the solar concentrator can be converted into a spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system with higher energy harvesting efficiency and potentially lower cost. The meta-surfaces are consisted of high-index contrast gratings (HCG). The structures and parameters of the dispersive mirror (i.e. stacked HCG) are optimized based on finite-difference time-domain and rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. Our numerical study shows that the dispersive mirror can direct light with different wavelengths into different angles in the entire solar spectrum, maintaining very low energy loss. Our approach will not only improve the energy harvesting efficiency, but also lower the cost by using single junction cells instead of multi-layer tandem solar cells. Moreover, this approach has the minimal disruption to the existing solar concentrator infrastructures.

Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wu, Wei

2014-06-01

67

Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and Backbone requirements prevent easy integration with highly variable renewable energy sources. Short-term green energy]. Consequently, several datacenter operators have turned to renewable energy to offset the energy cost

Simunic, Tajana

68

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01

69

Universal and efficient compressed sensing by spread spectrum and application to realistic Fourier imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We advocate a compressed sensing strategy that consists of multiplying the signal of interest by a wide bandwidth modulation before projection onto randomly selected vectors of an orthonormal basis. First, in a digital setting with random modulation, considering a whole class of sensing bases including the Fourier basis, we prove that the technique is universal in the sense that the required number of measurements for accurate recovery is optimal and independent of the sparsity basis. This universality stems from a drastic decrease of coherence between the sparsity and the sensing bases, which for a Fourier sensing basis relates to a spread of the original signal spectrum by the modulation (hence the name "spread spectrum"). The approach is also efficient as sensing matrices with fast matrix multiplication algorithms can be used, in particular in the case of Fourier measurements. Second, these results are confirmed by a numerical analysis of the phase transition of the ?1-minimization problem. Finally, we show that the spread spectrum technique remains effective in an analog setting with chirp modulation for application to realistic Fourier imaging. We illustrate these findings in the context of radio interferometry and magnetic resonance imaging.

Puy, Gilles; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Gribonval, Rémi; Wiaux, Yves

2012-12-01

70

A theoretical framework to study potassium utilization efficiency in response to withdrawal of potassium.  

PubMed

An important objective of plant research is to improve the efficiency in the utilization of major nutrients, particularly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Several definitions of internal nutrient utilization efficiency (NUE) have been proposed, but the theoretical consistence of their use has been poorly explored. Here, a non-mechanistic approach was developed to theoretically examine the dynamics of commonly used NUE indicators following complete potassium deprivation. This approach was used to study the sensitivity of NUE indicators to changes in the actual NUE (NUEa) of K(+) in virtual plants. Three empirically based models that differ in the relationship between NUE and the internal K(+) concentration were examined. Frequently used indicators (potassium use efficiency, utilization efficiency, physiological efficiency, and nutrient productivity) and two additional ones introduced here (accumulated productivity and physiological ratio) differed in their capacity to reflect differences in NUEa. They also exhibited large disparities in their temporal variation and in their responsiveness to the concentration of K(+) before the beginning of the deprivation period. According to this analysis, the simultaneous use of several indicators could help to refine plant breeding for high NUE. The data also suggest that a trade off between plant productivity and the time necessary to reduce the concentration of K(+) by half is inherent to the dynamics of plant systems. Finally, it is proposed that for some plant species selection for high NUEa would not always be in conflict with selection for improved relative plant performance in low K(+) environments. PMID:23963671

Moriconi, Jorge I; Santa-María, Guillermo E

2013-11-01

71

Protein requirements of bobwhite chicks for survival, growth and efficiency of feed utilization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; McClure, H.E.

1942-01-01

72

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01

73

A Multi-Winner Cognitive Spectrum Auction Framework with Collusion-Resistant Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access, enabled by cognitive radio technologies, has become a promising approach to improve efficiency in spectrum utilization, and the spectrum auction is one approach in which unlicensed wireless users lease some unused bands from spectrum license holders. However, spectrum auctions are different from traditional auctions studied by economists, because spectrum resources are interference-limited rather than quantity-limited, and it

Yongle Wu; Beibei Wang; K. Liu; T. Charles Clancy

2008-01-01

74

A Multi-Winner Cognitive Spectrum Auction Framework with Collusion-Resistant Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access, enabled by cognitive radio technologies, has become a promising approach to improve efficiency in spectrum utilization, and the spectrum auction is one approach in which unlicensed wireless users lease some unused bands from spectrum license holders. However, spectrum auctions are different from traditional auctions studied by economists, because spectrum resources are interference-limited rather than quantity-limited, and it

Yongle Wu; Beibei Wang; K. J. Ray; T. Charles Clancyy

75

Theoretical investigation of the spectrum and conversion efficiency of short wavelength extreme-ultraviolet light sources based on terbium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The emission spectrum and conversion efficiency of laser-produced terbium plasmas are theoretically investigated on the basis of computational atomic data. The theoretically calculated spectrum reproduces the main peak of observed spectrum at {lambda}=6.5 nm, which originates from 4d-4f transitions of near palladiumlike ions (Tb{sup 19+}). A simple model of the isothermal expansion of terbium plasma suggests that efficient emission can be achieved by pumping the plasma with a laser pulse at an intensity of approximately one order of magnitude greater than that used with tin sources at {lambda}=13.5 nm.

Sasaki, Akira [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Nishihara, Katsunobu [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki [Institute for Laser Technology, 1-8-4 Utsubohonmachi, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0004 (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 1-1 Naka 3-Chome, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Koike, Fumihiro [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

2010-12-06

76

Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts  

SciTech Connect

To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

2003-02-25

77

Efficient blind decoders for additive spread spectrum embedding based data hiding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigates efficient blind watermark decoding approaches for hidden messages embedded into host images, within the framework of additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding based for data hiding. We study SS embedding in both the discrete cosine transform and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domains. The contributions of this article are multiple-fold: first, we show that the conventional SS scheme could not be applied directly into the magnitudes of the DFT, and thus we present a modified SS scheme and the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) decoder based on the Weibull distribution is derived. Secondly, we investigate the improved spread spectrum (ISS) embedding, an improved technique of the traditional additive SS, and propose the modified ISS scheme for information hiding in the magnitudes of the DFT coefficients and the optimal ML decoders for ISS embedding are derived. We also provide thorough theoretical error probability analysis for the aforementioned decoders. Thirdly, sub-optimal decoders, including local optimum decoder (LOD), generalized maximum likelihood (GML) decoder, and linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) decoder, are investigated to reduce the required prior information at the receiver side, and their theoretical decoding performances are derived. Based on decoding performances and the required prior information for decoding, we discuss the preferred host domain and the preferred decoder for additive SS-based data hiding under different situations. Extensive simulations are conducted to illustrate the decoding performances of the presented decoders.

Valizadeh, Amir; Wang, Z. Jane

2012-12-01

78

Resource-Efficient Fusion over Fading and Non-Fading Reporting Channels for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel resource-efficient technique for the reporting channel transmissions in cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed. In this technique, secondary users are allowed to simultaneously send their local decisions to the fusion center, saving time and frequency resources. Expressions for the probabilities of detection and false alarm for the unitary-gain AWGN reporting channels were derived, while simulation results were given for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. Here, we provide an expression that is applicable to AWGN channels with different real-valued gains and to time-varying real-valued gains. A simple suboptimum receiver is proposed for the general complex-valued fading and non-fading channels, with an improved performance in the low signal-to-noise ratio condition. Numerical results are shown for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading reporting channels, demonstrating the accuracy of the derived expressions and the attractive performance of the proposed receiver. PMID:25602264

Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro

2014-01-01

79

Walt Disney World`s utility efficiency awards and environmental circles of excellence  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an innovative approach to energy conservation that has been started at WALT DISNEY WORLD. The program that was established was designed to heighten the awareness of energy usage in our Management and Cast Members, establish a method for recognizing and rewarding positive energy conservation efforts and, most importantly, keeping the effort simple and fun. Two programs work together to meet this goal: Utility Efficiency Awards and the Environmental Circles of Excellence. The Utility Efficiency Awards are given to the top areas that have demonstrated a reduction in utility consumption relative to the same period in prior years. More importantly, a report is generated that shows a best-to-worst ranking. Relying on the idea that {open_quotes}nobody wants to be on the bottom of the list{close_quotes}, conservation is enhanced by focusing attention on improving efficiency. To encourage direct cast member involvement in our environmental program, the Environmental Circles of Excellence were created. These groups, made up of hourly and salaried cast members, discuss their location`s environmental commitments, set goals and implement programs. This paper describes these initiatives in detail and presents some initial results that have heightened the awareness of energy conservation at WALT DISNEY WORLD.

Allen, P.J.; Kivler, W.B.

1996-05-01

80

Photoionization mass spectrometric study of HOCl: Photoionization efficiency spectrum and ionization energy  

SciTech Connect

The photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range {lambda} = 102--115 nm, using a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) apparatus coupled to a synchrotron radiation source. The PIE spectra displayed steplike behavior near threshold. This study represents the first determination of the HOCl photoionization efficiency spectrum and the photoionization threshold. A value of 11.12{sub 3} {+-} 0.01{sub 8} eV was obtained for the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of HOCl from analysis of photoion thresholds, corresponding to the HOCl{sup +}(X{sup 2}A{double_prime}) {l_arrow} HOCl(X{sup 1}A{double_prime}) transition. The PIMS result is identical to the only previous experimental measurement and in good agreement with a recent ab initio calculation. From the result for IE(HOCl), a value of 999.4 {+-} 3.6 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} was calculated for {Delta}{sub f}H{degree}{sub 0}(HOCl{sup +}), and from the latter, the proton affinity of ClO at T = 0 K, PA{sub 0}(ClO), was determined to be 629.6 {+-} 3.6 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}. At 298 K, the computed values for {Delta}{sub f}H{degree}{sub 298}(HOCl{sup +}) and PA{sub 298}(ClO) are 996.5 {+-} 3.6 and 635.1 {+-} 3.6 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, respectively.

Thorn, R.P. Jr.; Stief, L.J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Extraterrestrial Physics] [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Extraterrestrial Physics; Kuo, S.C.; Klemm, R.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1999-02-18

81

Triage of the autistic spectrum child utilizing the congruence of case management concepts and Orem's Nursing Theories.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to design and implement a case management framework for the benefit of children diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The process consisted of selecting two children exhibiting symptoms of an ASD and managing them across a continuum of care. Methodological structure was derived from case management standards of practice and Orem's Nursing Theories. Although some objectives sustained a slight delay because of variances, findings revealed successful outcomes based on progression toward measurable case management goals. The children were directed to appropriate school placements and habilitative therapies in an efficient manner. Their parents received support and education related to special needs children. The process yielded assurance that Orem's Nursing Theories and case management concepts articulate seamlessly within nursing care boundaries. PMID:12668924

Oliver, Catherine J

2003-01-01

82

Efficiency of utilization of the simian virus 40 late polyadenylation site: effects of upstream sequences.  

PubMed Central

The late polyadenylation signal of simian virus 40 functions with greater efficiency than the early polyadenylation signal, in turn affecting steady-state mRNA levels. Two chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) transient expression vectors, pL-EPA and pL-LPA, that differ only in their polyadenylation signals were constructed by using the early and late polyadenylation signals, respectively. In transfections of Cos, CV-1P, or HeLa cells and subsequent Northern blot analysis of CAT-specific RNA, approximately five times more steady-state CAT mRNA was produced in transfections with pL-LPA than with pL-EPA. The basis for this difference was not related to the specific promoter used or to RNA stability. Overall, the difference in steady-state mRNA levels derived from the two plasmids appeared to be attributable to intrinsic properties of the two polyadenylation signals, resulting in distinctly different cleavage and polyadenylation efficiencies. Additionally, we found that the utilization of the late polyadenylation site was dramatically reduced by deletion of sequences between 48 and 29 nucleotides 5' of the AAUAAA hexanucleotide. This reduction of mRNA levels was shown not to be caused by altered stability of mutant precursor RNAs or mRNAs, suggesting that these upstream sequences constitute an element of the late polyadenylation signal and may cause, at least to some extent, the greater efficiency of utilization of the late polyadenylation site. Images PMID:2573828

Carswell, S; Alwine, J C

1989-01-01

83

Arc View/Avenue: Coding styles and utility scripts for efficient development  

SciTech Connect

Effectiveness and efficiency of software development can be greatly increased by writing modularized code using informal (styles) and formal (standards) work approaches. Software development is about connecting pieces into a coherent whole. Thus consistent work approaches provide a structure that allows individuals and teams to minimize the time and thought put into making these connections. These investments in structure return even more benefits in the maintenance phase when old code has to be examined by new programmers, or after time has passed. We present some examples of coding style for Avenue: a simplified form of Hungarian notation (notationHungarian, stringCustomerName, etc.), script naming prefixes and suffixes, and options in script headers. We demonstrate several modular, object-like utility scripts that can be used alone or combined into other utilities. These include developer tools such as a System.Echo substitute for Windows, a Window inspector, and a script for detecting and dealing with multiple display resolutions.

Ganter, J.

1996-05-07

84

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-07-01

85

OS-MAC: An Efficient MAC Protocol for Spectrum-Agile Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networks and devices have been rapidly gaining popularity over their wired counterparts. This popularity, in turn, has been generating an explosive and ever-increasing demand for, and hence creating a shortage of, the radio spectrum. Existing studies indicate that this foreseen spectrum shortage is not so much due to the scarcity of the radio spectrum, but due to the inefficiency

Bechir Hamdaoui; Kang G. Shin

2008-01-01

86

Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer  

PubMed Central

A highly efficient sequentially deposited bilayer (SD-bilayer) of polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is developed via the solution process. Herein, we resolve two essential problems regarding the construction of an efficient SD-bilayer OPV. First, the solution process fabrication of the SD-bilayer is resolved by incorporating an ordering agent (OA) to the polymer solution, which improves the ordering of the polymer chain and prevents the bottom-layer from dissolving into the top-layer solution. Second, a non-planar heterojunction with a large surface area is formed by the incorporation of a heterojunction agent (HA) to the top-layer solution. Poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) is used for the bottom-layer and phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC70BM) is used for the top-layer. The SD-bilayer OPV produced utilizing both an OA and HA exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12% with a high internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We believe our bilayer system affords a new way of forming OPVs distinct from bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems and offers a chance to reconsider the polymers that have thus far shown unsatisfactory performance in BHJ systems. PMID:25670623

Seok, Jeesoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Yeol Ryu, Du; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Kyungkon

2015-01-01

87

Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer.  

PubMed

A highly efficient sequentially deposited bilayer (SD-bilayer) of polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is developed via the solution process. Herein, we resolve two essential problems regarding the construction of an efficient SD-bilayer OPV. First, the solution process fabrication of the SD-bilayer is resolved by incorporating an ordering agent (OA) to the polymer solution, which improves the ordering of the polymer chain and prevents the bottom-layer from dissolving into the top-layer solution. Second, a non-planar heterojunction with a large surface area is formed by the incorporation of a heterojunction agent (HA) to the top-layer solution. Poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) is used for the bottom-layer and phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC70BM) is used for the top-layer. The SD-bilayer OPV produced utilizing both an OA and HA exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12% with a high internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We believe our bilayer system affords a new way of forming OPVs distinct from bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems and offers a chance to reconsider the polymers that have thus far shown unsatisfactory performance in BHJ systems. PMID:25670623

Seok, Jeesoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Yeol Ryu, Du; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Kyungkon

2015-01-01

88

High-efficiency liquid chromatographic separation utilizing long monolithic silica capillary columns.  

PubMed

Long monolithic silica-C18 capillary columns of 100 microm i.d. were prepared, and the efficiency was examined using reversed-phase HPLC under a pressure of up to 47 MPa. At linear velocities of 1-2 mm/s, 100,000-500,000 theoretical plates could be generated with a single column (90-440 cm in length) using an acetonitrile-water (80/20) mobile phase with a column dead time (t0) of 5-40 min. It was possible to prepare columns with a minimum plate height of 8.5 +/- 0.5 microm and permeability of (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10(-13) m(2). The chromatographic performance of a long octadecylsilylated monolithic silica capillary column was demonstrated by the high-efficiency separations of aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and a protein digest. The efficiency for a peptide was maintained for an injection of up to 0.5-2 ng. When three 100 microm i.d. columns were connected to form a 1130-1240 cm column system, 1,000,000 theoretical plates were generated for aromatic hydrocarbons with retention factors of up to 2.4 with a t0 of 150 min. The fact that very high efficiencies were obtained for the retained solutes suggests the practical utility of these long monolithic silica capillary columns. PMID:18947204

Miyamoto, Kosuke; Hara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Morisaka, Hironobu; Tokuda, Daisuke; Horie, Kanta; Koduki, Kodai; Makino, Satoshi; Núñez, Oscar; Yang, Chun; Kawabe, Takefumi; Ikegami, Tohru; Takubo, Hirotaka; Ishihama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Nobuo

2008-11-15

89

CFTR Mutations Spectrum and the Efficiency of Molecular Diagnostics in Polish Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of mutation detection strongly depends on the diagnostic experience of referring health centers. PMID:24586523

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Micha?

2014-01-01

90

HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi, Mark Handley, Kyle Jamieson, Brad Karp  

E-print Network

HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi acquisition overhead for TCP ACKs. In this paper, we propose TCP/HACK (Hierarchical AC- Knowledgment in unidirectional TCP flows, TCP/HACK significantly improves medium utilization, and thus significantly in- creases

Handley, Mark

91

The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

SciTech Connect

End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

2014-03-19

92

Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus)  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

2012-01-01

93

Development of a Design Support System that Can Efficiently Utilize Non-dominated Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new design support approach, which efficiently utilizes the information of many non-dominated solutions obtained from evolutionary multi-criterion optimization (EMO). The proposed approach consists of four mechanisms: grouping (clustering), reducing the number of candidates (selecting the representative solutions), dimensionality reduction, and estimation. Non-dominated solutions can be regarded as a beneficial subspace in whole search space, which have the feature of being non-inferior to other solutions. Therefore, we think the proposed approach can be used to estimate the characteristics of a problem through the interaction with the designer. In this paper, we examine the characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed approach through computational experiments on a design problem of a counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine. A counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine with two spools is chosen for the design target of the present study. We handle this task as a seven-objective design problem.

Watanabe, Shinya; Minato, Ryojiro

94

Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostat system for solar concentration.  

PubMed

Area utilization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shading, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. Our results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on nonflat terrains. PMID:18195827

Wei, L Y

1983-02-15

95

Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District  

SciTech Connect

Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

Price, Phillip

2014-12-22

96

Efficient utilization of cassava pulp for succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122.  

PubMed

A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 was efficiently utilized for succinate production from cassava pulp during batch separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) under simple anaerobic conditions. Succinate concentration of 41.46 ± 0.05 g/L with yield and productivity of 82.33 ± 0.14 g/100 g dry pulp and 0.84 ± 0.02 g/L/h was obtained. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), hydrolysis of 12 % (w/v) cassava pulp with an enzyme loading of 2 % AMG + 3 % Cel (v/w) at pH 6.5 was optimized at 39 °C. Succinate concentration of 80.86 ± 0.49 g/L with a yield of 70.34 ± 0.37 g/100 g dry pulp and a productivity of 0.84 ± 0.01 g/L/h was attained using E. coli KJ122. Fed-batch SSF significantly enhanced succinate concentration to 98.63 ± 0.12 g/L at yield and productivity of 71.64 ± 0.97 g/100 g dry pulp and 1.03 ± 0.01 g/L/h. This result indicated an efficient and economical succinate production from cassava pulp using SHF and SSF by the use of E. coli KJ122. PMID:25030337

Sawisit, Apichai; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

2015-01-01

97

Instantaneous Shoreline Extraction Utilizing Integrated Spectrum and Shadow Analysis From LiDAR Data and High-resolution Satellite Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoreline delineation and shoreline change detection are expensive processes in data source acquisition and manual shoreline delineation. These costs confine the frequency and interval of shoreline mapping periods. In this dissertation, a new shoreline delineation approach was developed targeting on lowering the data source cost and reducing human labor. To lower the cost of data sources, we used the public domain LiDAR data sets and satellite images to delineate shorelines without the requirement of data sets being acquired simultaneously, which is a new concept in this field. To reduce the labor cost, we made improvements in classifying LiDAR points and satellite images. Analyzing shadow relations with topography to improve the satellite image classification performance is also a brand-new concept. The extracted shoreline of the proposed approach could achieve an accuracy of 1.495 m RMSE, or 4.452m at the 95% confidence level. Consequently, the proposed approach could successfully lower the cost and shorten the processing time, in other words, to increase the shoreline mapping frequency with a reasonable accuracy. However, the extracted shoreline may not compete with the shoreline extracted by aerial photogrammetric procedures in the aspect of accuracy. Hence, this is a trade-off between cost and accuracy. This approach consists of three phases, first, a shoreline extraction procedure based mainly on LiDAR point cloud data with multispectral information from satellite images. Second, an object oriented shoreline extraction procedure to delineate shoreline solely from satellite images; in this case WorldView-2 images were used. Third, a shoreline integration procedure combining these two shorelines based on actual shoreline changes and physical terrain properties. The actual data source cost would only be from the acquisition of satellite images. On the other hand, only two processes needed human attention. First, the shoreline within harbor areas needed to be manually connected, for its length was less than 3% of the total shoreline length in our dataset. Secondly, the parameters for satellite image classification needed to be manually determined. The need for manpower was significantly less compared to the ground surveying or aerial photogrammetry. The first phase of shoreline extraction was to utilize Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Mean-Shift segmentation on the coordinate (X, Y, Z), and attributes (multispectral bands from satellite images) of the LiDAR points to classify each LiDAR point into land or water surface. Boundary of the land points were then traced to create the shoreline. The second phase of shoreline extraction solely from satellite images utilized spectrum, NDVI, and shadow analysis to classify the satellite images into classes. These classes were then refined by mean-shift segmentation on the panchromatic band. By tracing the boundary of the water surface, the shoreline can be created. Since these two shorelines may represent different shoreline instances in time, evaluating the changes of shoreline was the first to be done. Then an independent scenario analysis and a procedure are performed for the shoreline of each of the three conditions: in the process of erosion, in the process of accession, and remaining the same. With these three conditions, we could analysis the actual terrain type and correct the classification errors to obtain a more accurate shoreline. Meanwhile, methods of evaluating the quality of shorelines had also been discussed. The experiment showed that there were three indicators could best represent the quality of the shoreline. These indicators were: (1) shoreline accuracy, (2) land area difference between extracted shoreline and ground truth shoreline, and (3) bias factor from shoreline quality metrics.

Lee, I.-Chieh

98

Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

2011-06-01

99

Highly efficient SO? absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.  

PubMed

A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process. PMID:23323771

Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

2013-02-01

100

Heat production and efficiency of energy utilization in finishing steers fed diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to evaluate heat production (HP) and efficiency of energy utilization in feedlot cattle fed diets containing WDGS. Steers (n=24, BW = 452.5 ± 36.8 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to diets containing 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a DM basis providing calcu...

101

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30

102

Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing various searches (e.g. Search by map, Tree, Icon, Keyword et al.). The video annotation is enabled with the same interface, and the usability of use and management is raised. Moreover, In the "Biological Information System for Marine Life : BISMaL (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/bismal/e/index.html)" which is a data system for biodiversity information, particularly in biogeographic data of marine organisms, based on photography position information, the visualization of living thing distribution, the life list of a deep sea living thing, and the deep sea video were used, and aim at the contribution to biodiversity grasp. Future, aiming at the accuracy improvement of the information given to the video by Work support of the comment registration by automatic recognition of an image and Development of a comment registration tool onboard, it aims at offering higher quality information.

Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

2012-12-01

103

Isolation and characterization of a mutant recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high efficiency xylose utilization.  

PubMed

A recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying one copy of heterologous XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis and endogenous XKS1 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the chromosomal DNA was constructed from the industrial haploid yeast strain NAM34-4C, which showed thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain SCB7 grew in minimal medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source, and its shortest generation time (G(short)) was 5 h. From this strain, four mutants showing rapid growth (G(short) = 2.5 h) in the minimal medium were isolated. The mutants carried four mutations that were classified into three linkage groups. Three mutations were dominant and one mutation was recessive to the wild type allele. The recessive mutation was in the PHO13 gene encoding para-nitrophenyl phosphatase. The other mutant genes were not linked to TAL1 gene encoding transaldolase. When the mutants and their parental strain were used for the batch fermentation in a complex medium at pH 4.0 containing 30 g/L xylose at 35 °C with shaking (60 rpm) and an initial cell density (Absorbance at 660 nm) of 1.0, all mutants showed efficient ethanol production and xylose consumption from the early stage of the fermentation culture. In two mutants, within 24 h, 4.8 g/L ethanol was produced, and the ethanol yield was 47%, which was 1.4 times higher than that achieved with the parental strain. The xylose concentration in the medium containing the mutant decreased linearly at a rate of 1 g/L/h until 24 h. PMID:23810666

Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fukuda, Kohsai; Akamatsu, Takashi; Kida, Kenji

2013-12-01

104

Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO(2): Integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies.  

PubMed

Increasing crop productivity to meet burgeoning human food demand is challenging under changing environmental conditions. Since industrial revolution atmospheric CO(2) levels have linearly increased. Developing crop varieties with increased utilization of CO(2) for photosynthesis is an urgent requirement to cope with the irreversible rise of atmospheric CO(2) and achieve higher food production. The primary effects of elevated CO(2) levels in most crop plants, particularly C(3) plants, include increased biomass accumulation, although initial stimulation of net photosynthesis rate is only temporal and plants fail to sustain the maximal stimulation, a phenomenon known as photosynthesis acclimation. Despite this acclimation, grain yield is known to marginally increase under elevated CO(2). The yield potential of C(3) crops is limited by their capacity to exploit sufficient carbon. The "C fertilization" through elevated CO(2) levels could potentially be used for substantial yield increase. Rubisco is the rate-limiting enzyme in photosynthesis and its activity is largely affected by atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen availability. In addition, maintenance of the C/N ratio is pivotal for various growth and development processes in plants governing yield and seed quality. For maximizing the benefits of elevated CO(2), raising plant nitrogen pools will be necessary as part of maintaining an optimal C/N balance. In this review, we discuss potential causes for the stagnation in yield increases under elevated CO(2) levels and explore possibilities to overcome this limitation by improved photosynthetic capacity and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency. Opportunities of engineering nitrogen uptake, assimilatory, and responsive genes are also discussed that could ensure optimal nitrogen allocation toward expanding source and sink tissues. This might avert photosynthetic acclimation partially or completely and drive for improved crop production under elevated CO(2) levels. PMID:22833749

Kant, Surya; Seneweera, Saman; Rodin, Joakim; Materne, Michael; Burch, David; Rothstein, Steven J; Spangenberg, German

2012-01-01

105

Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO2: Integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies  

PubMed Central

Increasing crop productivity to meet burgeoning human food demand is challenging under changing environmental conditions. Since industrial revolution atmospheric CO2 levels have linearly increased. Developing crop varieties with increased utilization of CO2 for photosynthesis is an urgent requirement to cope with the irreversible rise of atmospheric CO2 and achieve higher food production. The primary effects of elevated CO2 levels in most crop plants, particularly C3 plants, include increased biomass accumulation, although initial stimulation of net photosynthesis rate is only temporal and plants fail to sustain the maximal stimulation, a phenomenon known as photosynthesis acclimation. Despite this acclimation, grain yield is known to marginally increase under elevated CO2. The yield potential of C3 crops is limited by their capacity to exploit sufficient carbon. The “C fertilization” through elevated CO2 levels could potentially be used for substantial yield increase. Rubisco is the rate-limiting enzyme in photosynthesis and its activity is largely affected by atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen availability. In addition, maintenance of the C/N ratio is pivotal for various growth and development processes in plants governing yield and seed quality. For maximizing the benefits of elevated CO2, raising plant nitrogen pools will be necessary as part of maintaining an optimal C/N balance. In this review, we discuss potential causes for the stagnation in yield increases under elevated CO2 levels and explore possibilities to overcome this limitation by improved photosynthetic capacity and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency. Opportunities of engineering nitrogen uptake, assimilatory, and responsive genes are also discussed that could ensure optimal nitrogen allocation toward expanding source and sink tissues. This might avert photosynthetic acclimation partially or completely and drive for improved crop production under elevated CO2 levels. PMID:22833749

Kant, Surya; Seneweera, Saman; Rodin, Joakim; Materne, Michael; Burch, David; Rothstein, Steven J.; Spangenberg, German

2012-01-01

106

Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C{sub 70}) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of {approx}0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

Kekuda, Dhananjaya [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal, India 576 104 (India); Chu, Chih-Wei [Research Center for Applied Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 300 13 (China)

2011-10-20

107

Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

2011-01-01

108

Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells  

PubMed Central

Recently, atomically well-defined cove-shaped graphene nanoribbons have been obtained using bottom-up synthesis. These nanoribbons have an optical gap in the visible range of the spectrum which make them candidates for donor materials in photovoltaic devices. From the atomistic point of view, their electronic and optical properties are not clearly understood. Therefore, in this work we carry out ab-initio density functional theory calculations combine with many-body perturbation formalism to study their electronic and optical properties. Through the comparison with experimental measurements, we show that an accurate description of the nanoribbon's optical properties requires the inclusion of electron-hole correlation effects. The energy, binding energy and the corresponding excitonic transitions involved are analyzed. We found that in contrast to zigzag graphene nanoribbons, the excitonic peaks in the absorption spectrum are a consequence of a group of transitions involving the first and second conduction and valence bands. Finally, we estimate some relevant optical properties that strengthen the potential of these nanoribbons for acting as a donor materials in photovoltaic. PMID:25301001

Villegas, Cesar E. P.; Mendonça, P. B.; Rocha, A. R.

2014-01-01

109

Efficient light emitting devices utilizing CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots in organic host matrices  

E-print Network

We demonstrate efficient electroluminescence from thin film structures containing core-shell CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots dispersed in molecular organic host materials. In the most efficient devices, excitons are created on the ...

Coe-Sullivan, Seth (Seth Alexander)

2002-01-01

110

Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation  

SciTech Connect

As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

Tseng, P.C.

1998-07-01

111

Revised IR spectrum, radiative efficiency and global warming potential of nitrogen trifluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) is an industrial gas used in the semiconductor industry as a plasma etchant and chamber cleaning gas. NF3 is an alternative to other potent greenhouse gases and its usage has increased markedly over the last decade. In recognition of its increased relevance and to aid planning of future usage we report an updated radiative efficiency and global

J. I. Robson; L. K. Gohar; M. D. Hurley; K. P. Shine; T. J. Wallington

2006-01-01

112

Efficiency of pseudospectrum methods for estimation of the cosmic microwave background B-mode power spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of the B-mode angular power spectrum of polarized anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background is a key step towards a full exploitation of the scientific potential of this probe. In the context of pseudospectrum methods the major challenge is related to a contamination of the B-mode spectrum estimate with the residual power of the much larger E-mode. This so-called E-to-B leakage is unavoidably present whenever only an incomplete sky map is available, as is the case for any realistic observation. The leakage has to be then minimized or removed and ideally in such a way that neither a bias nor extra variance is introduced. In this paper, we compare from these two perspectives three different methods proposed recently in this context [K. M. Smith, Phys. Rev. D 74, 083002 (2006); W. Zhao and D. Baskaran, Phys. Rev. D 82, 023001 (2010); J. Kim and P. Naselsky, Astron. Astrophys. 519, A104 (2010)], which we first introduce within a common algebraic framework of the so-called ? fields and then study their performance on two different experimental configurations: one corresponding to a small-scale experiment covering 1% of the sky motivated by current ground-based or balloon-borne experiments, and another to a nearly full-sky experiment, e.g., a possible cosmic microwave background B-mode satellite mission. We find that although all these methods allow us to reduce significantly the level of the E-to-B leakage, it is the method of Smith that at the same time ensures the smallest error bars in all experimental configurations studied here, owing to the fact that it permits straightforwardly an optimization of the sky apodization of the polarization maps used for the estimation. For a satellite-like experiment, this method enables a detection of the B-mode power spectrum at large angular scales but only after appropriate binning. The method of Zhao and Baskaran is a close runner-up in the case of a nearly full-sky coverage.

Ferté, A.; Grain, J.; Tristram, M.; Stompor, R.

2013-07-01

113

A micro level study of an Indian electric utility for efficiency enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper DEA (Data envelopment analysis), a non-parametric approach to frontier analysis, is applied to evaluate the relative performance of 29 EDDs (Electricity Distribution Divisions) of an Indian hilly state, namely Uttarakhand. Input oriented DEA is applied to evaluate the relative overall efficiency, technical efficiency and scale efficiency of EDDs. The results indicate that numerous divisions have scope for

Vinod Kumar Yadav; N. P. Padhy; H. O. Gupta

2010-01-01

114

Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that the soil near roots, the so-called rhizosphere, has physical and chemical properties different from those of the bulk soil. Rhizosphere properties are the result of several processes: root and soil shrinking/swelling during drying/wetting cycles, soil compaction by root growth, mucilage exuded by root caps, interaction of mucilage with soil particles, mucilage shrinking/swelling and mucilage biodegradation. These processes may lead to variable rhizosphere properties, i.e. the presence of air-filled gaps between soil and roots; water repellence in the rhizosphere caused by drying of mucilage around the soil particles; or water accumulation in the rhizosphere due to the high water-holding capacity of mucilage. The resulting properties are not constant in time but they change as a function of soil condition, root growth rate and mucilage age. Scope We consider such a variability as an expression of rhizosphere plasticity, which may be a strategy for plants to control which part of the root system will have a facilitated access to water and which roots will be disconnected from the soil, for instance by air-filled gaps or by rhizosphere hydrophobicity. To describe such a dualism, we suggest classifying rhizosphere into two categories: class A refers to a rhizosphere covered with hydrated mucilage that optimally connects roots to soil and facilitates water uptake from dry soils. Class B refers to the case of air-filled gaps and/or hydrophobic rhizosphere, which isolate roots from the soil and may limit water uptake from the soil as well water loss to the soil. The main function of roots covered by class B will be long-distance transport of water. Outlook This concept has implications for soil and plant water relations at the plant scale. Root water uptake in dry conditions is expected to shift to regions covered with rhizosphere class A. On the other hand, hydraulic lift may be limited in regions covered with rhizosphere class B. New experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

2013-01-01

115

Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 5979 Energy efficient water utilization systems in process plants  

E-print Network

deliver wastewater, which may contain several contaminants. Therefore, wastewater treatment constitutes a primary concern in most industrial sites. Wastewater treatment has al- ways focused on end. Keywords: Water utilization networks; Process plants; Energy minimization; Wastewater minimization

Savelski, Mariano J.

116

Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"  

SciTech Connect

Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

2009-12-01

117

Combinatorial Design of a Highly Efficient Xylose-Utilizing Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels  

PubMed Central

Balancing the flux of a heterologous metabolic pathway by tuning the expression and properties of the pathway enzymes is difficult, but it is critical to realizing the full potential of microbial biotechnology. One prominent example is the metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain harboring a heterologous xylose-utilizing pathway for cellulosic-biofuel production, which remains a challenge even after decades of research. Here, we developed a combinatorial pathway-engineering approach to rapidly create a highly efficient xylose-utilizing pathway for ethanol production by exploring various combinations of enzyme homologues with different properties. A library of more than 8,000 xylose utilization pathways was generated using DNA assembler, followed by multitiered screening, which led to the identification of a number of strain-specific combinations of the enzymes for efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol. The balancing of metabolic flux through the xylose utilization pathway was demonstrated by a complete reversal of the major product from xylitol to ethanol with a similar yield and total by-product formation as low as 0.06 g/g xylose without compromising cell growth. The results also suggested that an optimal enzyme combination depends on not only the genotype/phenotype of the host strain, but also the sugar composition of the fermentation medium. This combinatorial approach should be applicable to any heterologous pathway and will be instrumental in the optimization of industrial production of value-added products. PMID:23183982

Kim, Byoungjin; Du, Jing; Eriksen, Dawn T.

2013-01-01

118

Spectrum pruning of 42.7-Gb/s CS-RZ for spectrally efficient long-haul DWDM system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the simulative optimization of modulation format, which is CS-RZ format with appropriate spectrum filtering, in a 42.7Gb/s spectrally efficient long-haul DWDM system. It is studied that the required bandwidth of the CS-RZ signal with spectrum pruning for channel spacing of 50GHz. The power loss and crosstalk are calculation under the Gaussian filter with various order and bandwidth. The influence on the CS-RZ waveform by the filter of various order and bandwidth was also investigated. Furthermore, the Q-value of the 42.7Gb/s CS-RZ signal was simulated before and after 640km fiber link transmission with 3 order Gaussian filter of various bandwidth, which simulative test system was designed as a 42.7Gb/s DWDM system with simultaneous C+L band discrete Raman amplifier by dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) as Raman medium. As a conclusion, the optimum filter bandwidth of 42GHz is obtained for the 42.7Gb/s 50GHz spaced DWDM system. Q-value of the signal is up to 8 and remains 6.7 after transmission of 640km fiber link, with the filter of the optimum bandwidth.

Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Yanhe; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shidai; Zhang, Hanyi; Guo, Yili

2004-05-01

119

Singular spectrum analysis and envelope detection: methods of enhancing the utility of ground-penetrating radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel method of improving signal-to-noise ratio in radargrams. The method uses singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to separate each individual radar trace into orthogonal components. The components that explain most of the original trace variance contain mainly physically meaningful signal, while the components with little variance tend to be noise. Adding the largest-magnitude components together until the sum of components accounts for the variance above the noise level (typically 60 80% %) of the original trace variance results in a much cleaner radargram with more easily seen internal features than in traditionally filtered data. The radargrams can be further enhanced by envelope-detecting the SSA-filtered data, as this measure of instantaneous energy minimizes the deleterious effects of innumerable phase changes at dielectric boundaries. Subsequent incoherent stacking results in far more structured radargrams than are achieved with traditionally processed radar data and amplitude stacking.

Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak

120

Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Novel Hybrid Solar System for Photovoltaic, Thermoelectric, and Heat Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid solar system has been designed to utilize photovoltaic (PV) cells, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and hot water (HW) through a multilayered building envelope. Water pipelines are cast within a functionally graded material layer to serve as a heat sink, allowing heat to be easily transferred into flowing water through an aluminum-rich surface, while remain- ing insulated by a

Dajiang Yang; Huiming Yin

2011-01-01

121

Short pulsed gain-switched fiber laser with improved efficiency utilizing unabsorbed pump recovery.  

PubMed

A simple solution for increasing the slope efficiency of a gain-switched fiber laser based on Yb-doped active fiber is presented. By adding a fiber amplifier stage, which recovers the unabsorbed pump light from the gain-switched oscillator, a significant increase in slope efficiency is achieved. The pulses at 1030-nm wavelength have an FWHM of 28 ns and a peak power of 2.3 kW. PMID:25321263

Petelin, Jaka; Agrež, Vid; Podobnik, Boštjan; Petkovšek, Rok

2014-08-25

122

LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has shown that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kilowatt class lasers directed by 1.5 meter telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency of the system. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system. Results indicate that utilizing a network of four LightForce stations with 20 kilowatt lasers, 85% of all conjunctions with a probability of collision Pc > 10 (sup -6) can be mitigated.

Stupl, Jan; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang, Fan Yang; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Nuttall, Andrew; Henze, Chris; Levit, Creon

2014-01-01

123

Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

1990-01-01

124

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

E-print Network

Efficiency (Indian) Financial Year Liquefied Natural GasRegassified Liquefied Natural Gas Reliance Natural ResourcesLiquefied Petroleum Gas Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission Million Units (kWh) National Capital Territory New Delhi Municipal Council North Delhi Power Limited Natural Gas

Abhyankar, Nikit

2011-01-01

125

The Utility of an Efficient Outcomes Assessment System at University Counseling Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to increased demands placed on university counseling centers (UCCs) in recent years, there is a need for these centers to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their psychological services. Regularly monitoring client progress is one approach to increase the likelihood of positive clinical outcomes. This article describes the use of the…

Kopta, S. Mark; Petrik, Megan L.; Saunders, Stephen M.; Mond, Michael; Hirsch, Glenn; Kadison, Richard; Raymond, Danielle

2014-01-01

126

Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time

Rabago

2008-01-01

127

PARTICULATE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS ON AN ESP INSTALLED ON A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of fractional and overall collection efficiency measurements of an electrostatic precipitator collecting fly ash from a coal-fired boiler burning high-sulfur coal. The mass median diameter of the particulate entering the collector was approximately 40 mic...

128

Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

Pak, Pyong Sik

129

Spectrum agile radio: radio resource measurements for opportunistic spectrum usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio spectrum allocation is undergoing radical rethinking. Regulators, government agencies, industry, and the research community have recently established many initiatives for new spectrum policies and seek approaches to more efficiently manage the radio spectrum. In this paper, we examine new approaches, namely, spectrum agile radios, for opportunistic spectrum usage. Spectrum agile radios use parts of the radio spectrum that were

Stefan Mangold; Zhun Zhong; Kiran Challapali; Chun-Ting Chou

2004-01-01

130

Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier  

PubMed Central

Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach.

Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

2014-01-01

131

An efficient single-pass trace compression technique utilizing instruction streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace-driven simulations have been widely used in computer architecture for quantitative evaluations of new ideas and design prototypes. Efficient trace compression and fast decompression are crucial for contemporary workloads, as representative benchmarks grow in size and number. This article presents Stream-Based Compression (SBC), a novel technique for single-pass compression of address traces. The SBC technique compresses both instruction and data

Aleksandar Milenkovic; Milena Milenkovic

2007-01-01

132

Efficient utilization of short rotation tree biomass for cooking in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human as well as livestock population increase is phenomenal in developing world including India. The survival of this huge population certainly depends on the carrying capacity of the natural systems, which is essentially determined by the nature itself. Present state of the forests can satisfy the needs of certain population and the demand for wood has rapidly outstripped the sustainability of forests. The fuelwood requirements in the developing world is approximately 80 per cent of total wood requirements and is the major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, there is need to maximize the productivity on one hand and protection/extention of the area on another hand. Wood substitution is an option including shifting from fuelwood for cooking to fossil fuels but in the changing climatic situation, this option is short term alternative. There is need to produce more and use the same efficiently to reduce the demands. Millions of households across the country are using crude cooking stoves for their daily needs which are not only energy inefficient but detrimental to women health also. It has been the policy of Government to encourage trees outside forests to minimize the pressure from forests through meeting requirements outside forests, which is possible through intensively managed short rotation forestry and also some initiatives have been taken to increase the fuelwood efficiency through improved cooking stove, which are working successfully. Woodfuel remained the most important source of household energy in India but regular attempts have not been made to improve the efficiency in its use. This paper will focus on potential of short rotation forestry plantations for energy consumption and its efficient use at domestic scale. This has three fold interrelated economic, environmental and social impact. Key words: Short Rotation Forestry, trees outside forests, wood energy, cooking stove

Sharma, R.; Chauhan, S. K.

2012-04-01

133

Determination of desorption efficiency utilizing direct injection: a dynamic calibration system and phase equilibrium  

E-print Network

) Ronald H. Williams B. S. , Purdue University B. S. , University of Arkansas Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . R. B. Konzen Three methods for determining desorption efficiency for or ganic solvents adsorbed on activated charcoal were compared.... TABLE OF' CONTENTS ~Pa e 111 v vr viii rx REVIEN OF LITERATURE Activated Charcoal Adsorption on Activated Charcoal. . . . . . . . . Heterogeneous Nature of Activated Carbon. Phase Equilibrium METHODOLOGY Pr eparation o f Charcoal Tubes...

Williams, Ronald H

1979-01-01

134

Process Improvement Methods Increase the Efficiency, Accuracy and Utility of a Neurocritical Care Research Repository  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable and efficient data repositories are essential for the advancement of research in Neurocritical care. Various factors, such as the large volume of patients treated within the Neuro ICU, their differing length and complexity of hospital stay and the substantial amount of desired information can complicate the process of data collection. Methods We adapted the tools of process improvement to the data collection and database design of a research repository for a Neuroscience intensive care unit. Using the Shewhart-Deming method, we implemented an iterative approach to improve the process of data collection for each element. After an initial design phase, we re-evaluated all data fields that were challenging or time-consuming to collect. We then applied root-cause analysis to optimize the accuracy and ease of collection, and to determine the most efficient manner of collecting the maximal amount of data. Results During a six month period, we iteratively analyzed the process of data collection for various data elements. For example, the pre-admission medications were found to contain numerous inaccuracies after comparison with a gold standard (sensitivity 71% and specificity 94%). Also, our first method of tracking patient admissions and discharges contained higher than expected errors (sensitivity 94% and specificity 93%). In addition to increasing accuracy, we focused on improving efficiency. Through repeated incremental improvements, we reduced the number of subject records that required daily monitoring from 40 to 6 per day, and decreased daily effort from 4.5 to 1.5 hours per day. Conclusions By applying process improvement methods to the design of a Neuroscience ICU data repository, we achieved a three-fold improvement in efficiency and increased accuracy. Although individual barriers to data collection will vary from institution to institution, a focus on process improvement is critical to overcoming these barriers. PMID:22434546

O’Connor, Sydney; Ayres, Alison; Cortellini, Lynelle; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosenthal, Eric; Kimberly, W. Taylor

2012-01-01

135

The Utilization of HOPG based Graphene for a less costly and efficient replacement of platinum in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC's)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSC) are also known as Graetzel cells after their inventor, Michael Graetzel, who invented them in 1991. DSCs are potential alternatives to the more conventional and expensive semiconductor p-n junction solar cells like silicon solar cells. In a Graetzel cell, light is absorbed by a sensitizing dye which is coupled to a wide band gap semiconductor (TiO2). Electric charges are liberated by the photon induced electron injection from the dye molecules into the conduction band of the semiconductor. The use of sensitizers in conjunction with the semiconductor oxide permits the absorption of a large portion of the terrestrial solar spectrum with near 10% conversion efficiency. In the ``traditional'' DSC, platinum metal is used as one of the counter electrode materials. In our research, graphene of various forms (from HOPG in specific) is utilized instead of costly platinum to replace the counter-electrode in the DSC's. HOPG also known as Higly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite is being used to dry deposit graphene layers onto glass or FTO.

Pusko, Matthew P.

2012-10-01

136

Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE?AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

2014-01-01

137

Influence of heat recuperation in ORC power plant on efficiency of waste heat utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted to the problem of utilization of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases having the temperature of 350 °C. Conversion of the waste heat into electricity using a power plant working with organic fluid cycles is considered. Three Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant solutions are analysed and compared: a solution with the basic, single thermodynamic conversion cycle, one with internal heat recuperation and one with external heat recuperation. It results from the analysis that it is the proper choice of the working fluid evaporation temperature that fundamentally affects the maximum of the ORC plant output power. Application of the internal heat recuperation in the plant basic cycle results in the output power increase of approx. 5%. Addition of the external heat recuperation to the plant basic cycle, in the form of a secondary supercritical ORC power cycle can rise the output power by approx. 2%.

Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra

2010-10-01

138

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05

139

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI), can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications. METHODS: In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened

Guiqing Cai; Lisa Edelmann; Juliet E Goldsmith; Ninette Cohen; Alisa Nakamine; Jennifer G Reichert; Ellen J Hoffman; Danielle M Zurawiecki; Jeremy M Silverman; Eric Hollander; Latha Soorya; Evdokia Anagnostou; Catalina Betancur; Joseph D Buxbaum

2008-01-01

140

Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

2014-01-01

141

A Multichannel MAC for Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of deployed wireless cellular communication systems is found to be under-utilized, even though licensed spectrum is at a premium. To efficiently utilize the band-width left unused in a cellular system, which we denote as the primary system (PRI), we design a system with an ad hoc\\/mesh overlay network, which we denote as the secondary system (SEC). The basic

Amitabh Mishra

2006-01-01

142

Report of Energy Efficiency Study and Metering/Utilities Profile for Electricity Deregulation at Texas A&M University – Texarkana (TAMU–T) Texarkana, Texas  

E-print Network

System Submitted by Yeqiao Zhu Dan Turner David Claridge Energy Systems Laboratory The Texas A&M University System December, 1999 Acknowledgement The Electric Utility Regulation and Energy Efficiency Study for all universities in the TAMU System...

Zhu, Y.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01

143

High efficiency quasi-ternary design for nonmechanical beam-steering utilizing polarization gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and demonstrate a quasi-ternary nonmechanical beam steering design based on Polarization Gratings (PGs). That uses a single wave plate and N PGs to generate 2(N+1)-1 steering angles. When compared to conventional binary (2N) or ternary (3N) liquid crystal PG steering designs, this technique uses fewer elements arranged in a simpler configuration to obtain the same number of steering angles. This advantageous property can be achieved by selecting proper diffraction angles and alignment of the PGs. Due to fewer elements per stage, losses due to electrode absorption and Fresnel reflections are reduced, thereby increasing the overall steering efficiency. Using this approach, we demonstrate a four-stage (N = 4) quasi-ternary beam steering device that achieves 52° Field Of Regard (FOR) with 1.7° resolution (31 steering angles) at 1550 nm wavelength.

Kim, Jihwan; Miskiewicz, Matthew N.; Serati, Steve; Escuti, Michael J.

2010-08-01

144

Efficient utilization of hemicellulose hydrolysate for propionic acid production using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose, which contains glucose, xylose, and arabinose as the 3 main sugars, is an important renewable source for biorefinery. In this study, propionic acid production from glucose, xylose, or arabinose using Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was investigated. Using xylose, the predominant sugar in hemicellulose, a final propionic acid concentration of 53.2 g l(-1) was obtained via fed-batch fermentation. Using corncob molasses, a waste by-product from xylitol production as a representative of hemicellulose hydrolysate, the final concentration of propionic acid was 71.8 g l(-1), with a corresponding productivity of 0.28 g l(-1) h(-1). The present study suggests that hemicellulose hydrolysate is an excellent carbon source for efficient propionic acid production by this strain. PMID:22481002

Liu, Zhen; Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Xu, Ping

2012-06-01

145

Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, [approximately] 1 [times] 10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]5], as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 [times]10[sup 7] cm[sup [minus]2]. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

Vernon, S.M. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1993-04-01

146

Efficient Power Converters for PV Arrays : Scalable Submodule Power Conversion for Utility-Scale Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: SolarBridge is developing a new power conversion technique to improve the energy output of PV power plants. This new technique is specifically aimed at large plants where many solar panels are connected together. SolarBridge is correcting for the inefficiencies that occur when two solar panels that encounter different amounts of sun are connected together. In most conventional PV system, the weakest panel limits the energy production of the entire system. That’s because all of the energy collected by the PV system feeds into a single collection point where a central inverter then converts it into useable energy for the grid. SolarBridge has found a more efficient and cost-effective way to convert solar energy, correcting these power differences before they reach the grid.

None

2012-02-23

147

Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostate system for solar concentration  

SciTech Connect

Area utlization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shaping, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. Our results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on non-flat terrains.

Wei, L.Y.

1983-02-15

148

Development of an industrial ethanol-producing yeast strain for efficient utilization of cellobiose.  

PubMed

The BGL1 gene, encoding ?-glucosidase in Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, was intracellular, secreted or cell-wall associated expressed in an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained recombinant strains were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that both the wild type and recombinant strain expressing intracellular ?-glucosidase cannot grow in medium using cellobiose as sole carbon source. As for the recombinant EB1 expressing secreted enzyme and WB1 expressing cell-wall associated enzyme, the maximum specific growth rates (?(max)) could reach 0.03 and 0.05 h(-1) under anaerobic conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, the surface-engineered S. cerevisiae utilized 5.2 g cellobioseL(-1) and produced 2.3 g ethanol L(-1) in 48 h, while S. cerevisiae secreting ?-glucosidase into culture broth used 3.6 g cellobiose L(-1) and produced 1.5 g ethanolL(-1) over the same period, but no-full depletion of cellobiose were observed for both the used recombinant strains. The results suggest that S. cerevisiae used in industrial ethanol production is deficient in cellobiose transporter. However, when ?-glucoside permease and ?-glucosidase were co-expressed in this strain, it could uptake cellobiose and showed higher growth rate (0.11h(-1)) on cellobiose. PMID:22112279

Guo, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-Yang; Gu, Zheng-Hua; Shi, Gui-Yang

2011-06-10

149

Efficient 2,3-Butanediol Production from Cassava Powder by a Crop-Biomass-Utilizer, Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM  

PubMed Central

Background 2,3-Butanediol (BD) is considered as one of the key platform chemicals used in a variety of industrial applications. It is crucial to find an efficient sugar-utilizing strain and feasible carbon source for the economical production of BD. Methodology/Principal Findings Efficient BD production by a newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM was studied using crop-biomass cassava powder as substrate. The culture conditions and fermentation medium for BD production were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, 78.3 g l?1 of BD was produced after 24 h in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with a yield of 0.42 g BD g?1 cassava powder and a specific productivity of 3.3 g l?1 h?1. A higher BD concentration (93.9 g l?1) was produced after 47 h in fed-batch SSF. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that strain SDM is a good candidate for the BD production, and cassava powder could be used as an alternative substrate for the efficient production of BD. PMID:22792324

Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2012-01-01

150

Adapting wave-front algorithms to efficiently utilize systems with deep communication hierarchies  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance. Processor-cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contain wave-front processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model and an implementation on the Petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

151

Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

152

Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.  

PubMed

The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed. PMID:25581777

Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

2015-01-28

153

Photosynthetic characteristics and resource utilization efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and millet (Setaria italica L.) in a semi-arid hilly loess region in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic characteristics and resource utilization efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and millet (Setaria italica L.) are studied in a loess region of China. Limited sampling shows that maize has a higher light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate, apparent quantum yield and carboxylation efficiency than does millet in the middle (July) and late (September) growth stage. Compared with millet, maize has lower

K Wang; Z Shangguan

2010-01-01

154

Partitioning of heat production in growing pigs as a tool to improve the determination of efficiency of energy utilization  

PubMed Central

In growing pigs, the feed cost accounts for more than 60% of total production costs. The determination of efficiency of energy utilization through calorimetry measurements is of importance to sustain suitable feeding practice. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology to correct daily heat production (HP) obtained from measurements in respiration chamber for the difference in energy expenditure related to physical activity between animals. The calculation is based on a preliminary published approach for partitioning HP between HP due to physical activity (AHP), thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and basal metabolic rate (fasting HP; FHP). Measurements with male growing pigs [mean body weight (BW): 115 kg] which were surgically castrated (SC), castrated through immunization against GnRH (IC), or kept as entire male (EM) were used as an example. Animals were fed the same diet ad-libitum and were housed individually in two 12-m3 open-circuit respiration chambers during 6 days when fed ad-libitum and one supplementary day when fasted. Physical activity was recorded through interruption of an infrared beam to detect standing and lying positions and with force transducers that recorded the mechanical force the animal exerted on the floor of the cage. Corrected AHP (AHPc), TEF (TEFc), and HP (HPc) were calculated to standardize the level of AHP between animals, assuming that the ratio between AHPc and ME intake should be constant. Inefficiency of energy utilization (sum of AHPc and TEFc) was lower than the inefficiency estimated from the slope of the classical relationship between HPc and ME intake but was associated with higher requirements for maintenance. Results indicate that EM pigs had higher FHP but lower TEFc than IC and SC pigs. These results agree with the higher contents in viscera of EM pigs that stimulate their basal metabolic rate and with the reduced utilization of dietary protein to provide energy for maintenance energy requirements and fat deposition (FD). PMID:23801965

Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Noblet, Jean

2013-01-01

155

Partitioning of heat production in growing pigs as a tool to improve the determination of efficiency of energy utilization.  

PubMed

In growing pigs, the feed cost accounts for more than 60% of total production costs. The determination of efficiency of energy utilization through calorimetry measurements is of importance to sustain suitable feeding practice. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology to correct daily heat production (HP) obtained from measurements in respiration chamber for the difference in energy expenditure related to physical activity between animals. The calculation is based on a preliminary published approach for partitioning HP between HP due to physical activity (AHP), thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and basal metabolic rate (fasting HP; FHP). Measurements with male growing pigs [mean body weight (BW): 115 kg] which were surgically castrated (SC), castrated through immunization against GnRH (IC), or kept as entire male (EM) were used as an example. Animals were fed the same diet ad-libitum and were housed individually in two 12-m(3) open-circuit respiration chambers during 6 days when fed ad-libitum and one supplementary day when fasted. Physical activity was recorded through interruption of an infrared beam to detect standing and lying positions and with force transducers that recorded the mechanical force the animal exerted on the floor of the cage. Corrected AHP (AHPc), TEF (TEFc), and HP (HPc) were calculated to standardize the level of AHP between animals, assuming that the ratio between AHPc and ME intake should be constant. Inefficiency of energy utilization (sum of AHPc and TEFc) was lower than the inefficiency estimated from the slope of the classical relationship between HPc and ME intake but was associated with higher requirements for maintenance. Results indicate that EM pigs had higher FHP but lower TEFc than IC and SC pigs. These results agree with the higher contents in viscera of EM pigs that stimulate their basal metabolic rate and with the reduced utilization of dietary protein to provide energy for maintenance energy requirements and fat deposition (FD). PMID:23801965

Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Noblet, Jean

2013-01-01

156

Highly efficient SO2 absorption/activation and subsequent utilization by polyethylene glycol-functionalized Lewis basic ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Up to now, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is one of the most effective techniques to control SO(2) emission from the combustion of fossil fuels. The conventional technology for FGD poses serious inherent drawbacks such as formation of byproducts and volatilization of solvents. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized Lewis basic ionic liquids (ILs) derived from DABCO were proved to be highly efficient absorbents for FGD due to its specific features such as high thermal stability, negligible vapor pressure, high loading capacity. Notably, PEG(150)MeDABCONTf(2) gave an extremely high SO(2) capacity (4.38 mol mol(-1) IL), even under 0.1 bar SO(2) partial pressure (1.01 mol mol(-1) IL), presumably owing to the strong SO(2)-philic characterization of the PEG chain. Furthermore, the absorbed SO(2) could be easy to release by just bubbling N(2) at room temperature, greatly reducing energy requirement for SO(2) desorption. In addition, SO(2)/CO(2) selectivity (110) of PEG(150)MeDABCONTf(2) is two times larger than the non-functionalized imidazolium IL (45). On the other hand, through activation of SO(2) with the tertiary nitrogen in the cation, Lewis basic ILs such as PEG(150)MeDABCOBr proved to be efficient catalysts for the conversion of SO(2) to some value-added chemicals such as cyclic sulfites without utilization of any organic solvent or additive. Thus, this protocol would pave the way for the development of technological innovation towards efficient and low energy demanded practical process for SO(2) absorption and subsequent transformation. PMID:23090138

Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Song, Qing-Wen; Chen, Kai-Hong; Liu, An-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Ming

2012-12-01

157

Efficiency of Purine Utilization by Helicobacter pylori: Roles for Adenosine Deaminase and a NupC Homolog  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and salvage purines is crucial for colonization by a variety of human bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelium of humans, yet its specific purine requirements are poorly understood, and the transport mechanisms underlying purine uptake remain unknown. Using a fully defined synthetic growth medium, we determined that H. pylori 26695 possesses a complete salvage pathway that allows for growth on any biological purine nucleobase or nucleoside with the exception of xanthosine. Doubling times in this medium varied between 7 and 14 hours depending on the purine source, with hypoxanthine, inosine and adenosine representing the purines utilized most efficiently for growth. The ability to grow on adenine or adenosine was studied using enzyme assays, revealing deamination of adenosine but not adenine by H. pylori 26695 cell lysates. Using mutant analysis we show that a strain lacking the gene encoding a NupC homolog (HP1180) was growth-retarded in a defined medium supplemented with certain purines. This strain was attenuated for uptake of radiolabeled adenosine, guanosine, and inosine, showing a role for this transporter in uptake of purine nucleosides. Deletion of the GMP biosynthesis gene guaA had no discernible effect on mouse stomach colonization, in contrast to findings in numerous bacterial pathogens. In this study we define a more comprehensive model for purine acquisition and salvage in H. pylori that includes purine uptake by a NupC homolog and catabolism of adenosine via adenosine deaminase. PMID:22701700

Miller, Erica F.; Vaish, Soumya; Maier, Robert J.

2012-01-01

158

Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples. PMID:24727498

Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

2014-06-15

159

Characteristics of filtering effect for a polarization division multiplexed-quadrature phase shift keying signal with Nyquist and super-Nyquist spectrum efficiency employing various algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrature duobinary (QDB) spectrum shaping polarization division multiplexed-quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal with Nyquist and super-Nyquist spectrum efficiency will be a promising candidate for future ultrahigh speed ultrahigh spectrum efficiency coherent optical fiber transmissions systems. Several equalization algorithms including constant modulus algorithm (CMA), CMA plus postfilter, and cascaded multimodulus algorithm (CMMA) have been proposed as effective solutions for QDB-PDM-QPSK signal. For the first time as far as we know, the application conditions and performances for these three algorithms are analyzed and compared. System performances for a 112-Gb/s QDB-PDM-QPSK signal as a function of the optical filtering bandwidth and the optical SNR have been theoretically investigated. The results show that CMA would be the best choice in terms of convergence rate for general filtering. However, CMMA can outperform the other two schemes with a good receiver sensitivity and high-dynamic range of optical signal to noise ratio giving a strong filtering effect of super-Nyquist signaling.

Shi, Jianyang; Zhang, Junwen; Tao, Li; Wang, Yiguang; Wang, Yuanquan; Chi, Nan

2014-07-01

160

A spectrum-adjusted white organic light-emitting diode for the optimization of luminous efficiency and color rendering index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High luminous efficiency and high color rendering index (CRI) are both the foremost factors for white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) to serve as next generation solid-state lighting sources. In this paper, we show that both luminous efficiency and CRI can be improved by adjusting the green/red spectra of WOLEDs. With green emission spectra matching with the human photopic curve, the WOLEDs exhibit higher luminous efficiency and higher CRI. Theoretical calculation shows that by tuning the white emission spectra to maximally match with the human photopic curve, the luminous efficiency can be improved by 41.8% without altering the color coordinates, the color correlated temperature (CCT) and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the WOLEDs.

Chen, Wei; Chen, Shu-ming

2015-01-01

161

Free lysine ( l-lysine · HCl) is utilized for growth less efficiently than protein-bound lysine (soybean meal) in practical diets by young channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 10-week feeding experiments were conducted with channel catfish fingerlings in aquaria to compare the efficiency of utilization for growth of free versus protein bound lysine in practical diets. In experiment 1, a basal, 26% protein diet, deficient only in lysine, was formulated with a combination of peanut meal and corn gluten meal as the primary protein source. The diet

Dannie D. Zarate; Richard T. Lovell

1997-01-01

162

Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same  

DOEpatents

Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Riley, KS); Shultis, John K. (Manhattan, KS); Rice, Blake B. (Manhattan, KS); McNeil, Walter J. (Winnfield, KS); Solomon, Clell J. (Wichita, KS); Patterson, Eric L. (Manhattan, KS); Bellinger, Steven L. (Manhattan, KS)

2010-12-21

163

Efficient reduction of candidate matches in peptide spectrum library searching using the top k most intense peaks.  

PubMed

Spectral library searching is a popular approach for MS/MS-based peptide identification. Because the size of spectral libraries continues to grow, the performance of searching algorithms is an important issue. This technical note introduces a strategy based on a minimum shared peak count between two spectra to reduce the set of admissible candidate spectra when issuing a query. A theoretical validation through time complexity analysis and an experimental validation based on an implementation of the candidate reduction strategy show that the approach can achieve a reduction of the set of candidate spectra by (at least) an order of magnitude, resulting in a significant improvement in the speed of the search. Meanwhile, more than 99% of the positive search results is retained. This efficient strategy to drastically improve the speed of spectral library searching with a negligible loss of sensitivity can be applied to any current spectral library search tool, irrespective of the employed similarity metric. PMID:25004400

Vu, Trung Nghia; Bittremieux, Wout; Valkenborg, Dirk; Goethals, Bart; Lemière, Filip; Laukens, Kris

2014-09-01

164

Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion.  

PubMed

We report a practical implementation of high-efficiency color conversion in an electrically pumped light-emitting diode (LED) using nonradiative energy transfer. On the basis of a new LED design that offers both strong energy-transfer coupling and efficient carrier injection, we show that a hybrid structure comprising a single monolayer of CdSe nanocrystals assembled on top of an InGaN/GaN quantum well provides nearly 10% color conversion efficiency. This value is significantly higher than that for a traditional absorption-re-emission color-conversion scheme in a similar device structure. Furthermore, these hybrid devices can also provide improved efficiencies, compared not only to phosphor-based structures but also to stand-alone LEDs. PMID:16834418

Achermann, Marc; Petruska, Melissa A; Koleske, Daniel D; Crawford, Mary H; Klimov, Victor I

2006-07-01

165

STUDY OF PCB DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE FOR A COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER. VOLUME 1. TEST AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the adequacy of a large coal-fired utility boiler for disposal of oils containing 50-499 ppm of PCBs under conditions set by the PCB Disposal Regulations. TVA's Widows Creek Boiler No. 1 was used for the tests. In these tests, all effl...

166

Reflection hologram solar spectrum-splitting filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the use of holographic filters in solar spectrum splitting applications. Photovoltaic (PV) systems utilizing spectrum splitting have higher theoretical conversion efficiency than single bandgap cell modules. Dichroic band-rejection filters have been used for spectrum splitting applications with some success however these filters are limited to spectral control at fixed reflection angles. Reflection holographic filters are fabricated by recording interference pattern of two coherent beams at arbitrary construction angles. This feature can be used to control the angles over which spectral selectivity is obtained. In addition focusing wavefronts can also be used to increase functionality in the filter. Holograms fabricated in dichromated gelatin (DCG) have the benefit of light weight, low scattering and absorption losses. In addition, reflection holograms recorded in the Lippmann configuration have been shown to produce strong chirping as a result of wet processing. Chirping broadens the filter rejection bandwidth both spectrally and angularly. It can be tuned to achieve spectral bandwidth suitable for spectrum splitting applications. We explore different DCG film fabrication and processing parameters to improve the optical performance of the filter. The diffraction efficiency bandwidth and scattering losses are optimized by changing the exposure energy, isopropanol dehydration bath temperature and hardening bath duration. A holographic spectrum-splitting PV module is proposed with Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) PV cells with efficiency of 25.1% and 19.7% respectively. The calculated conversion efficiency with a prototype hologram is 27.94% which is 93.94% compared to the ideal spectrum-splitting efficiency of 29.74%.

Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Russo, Juan M.; Vorndran, Shelby; Escarra, Matthew; Atwater, Harry; Kostuk, Raymond K.

2012-10-01

167

Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations  

SciTech Connect

The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results obtained from Site No. 1 to obtain the optimum results shown in Table E-1. Approximately 9 tests w

Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

2007-09-30

168

Binpairs: Utilization of Illumina Paired-End Information for Improving Efficiency of Taxonomic Binning of Metagenomic Sequences  

PubMed Central

Motivation Paired-end sequencing protocols, offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms like Illumia, generate a pair of reads for every DNA fragment in a sample. Although this protocol has been utilized for several metagenomics studies, most taxonomic binning approaches classify each of the reads (forming a pair), independently. The present work explores some simple but effective strategies of utilizing pairing-information of Illumina short reads for improving the accuracy of taxonomic binning of metagenomic datasets. The strategies proposed can be used in conjunction with all genres of existing binning methods. Results Validation results suggest that employment of these “Binpairs” strategies can provide significant improvements in the binning outcome. The quality of the taxonomic assignments thus obtained are often comparable to those that can only be achieved with relatively longer reads obtained using other NGS platforms (such as Roche). Availability An implementation of the proposed strategies of utilizing pairing information is freely available for academic users at https://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/binning/binpairs. PMID:25551450

Dutta, Anirban; Tandon, Disha; MH, Mohammed; Bose, Tungadri; Mande, Sharmila S.

2014-01-01

169

Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

2008-01-01

170

Executive Summary The utilization of a digital content delivery network can be key to site performance and efficiency.  

E-print Network

performance and efficiency. Yet performance also hinges on many other factors. In planning and implementing chain" required to deliver high performance and an engaging experience. The distribution of digital, enterprises far from the media world are using digital media for organizational communication, employee

Fisher, Kathleen

171

Effect of diets containing raw and extrusion?cooked rice bran on growth and efficiency of food utilization of broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Meat strain chicks were fed on diets containing 600 g rice bran\\/kg for the 7 to 8 week period required to reach broiler weight.2. Extrusion cooking of rice bran resulted, in improved chick weight gain and food efficiency for the first two weeks of feeding, but this advantage was lost by the end of the feeding period.3. Addition of

R. N. Sayre; L. Earl; F. H. Kratzer; R. M. Saunders

1988-01-01

172

Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Third interim report (October 1979): analysis of individual component cost and/or energy efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

This interim report provides documentation on the third task, Analysis of Individual Component Cost and/or Energy Efficiencies, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of both cost and energy loss models for the distribution and customer utilization system elements as well as the analysis of critical performance variables for the types of motors in end use elements, as a function of voltage level. The purpose of this task is to provide individual component cost and energy models which will be incorporated in the global system optimization program under Task 4. A major output of this task is a mathematical model for each component's cost and/or energy losses and a graphical representation of each model.

Not Available

1981-04-01

173

Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.  

PubMed

A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

2010-02-15

174

Nanowire-based hierarchical tin oxide/zinc stannate hollow microspheres: Enhanced solar energy utilization efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic degradation of dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowire-based SnO2/Zn2SnO4 hollow microspheres are synthesized using a facile one-pot method for solar energy conversion and environment cleaning. The micrometer-sized hollow spheres possess a hierarchical structure with the shell consisting of nanowires. With the hybrid SnO2/Zn2SnO4 microspheres as photoanodes, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an overall 4.72% photoconversion efficiency is obtained, nearly 240% improvement over the DSSCs that uses nanorod-based hierarchical SnO2 microspheres. The hybrid microspheres are also determined to be high-performance photocatalyst with a better recyclability for the photodegradation of dyes under simulated sunlight irradiation. These improvements of solar energy utilization are ascribed to the formation of the heterojunctions between SnO2 and Zn2SnO4 to enhance electron transport and charge-separation efficiencies.

Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Mao, Wutao; Zou, Zhigang

2015-01-01

175

Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows. PMID:25262186

Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

2014-12-01

176

Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance), feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits. PMID:21733156

2011-01-01

177

Evaluation of Characteristics of High Efficiency Power Generation Systems Utilizing Fermentation Gas of Simply Sorted Municipal Refuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper evaluates characteristics of two kinds of power generation systems utilizing fermentation gas of municipal refuse which is generated with use of a fermentation equipment of sorted refuse from ordinary collected garbage. In evaluation, a garbage incineration plant treating refuse of 100 t/d was adopted. The two systems investigated are the following systems: (a) gas engine power generation system (Sys-GE) and (b) steam turbine power generation system with super heater of steam (Sys-SH). The characteristics of two systems have been estimated together with the conventional steam turbine power generation system (Sys-C). It has been estimated that Sys-GE and Sys-SH has 2.11 and 2.55 times greater energy saving and CO2 reduction effect compared with Sys-C, respectively.

Pak, Pyong Sik

178

Improvement of the recoverable energy storage density and efficiency by utilizing the linear dielectric response in ferroelectric capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recoverable energy storage performance of 400 nm undoped and 4 mol. % Nb-doped PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 ferroelectric capacitors was studied. The DC dielectric strength improved from 1351 kV/cm (undoped) to 1878 kV/cm (Nb-doped), and the latter capacitors had high recoverable energy storage density up to 20 J/cm3 with efficiency of 70%, benefiting mainly from the linear dielectric response. This study suggests that donor doping is an effective way to improve the dielectric strength and illustrates the significant role of the linear dielectric response in ferroelectrics for high power applications.

Peng, Bin; Xie, Zhenkun; Yue, Zhenxing; Li, Longtu

2014-08-01

179

Improvement of efficiency and stability utilizing a wide band gap material as the host for red organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high efficiency and stability based on a wide band gap host material 9,10-di (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). In these diodes, N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-4,4'diamine(NPB) and tris-(8- ydroxy-quinoline) aluminium (Alq) are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl- 1H,5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a,1gh] coumarin (C545T) and 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2- t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) are co-doped into the ADN emitting layer. Utilizing the two-step energy transfer from ADN to C545T and then from C545T to DCJTB, we achieved pure red organic light-emitting devices, which showed improved optical and electrical characteristics. Compared with devices where the emitting layer is made of Alq and DCJTB, the emission efficiency and stability of the ADN-based devices are greatly improved and the turn-on voltage is also decreased. The co-doping technique provides a promising way of utilizing wide band gap materials as the host to make red OLEDs, which will be useful in improving the electroluminesent performance of devices and simplifying the process of fabricating full colour OLEDs.

Tang, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Wengen; Sun, Runguang

2007-03-01

180

Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum-span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective and efficient solutions of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.

Heyward, Ann O.

1992-01-01

181

High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

1999-06-01

182

HIGH EFFICIENCY, QUASI-INSTANTANEOUS STEAM EXPANSION DEVICE UTILIZING FOSSIL OR NUCLEAR FUEL AS THE HEAT SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

1999-06-01

183

Highly efficient colorimetric detection of target cancer cells utilizing superior catalytic activity of graphene oxide-magnetic-platinum nanohybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have most widely been applied in immunoassays for several decades. However, several unavoidable limitations (e.g., instability caused by structural unfolding) of natural enzymes have hindered their widespread applications. Here, we describe a new nanohybrid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), simultaneously immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically active Pt NPs and MNPs on GO whose frameworks possess high substrate affinity, the nanohybrid is able to achieve up to a 30-fold higher maximal reaction velocity (Vmax) compared to that of free GO for the colorimetric reaction of the peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and enable rapid detection of target cancer cells. Specifically, using this new assay system, clinically important breast cancer cells are detected in a 5 min time period at room temperature with high specificity and sensitivity. The remarkably high capability to catalyze oxidation reactions could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based immunoassay systems as part of new, rapid, robust and convenient assay systems which can be widely utilized for the identification of important target molecules.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have most widely been applied in immunoassays for several decades. However, several unavoidable limitations (e.g., instability caused by structural unfolding) of natural enzymes have hindered their widespread applications. Here, we describe a new nanohybrid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), simultaneously immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically active Pt NPs and MNPs on GO whose frameworks possess high substrate affinity, the nanohybrid is able to achieve up to a 30-fold higher maximal reaction velocity (Vmax) compared to that of free GO for the colorimetric reaction of the peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and enable rapid detection of target cancer cells. Specifically, using this new assay system, clinically important breast cancer cells are detected in a 5 min time period at room temperature with high specificity and sensitivity. The remarkably high capability to catalyze oxidation reactions could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based immunoassay systems as part of new, rapid, robust and convenient assay systems which can be widely utilized for the identification of important target molecules. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05539f

Kim, Moon Il; Kim, Min Su; Woo, Min-Ah; Ye, Youngjin; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Hyun Gyu

2014-01-01

184

An efficient 1H/31P double-resonance solid-state NMR probe that utilizes a scroll coil  

PubMed Central

The construction and performance of a scroll coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR on stationary samples is described. The advantages of the scroll coil at the high resonance frequencies of 1H and 31P include: high efficiency, minimal perturbations of tuning by a wide range of samples, minimal RF sample heating of high dielectric samples of biopolymers in aqueous solution, and excellent RF homogeneity. The incorporation of a cable tie cinch for mechanical stability of the scroll coil is described. Experimental results obtained on a Hunter Killer Peptide 1 (HKP1) interacting with phospholipid bilayers of varying lipid composition demonstrate the capabilities of this probe on lossy aqueous samples. PMID:17719813

Grant, Christopher V.; Sit, Siu-Ling; De Angelis, Anna A.; Khuong, Kelli S.; Wu, Chin H.; Plesniak, Leigh A.; Opella, Stanley J.

2007-01-01

185

Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart.  

PubMed

Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart. PMID:24866583

Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

2014-07-01

186

Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

Rodgers, Sandra L.

1992-01-01

187

Aquifex aeolicus aspartate transcarbamoylase, an enzyme specialized for the efficient utilization of unstable carbamoyl phosphate at elevated temperature.  

PubMed

Aquifex aeolicus, an organism that flourishes at 95 degrees C, is one of the most thermophilic eubacteria thus far described. The A. aeolicus pyrB gene encoding aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography to a homogeneous form that could be crystallized. Chemical cross-linking and size exclusion chromatography showed that the protein was a homotrimer of 34-kDa catalytic chains. The activity of A. aeolicus ATCase increased dramatically with increasing temperature due to an increase in kcat with little change in the Km for the substrates, carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate. The Km for both substrates was 30-40-fold lower than the corresponding values for the homologous E. coli ATCase catalytic subunit. Although rapidly degraded at high temperature, the carbamoyl phosphate generated in situ by A. aeolicus carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) was channeled to ATCase. The transient time for carbamoyl aspartate formation was 26 s, compared with the much longer transient times observed when A. aeolicus CPSase was coupled to E. coli ATCase. Several other approaches provided strong evidence for channeling and transient complex formation between A. aeolicus ATCase and CPSase. The high affinity for substrates combined with channeling ensures the efficient transfer of carbamoyl phosphate from the active site of CPSase to that of ATCase, thus preserving it from degradation and preventing the formation of toxic cyanate. PMID:14534296

Purcarea, Cristina; Ahuja, Anupama; Lu, Tun; Kovari, Ladislau; Guy, Hedeel I; Evans, David R

2003-12-26

188

Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the chosen process stimulation software was required to improve the reliability of process simulations for engineering design support. Data from experiments was also employed to calculate critical mass transfer and system design parameters (such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)) to aid in process design. When measured in a less than optimal design state for the stripping of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from a simulated dilute draw solution the HETP for one type of commercial stripper packing material was 1.88 ft/stage. During this study it was observed that the heat duty required to vaporize the draw solution solutes is substantially affected by the amount of water boilup also produced to achieve a low NH{sub 3} stripper bottoms concentration specification. Additionally, fluid loading of the stripper packing media is a critical performance parameter that affects all facets of optimum stripper column performance. Condensation of the draw solution tops vapor requires additional process considerations if being conducted in sub-atmospheric conditions and low temperature. Future work will focus on the commercialization of the Oasys EO technology platform for numerous applications in water and wastewater treatment as well as harvesting low enthalpy energy with our proprietary osmotic heat engine. Engineering design related to thermal integration of Oasys EO technology for both low and hig-grade heat applications is underway. Novel thermal recovery processes are also being investigated in addition to the conventional approaches described in this report. Oasys Water plans to deploy commercial scale systems into the energy and zero liquid discharge markets in 2013. Additional process refinement will lead to integration of low enthalpy renewable heat sources for municipal desalination applications.

NATHAN HANCOCK

2013-01-13

189

BRAND X PICTURES ynamic spectrum access with cognitive radios has  

E-print Network

sharing and a collusion- resistant multistage dynamic spectrum pricing game for licensed spectrum sharing by the FCC have severely hindered efficient uti- lization of scarce spectrum. Hence, dynamic spectrum access

Liu, K. J. Ray

190

Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag2S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (h?th) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (h?th) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD analysis, EDX analysis, PIA spectra, J-V curves, differential resistance and static resistance, photon energy dependent carrier extraction measurement. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04463k

Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M. J.

2015-01-01

191

Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.  

PubMed

This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability. PMID:25536510

Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

2015-03-01

192

Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag2S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation.  

PubMed

The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (h?th) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction. PMID:25504257

Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M J

2015-01-01

193

Power Generation Efficiency of Photovoltaics and a SOFC-PEFC Combined Micro-grid with Time Shift Utilization of the SOFC Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the combined system of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is developed. The proposed system consists of a SOFC-PEFC combined system and a photovoltaic system (PV) as the energy supply to a micro-grid. The exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for the steam reforming of the bio-ethanol gas with time shift utilization of the exhaust heat of the SOFC in optional time. The SOFC-PEFC combined system with the PV was introduced in a micro-grid of 30 residences in Sapporo, Japan. The operation plan of the system has three cases: without solar power, with 50% and with 100% of solar output power. Moreover, three types of system operation of using the SOFC independent operation, PEFC independent operation and SOFC-PEFC combined system are used to supply the demand side. A comparative study between the types of system operation is presented. The power generation efficiency is investigated for different load patterns: average load pattern, compressed load pattern and extended load pattern. This paper reported that the power generation efficiencies of the proposedsystem in consideration of these load patterns are 27% to 48%.

El-Sayed, Abeer Galal; Obara, Shin'ya

194

Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).  

PubMed

Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality. PMID:12020370

Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

2002-04-01

195

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

196

Roll-to-roll cohesive, coated, flexible, high-efficiency polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing ITO-free polymer anodes.  

PubMed

This paper reports solution-processed, high-efficiency polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by a new type of roll-to-roll coating method under ambient air conditions. A noble roll-to-roll cohesive coating system utilizes only natural gravity and the surface tension of the solution to flow out from the capillary to the surface of the substrate. Because this mechanism uses a minimally cohesive solution, the roll-to-roll cohesive coating can effectively realize an ultra-thin film thickness for the electron injection layer. In addition, the roll-to-roll cohesive coating enables the fabrication of a thicker polymer anode film more than 250 nm at one time by modification of the surface energy and without wasting the solution. It is observed that the standard sheet resistance deviation of the polymer anode is only 2.32 ?/? over 50 000 bending cycles. The standard sheet resistance deviation of the polymer anode in the different bending angles (0 to 180°) is 0.313 ?/?, but the case of the ITO-PET is 104.93 ?/?. The average surface roughness of the polymer anode measured by atomic force microscopy is only 1.06 nm. Because the surface of the polymer anode has a better quality, the leakage current of the polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using the polymer anode is much lower than that using the ITO-PET substrate. The luminous power efficiency of the two devices is 4.13 lm/W for the polymer anode and 3.21 lm/W for the ITO-PET. Consequently, the PLEDs made by using the polymer anode exhibited 28% enhanced performance because the polymer anode represents not only a higher transparency than the ITO-PET in the wavelength of 560 nm but also greatly reduced roughness. The optimized the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device show around 6.1 cd/A and 5.1 lm/W, respectively, which is comparable to the case of using the ITO-glass. PMID:23784859

Shin, Seongbeom; Yang, Minyang; Guo, L Jay; Youn, Hongseok

2013-12-01

197

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic...the total data throughput capacity in each of the links in the system. Further, the application...

2011-10-01

198

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic...the total data throughput capacity in each of the links in the system. Further, the application...

2010-10-01

199

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT  

PubMed Central

Background It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI), can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications. Methods In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened for genomic disorders associated with CI using MLPA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and/or direct DNA sequencing were used to validate potential microdeletions and microduplications. Methylation-sensitive MLPA was used to characterize individuals with duplications in the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWA) region. Results MLPA showed two subjects with typical ASD-associated interstitial duplications of the 15q11-q13 PWA region of maternal origin. Two additional subjects showed smaller, de novo duplications of the PWA region that had not been previously characterized. Genes in these two novel duplications include GABRB3 and ATP10A in one case, and MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in the other. In addition, two subjects showed duplications of the 22q11/DiGeorge syndrome region. One individual was found to carry a 12 kb deletion in one copy of the ASPA gene on 17p13, which when mutated in both alleles leads to Canavan disease. Two subjects showed partial duplication of the TM4SF2 gene on Xp11.4, previously implicated in X-linked non-specific mental retardation, but in our subsequent analyses such variants were also found in controls. A partial duplication in the ASMT gene, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes and previously suggested to be involved in ASD susceptibility, was observed in 6–7% of the cases but in only 2% of controls (P = 0.003). Conclusion MLPA proves to be an efficient method to screen for chromosomal abnormalities. We identified duplications in 15q11-q13 and in 22q11, including new de novo small duplications, as likely contributing to ASD in the current sample by increasing liability and/or exacerbating symptoms. Our data indicate that duplications in TM4SF2 are not associated with the phenotype given their presence in controls. The results in PAR1/PAR2 are the first large-scale studies of gene dosage in these regions, and the findings at the ASMT locus indicate that further studies of the duplication of the ASMT gene are needed in order to gain insight into its potential involvement in ASD. Our studies also identify some limitations of MLPA, where single base changes in probe binding sequences alter results. In summary, our studies indicate that MLPA, with a focus on accepted medical genetic conditions, may be an inexpensive method for detection of microdeletions and microduplications in ASD patients for purposes of genetic counselling if MLPA-identified deletions are validated by additional methods. PMID:18925931

Cai, Guiqing; Edelmann, Lisa; Goldsmith, Juliet E; Cohen, Ninette; Nakamine, Alisa; Reichert, Jennifer G; Hoffman, Ellen J; Zurawiecki, Danielle M; Silverman, Jeremy M; Hollander, Eric; Soorya, Latha; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D

2008-01-01

200

Response to lysine intake in composition of body weight gain and efficiency of lysine utilization of growing male chickens from two genotypes.  

PubMed

Male chickens of a broiler (B) and a layer (L) genotype were grown in floor pens from d 8 to 21 posthatch in groups of 10. Three pens per genotype were allocated to each of 10 experimental diets. The diets were offered ad libitum and they differed in lysine concentration from 3.8 to 16.8 g/kg. The source of supplemental lysine was L-lysine x HCl. All birds were killed at the end of the experiment, and representative birds (3 groups of 10 per genotype) were killed at the start for baseline measurements. Accretions of protein, fat, energy, and amino acids were determined by comparative body analysis. Responses were described with sigmoidal and exponential functions. Additionally, the net disappearance rate (NDR) of amino acids from the small intestine was studied with the basal diet (3.8 g of lysine/kg) using 6 replicated pens of 15 birds per genotype. Titanium dioxide was the indigestible marker. Net disappearance rates were not significantly different between genotypes for CP or any amino acid. Responses to incremental lysine concentration were nonlinear for both genotypes but distinctly different in magnitude between genotypes. Estimated y(max) values for 14-d BW, protein gain, and gain/ feed ratio were 534 (B) and 153 (L) g, 87.1 (B) and 28.7 (L) g, and 0.82 (B) and 0.71 (L) g/g. Protein accretion approached 95% of the estimated y(max) with dietary lysine concentrations of 12.5 (B) and 10.4 (L) g/kg. The amino acid profile of accreted whole body protein was different between genotypes, and was affected by supplementary lysine. Lysine content in accreted whole body protein approached upper values of 7.4 (B) and 5.6 (L) g/16 g of N with increasing dietary lysine concentration. Marginal efficiency of lysine utilization, determined as delta lysine accretion/delta lysine intake, showed maxima of 99% (B) and 74% (L). These maxima were achieved at intakes which were much lower than those needed for high protein accretion. It was concluded that the efficiency of amino acid utilization may depend on genotype, perhaps due to differences in the relative proportion of different protein fractions to whole body protein and due to differences in the ratio of synthesis and degradation of body proteins. Nonlinear relationships and different amino acid pattern of accreted body protein should be implemented in future models of requirements. PMID:15339006

Fatufe, A A; Timmler, R; Rodehutscord, M

2004-08-01

201

Optical performance of dichroic spectrum-splitting filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the optical performance of dichroic filters used in solar spectrum-splitting applications. Photovoltaic (PV) systems utilizing spectrum splitting have higher theoretical conversion efficiency than single-bandgap PV modules. Dichroic filters have been used in several spectrum-splitting optical system designs with success. However, dichroic filters only achieve ideal performance under collimated incident light. With an incident angle constraint the optical concentration ratio is limited. A high-concentration ratio helps to achieve high-conversion efficiency and control cost by reducing the PV cell area. In a dual-junction spectrum-splitting PV configuration with a gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV cell and a 2.1-eV bandgap PV cell, the experimental dichroic filter can provide 86.3% of the ideal designed performance. The filter nonideal performance under focused incident light is simulated with ZEMAX. System efficiency under different F-number and filter refractive index is simulated for dual-junction and three-junction systems to show the performance of dichroic filters. We have found that for a dual-bandgap spectrum-splitting system there is a 0.32% system efficiency gain associated with a filter refractive index increased from 1.5 to 1.95. An efficiency gain of 0.41% is associated with an aperture size reduction from F2.0 to F3.0. In a three-junction configuration, simulation shows that a 0.57% system efficiency gain is possible when the filter refractive index is increased from 1.5 to 1.95. An efficiency gain of 0.63% is associated with an aperture size reduction from F2.0 to F3.0.

Zhang, Deming; Wu, Yuechen; Russo, Juan M.; Gordon, Michael; Vorndran, Shelby; Kostuk, Raymond K.

2014-01-01

202

Achieving cooperative spectrum sensing in wireless cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access has been studied to exploit instant aneous spectrum availability by opening licensed spectrum to secondary use rs. To achieve high spectrum efficiency, secondary unlicensed users need to con tinuously sense spectrum to detect the presence of primary licensed users. Co operative spectrum sensing has been recognized as a powerful solution to improvespectrum sensing performance, which requires nearby

Chengqi Song; Qian Zhang

2009-01-01

203

The Storage Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to data storage is given on this site, part of Red Hat, Inc.'s Linux System Administration Primer. The topics covered include: "The Storage Spectrum," "CPU Registers," "Cache Memory," "Cache Levels," "Main Memory - RAM," "Hard Drives," and "Off-Line Backup Storage."

2008-02-15

204

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2002-09-01

205

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2003-01-01

206

Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

2006-03-30

207

Iterative interference cancellation for high spectral efficiency satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of efficient utilization of the frequency spectrum for satellite systems is investigated; one which results as a consequence of highly crowding adjacent channels. An analytical characterization of the resulting interference channel is introduced and then exploited for interference cancellation. Two classes of cancelers are investigated. The first approach does not benefit from the forward error control (FEC) coding

Bassel F. Beidas; Hesham El Gamal; Stan Kay

2002-01-01

208

Decline in Topsoil Microbial Quotient, Fungal Abundance and C Utilization Efficiency of Rice Paddies under Heavy Metal Pollution across South China  

PubMed Central

Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO2 are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO2 production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies. PMID:22701725

Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

2012-01-01

209

Broad spectrum solar cell  

DOEpatents

An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

2007-05-15

210

Split spectrum: a multi-channel approach to elastic optical networking.  

PubMed

This paper introduces Split Spectrum, which enhances elastic optical networking by splitting a bulk traffic demand into multiple channels, when a single-channel transmission is prohibited by distance or spectrum availability. We performed transmission simulations to determine the maximum reach as a function of modulation format (dual polarization BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM), baud-rate (from 5 to 28 GBd), and number of ROADMs, for a Nyquist WDM super-channel with subcarrier spacing equal to 1.2 × baud-rate. Performance evaluation on two representative topologies shows that, compared to the previously proposed elastic optical networking, Split Spectrum doubles the zero-blocking load and achieves 100% higher network spectral efficiency at zero-blocking loads as a result of extended transmission distance and efficient utilization of spectrum fragments. PMID:23388739

Xia, Ming; Proietti, R; Dahlfort, Stefan; Yoo, S J B

2012-12-31

211

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system: (1) Performance specifications were developed for the tracking subsystem and collector optics, (2) Thermal management experiments for the fiber optic bundle entrance region, and (3) Bioreactor testing, cost-modeling, and redesign. Much of the planned work has been slowed due to significant procurement delays of the primary mirror. However, taken as a whole, they do confirm progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. Due to this procurement delay, a no-cost extension of the project completion date has been requested and approved.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2005-02-01

212

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2004-08-01

213

[Design of concave grating for ultraviolet-spectrum].  

PubMed

Ultraviolet-spectrum technology is a kind of low signal and multianalysis technology. For taking full advantage of spectral information and reducing the volume of spectrometer, we used high efficiency spectroscopy structure based on concave grating. Based on concave grating theory and optic design software ZEMAX, a flat field concave grating for ultraviolet spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. For better preference of this spectrophotometer, after get the structure parameter, combine grating fabrication condition with practice working condition, grating diffractive theory, holographic optics theory and software PCG rate was used for diffraction efficiency design and improve. A paradigm of flat field concave grating is given, it works between 190 nm to 410 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 20 mm, and F/# is 0.21. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 3 nm. PMID:22870673

Luo, Biao; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Wen, Zhong-Quan; Zeng, Tian-Ling

2012-06-01

214

Dynamic Spectrum Access to the Combined Resource of Commercial and Public Safety Bands Based on a WCDMA Shared Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public safety spectrum is generally under-utilized due to the unique traffic characteristics of bursty and mission critical. This letter considers the application of dynamic spectrum access (DSA) to the combined spectrum of public safety (PS) and commercial (CMR) users in a common shared network that can provide both PS and CMR services. Our scenario includes the 700MHz Public/Private Partnership which was recently issued by the Federal Communications Commission. We first propose an efficient DSA mechanism to coordinate the combined spectrum, and then establish a call admission control that reflects the proposed DSA in a wideband code division multiple access based network. The essentials of our proposed DSA are opportunistic access to the public safety spectrum and priority access to the commercial spectrum. Simulation results show that these schemes are well harmonized in various network environments.

Jeon, Hyoungsuk; Im, Sooyeol; Kim, Youmin; Kim, Seunghee; Kim, Jinup; Lee, Hyuckjae

215

Kinetics of blood lipoprotein spectrum indices in patients with angina pectoris during and after low-intensity laser therapy as a paraclinical criterion for treatment efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of applying (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers laser radiation in treating 403 patients affected by angina pectoris. The patients were administered a course of combined laser therapy consisting of the intravenous laser irradiation of blood combined with laser acupuncture. Apart from that, the patients took the maintenance doses of antianginal preparations and therapeutic doses of vitamins A and E. The blood lipoprotein spectrum revealed that this combined laser therapy was capable of producing an antiatherogenic effect. It was also found that the most effective exposure time of laser radiation was in the range of 10 to 15 min.

Babushkina, G. V.; Kartelishev, A. V.

2001-04-01

216

Enhanced efficiency of ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis utilizing reductants that form the all-ferrous redox state of the Fe protein.  

PubMed

The amount of MgATP hydrolyzed per pair of electrons transferred (ATP/2e) during nitrogenase catalysis (1.0 atm N(2), 30 degrees C) using titanium(III) citrate (Ti(III)) as reductant was measured and compared to the same reaction using dithionite (DT). ATP/2e values near 2.0 for Ti(III) and 5.0 for DT indicate that nitrogenase has a much lower ATP requirement using Ti(III) as reductant. Using reduced Azotobacter vinelandii flavoprotein (AvFlpH(2)), a possible in vivo nitrogenase reductant, ATP/2e values near 2.0 were also observed. When the reaction was conducted using Ti(III) under N(2), 5% CO in N(2), Ar, 5% CO in Ar, or acetylene, ATP/2e values near 2.0 were also observed. With Ti(III) as reductant, ATP/2e values near 2.0 were measured as a function of temperature, Fe:MoFe protein ratio, and MoFe:Fe protein ratio, in contrast to measured values of 4.0-25 when DT is used under the same conditions. Both Ti(III) and AvFlpH(2) are capable of forming the [Fe(4)S(4)](0) cluster state of the Fe protein whereas DT is not, suggesting that ATP/2e values near 2.0 arise from operation of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple with hydrolysis of only 2 ATPs per pair of electrons transferred. Additional experiments showed that ATP/2e values near 2. 0 correlated with slower rates of product formation and that faster rates of product formation produced ATP/2e values near 5.0. ATP/2e values of 5.0 are consistent with the operation of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](1+) redox couple while ATP/2e values of 2.0 could arise from operation of the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+)/[Fe(4)S(4)](0) redox couple. These results suggest that two distinct Fe protein redox couples may be functional during nitrogenase catalysis and that the efficiency of ATP utilization depends on which of these redox couples is dominant. PMID:10572002

Erickson, J A; Nyborg, A C; Johnson, J L; Truscott, S M; Gunn, A; Nordmeyer, F R; Watt, G D

1999-10-26

217

NASA technology utilization house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

1977-01-01

218

High efficiency decentralized electrical power generation utilizing diesel engines coupled with organic working fluid rankine-cycle engines operating on diesel reject heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study of high efficiency electrical power plants, consisting of diesel engines coupled with organic working fluid Rankine-cycle engines (ORCS) operating on the diesel exhaust heat is described. A combined cycle efficiency of 46.3 percent is attained with commercially available diesel engines with a potential for >50 percent using experimental engines. The estimated unit capital cost of a 50

D. T. Morgan; J. P. Davis

1974-01-01

219

Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Preliminary Monitoring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Using utility billing records

D. Parker; J. Sherwin

2012-01-01

220

GUIDELINES FOR NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. PROCEDURES FOR REDUCTION OF NOX EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be ap...

221

A Saw-Based Spread Spectrum Wireless Lan System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, the spread spectrum wireless LAN is prospected to be approved by February 1993. Utilizing a new type SAW device, we succeeded in developing the spread spectrum wireless LAN system. Its data ratio is a 230-kbps.

Kazuyuki TAKEHARA; Toshiyuki TANAKA; K. Okada; T. Tada

1992-01-01

222

The SNAP 27 gamma radiation spectrum obtained with a Ge/Li/ detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pulse height distribution, obtained experimentally using a Ge(Li) detector, was employed to determine the photon emission rate characteristic of a PuO2 fuel source known as the SNAP 27 heat source. The selfshielding parameters of the photon emitter, the efficiency of the detector and the geometry of the experiment were utilized to determine the unscattered photon emission rate of the source and the unscattered flux spectrum at a certain specified distance from the source. For the scattered part of the flux spectrum a Monte Carlo technique was employed so that the total flux spectrum could be determined at any point in the radiation field. As a result of this work, a technique was developed to obtain the unfolded radiation spectrum of the SNAP 27 heat source.

Taherzadeh, M.

1976-01-01

223

Spectrum of Glow-worm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the luminous organs of insects like the fire-fly represent one of the most efficient sources of light, in that almost all the energy is concentrated in a narrow band in that part of the spectrum to which the human eye is most sensitive. In the case of the fire-fly, the spectrum photographed by Mr. Ives1

L. A. Ramdas; L. P. Venkiteshwaran

1931-01-01

224

Error correction coding for frequency-hopping multiple-access spread spectrum communication systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A communication system which would effect channel coding for frequency-hopped multiple-access is described. It is shown that in theory coding can increase the spectrum utilization efficiency of a system with mutual interference to 100 percent. Various coding strategies are discussed and some initial comparisons are given. Some of the problems associated with implementing the type of system described here are discussed.

Healy, T. J.

1982-01-01

225

Stress wave communication in concrete: II. Evaluation of low voltage concrete stress wave communications utilizing spectrally efficient modulation schemes with PZT transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric materials, traditionally used for structural health monitoring, have recently been used to implement stress wave communications. Within a protective encasing we fabricate a smart aggregate which enables transmission and reception of modulated stress waves for digital communication within concrete. Our research focuses on building a high efficiency stress wave communication system and comparing the performance of phase shift keying (PSK) with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Our experiments evaluate the performance of QPSK and 16QAM implemented with our stress wave communication system at a transmit voltage ranging from 32 dBV to 37 dBV. We also demonstrate the increase in spectral efficiency of 16QAM compared to QPSK.

Siu, Sam; Qing, Ji; Wang, Kun; Song, Gangbing; Ding, Zhi

2014-12-01

226

A discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometric study of the FO(X 2 Pi i) radical. Photoionization efficiency spectrum and ionization energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoionization efficiency spectra of FO were measured over the wavelength range 80.0-100.0 nm and in the ionization threshold region, 94.0-100.0 nm, using a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer apparatus coupled to a synchrotron radiation source. FO was generated by the reaction of F2P atoms with NO3 and via a F2O2 discharge. A value of 12.78 +/- 0.03 eV was obtained for the adiabatic ionization energy of FO from photoion thresholds which corresponds to FO(+)(X 3 Sigma -) from FO(X 2 Pi i). These results, which are the first to be obtained by direct Photo-ionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) measurements, corroborate those of a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) study; however, the ionization energy determined here is free from interferences due to other species which complicated the PES measurement. A value of 109.5 +/- 8.0 kJ/mol for Delta f H 0 298(FO) is computed from the present value of IE(FO) and a previous appearance energy measurement, and a value for the proton affinity of FO is calculated to be 511.5 +/- 10.0 kJ/mol.

Zhang, Zhengyu; Kuo, Szu-Cherng; Klemm, R. Bruce; Monks, Paul S.; Stief, Louis J.

1994-01-01

227

Primordial Power Spectrum Reconstruction  

E-print Network

In order to reconstruct the initial conditions of the universe it is important to devise a method that can efficiently constrain the shape of the power spectrum of primordial matter density fluctuations in a model-independent way from data. In an earlier paper we proposed a method based on the wavelet expansion of the primordial power spectrum. The advantage of this method is that the orthogonality and multiresolution properties of wavelet basis functions enable information regarding the shape of $P_{\\rm in}(k)$ to be encoded in a small number of non-zero coefficients. Any deviation from scale-invariance can then be easily picked out. Here we apply this method to simulated data to demonstrate that it can accurately reconstruct an input $P_{\\rm in}(k)$, and present a prescription for how this method should be used on future data.

Pia Mukherjee; Yun Wang

2005-02-07

228

[A method for measuring emission spectrum of YAG phosphor used in LED white light under practical conditions].  

PubMed

A new method for measuring the emission spectra of the YAG phosphor under blue light excitation was proposed. Utilizing the Gaussian function and Fermi function fitting and simulated annealing optimization techniques, mathematical fitting functions for matching mixed emission spectrum were obtained. And so, the emission spectrum of the YAG phosphor was separated, further its luminescence properties can be characterized. Our experiment results proved that its characteristic parameters present non-negligible differences. The optical metric differences such as those in quantum efficiency, light emitting efficiency and energy efficiency are higher than 1%. The difference in CCT (correlated color temperature) is up to tens of K, and chromaticity indicators also produce differences in chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength and color purity. But little change is there in the half-peak bandwidth, and peak wavelength is basically unaffected. All these show that the established method can improve the measurement accuracy of YAG yellow phosphor emission spectrum under practical conditions. PMID:24059185

Xu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Sheng; Li, Lu-Hai; Ding, Ying-Kun

2013-07-01

229

Improved efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells utilizing two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide: graphene oxide nanocomposites as hole-collection material.  

PubMed

Improving device efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for their practical application. Although graphene oxide (GO) could replace the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-collection material and improve the photovoltaic stability of PSCs, the power conversion efficiency is moderate because of its insulating nature. In this article, nanocomposites of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and GO are used to replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The nanocomposites are formed by dispersing rGO into aqueous solution of GO. GO serves as a surfactant, and it can stabilize rGO. The presence of rGO can quench the photoluminescence of GO in water. The nanocomposite films exhibit higher conductivity than GO films without rGO. They are used as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The optimal PSCs with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester exhibit such photovoltaic performances: short-circuit current density of 10.37 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage of 0.60 V, fill factor of 67.66%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.21%. The photovoltaic efficiency is much higher than that of the control devices with GO only (3.36%) as the hole-collection material. In addition, the presence of rGO in GO gives rise to better stability for the PSCs in air than that of the devices with GO only. The devices with rGO:GO composites as the hole-collection materials exhibit much better stability in power conversion efficiency than the control devices with PEDOT:PSS. PMID:25415184

Chen, Lei; Du, Donghe; Sun, Kuan; Hou, Jianhui; Ouyang, Jianyong

2014-12-24

230

An efficient evolutionary algorithm for channel resource management in cellular mobile systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cellular mobile communications systems are characterized by a high degree of capacity. Consequently, they have to serve the maximum possible number of calls while the number of channels per cell is limited. The objective of channel allocation is to assign a required number of channels to each cell such that both efficient frequency spectrum utilization is provided and interference

Harilaos G. Sandalidis; Peter P. Stavroulakis; Joe Rodriguez-tellez

1998-01-01

231

Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination was initially projected. The work performed provided answers to a number of important questions. The first is that, with the investigated approaches, the maximum sustained emitter efficiencies are about 1.5 times that of a standard incandescent bulb. This was seen to be the case for both thick and thin emitters, and for both mono-layer and bi-layer designs. While observed VIS/NIR ratios represent improvements over standard incandescent bulbs, it does not appear sufficient to overcome higher cost (i.e. up to five times that of the standard bulb) and ensure commercial success. Another result is that high temperatures (i.e. 2650 K) are routinely attainable without platinum electrodes. This is significant for reducing material costs. A novel dual heating arrangement and insulated electrodes were used to attain these temperatures. Another observed characteristic of the emitter was significant grain growth soon after attaining operating temperatures. This is an undesirable characteristic that results in substantially less optical scattering and spectral selectivity, and which significantly limits emitter efficiencies to the values reported. Further work is required to address this problem.

Sonsight Inc.

2004-04-30

232

High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture  

DOEpatents

Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

Beach, R.J.

1997-11-18

233

Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices utilizing the connecting structure based on n-doped electron-transport layer/HATCN/hole-transport layer.  

PubMed

In this work, we conducted studies of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the connecting structure consisting of n-doped electron-transport layer (n-ETL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/hole-transport layer. We investigated effects of different n-ETL materials and different HATCN thicknesses on characteristics of tandem OLEDs. Results show that the tandem OLEDs with n-BPhen and a 20 nm layer of HATCN in the connecting structure exhibited the best performance. With these, highly efficient and bright green phosphorescent two-emitting-unit tandem OLEDs, with drive voltages significantly lower than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device and current efficiencies higher than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device, were demonstrated. PMID:25090347

Wu, Yi-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yu; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Yin-Jui; Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chung-Chih

2014-08-01

234

Technology utilization program report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

1974-01-01

235

Utility earns high marks  

SciTech Connect

Stock analysts, utility industry consultants and management agree that Duke Power Co. has achieved a record of better-than-average economics, efficiency, availability, and reliability in the design, construction, completion, scheduling, and operation of both its nuclear and fossil plants. The company also exhibits an unusual frankness in its dealings with regulatory agencies and in cases involving investigative scrutiny.

Friedlander, G.D.

1984-01-01

236

Enhancing phosphorus and zinc acquisition efficiency in rice: a critical review of root traits and their potential utility in rice breeding  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is the world's most important cereal crop and phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) deficiency are major constraints to its production. Where fertilizer is applied to overcome these nutritional constraints it comes at substantial cost to farmers and the efficiency of fertilizer use is low. Breeding crops that are efficient at acquiring P and Zn from native soil reserves or fertilizer sources has been advocated as a cost-effective solution, but would benefit from knowledge of genes and mechanisms that confer enhanced uptake of these nutrients by roots. Scope This review discusses root traits that have been linked to P and Zn uptake in rice, including traits that increase mobilization of P/Zn from soils, increase the volume of soil explored by roots or root surface area to recapture solubilized nutrients, enhance the rate of P/Zn uptake across the root membrane, and whole-plant traits that affect root growth and nutrient capture. In particular, this review focuses on the potential for these traits to be exploited through breeding programmes to produce nutrient-efficient crop cultivars. Conclusions Few root traits have so far been used successfully in plant breeding for enhanced P and Zn uptake in rice or any other crop. Insufficient genotypic variation for traits or the failure to enhance nutrient uptake under realistic field conditions are likely reasons for the limited success. More emphasis is needed on field studies in mapping populations or association panels to identify those traits and underlying genes that are able to enhance nutrient acquisition beyond the level already present in most cultivars. PMID:23071218

Rose, T. J.; Impa, S. M.; Rose, M. T.; Pariasca-Tanaka, J.; Mori, A.; Heuer, S.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Wissuwa, M.

2013-01-01

237

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

238

Genetic variation in feed consumption, growth, nutrient utilization efficiency and mitochondrial function within a farmed population of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of diets (32/4 or 36/6 percent protein/fat) and six channel catfish families for growth performance characteristics. Two families with fast- (C) and slow- (D) growth rate and with low and high feed efficiency (FE) were selected for analyses of mitochondrial complex enzymatic activities (I, II, III, and IV) and gene expression (ND1, CYTB, COX1, COX2, ATP6) levels in liver, muscle, and intestine. There were significant differences in growth rate and nutrient retention among the families. Mitochondrial enzymatic complex activities (I-V) in the tissues were all lower in family C. Four of the five genes were down-regulated in the liver and up-regulated in the muscle for the fast growing family C. There were significant differences between diets for some mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities and gene expression levels. Significant diet×family interactions were observed for some enzyme activities and gene expression levels. Changes in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities and gene expression levels provide insight into the cellular mechanisms of fish with differences in growth rate and feed efficiency. Results also suggest that genotype×diet interactions should be accounted for when considering strategies for using mitochondrial function as a criteria in channel catfish selection programs for improved growth performance characteristics. PMID:22691874

Eya, Jonathan C; Ashame, Martha F; Pomeroy, Charles F; Manning, Bruce B; Peterson, Brian C

2012-10-01

239

High-efficiency, one-step starch utilization by transformed Saccharomyces cells which secrete both yeast glucoamylase and mouse alpha-amylase.  

PubMed Central

Transformed, hybrid Saccharomyces strains capable of simultaneous secretion of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase have been produced. These strains could carry out direct, one-step assimilation of starch, with conversion efficiency greater than 93% during a 5-day growth period. One of the transformants converted 92.8% of available starch into reducing sugars in only 2 days. Glucoamylase secretion by these strains resulted from expression of one or more chromosomal STA genes derived from Saccharomyces diastaticus. The strains were transformed by a plasmid (pMS12) containing mouse salivary alpha-amylase cDNA in an expression vector containing yeast alcohol dehydrogenase promoter and a segment of yeast 2 micron plasmid. The major starch hydrolysis product produced by crude amylases found in culture broths was glucose, indicating that alpha-amylase and glucoamylase acted cooperatively. PMID:3132104

Kim, K; Park, C S; Mattoon, J R

1988-01-01

240

Computationally Efficient Approaches to Characterize the Dynamic Response of Microstructures Under Mechanical Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present computationally efficient models and approaches to simulate the response of microstructures under mechanical shock. These approaches include a Galerkin-based reduced-order model and a hybrid approach utilizing the response of structures to static loads combined with the dynamic shock spectrum of a spring-mass-damper system. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of these approaches, we apply them on cantilever and

Mohammad I. Younis; Daniel Jordy; James M. Pitarresi

2007-01-01

241

Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

Berg, Charles A.

1973-01-01

242

A QoS-aware framework for available spectrum characterization and decision in Cognitive Radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing problem of spectrum scarcity and the inefficient spectrum utilization in the licensed bands, are addressed by the emerging Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm. It is seen that the choice of the spectrum bands, called as spectrum decision, must be organized carefully by considering the challenges in the spectrum availability over time, the short term fluctuations in the availability, and

Berk Canberk; Ian F. Akyildiz; Sema Oktug

2010-01-01

243

NeXt generation\\/dynamic spectrum access\\/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's wireless networks are characterized by a fixed spectrum assignment policy. However, a large portion of the assigned spectrum is used sporadically and geographical variations in the utilization of assigned spectrum ranges from 15% to 85% with a high variance in time. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage neces- sitate a new communication paradigm to

Ian F. Akyildiz; Won-yeol Lee; Mehmet C. Vuran; Shantidev Mohanty

2006-01-01

244

Northwest Energy Efficiency Taskforce Executive Committee  

E-print Network

#12;Northwest Energy Efficiency Taskforce Executive Committee Chairs Tom Karier, Washington Member, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Bill Gaines, Director/Chief Executive Officer, Tacoma Public Utilities, Cowlitz County Public Utility District Cal Shirley, Vice President for Energy Efficiency Service, Puget

245

Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

2014-04-01

246

Glary Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glary Utilities offers this free application to help users improve their system's performance and also protect their privacy. After installing the application, users can remove and back up faculty registry entries, along with offering a secure file deletion feature. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

2008-01-01

247

Impact of alleles at the Yellow Burley (Yb) loci and nitrogen fertilization rate on nitrogen utilization efficiency and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in air-cured tobacco.  

PubMed

Tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in tobacco is influenced by alkaloid levels and the availability of nitrosating agents. Tobacco types differ in their potential for TSNA accumulation due to genetic, agronomic, and curing factors. Highest TSNA concentrations are typically measured in burley tobaccos. One of the main genetic differences between burley and all other tobacco types is that this tobacco type is homozygous for recessive mutant alleles at the Yellow Burley 1 (Yb(1)) and Yellow Burley 2 (Yb(2)) loci. In addition, burley tobacco is typically fertilized at higher nitrogen (N) rates than most other tobacco types. This study utilized nearly isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of dominant or recessive alleles at the Yb(1) and Yb(2) loci to investigate the potential influence of genes at these loci on TSNA accumulation. Three pairs of NILs were evaluated at three different nitrogen fertilization rates for alkaloid levels, nitrogen physiology measures, and TSNA accumulation after air-curing. As previously observed by others, positive correlations were observed between N application rates and TSNA accumulation. Recessive alleles at Yb(1) and Yb(2) were associated with increased alkaloid levels, reduced nitrogen use efficiency, reduced nitrogen utilization efficiency, and increased leaf nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N). Acting together, these factors contributed to significantly greater TSNA levels in genotypes possessing the recessive alleles at these two loci relative to those carrying the dominant alleles. The chlorophyll-deficient phenotype conferred by the recessive yb(1) and yb(2) alleles probably contributes in a substantial way to increase available NO(3)-N during curing and, consequently, increased potential for TSNA formation. PMID:22676549

Lewis, Ramsey S; Parker, Robert G; Danehower, David A; Andres, Karen; Jack, Anne M; Whitley, D Scott; Bush, Lowell P

2012-06-27

248

Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

Butler, T. G.

1984-01-01

249

Improved Dragline Utilization  

E-print Network

IMPROVED DRAGLINE UTILIZATION K. J. Keller McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company Sto Charles, MO ABSTRACT I The cause of energy conservation can be served by increasing the efficiency of large draglines used i4 surface coal mining... to use energy wisely, McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company (MDEC) began studies of large walking draglines in 1972. With its aero space background, MDEC was familiar with the bene fits ,of simulation and instrumentation in reducing energy...

Keller, K. J.

1980-01-01

250

Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn) at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM), the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively). The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits. PMID:21846409

2011-01-01

251

Orbit utilization - Current regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that an increasingly efficient use of the geostationary satellite orbit and spectrum is necessary to accommodate the growing number of planned U.S. domestic satellites, as well as those of other countries. Technical efficiency can be maximized by designing satellites in a homogeneous manner which minimizes transmission differences between satellites. However, flexibility is also needed to design domestic satellite facilities to respond to the diverse demands in a competitive market. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) seeks to achieve a balance between these goals in their domestic satellite policies and regulations. In December 1980, the FCC authorized the construction of some 22 new domestic satellites and the launch of 18 satellites. Attention is given to orbit use policies and reduced orbital spacings.

Lepkowski, R. J.

252

Nitrogen utilization efficiency in sorghum cultivars  

E-print Network

translocated from the stover (PGNT) for each year with 150 kg applied N ha . 63 27. Dry weight for H35-1 at boot (BDW) or harvest (HDW) and N content at boot (BN) or harvest (HN) in g plant in the upper two thirds of leaves (UL) or stems (US) and the lower... weight for Rio at boot (BDW) or harvest (HDW) and N content at boot (BN harvest (HN) in g plant in the upper thirds of leaves (UL) or stems (US) and lower one third of leaves (LL) or stems (LS) sections of the aboveground plant. , . 71 30 . ge es ird...

Reed, Stewart Thomas

2012-06-07

253

Energy Efficiency in Buildings- the Utilities View  

E-print Network

IEffiziel1tei~otor,en Austausch StraBenbeleucMungi o 800 700 600 500 00 300 200 100 -400 -100 -200 -300 KOis[el ill ElJIlRit COp 1.000 900 AdaptIVe Bel,euchtullgssysterne HrelZullg ged!ammte Wohllgebaud!e D Verrne-dullgshelJel <20 EURlt 002e l...

Konig, U.

254

Energy Efficiency in Process Plant Utilities  

E-print Network

to purchase equipment. A financial guide for initial screening of investment ideas is often set as 4 years simple payback. During a more detailed analysis, the life cycle cost analysis or should be performed which includes costs arising from owning, operating...

Aggarwal, S.

255

Application of Hopfield neural network for extracting Doppler spectrum from ocean echo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the method of a Hopfield-type neural network (HNN) for extracting Doppler spectrum from ocean echo. First, it introduces the basic principle of HNN for optimized processing. Second, expanding the principle of utilizing autoregression (AR) to estimate frequency spectrum, we point out how to apply HNN in spectrum estimation. Last, the three methods are utilized to process actual data, that is, the conventional fast Fourier transform method, modern spectrum estimation-AR method, and the spectrum estimation method based on HNN. The results obtained by the three methods prove that the spectrum estimation method based on HNN is feasible for extracting the Doppler spectrum from ocean echo.

Gui, Renzhuo; Yang, Zijie

2006-08-01

256

Nde: Surfing the Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in Nondestructive Evaluation demand an arsenal of techniques. This was as true twenty years ago as it is today. As materials and their associated technologies progress, so must the strategy for evaluating the quality of the product. Nondestructive Evaluation is a constant struggle to extract, from classical and quantum physics, the quintessential elements that will optimally address an inspection requirement, apart from purely academic interest. It must work to be useful and thereby advance the field. The electromagnetic spectrum, from Roentgen to Maxwell/Hertz, lies at the foundation of both classical and quantum physics. Not only has NDE plucked pearls form every nook of the spectrum ranging from X-rays to T-rays but also has managed to utilize virtually every known coupling of the spectrum to the classical mechanics of heat and sound. I will "surf" the spectrum to provide a sampling of what NDE has extracted past and present as well as try to couple to its future.

Ringermacher, Harry I.

2010-02-01

257

Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Using Game Theory--A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the rapid development of wireless communication, the scarcity of spectrum become more and more prominent. Cognitive radio is proposed to overcome the problem of low spectrum utilization brought by static spectrum allocation, Game theory is an effective model describe cognitive spectrum sharing. In this survey, some basic elements of modelling by Game theory are first discussed and several dynamic

Tao Zhang; Xiangyu Yu

2010-01-01

258

In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao

2014-05-01

259

SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver  

DOEpatents

A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

Brocato, Robert W

2014-04-01

260

Lightweight, broad-band spectrum analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum analyzer, utilizing techniques similar to those used to classify energy levels of nuclear particles, is incorporated into electric field detector. Primary advantage is ability to perform qualitative broad-band frequency analysis over a large dynamic amplitude range with minimum weight and electrical power requirements.

Crook, G. M.

1972-01-01

261

Spectrum method for equipment fatigue evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple methodology to evaluate fatigue damage on mechanical equipment utilizing the spectrum method of analysis. Conservatism is built into the methodology by controlling the parameters used. The fatigue analysis practice recommended by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers formed the basis of this methodology and issues encountered during the implementation stage are discussed.

W. Wang; A. Chan

1982-01-01

262

Narrowband recursive filters with error spectrum shaping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Errors due to finite wordlength can in general be quite large in narrowband recursive digital filters. It has been shown that the mean squared roundoff error may be considerably reduced by using a technique known as error spectrum shaping (ESS), which utilizes quantizer feedback. In this paper it is shown that ESS can also significantly reduce the amplitude of zero

Bede Liu

1979-01-01

263

What and how much to gain by spectrum agility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Static spectrum allocation prohibits radio devices from using spectral bands designated for others. As a result, some bands are under-utilized while other bands are over-populated with radio devices. To remedy this problem, the concept of spectrum agility has been considered so as to enable devices to opportunistically utilize others’ spectral bands. In order to help realize this concept, we establish

Chun-ting Chou; Hyoil Kim; Kang G. Shin

2007-01-01

264

Part I: In situ pulse electrochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles for efficient catalyst utilization in fuel cells. Part II: Fabrication and characterization of polyelectrolyte-quantum dot hybrid structures using layer-by-layer self assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis work is entirely committed towards extensive research on application of polyelectrolytes/polyelectrolyte membranes on the fields of materials science and electroanalytical chemistry. Part I highlights development of new electroanalytical techniques to deposit the electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this section of thesis work the major directions are to improve our basic knowledge and understanding factors limiting the efficient use of the electrocatalyst in fuel cells and develop and optimize a means for overcoming these limitations. Initially systematic studies will be performed to identify the limitations associated with the commercially available fuel cells followed by optimizing and utilizing the methods developed in this thesis work to manufacture functioning hydrogen PEM fuel cells using NafionRTM membrane via in situ electrodeposition of Pt. This research involves a detailed optimization of the pulse electrodeposition technique to deposit Pt using NafionRTM membrane as a template. Characterization of these experiments were done using techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) and Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP). Finally construction of hydrogen fuel cells was done by in situ pulse electrochemical deposition through complete membrane electrode assemblies. Much of the attention of Part II is dedicated to construct and characterize polyelectrolyte and quantum dot hybrid multilayer structures. Much of the attention is focused towards investigation of the Forster energy transfer processes between the donor polyelectrolytes (poly-p-phenylelvinylene, PPV) and the acceptor ZnS/CdSe core/shell quantum dots with respect to its separation. The work shown in Chapter 7 explains the process of introduction of quantum dots to these multilayer thin films and analysis of these hybrid structures using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM), excited state life time decay studies and UV-Vis absorption studies.

Ranasinghe, Asanga Devinda

2007-12-01

265

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

266

Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency Chandrakant Patel, Ratnesh.graupner}@hp.com Grid Computing, energy- efficiency, workload placement, cooling, data center, utility computing a global utility infrastructure explicitly incorporating energy efficiency and thermal management among

Simunic, Tajana

267

Ion-thruster propellant utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation and understanding of maximum propellant utilization, with mercury used as the propellant are presented. The primary-electron region in the ion chamber of a bombardment thruster is analyzed at maximum utilization. The results of this analysis, as well as experimental data from a range of ion-chamber configurations, show a nearly constant loss rate for unionized propellant at maximum utilization over a wide range of total propellant flow rate. The discharge loss level of 1000 eV/ion was used as a definition of maximum utilization, but the exact level of this definition has no effect on the qualitative results and little effect on the quantitative results. There are obvious design applications for the results of this investigation, but the results are particularly significant whenever efficient throttled operation is required.

Kaufman, H. R.

1971-01-01

268

Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

269

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOEpatents

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09

270

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOEpatents

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

271

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concepts of electromagnetic waves, wavelength, and the electromagnetic spectrum. Diagrams and written descriptions explain how wavelength is measured and explore the traditional divisions of the spectrum: radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

272

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the electromagnetic spectrum. Learners will read two pages of information about the electromagnetic spectrum and answer questions in an accompanying worksheet. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

273

The FCC Spectrum Auctions: An Early Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes six spectrum auctions conducted by the Federal Communications Commission from July 1994 to May 1996. These auctions were simultaneous multiple-round auctions in which collections of licenses were auctioned simultaneously. This auction form proved remarkably successful. Similar items sold for similar prices, and bidders successfully formed efficient aggregations of licenses. Bidding behavior differed substantially in the auctions. The

Peter C. Cramton

1997-01-01

274

SUTIL: system utilities routines programmer's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A package of FORTRAN callable subroutines which allows efficient communication of data between users and programs is described. Proper utilization of the SUTIL package to reduce program core requirements and expedite program development is emphasized.

Harper, D.

1976-01-01

275

The research of optical fiber Brillouin spectrum denoising based on wavelet transform and neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center frequency of Brillouin scattering spectrum is easily influenced by the noise and the measurement accuracy of optical fiber strain is reduced. So a novel denoising method which can be applied in the Brillouin scattering spectrum is developed in this article. The Brillouin scattering spectrum is decomposed into multi-scale detail coefficients and approximation coefficients by using the wavelet transform. The wavelet decomposition detail coefficients are threshold quantified by utilizing the threshold algorithm. At the same time, the wavelet decomposition approximation coefficients are trained and simulated by using the BP neural network in order to remove noise hided in the approximation coefficients. So the novel method can reduce the wavelet decomposition scales. The Brillouin scattering spectrum which has a better denoising effect can be gained by using the inverse wavelet transform, and the measurement accuracy of optical fiber strain is enhanced also. The results of simulation and experiment demonstrate that the proposed method can suppress noise better; accordingly, the new method can gain more precision optical fiber strain and reduce the wavelet decomposition scales effectively than the conventional wavelet denoising method. Theory analysis and experiment show that the method is reasonable and efficient.

Zhang, Zhi-hui; Hu, Wei-liang; Yan, Ji-song; Zhang, Peng

2013-08-01

276

Consecutive combined response spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Appropriate estimates of earthquake response spectrum are essential for design of new structures, or seismic safety evaluation of existing structures. This paper presents an alternative procedure to construct design spectrum from a combined normalized response spectrum (NRSC) which is obtained from pseudo-velocity spectrum with the ordinate scaled by different peak ground amplitudes (PGA, PGV, PGD) in different period regions. And a consecutive function f( T) used to normalize the ordinates is defined. Based on a comprehensive study of 220 strong ground motions recorded during recent eleven large worldwide earthquakes, the features of the NRSC are discussed and compared with the traditional normalized acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (NRSA, NRSV, NRSD). And the relationships between ground amplitudes are evaluated by using a weighted mean method instead of the arithmetic mean. Then the NRSC is used to define the design spectrum with given peak ground amplitudes. At last, the smooth spectrum is compared with those derived by the former approaches, and the accuracy of the proposed spectrum is tested through an analysis of the dispersion of ground motion response spectra.

Xu, Longjun; Zhao, Guochen; Liu, Qingyang; Xie, Yujian; Xie, Lili

2014-12-01

277

Office of Spectrum Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Office of Spectrum Management (OSM) is responsible for managing the Federal Government's use of the radio frequency spectrum." There are many informative features on the OSM Web site, most notably a collection of studies and reports about federal policies and regulations. Included in these reports is a long-range plan for accommodating the growing spectrum requirements of the government. Another interesting document is a detailed chart of frequency allocation in the US, which shows the range of frequencies reserved for specific radio services. The site is updated often with national and international news and hot topics.

278

Free-form Fresnel RXI Köhler design with spectrum-splitting for photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a novel optical design of the high concentration photovoltaics (HPCV) nonimaging concentrator (>500x) with built-in spectrum splitting concept. The primary optical element (POE) is a flat Fresnel lens and the secondary optical element (SOE) is a free-form RXI-type concentrator with a band-pass filter embedded in it, both POE and SOE performing Köhler integration to produce light homogenization on the target. It uses the combination of a commercial concentration GaInP/GaInAs/Ge 3J cell and a concentration Back-Point-Contact (BPC) silicon cell for efficient spectral utilization, and external confinement techniques for recovering the 3J cell's reflection. Design targets equivalent cell efficiency ~46% using commercial 39% 3J and 26% Si cells, and CPV module efficiency greater than 38%, achieved at a concentration level larger than 500X and wide acceptance angle (+/-1°). A first proof-of concept receiver prototype has been manufactured using a simpler optical architecture (with a lower concentration, ~100x and lower simulated added efficiency), and experimental measurements have shown up to 39.8% 4J receiver efficiency using a 3J with peak efficiency of 36.9%.

Buljan, M.; Benítez, P.; Mohedano, R.; Miñano, J. C.; Sun, Y.; Falicoff, W.; Vilaplana, J.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.; López, J.

2011-10-01

279

Entropy Spectrum of Modified Schwarzschild Black Hole via an Action Invariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entropy spectrum of a modified Schwarzschild black hole in the gravity's rainbow are investigated. By utilizing an action invariance of the black hole with the help of Bohr-Sommerfield quantization rule, the entropy spectrum for the modified black hole are calculated. The result of the equally spaced-entropy spectrum being consistent to the original Bekenstein's spectra is derived.

Liu, Cheng-Zhou

2014-11-01

280

Dynamic spectrum leasing in cognitive radio networks via primary-secondary user power control games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has received the most attention in recent years as the solution for better spectrum utilization. In this paper, on the other hand, we develop a framework for dynamic spectrum leasing (DSL). Power control in hierarchical DSA networks only involves that of controlling secondary user transmissions. Thus, in game theoretic formulations of power control in cognitive

Sudharman K. Jayaweera; Tianming Li

2009-01-01

281

Power Spectrum in Krein Space Quantization  

E-print Network

The power spectrum of scalar field and space-time metric perturbations produced in the process of inflation of universe, have been presented in this paper by an alternative approach to field quantization namely, Krein space quantization [1,2]. Auxiliary negative norm states, the modes of which do not interact with the physical world, have been utilized in this method. Presence of negative norm states play the role of an automatic renormalization device for the theory.

M. Mohsenzadeh; S. Rouhani; M. V. Takook

2008-11-06

282

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism ...

283

Exploring the Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of the electromagnetic spectrum and how various types of electromagnetic waves are related in terms of wavelength and energy. In addition, they are introduced to the various types of waves that make up the electromagnetic spectrum including, radio waves, ultraviolet waves, visible light and infrared waves. These topics help inform students before they turn to designing solutions to an overarching engineering challenge question.

2014-09-18

284

Eliminating Noise at the Box-fitting Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non gaussian sources of erros need to be taken into consideration when searching for planetary transits. Such phenomena are mostly caused by the impact of high energetic particles on the detector (Pinheiro da Silva et al. 2008). The detection efficiency of transits, therefor, depend significantly on the data quality and the algorithms utilized to deal with these errors sources. In this work we show that a modified detrend algorithm CDA (CoRoT Detrend Algorithm; Mislis et al. 2010) using a robust statistics and an empirical fit, instead of a polynomial one, can eliminate more efficiently gaps in the data and other long-term trends from the light-curve. Using this algorithm enables us to obtain a reconstructed light-curve with better signal-to-noise ratio that allows to improve the detection of exoplanet transits, although long term signals are destroyed. The results show that these modifications lead to an improved BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares; Kovács, Zucker & Mazeh 2002) algorithm spectrum. At the end we have compared our planetary search results with CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) satellite chromatic light-curves available in the literature.

Boufleur, Rodrigo Carlos; Emilio, Marcelo; Pacheco, Eduardo Janot; de La Reza, Jorge Ramiro; da Rocha, José Carlos

2014-04-01

285

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a

1984-01-01

286

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization

David F

1984-01-01

287

Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

1983-01-01

288

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

289

Network inefficiencies in autism spectrum disorder at 24 months  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder defined by behavioral symptoms that emerge during the first years of life. Associated with these symptoms are differences in the structure of a wide array of brain regions, and in the connectivity between these regions. However, the use of cohorts with large age variability and participants past the generally recognized age of onset of the defining behaviors means that many of the reported abnormalities may be a result of cascade effects of developmentally earlier deviations. This study assessed differences in connectivity in ASD at the age at which the defining behaviors first become clear. There were 113 24-month-old participants at high risk for ASD, 31 of whom were classified as ASD, and 23 typically developing 24-month-old participants at low risk for ASD. Utilizing diffusion data to obtain measures of the length and strength of connections between anatomical regions, we performed an analysis of network efficiency. Our results showed significantly decreased local and global efficiency over temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in high-risk infants classified as ASD, relative to both low- and high-risk infants not classified as ASD. The frontal lobes showed only a reduction in global efficiency in Broca's area. In addition, these same regions showed an inverse relation between efficiency and symptom severity across the high-risk infants. The results suggest delay or deficits in infants with ASD in the optimization of both local and global aspects of network structure in regions involved in processing auditory and visual stimuli, language and nonlinguistic social stimuli. PMID:24802306

Lewis, J D; Evans, A C; Pruett, J R; Botteron, K; Zwaigenbaum, L; Estes, A; Gerig, G; Collins, L; Kostopoulos, P; McKinstry, R; Dager, S; Paterson, S; Schultz, R T; Styner, M; Hazlett, H; Piven, J

2014-01-01

290

Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications  

SciTech Connect

Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

Tolbert, L.M.

2005-12-21

291

Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

2014-01-21

292

NREL Spectrum of Innovation  

ScienceCinema

There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

None

2013-05-29

293

The laboratory test utilization management toolbox  

PubMed Central

Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure. PMID:24969916

Baird, Geoffrey

2014-01-01

294

Electromagnetic Spectrum Control Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio frequency spectrum is becoming increasingly saturated and polluted due to intensified use and unnecessary radiations and is being taxed severely to meet man's communications-electronics needs. Additional corrective measures are necessary-improved standards, increased concern for conservation of the resource, greater emphasis on intersystems compatibility, increased research, better educational and training programs, and the inclusion of economic and social values

Wilfred Dean

1971-01-01

295

Gas utilization technologies  

SciTech Connect

One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

Biljetina, R.

1994-09-01

296

Solid state amplifier for spread spectrum communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes development of a CW TRAPATT amplifier designed for use in spread spectrum communication systems. A diamond heat sink, required for high current density CW TRAPATT operation, was developed. The complementary n(+)pp(+) TRAPATT diodes developed exhibited superior performance over their p(+) nn(+) counterpart. A pulsed peak power of 27 W with 42.5 percent conversion efficiency at 7.2 GHz

T. T. Fong; R. S. Ying

1975-01-01

297

A novel compression ratio allocation method for collaborative wideband spectrum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum sensing, as a key technology of cognitive radio (CR), needs to reliably and efficiently detect spectrum holes in wireless environments, which challenges the traditional spectral estimation methods typically operating at or above Nyquist rates. This paper develops a novel compression ratio allocation (CRA) method for wideband spectrum sensing in CR networks. In our scheme, each CR terminal performs compressed

Di Zhang; Zhiyong Feng; Zaili Wang; Ying Wang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

298

Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing Lingjie Duan, Jianwei Huang, and Biying Shou  

E-print Network

1 Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing Lingjie Duan, Jianwei Huang, and Biying Shou Department.shou@cityu.edu.hk Abstract--Dynamic spectrum leasing can greatly enhance the spectrum efficiency and encourage more flexible (leasing) and pricing decisions while taking secondary end- users' heterogeneous wireless characteristics

Huang, Jianwei

299

Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from {sup 235}U is significantly stronger than the signature from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U. This minimization is achieved by keeping the interrogating neutron spectrum below {approx} 1 MeV. In the context of spent fuel measurements it is desirable to use a 14 MeV (deuterium and tritium) neutron generator for economic reasons. Spectrum tailoring is the term used to describe the inclusion of material between the 14 MeV neutrons and the interrogated object that lower the neutron energy through nuclear reactions and moderation. This report quantifies the utility of different material combination for spectrum tailoring.

Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Mike L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

300

Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

2007-08-09

301

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;COAL ASH GENERATIONANDUTILIZATION: A REVIEW International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH and utilization of coal ash in many parts of the world. The utilization potential for coal ash generated from

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

302

Utilization management: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2014-01-01

303

The influence of campus experiences on the level of outness among trans-spectrum and queer-spectrum students.  

PubMed

This study utilized MANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationships between campus experiences and coming-out decisions among trans- and queer-spectrum undergraduates. Findings revealed higher levels of outness/disclosure for cisgender LGBQ women, and more negative perceptions of campus climate, classroom climate, and curriculum inclusivity and higher use of campus resources for trans-spectrum students. Results also revealed that higher levels of outness significantly related to poorer perceptions of campus responses and campus resources. Implications address the need to foster an encouraging and supportive campus and classroom climate and to improve the relationships with LGBTQ resource centers for trans- and queer-spectrum students. PMID:25321425

Garvey, Jason C; Rankin, Susan R

2015-03-01

304

Spread spectrum image steganography.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking. PMID:18267522

Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

1999-01-01

305

Neon K Emission Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neon K emission spectrum, excited by direct electron bombardment of the neon gas, has been obtained with photon counting on a single-crystal potassium-acid-phthalate (KAP) planar spectrometer. The measured relative integrated intensity of the alpha'alpha3alpha4 and alpha5alpha6 satellite groups was found to be larger than theoretical prediction, but in accord with the trend of previous comparisons for K satellites of

R. E. Lavilla

1971-01-01

306

The marine diversity spectrum  

PubMed Central

Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the ‘diversity spectrum’, which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope ?0·5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between ?0·5 and ?0·1. Slopes of ?0·5 and ?0·1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of ?0·5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of ?0·1 depicts a 1·6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on body mass, and a neutral assumption about speciation and extinction. PMID:24588547

Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

2014-01-01

307

A fireball spectrum analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A grating spectrum (45 A/mm) of a fireball of -9th absolute magnitude and velocity of 18 km/s has been analyzed. A new simple model for meteor spectra has been developed. Thermal equilibrium is assumed and self-absorption is taken into account. The free parameters of the model are the temperature, the column density of Fe I atoms, the relative abundances of other atoms, and the visible surface area of meteor radiating volume. The synthetic spectrum based on this model was computed and compared with the observed spectrum. The values of the free parameters were calculated by the least squares method. Then the abundances of neutral atoms were corrected for ionization to obtain the true ratios of chemical elements. The abundances of Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Al were determined such way. The computations were performed independently at 43 points along the fireball trajectory between heights of 57-35 km. It was found that thermal equilibrium was relatively well satisfied at the heights below 50 km. The temperature varied on the range 3500-4700 K. But there is also a spectral component with temperature of about 10,000 K in the spectrum. This component consists of a few lines of Mg II, Si II and Fe II and originates probably in the shock wave. The chemical composition of the radiating gas varied along the fireball path and does not reflect the chemical composition of the meteoroid itself. The refractory elements (Al, Ca, Ti) are underabundant in the gas. The material was ablated by melting in liquid phase and then evaporated in surrounding hot gas, but the refractory (low melting) elements were evaporated incompletely or too late. About 95% of the hot gas around the meteoroid were formed by the air.

Borovicka, Jiri

1993-11-01

308

Operating Efficiency Comes From Teamwork  

E-print Network

A group of operating and planning personnel formed the INter Plant Utilities Team [INPUT] to improve energy efficiency and reliability for Exxon's Baytown, Texas, refinery and chemical plants complex. The Team coordinates the day-to-day operations...

Relyea, D. L.; Stone, A.

309

Buildings Energy Efficiency Policy  

E-print Network

for Imports Actual Energy Supply 1970 Energy Demand #12;#12;Energy Efficiency in Buildings Since 1979 Source 2004 2006 2008 Year QuadsofTotalPrimaryEnergy Energy Service Demand Energy Service Demand Adjusted participant #12;Prescriptive Incentives · Been the "work horse" of utility EE programs · Been effective

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

310

Free-form Fresnel RXI-RR Köhler design for high-concentration photovoltaics with spectrum-splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a novel HCPV nonimaging concentrator with high concentration (>500x) and built-in spectrum splitting concept is presented. It uses the combination of a commercial concentration GaInP/GaInAs/Ge 3J cell and a concentration Back-Point-Contact (BPC) silicon cell for efficient spectral utilization, and external confinement techniques for recovering the 3J cell's reflection. The primary optical element (POE) is a flat Fresnel lens and the secondary optical element (SOE) is a free-form RXI-type concentrator with a band-pass filter embedded in it - Both the POE and SOE performing Köhler integration to produce light homogenization on the receiver. The band-pass filter transmits the IR photons in the 900-1200 nm band to the silicon cell. A design target of an "equivalent" cell efficiency ~46% is predicted using commercial 39% 3J and 26% Si cells. A projected CPV module efficiency of greater than 38% is achievable at a concentration level larger than 500X with a wide acceptance angle of +/-1°. A first proof-of concept receiver prototype has been manufactured using a simpler optical architecture (with a lower concentration, ~100x and lower simulated added efficiency), and experimental measurements have shown up to 39.8% 4J receiver efficiency using a 3J cell with a peak efficiency of 36.9%.

Buljan, M.; Benítez, P.; Mohedano, R.; Miñano, J. C.; Sun, Y.; Falicoff, W.; Vilaplana, J.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.; López, J.

2011-10-01

311

Utilities goals determine the best AMR solution  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation in the electric power industry is forcing many utilities to demand flexible communications systems-capable of providing core utility services, while also readily extendible for revenue-enhancing opportunities. To be competitive, particularly now with deregulation formally debuting, utility decision-makers need to acknowledge choices. Automatic meter reading (AMR) committees everywhere are being challenged by the minute to decide on systems. Appropriate AMR systems will allow utilities to improve efficiency, enhance customer satisfaction and provide additional services in an increasingly competitive environment. Utilities need technology that meets day-to-day requirements now and in the future. They need to decide which AMR value-added services and benefits address customer expectations. They will need to educate their customers more fully and improve communication with them. AMR gives them opportunities to differentiate themselves with lower prices, more services and better customer support.

Kelly, R.

1998-01-01

312

The value and validation of broad spectrum biosensors for diagnosis and biodefense.  

PubMed

Broad spectrum biosensors capable of identifying diverse organisms are transitioning from the realm of research into the clinic. These technologies simultaneously capture signals from a wide variety of biological entities using universal processes. Specific organisms are then identified through bioinformatic signature-matching processes. This is in contrast to currently accepted molecular diagnostic technologies, which utilize unique reagents and processes to detect each organism of interest. This paradigm shift greatly increases the breadth of molecular diagnostic tools with little increase in biochemical complexity, enabling simultaneous diagnostic, epidemiologic, and biothreat surveillance capabilities at the point of care. This, in turn, offers the promise of increased biosecurity and better antimicrobial stewardship. Efficient realization of these potential gains will require novel regulatory paradigms reflective of the generalized, information-based nature of these assays, allowing extension of empirical data obtained from readily available organisms to support broader reporting of rare, difficult to culture, or extremely hazardous organisms. PMID:24128433

Metzgar, David; Sampath, Rangarajan; Rounds, Megan A; Ecker, David J

2013-11-15

313

Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation  

E-print Network

In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced ...

Kim, Ganghun

314

Singular spectrum for radial trees  

E-print Network

We prove several results showing that absolutely continuous spectrum for the Laplacian on radial trees is a rare event. In particular, we show that metric trees with unbounded edges have purely singular spectrum and that generically (in the sense of Baire) radial trees have purely singular continuous spectrum.

Jonathan Breuer; Rupert L. Frank

2008-06-03

315

Hybrid spread spectrum radio system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN) [London, TN; Dress, William B. (Camas, WA) [Camas, WA

2010-02-09

316

The Earthshine Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1998 the Earthshine Project has been a collaborative effort between Big Bear Solar Observatory/New Jersey Institute of Technology and the California Institute of Technology. Cyclic spectroscopic observations of the dark and bright sides of the moon (or earthshine and moonshine respectively) have been carried out in the visible range at Palomar Observatory. The ratio of the earthshine to moonshine spectra characterizes the globally averaged Earth's spectrum. These observations allow us to study global averaged column densities for several trace and non-trace atmospheric components. Revelant information concerning to the search of extra-solar, terrestrial-like planets can be also obtained from these observations.

Montanes Rodriguez, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P. R.; Koonin, S. E.; Qiu, J.

2003-04-01

317

The earthshine spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1998 the Earthshine Project has been a collaborative effort between Big Bear Solar Observatory/New Jersey Institute of Technology and California Institute of Technology. Cyclic spectroscopic observations of the dark and bright sides of the moon (or earthshine and moonshine, respectively) have been carried out in the visible region at Palomar Observatory. From these data, the ratio of the earthshine to moonshine characterizes the globally averaged Earth's spectrum. Information concerning the search for extra-solar, terrestrial planets can be also obtained from these observations.

Montañés Rodriguez, P.; Pallé, E.; Goode, P. R.; Hickey, J.; Qiu, J.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Chu, M. C.; Kolbe, E.; Brown, C. T.; Koonin, S. E.

2004-01-01

318

Autonomous Spectrum Balancing (ASB) for Frequency Selective Interference Channels  

E-print Network

. This paper develops, analyzes, and simulates a new algorithm for power allocation in frequency selective the bound- ary of the rate region is an open problem, and is particularly important for broadband DSL access interference channels called Autonomous Spectrum Balancing (ASB). It utilizes the concept of a "reference line

319

Implementation Science, Professional Development, and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has intensified the need for high-quality special education services designed for children and youth with ASD and their families. Implementation science provides guidance for moving innovation, such as utilizing evidence- based practices for students with ASD, into regular practice in…

Odom, Samuel L.; Cox, Ann W.; Brock, Matthew E.

2013-01-01

320

Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

2006-01-01

321

Two Phase Spectrum Sharing for Frequency-Agile Radio Networks  

E-print Network

1 Two Phase Spectrum Sharing for Frequency-Agile Radio Networks Zhenhua Feng and Yaling Yang, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 Email: {zhenhua, yyang8}@vt.edu Abstract--Modern frequency-agile radios utilization. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework that capitalize on the frequency agility

Ha, Dong S.

322

Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity  

PubMed Central

The Earth receives around 1000 W.m?2 of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture. PMID:24976951

2014-01-01

323

FOUR REVOLUTIONS IN ELECTRIC EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand prospects for electricity are being altered profoundly by four synergistic types of revolutionary change: new technologies for improved end-use efficiency, new ways to finance and deliver those technologies to customers, cultural change within utilities, and regulatory reforms to reward efficient behavior. Copyright 1990 Western Economic Association International.

AMORY B. LOVINS

1990-01-01

324

High efficiency RCCI combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation of the pragmatic limits of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine efficiency was performed. The study utilized engine experiments combined with zero-dimensional modeling. Initially, simulations were used to suggest conditions of high engine efficiency with RCCI. Preliminary simulations suggested that high efficiency could be obtained by using a very dilute charge with a high compression ratio. Moreover, the preliminary simulations further suggested that with simultaneous 50% reductions in heat transfer and incomplete combustion, 60% gross thermal efficiency may be achievable with RCCI. Following the initial simulations, experiments to investigate the combustion process, fuel effects, and methods to reduce heat transfer and incomplete combustion reduction were conducted. The results demonstrated that the engine cycle and combustion process are linked, and if high efficiency is to be had, then the combustion event must be tailored to the initial cycle conditions. It was found that reductions to engine heat transfer are a key enabler to increasing engine efficiency. In addition, it was found that the piston oil jet gallery cooling in RCCI may be unnecessary, as it had a negative impact on efficiency. Without piston oil gallery cooling, it was found that RCCI was nearly adiabatic, achieving 95% of the theoretical maximum cycle efficiency (air standard Otto cycle efficiency).

Splitter, Derek A.

325

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

for use of wood ash generated by the forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM Principal Investigator: Tarun R. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

326

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

generated by the Wisconsin forest products industry in concrete (structural-grade concrete) and flowableCenter for By-Products Utilization DEMONSTRATION OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR CONCRETE AND CLSM. Naik UWM Center for By-Products Utilization University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Other Project Personnel

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

327

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

328

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, roadways, and airfield pavements. Three types of CCPs, two flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) by. Two processes typically used are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reduce SOx emissions and low standards, utilities are utilizing supplemental flue gas treatments to reduce emissions. These treatments

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

329

Instructional Facility Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data describing campus facility use for instructional and related purposes for one week of activity in Fall 1978 were collected and evaluated at Kalamazoo Valley Community College. Four measures of space utilization were used: (1) percent of available time used; (2) percent of available space used; (3) percent of scheduled space utilized; and (4)…

Kalamazoo Valley Community Coll., MI.

330

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Approximately 121 million tons of coal combustion products (71 million tons of fly ash, 19 million tons in the year 2001. The overall utilization rate in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

331

Disutility of utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginal utility theory, being the main framework of consumer economic behavior theory, has aroused and keeps arousing objections of many economists. The impossibility of a quantitative measurement and the doubtfulness of qualitative characteristics of utility continue generating attempts to create alternative theories of consumer behavior. One of possible alternatives is an attempt to consider consumer behavior in the same manner

Gennady Bilych

2011-01-01

332

Rotational spectrum of tryptophan  

SciTech Connect

The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···? interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

2014-05-28

333

Spectrum of physics comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

2012-05-01

334

Spectrum Access Games and Strategic Learning in Cognitive Radio Networks for Delay-Critical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the current proliferation of high bandwidth and delay-sensitive multimedia applications and services, each wireless user will try to maximize its utility by acquiring as much spectrum resources as possible unless a preemptive mechanism exists in the network. Thus, emerging solutions for dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks will need to adopt market-based approaches in order to effectively regulate

Mihaela van der Schaar; Fangwen Fu

2009-01-01

335

Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.  

PubMed

The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

2008-11-01

336

41 CFR 102-82.25 - What are Executive agencies' responsibilities concerning the procurement of utility services?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agencies, operating under a utility services delegation from GSA, or the...for the procurement of utility services (such as commodities and utility...efficiency, reliability, or quality of service. Executive agencies, upon...

2011-01-01

337

Supporting Dynamic Spectrum Access in Heterogeneous LTE+ Networks  

SciTech Connect

As early as 2014, mobile network operators’ spectral capac- ity is expected to be overwhelmed by the demand brought on by new devices and applications. With Long Term Evo- lution Advanced (LTE+) networks likely as the future one world 4G standard, network operators may need to deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) to extend coverage, increase spectrum efficiency, and increase the capacity of these networks. In this paper, we propose three new management frameworks for DSA in an LTE+ HetNet: Spectrum Accountability Client, Cell Spectrum Management, and Domain Spectrum Man- agement. For these spectrum management frameworks, we define protocol interfaces and operational signaling scenar- ios to support cooperative sensing, spectrum lease manage- ment, and alarm scenarios for rule adjustment. We also quan- tify, through integer programs, the benefits of using DSA in an LTE+ HetNet, that can opportunistically reuse vacant TV and GSM spectrum. Using integer programs, we consider a topology using Geographic Information System data from the Blacksburg, VA metro area to assess the realistic benefits of DSA in an LTE+ HetNet.

Luiz A. DaSilva; Ryan E. Irwin; Mike Benonis

2012-08-01

338

Power Sales to Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

None

1989-02-01

339

The Power Spectrum of Matter  

E-print Network

We calculate the mean power spectrum of galaxies using published power spectra of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The mean power spectrum has a relatively sharp maximum on scale 120 Mpc (for Hubble constant h=1), followed by an almost exact power-law spectrum of index n = -1.9 toward smaller scales. The power spectrum found from APM 2-D galaxy distribution and from LCRS and IRAS 1.2 Jy surveys is flatter around the maximum. Power spectra of galaxies and matter are similar in shape, we find the bias parameter of galaxies relative to matter 1.3 + - 0.1. We compare the empirical power spectrum of matter with analytical power spectra and show that the primordial power spectrum has a break in amplitude and a spike.

J. Einasto

1998-11-27

340

Clutter depth discrimination using the wavenumber spectrum.  

PubMed

Clutter depth is a key parameter in mid-frequency active sonar systems to discriminate between sources of clutter and targets of interest. A method is needed to remotely discriminate clutter depth by information contained in the backscattered signal-without a priori knowledge of that depth. Presented here is an efficient approach for clutter depth estimation using the structure in the wavenumber spectrum. Based on numerical simulations for a simple test case in a shallow water waveguide, this technique demonstrates the potential capability to discriminate between a clutter source in the water column vs one on the seabed. PMID:24437850

Benjamin Reeder, D

2014-01-01

341

Implementation of GEOSTAR RDSS spread spectrum receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GEOSTAR Radio Determination Satellite System (RDSS) is designed to provide accurate position information and ancillary two-way message-passing capability to land mobile, marine, and aeronautical users in the US and eventually worldwide. The implementation of an RDSS system is described, and the results of receiver measurements for burst spread-spectrum CDMA (code-division multiple-access) transmissions are presented. The measured results compare very well with the theoretical results and are believed to be the first reported in open literature. The multiple-access technique provides an efficient means to serve a very large number of mobile terminals with accurate position determination and messaging capability.

Motamedi, Masoud; Briskman, Robert D.

342

Spectrum to space transformed fast terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

We present an imaging technique in which the broadband frequency information of terahertz (THz) pulses is transformed into spatial resolution. Efficient blazed diffractive gratings spread the individual frequency components over a wide and defined spatial range and f-theta optics are employed to focus the individual components onto a one-dimensional image-line. Measuring the time domain waveform of the THz waves allows therefore for a direct reconstruction of spatial sample characteristics as the spatial domain information is encoded in the terahertz spectrum. We will demonstrate terahertz imaging on selected samples with an improvement in acquisition speed up to two orders of magnitude. PMID:23038561

Schumann, Steffen; Jansen, Christian; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Busch, Stefan; Peters, Ole; Scheller, Maik; Koch, Martin

2012-08-13

343

75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...happen, not only must advances continue to be made in the areas of sensing technology, usage algorithms, and cognitive abilities, but regulatory models may need to change. The Commission therefore inquires as to what it can do to best...

2010-12-28

344

On the Ionization and Ion Transmission Efficiencies of Different ESI-MS Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievable sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is largely determined by the ionization efficiency in the ESI source and ion transmission efficiency through the ESI-MS interface. These performance characteristics are difficult to evaluate and compare across multiple platforms as it is difficult to correlate electrical current measurements to actual analyte ions reaching the detector of a mass spectrometer. We present an effective method to evaluate the overall ion utilization efficiency of an ESI-MS interface by measuring the total gas-phase ion current transmitted through the interface and correlating it to the observed ion abundance measured in the corresponding mass spectrum. Using this method, we systematically studied the ion transmission and ionization efficiencies of different ESI-MS interface configurations, including a single emitter/single inlet capillary, single emitter/multi-inlet capillary, and a subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) MS interface with a single emitter and an emitter array, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the overall ion utilization efficiency of SPIN-MS interface configurations exceeds that of the inlet capillary-based ESI-MS interface configurations.

Cox, Jonathan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

2015-01-01

345

On the Ionization and Ion Transmission Efficiencies of Different ESI-MS Interfaces.  

PubMed

The achievable sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is largely determined by the ionization efficiency in the ESI source and ion transmission efficiency through the ESI-MS interface. These performance characteristics are difficult to evaluate and compare across multiple platforms as it is difficult to correlate electrical current measurements to actual analyte ions reaching the detector of a mass spectrometer. We present an effective method to evaluate the overall ion utilization efficiency of an ESI-MS interface by measuring the total gas-phase ion current transmitted through the interface and correlating it to the observed ion abundance measured in the corresponding mass spectrum. Using this method, we systematically studied the ion transmission and ionization efficiencies of different ESI-MS interface configurations, including a single emitter/single inlet capillary, single emitter/multi-inlet capillary, and a subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) MS interface with a single emitter and an emitter array, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the overall ion utilization efficiency of SPIN-MS interface configurations exceeds that of the inlet capillary-based ESI-MS interface configurations. PMID:25267087

Cox, Jonathan T; Marginean, Ioan; Smith, Richard D; Tang, Keqi

2015-01-01

346

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization PRELIMINARY DRAFT REPORT LIME KILN DUST (LKD) By Tarun R. Naik OF CONTENTS LIME KILN DUST (LKD) ...........................................................................1 ....................................................... 5 USES OF LIME KILN DUST.....................................................................5

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

347

Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

Cogeneration has become an extremely popular subject when discussing conservation and energy saving techniques. One of the key factors which effect conservation is the utility viewpoint on PURPA and cogeneration rule making. These topics...

Williams, M.

1983-01-01

348

High-efficiency photoionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization

1981-01-01

349

Iraq and the utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the possible impact on the public utilities of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. The author feels the industry is in better shape to weather this than the energy crisis of 1973 and 1974. However regulatory policies that prohibit some utilities from recovering fuel costs through rate adjustments may cause distress for some. The author feels that a revision of regulatory policies is needed.

Studness, C.M.

1990-09-13

350

Wind energy utilization prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief technical, economic, and environmental aspects of wind energy utilization are considered. One approach being studied is to allow the aeroturbine RPM to vary with wind velocity and employ variable-speed, constant-frequency generating systems to obtain constant-frequency power to be pumped into existing utility mains. Study of generation costs for wind energy systems indicates that wind energy has the potential

R. Ramakumar; W. L. Hughes; H. J. Allison

1975-01-01

351

Catching utility thieves  

SciTech Connect

Increasing theft of electric power has forced utilities like Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division to employ detectives to identify those who cheat by tampering with their meters or reconnecting disconnected power. Thieves also risk lethal shocks to themselves and the safety of their neighbors. Residential customers are the largest problem and the easiest to detect by watching for billing discrepancies, evidences of meter tampering, and the reports of informers. Both state and city statutes against utility theft impose fines. (DCK)

Tankersley, D.; Cooke, L.

1981-07-01

352

Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Five different approaches that have been used to study the utilization of health services are reviewed: the sociocultural, sociodemographic, social-psychological, organizational, and social systems. Studies characterizing each approach are described and the limitations of each perspective are outlined. It is suggested that social system models that explicate causal structures and that incorporate features of all the other approaches may provide important new insights into utilization behavior. PMID:4593850

Anderson, James G.

1973-01-01

353

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

354

Utility requirements for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options are described. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R. J.

1982-02-01

355

PINS Spectrum Identification Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

A.J. Caffrey

2012-03-01

356

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

2014-10-01

357

Vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube array films: toward a useful material architecture for solar spectrum water photoelectrolysis.  

PubMed

In an effort to obtain a material architecture suitable for high-efficiency visible spectrum water photoelectrolysis, herein we report on the fabrication and visible spectrum (380-650 nm) photoelectrochemical properties of self-aligned, vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube array films. Ti-Fe metal films of variable composition, iron content ranging from 69% to 3.5%, co-sputtered onto FTO-coated glass are anodized in an ethylene glycol + NH4F electrolyte. The resulting amorphous samples are annealed in oxygen at 500 degrees C, resulting in nanotubes composed of a mixed Ti-Fe-O oxide. Some of the iron goes into the titanium lattice substituting titanium ions, and the rest either forms alpha-Fe2O3 crystallites or remains in the amorphous state. Depending upon the Fe content, the band gap of the resulting films ranges from about 380 to 570 nm. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films are utilized in solar spectrum water photoelectrolysis, demonstrating 2 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 illumination with a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W.hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The surface morphology, structure, elemental analysis, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties of the Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films are considered. PMID:17608445

Mor, Gopal K; Prakasam, Haripriya E; Varghese, Oomman K; Shankar, Karthik; Grimes, Craig A

2007-08-01

358

The worldwide leaf economics spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional

Ian J. Wright; Peter B. Reich; Mark Westoby; David D. Ackerly; Zdravko Baruch; Frans Bongers; Jeannine Cavender-Bares; Terry Chapin; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Matthias Diemer; Jaume Flexas; Eric Garnier; Philip K. Groom; Javier Gulias; Kouki Hikosaka; Byron B. Lamont; Tali Lee; William Lee; Christopher Lusk; Jeremy J. Midgley; Marie-Laure Navas; Ülo Niinemets; Jacek Oleksyn; Noriyuki Osada; Pieter Poot; Lynda Prior; Vladimir I. Pyankov; Catherine Roumet; Sean C. Thomas; Mark G. Tjoelker; Erik J. Veneklaas; Rafael Villar

2004-01-01

359

Inclusion and the Autism Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are a lifelong developmental disability that affects the way a person communicates and relates to people around them. People with autistic spectrum disorders experience difficulties with social interaction, social communication and imagination--known as the "triad of impairments". The mainstream school environment…

Batten, Amanda

2005-01-01

360

The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Infrared Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, part of a NASA site on the electromagnetic spectrum, presents information on infrared light. An explanation of how objects emit infrared is provided, along with a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum. The site contains a number of photos made with infrared light.

2007-06-24

361

Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

362

Physical Retrieval of Surface Emissivity Spectrum from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Retrieval of temperature, moisture profiles and surface skin temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) radiances requires spectral information about the surface emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large retrieval errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity spectrum is large both spectrally and spatially. In this study, a physically based algorithm has been developed to retrieve a hyperspectral IR emissivity spectrum simultaneously with the temperature and moisture profiles, as well as the surface skin temperature. To make the solution stable and efficient, the hyperspectral emissivity spectrum is represented by eigenvectors, derived from the laboratory measured hyperspectral emissivity database, in the retrieval process. Experience with AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) radiances shows that a simultaneous retrieval of the emissivity spectrum and the sounding improves the surface skin temperature as well as temperature and moisture profiles, particularly in the near surface layer.

Li, Jun; Weisz, Elisabeth; Zhou, Daniel K.

2007-01-01

363

Fragile X spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5? untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

2014-01-01

364

A Novel Centralized Network for Sensing Spectrum in Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), was developed to implement the spectrum policy based strategies of sharing unoccupied bands with CR users. With regard to the presence of licensed user, adaptively, reliably and efficiently as summarized in [4]. Generally, three kinds of detection methods

Wang, Cheng-Xiang

365

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

366

Utility-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

the composition-based utility for wireless networks and its extensions in low duty-cycle WSNs. 1 Introduction Over is constrained by the battery. Thus, to reduce the energy cost, the consideration of energy efficiency is often utilities for routing protocols. Then, we will offer a special type of routing protocol based on composite

Wu, Jie

367

Utilization of Multispectral Images for Meat Color Measurements  

E-print Network

Utilization of Multispectral Images for Meat Color Measurements Camilla Himmelstrup Trinderup1, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark ctri@imm.dtu.dk 2 Danish Meat Reasearch Institute, Roskilde of multispectral imag- ing for color measurement can be utilized in an efficient and descriptive way for meat

368

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR MALFUNCTIONS IN THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses precipitation malfunctions in the electric utility industry. When a utility electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fails to achieve its design efficiency, there must be a reason. Although the reasons are numerous, they can be placed in two distinct categories: ESP ...

369

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources: the US case  

SciTech Connect

This is a policy oriented work that examines the possibilities of utilization of extraterrestrial space resources by the United States public and private sectors alike. Specific emphasis is placed on the resources of space located up to the geosynchronous orbit. Resources examined include the space vacuum, the infinitesimally small gravitational forces, the extraterrestrial solar energy, and the geosynchronous orbit. The impact of extraterrestrial resources is analyzed vis-a-vis the United States security, energy, economic, technological, and political (domestic, international) concerns. Scenarios to promote the efficient utilization of these resources are considered, and cost-benefit analyses are developed to examine the degree of justification of these undertakings.

Kraniou, D.J.

1984-01-01

370

Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util-  

E-print Network

RLUOB Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building The Radiological Laboratory Util- ity Office Research building. Capabilities RLUOB provides: · Nearly 20,000 square feet of radiological laboratory

371

High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

1977-01-01

372

High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was

T. Chao; S. Khemthong; R. Ling; S. Olah

1977-01-01

373

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

374

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31

375

Photovoltaics and electric utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

1981-12-01

376

Innovative Utility Pricing for Industry  

E-print Network

INNOVATIVE UTILITY PRICING FOR INDUSTRY James A. Ross Drazen-Brubaker &Associates, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri ABSTRACT The electric utility industry represents only one source of power available to industry. Al though the monopolistic... structure of the electric utility industry may convey a perception that an electric utility is unaffected by competition, this is an erroneous perception with regard to in dustry. Electric utilities face increased compe tition, both from other utilities...

Ross, J. A.

377

Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative…

Educational Foundations, 1991

1991-01-01

378

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

379

Module utilization committee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

1984-01-01

380

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE Paper APPLICABLE WISCONSIN INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE CLUSTER(S): Forest Products #12;-2- TITLE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: USE OF WOOD ASH IN CONCRETE AND FLOWABLE SLURRY

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

381

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of bottom ash, 2.3 million tonnes of boiler slag, and 26 million tonnes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD clean-coal technologies such as SO2 Control Systems, NOx Control Technology, Fluidized Bed Combustion conducted in developing products containing FGD material compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

382

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

or steam, and (iii) reuse of ground tire rubber in number of plastic and rubber products. In additionCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING SCRAP TIRE RUBBER to this, about 3 billion tires are stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap tires

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

383

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization MANUFACTURE OF MASONRY PRODUCTS CONTAINING LARGE AMOUNTS OF FLY #12;Manufacture of Masonry Products Containing Large Amounts of Fly Ash By: Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S database for manufacturing of concrete masonry products incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

384

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks, blocks, and paving stones) industry. This project was directed toward developing cast (masonry) concrete ashes. Using these six different ash samples, eleven masonry mixtures were proportioned for initial

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

385

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

tires generated during the year 1990 - 1991 were reused, recycled, or recovered [4]. A number of usesCenter for By-Products Utilization CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES By Tarun R - MILWAUKEE #12;CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES* By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

386

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of in landfills. Because of the increasing disposal costs and the difficulty in locating new landfill site landfilled. Numerous applications of fly ash including in concrete, waste stabilization, structural fills and the liability associated with the use of landfill, beneficial utilization options for these industrial by

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

387

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, By-Product Lightweight Aggregates; 213, Lightweight Concrete; 229, Controlled Low-Strength MaterialsCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-STRENGTH SELF- CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE;1 Development of High-Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete by Tarun R. Naik Academic Program Director

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

388

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. ACI member Rudolph N. KrausCenter for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-Term Performance of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

389

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Use of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in ConcreteCenter for By-Products Utilization ENHANCED MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION USING FOUNDRY BY for Presentation and Publication at the CANMET/ACI International Symposium on "Sustainable Development and Concrete

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

390

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-Product Lightweight Aggregates, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. ACICenter for By-Products Utilization LONG-TERM PERFORMACE OF HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENTS By: Tarun R. Naik, Bruce W. Ramme, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Rafat Siddique

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

391

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

-Products Utilization (UWM-CBU). He is a member of ACI Committees 213 (Lightweight Aggregate and Concrete), 229, evaluation of lightweight aggregates, and use of by-product materials in the production of cast-concrete EXPANSION OF CONCRETE By Rudolph N. Kraus, Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh Kumar, and Yoon-Moon Chun Report No. CBU

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

392

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

, Committee 213 on Lightweight Concrete, and Committee 232 on Fly Ash in Concrete. INTRODUCTION RollerCenter for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF ROLLER - COMPACTED HVFA CONCRETE Strength and Durability of Roller-Compacted HVFA Concrete Pavements by Tarun R. Naik1 , Yoon-Moon Chun2

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

393

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2020, inclusive. D. Annual Compliance Periods: Annually after 2020. 3. Procurement Targets of Renewable Energy

394

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

energy for internal use. Such combustion fumes carry fly ashes which are collected and available as a new is much easier [2] than typical combustion ashes from such materials. The aim of this study was to recycleCenter for By-Products Utilization REUSE OF PAPER MILL ASHES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS By Saveria

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

395

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of an investigation carried out to develop permeable base course materials using coal combustion products (CCPsCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE ROADWAY BASE-02 REP-495 January 2003 For Presentation and Publication at the Third International Conference on Fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

396

Uncertainty, Utility, and Understanding  

E-print Network

Models Bayesian networks, influence diagrams Encode independence, crisp semantics Fundamentally HR BP HR EKG HR SAT LV FAILURE PCWP HEART RATE ERROR LOW OUTPUT ERROR CAUTER TPR BLOOD PRESSURE for Action Utility Action E2 World State En E1 E3 Influence diagrams (Howard & Matheson) #12;Delivering

Horvitz, Eric

397

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

at the UWM-CBU. His research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundryCenter for By-Products Utilization SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik and Publication at the Ninth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag, and Natural

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

398

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF COAL FLY ASH FROM CORN PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE Preliminary Draft #12;ii Evaluation of Coal Fly Ash From Corn Products EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TITLE: Evaluation of Coal Fly Ash From Corn Products International As a Potential Source

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

399

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

. CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The majorCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik-Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; 214, Evaluation of Results of Tests Used

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

400

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

reaction) after water was added. CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS [3] High-sulfur coal ash, particularlyCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

401

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization COAL-COMBUSTION BOTTOM ASH FOR REDUCING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE-Combustion Bottom Ash for Reducing the Shrinkage... 1 Jean Pera Symposium Coal-Combustion Bottom Ash for Reducing

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

402

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC 53201 Significant amount of ash is generated from burning wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, Committee 232, "Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete", Committee 214, "Evaluation of Results

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

403

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

404

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

405

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

of high-carbon (33 %), wet- collected coal bottom ash and fly ash (CCPs, coal combustion products, high-carbon coal ash, no-fines concrete, permeable base, porous concrete, freezing and thawingCenter for By-Products Utilization NO-FINES CONCRETE USING OFF-SPECIFICATION COAL COMBUSTION

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

406

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

) coal-ash and by replacing up to 9% of aggregates with wet-collected, low-lime, coarse coal-ash. Cast of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concrete and cast-concrete productsCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS MADE WITH FBC ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

407

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

clay bricks. Based upon previous test data collected from other sources of coal ash, wood ash, and combined coal and wood ash, the Prince Albert ash could be used as a partial replacement of aggregates andCenter for By-Products Utilization EVALUATION OF PRINCE ALBERT MILL ASH AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

408

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

The American Coal Ash Association has reported that over 11 million tons of ponded coal fly ash and bottom ash. The source of coal ash utilized for this project was a Class F coal ash from Illinois that was wet collected of different combinations of ponded coal ash and fine crushed sand, from 0% coal ash and 100% fine sand, to 100

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

409

Design of single layer subwavelength diffractive optical element (G-Fresnel) for spectrum splitting and beam concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing demand for optical elements having the functionalities of hybrid devices, such as the combination of a Fresnel lens and a diffraction grating. These new devices can be used in many applications, such as in optical spectrometers, optical precision measurement systems and diffractive optical systems for enhancing the efficiency of third generation photovoltaic solar cells. There is also a growing need for developments of a cost-effective technology to fabricate compact optical devices. Therefore the motivation of our project is to find a new model of the G-Fresnel (i.e. grating and Fresnel lens) taking into account the utilization of the electromagnetic theory for the rigorous analysis of its behavior. In this paper, a novel method is proposed and employed to design a G-Fresnel device that has only one structure layer with subwavelength features, and that focuses and separates different bands of light spectra in the same focal plane. The device performance has been studied through the use of rigorous electromagnetic theory, by using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) for the study of the near field and the Angular Spectrum Method (ASM) for the study of the propagation in the far field. The optimal design of the G-Fresnel profiles depends on the profile of the Fresnel lenses that minimize the longitude chromatic aberration, and also on the diffraction grating with high first order diffraction efficiency. The verification of the G-Fresnel model that we propose shows high diffraction efficiency and a good performance in separation for a broadband light spectrum. This promising G-Fresnel model could be used to increase the efficiency of third generation photovoltaic cells.

Albarazanchi, Abbas; Gerard, Philippe; Ambs, Pierre; Meyrueis, Patrick

2014-05-01

410

Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.  

PubMed

Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by ?-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. PMID:25189890

Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

2014-01-01

411

Efficient Resource Allocation using a Multiobjective Utility Optimisation Method  

E-print Network

as top-down cue. Both methods employ centre-surround approaches for bottom-up saliency (cf. [5,6]). In [1) that extends [1,2] by considering prior and dynamic contextual knowledge besides bottom-up and top-down or classifiers (top-down) is frequently proposed to perform this task. Two recent approaches (Navalpakkam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

A MODEL FOR EFFICIENT RESOURCE UTILIZATION: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population growth is increasing the demand and hence putting pressure on Natural Resources to cater to the needs of various requirements of the population in their day-to- day life. The Natural Resources are converted into an effective product\\/service through an appropriate Technology. Excess waste is generated in the process due to ineffective technologies and\\/or poor Management of technology implemented.

B. V. Babu; V. Ramakrishna

413

On efficient register utilization for subscripts in algebraic compilers  

E-print Network

the initialization of INC1 outside the nest. This second pass would generate: INC1 ? 2. d2. m~ lh 1 + loni I nl, n2, n~ Bl hase address (A) + B + 2. d2' 1 DO 2 J ml, m2, m~ X = contents of storage register whose address i" Bl Bl Bl + INC1 2 CONTINUE B2...

Bray, Elliott Orrin

2012-06-07

414

The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-print Network

Division U.S. Department of Energy Principal Authors Galen L. Barbose, Charles A. Goldman, Ian M. Hoffman: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025 Galen L. Barbose, Charles A. Goldman, Ian M. Hoffman, Megan Electricity Delivery Division of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

415

Identification of mutant firefly luciferases that efficiently utilize aminoluciferins.  

PubMed

Firefly luciferase-catalyzed light emission from D-luciferin is widely used as a reporter of gene expression and enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the power of bioluminescence for imaging and drug discovery, light emission from firefly luciferase is fundamentally limited by the physical properties of the D-luciferin substrate. We and others have synthesized aminoluciferin analogs that exhibit light emission at longer wavelengths than D-luciferin and have increased affinity for luciferase. However, although these substrates can emit an intense initial burst of light that approaches that of D-luciferin, this is followed by much lower levels of sustained light output. Here we describe the creation of mutant luciferases that yield improved sustained light emission with aminoluciferins in both lysed and live mammalian cells, allowing the use of aminoluciferins for cell-based bioluminescence experiments. PMID:22195567

Harwood, Katryn R; Mofford, David M; Reddy, Gadarla R; Miller, Stephen C

2011-12-23

416

Identification of mutant firefly luciferases that efficiently utilize aminoluciferins  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Firefly luciferase-catalyzed light emission from D-luciferin is widely used as a reporter of gene expression and enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the power of bioluminescence for imaging and drug discovery, light emission from firefly luciferase is fundamentally limited by the physical properties of the D-luciferin substrate. We and others have synthesized aminoluciferin analogs that exhibit light emission at longer wavelengths than D-luciferin and have increased affinity for luciferase. However, although these substrates can emit an intense initial burst of light that approaches that of D-luciferin, this is followed by much lower levels of sustained light output. We have previously postulated that this behavior is due to product inhibition. Here we describe the creation of mutant luciferases that yield improved sustained light emission with aminoluciferins in both lysed and live mammalian cells, allowing the use of aminoluciferins for cell-based bioluminescence experiments. PMID:22195567

Harwood, K.R.; Mofford, D.M.; Reddy, G.R.

2012-01-01

417

Design for Process Integration and Efficient Energy Utilization  

E-print Network

intensive. A refinery can internally consume anything between 5% to 10% of the crude feed as fuel, depending upon the complexity of the processing plant. Since oil refining is such a significant energy user, this paper gives particular attention... an adver se effect on system flexibility. Product TYPICAL REFINERY FUTURE REFINERY Pnlduct Figure 6. Refinery Configuration Options The two simplistic schemes shown above are the extremes of refinery configurations. Historically, individual refinery...

James, A. J.

1982-01-01

418

Using information theory to more fully exploit the electromagnetic spectrum: lessons for regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes tools arising from information theory, used to analyze modulation and coding trade-offs in digital system design, and extends them to the regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum. The benefits to existing spectrum users under the regulatory regime of technical flexibility are demonstrated in the use of the bandwidth-efficiency plane, which shows that extra communications capabilities can be created

Thomas P. Stanley

2005-01-01

419

Attentional network task performance in patients with schizophrenia–spectrum disorders: Evidence of a specific deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attentional deficits are frequently displayed by schizophrenia and spectrum patients, the precise nature of the impairment is unclear. The present study investigates attentional performance in 26 schizophrenia–spectrum outpatients and 24 healthy controls using the Attentional Network Task (ANT). We assessed the efficiency of the segregated alerting, orienting, and executive control networks by measuring how response latencies were influenced by

Diane C. Gooding; Jacqueline G. Braun; Jessica A. Studer

2006-01-01

420

Cognitive UWB-OFDM: Pushing Ultrawideband Beyond Its Limit via Opportunistic Spectrum Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuously expanding wireless world, the number of ra- dio systems increases every day, and efficient spectrum usage be- comes a more significant requirement. Ultrawideband (UWB) and cognitive radio are two exciting technologies that offer new ap- proaches to the spectrum usage. The main objective of this paper is to shed the first light on the marriage of these

Hüseyin Arslan

2006-01-01

421

Single-pixel imaging by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition.  

PubMed

Single-pixel imaging techniques enable to capture a scene without a direct line of sight to the object, but high-quality imaging has been proven challenging especially in the presence of noisy environmental illumination. Here we present a single-pixel imaging technique that can achieve high-quality images by acquiring their Fourier spectrum. We use phase-shifting sinusoid structured illumination for the spectrum acquisition. Applying inverse Fourier transform to the obtained spectrum yields the desired image. The proposed technique is capable of capturing a scene without a direct view of it. Thus, it enables a feasible placement of detectors, only if the detectors can collect the light signals from the scene. The technique is also a compressive sampling like approach, so it can reconstruct an image from sub-Nyquist measurements. We experimentally obtain clear images by utilizing a detector not placed in direct view of the imaged scene even with noise introduced by environmental illuminations. PMID:25649009

Zhang, Zibang; Ma, Xiao; Zhong, Jingang

2015-01-01

422

PILOTING UTILITY MODELING APPLICATIONS (PUMA) UTILITY BRIEFING PAPERS  

E-print Network

.g., wholesale, has members, wholesale with retail), number of customers, description of supply sources1 PILOTING UTILITY MODELING APPLICATIONS (PUMA) UTILITY BRIEFING PAPERS Utility Page Seattle Public, and solid waste utilities, as well as engineering and customer services. SPU's Director reports to the Mayor

423

Automatic angular-spectrum filtering algorithm in dual-wavelength digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic angular-spectrum filtering for the phase reconstruction of dual-wavelength digital holograms in a common-path configuration is presented. The major procedure of this automatic angular-spectrum filtering consists of excluding the zero-order region of Fourier spectrums and locating the center of order +1 region of the angular spectrums for two individual wavelengths. The phase map of the object is retrieved with the automatic angular spectrum-filtering algorithm in dual-wavelength digital holographic system, which demonstrates that the automatic angular spectrum-filtering algorithm is feasible and effective. It provides an efficient solution for angular-spectrum filtering in real time dual wavelength digital holographic microscopy.

Wang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhuqing; Chen, Yifei; Wan, Yuhong

2014-11-01

424

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Policy Makers National Center Homepage Facts about FASDs Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders ( ... and Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

425

Sulforaphane and Autism Spectrum Disorder  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Pages Autism Spectrum Disorder Nutrition Transcript Can a chemical found in broccoli and other vegetables help improve ... severe ASD in a small study involving the chemical sulforaphane. The participants, ages 13 to 17, were ...

426

Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics  

E-print Network

Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded ...

Rider, Todd H.

427

Interstitial computing : utilizing spare cycles on supercomputers.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of utilizing unused cycles on supercomputers through the use of many small jobs. What we call 'interstitial computing,' is important to supercomputer centers for both productivity and political reasons. Interstitial computing makes use of the fact that small jobs are more or less fungible consumers of compute cycles that are more efficient for bin packing than the typical jobs on a supercomputer. An important feature of interstitial computing is that it not have a significant impact on the makespan of native jobs on the machine. Also, a facility can obtain higher utilizations that may only be otherwise possible with more complicated schemes or with very long wait times. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides theoretical and empirical guidelines for users and administrators for how currently unused supercomputer cycles may be exploited. We find that that interstitial computing is a more effective means for increasing machine utilization than increasing native job run times or size.

Clearwater, Scott Harvey (Woodside, CA); Kleban, Stephen David

2003-06-01

428

Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies  

E-print Network

of many publ ic projects because it provides a framework for public agency appraisal of noncommercial activities. Its application allows a summary of the benefits and costs of an activity from the perspective of society and the taxpayer or... ities provide the data necessary for the evaluation of these programs. Several utilities file benefit cost analysis results and the Commission regularly performs analyses using the data in the energy efficiency plans. The California Public...

Treadway, N.

429

Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radium D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic spectrum of RaD has been studied by the proportional counter spectrometry technique. The work of the Curie Laboratory on the gamma-ray spectrum has been generally confirmed. However, the presumed K x-ray lines are of much lower intensity and occur at a lower energy than previously reported. The L x-ray intensity is 22 per hundred disintegrations, indicating 0.63 conversion

P. E. Damon; R. R. Edwards

1953-01-01

430

High efficiency GaAs/Ge monolithic tandem cells for space-concentrator arrays. Phase 1. Interim report, Aug 88-Aug 89  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to develop a 30 percent efficient 2-junction solar cell that is monolithic, two terminal, and that will operate in 25-100x solar concentrator elements with operating temperatures of 75-100 deg C. The cell design is a GaAs/Ge compound configuration with the Ge bottom cell utilizing the .9-1.8 micrometer portion of the AM0 solar spectrum and contributing 7 percent to the total stack efficiency. During the first Phase of this effort individual component cells were developed that had efficiencies of 22% for Gallium Arsenide and 6% for Germanium. Monolithically grown 2-junction devices were also fabricated with efficiencies exceeding 20% when characterized at the defined operating temperatures and solar concentration. (Author)

Wojtczuk, S.J.

1991-05-01

431

Payload Configurations for Efficient Image Acquisition - Indian Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is increasingly depending on remotely sensed data. The data is regularly used for monitoring the earth resources and also for solving problems of the world like disasters, climate degradation, etc. Remotely sensed data has changed our perspective of understanding of other planets. With innovative approaches in data utilization, the demands of remote sensing data are ever increasing. More and more research and developments are taken up for data utilization. The satellite resources are scarce and each launch costs heavily. Each launch is also associated with large effort for developing the hardware prior to launch. It is also associated with large number of software elements and mathematical algorithms post-launch. The proliferation of low-earth and geostationary satellites has led to increased scarcity in the available orbital slots for the newer satellites. Indian Space Research Organization has always tried to maximize the utility of satellites. Multiple sensors are flown on each satellite. In each of the satellites, sensors are designed to cater to various spectral bands/frequencies, spatial and temporal resolutions. Bhaskara-1, the first experimental satellite started with 2 bands in electro-optical spectrum and 3 bands in microwave spectrum. The recent Resourcesat-2 incorporates very efficient image acquisition approach with multi-resolution (3 types of spatial resolution) multi-band (4 spectral bands) electro-optical sensors (LISS-4, LISS-3* and AWiFS). The system has been designed to provide data globally with various data reception stations and onboard data storage capabilities. Oceansat-2 satellite has unique sensor combination with 8 band electro-optical high sensitive ocean colour monitor (catering to ocean and land) along with Ku band scatterometer to acquire information on ocean winds. INSAT- 3D launched recently provides high resolution 6 band image data in visible, short-wave, mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectrum. It also has 19 band sounder for providing vertical profile of water vapour, temperature, etc. The same system has data relay transponders for acquiring data from weather stations. The payload configurations have gone through significant changes over the years to increase data rate per kilogram of payload. Future Indian remote sensing systems are planned with very high efficient ways of image acquisition. This paper analyses the strides taken by ISRO (Indian Space research Organisation) in achieving high efficiency in remote sensing image data acquisition. Parameters related to efficiency of image data acquisition are defined and a methodology is worked out to compute the same. Some of the Indian payloads are analysed with respect to some of the system/ subsystem parameters that decide the configuration of payload. Based on the analysis, possible configuration approaches that can provide high efficiency are identified. A case study is carried out with improved configuration and the results of efficiency improvements are reported. This methodology may be used for assessing other electro-optical payloads or missions and can be extended to other types of payloads and missions.

Samudraiah, D. R. M.; Saxena, M.; Paul, S.; Narayanababu, P.; Kuriakose, S.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

2014-11-01

432

Highly efficient multiple-layer CdS quantum dot sensitized III-V solar cells.  

PubMed

In this review, the concept of utilization of solar spectrum in order to increase the solar cell efficiency is discussed. Among the three mechanisms, down-shifting effect is investigated in detail. Organic dye, rare-earth minerals and quantum dots are three most popular down-shift materials. While the enhancement of solar cell efficiency was not clearly observed in the past, the advances in quantum dot fabrication have brought strong response out of the hybrid platform of a quantum dot solar cell. A multiple layer structure, including PDMS as the isolation layer, is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of pulse spray system, precise control can be achieved and the optimized concentration can be found. PMID:24749412

Lin, Chien-Chung; Han, Hau-Vei; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wein-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

2014-02-01

433

Ethics for electic utilities  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ethical challenges of remaining honest and fair when the playing field of competition does not appear to be level. Topics discussed include measuring performance, monitoring use of services, public opinion of utility integrity and commitment to service, making ethical concerns and language a part of the management decision process, and communication of moral issues to a place where resolution can occur.

Powers, C.W.; Toffler, B.L. (Resources for Responsible Management, Boston, MA (United States))

1991-05-15

434

Seasat data utilization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the three months of orbital operations, the satellite returned data from the world's oceans. Dozens of tropical storms, hurricanes and typhoons were observed, and two planned major intensive surface truth experiments were conducted. The utility of the Seasat-A microwave sensors as oceanographic tools was determined. Sensor and geophysical evaluations are discussed, including surface observations, and evaluation summaries of an altimeter, a scatterometer, a scanning multichannel microwave radiometer, a synthetic aperture radar, and a visible and infrared radiometer.

Born, G. H.; Held, D. N.; Lame, D. B.; Lipes, R. G.; Montgomery, D. R.; Rygh, P. J.; Scott, J. F.

1981-01-01

435

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF FBC ASH AND PONDED COAL-ASH IN READY-MIXED CONCRETE #12;Naik, Kraus, Chun, & Botha Use of FBC ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete 1 MS# M8-60. FINAL. October 2005. Use of FBC Ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete by Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

436

Utility and state industrial EMS incentives programs: Experience and success factors  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of utility and state demand-side management (DSM) programs that address efficient motor systems. The paper discusses the incentive structures in place at both the state and utility levels to encourage efficient motor systems, and the market barriers associated with implementation of efficient motor equipment. The paper also assesses how the current incentives might address the market barriers to the implementation of efficient motor systems.

Roop, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.

1993-03-01

437

Sustain our organizational commitment to efficiency and effectiveness through careful  

E-print Network

. Innovate through an organizational culture that emphasizes continuous learning for our staff and utilizesTop Value Sustain our organizational commitment to efficiency and effectiveness through careful

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

438

Primordial power spectrum from Planck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2? C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

2014-11-01

439

Cascade Multilevel Inverters for Utility Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed by the authors for utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H- bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. The new inverter: (1) can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle, (2) can eliminate transformers of multipulse inverters used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators, and (3) makes possible direct parallel or series connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems without any transformers. In other words, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multipulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper will summarize features,feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems.Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the new inverters.

Peng, F.Z., McKeever, J.W., Adams, D.J.

1997-12-31

440

77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1724, and 1730 RIN 0572-AC19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY...financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural...

2012-09-06

441

BACTERIAL GROWTH EFFICIENCY ON NATURAL DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterial growth efficiency was examined in batch cultures and continuous flow cultures. atural assemblages of pelagic bacteria were inoculated into particle free water and growth efficiencies determined from measurements of produced particulate organic carbon (POC) and utilized ...

442

CMB power spectrum estimation using wavelets  

SciTech Connect

Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide increasingly accurate information about the structure of the Universe at the recombination epoch. Most of this information is encoded in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. The aim of this work is to propose a versatile and powerful method for spectral estimation on the sphere which can easily deal with nonstationary uncorrelated noise and multiple experiments with various specifications. In this paper, we use needlets (wavelets) on the sphere to construct natural and efficient spectral estimators for partially observed and beamed CMB with nonstationary noise. In the case of a single experiment, we compare this method with pseudo-C{sub l} methods. The performance of the needlet spectral estimators (NSE) compares very favorably to the best pseudo-C{sub l} estimators, over the whole multipole range. On simulations with a simple model (CMB+uncorrelated noise with known variance per pixel+mask), they perform uniformly better. Their distinctive ability to aggregate many different experiments, to control the propagation of errors, and to produce a single wideband error bar is highlighted. The needlet spectral estimator is a powerful, tunable tool which is very well suited to the angular power spectrum estimation of spherical data such as incomplete and noisy CMB maps.

Faye, G.; Guilloux, F.; Betoule, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Le Jeune, M. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7--Denis Diderot and CNRS, 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2008-10-15

443

Cosmic ray spectrum from diffusive shock acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated at collisionless shocks through diffusive shock acceleration. However, some key physical processes, such as thermal leakage injection, self-excitation and dissipation of waves, and resonant scatterings of particles by those waves are nonlinear and not fully understood yet. Hence it is not possible to make precise quantitative predictions for the particle spectrum accelerated at shocks from first principles. If the fraction of particles injected into the CR population is smaller than 10-4, the CR acceleration efficiency is low and so the test-particle solutions are justified. At moderately strong shocks ( M 0?5) with higher injection fractions, the shock structure is significantly modified by nonlinear feedback of CRs. According to time-dependent kinetic simulations of CR modified shocks, the precursor and subshock transition approach a time-asymptotic state, and then evolve in an approximately self-similar fashion, depending only on the similarity variable, x/( u s t). During this self-similar stage, the CR spectrum at the subshock maintains a characteristic form as it evolves: the sum of two power-laws with the slopes determined by the subshock and total compression ratios, along with an exponential cutoff at the highest accelerated momentum.

Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

2011-11-01

444

Examining the Validity of the Autism Spectrum Rating Scales with a Preschool Population Referred for Special Education Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early identification and intervention of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can have beneficial effects that extend into later life. However, currently used instruments have difficulties detecting children who may have an ASD. The current study investigated the utility of a newly published measure, Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS). Participants…

Cunningham, Sean

2012-01-01

445

Polarized CMB power spectrum estimation using the pure pseudo-cross-spectrum approach  

SciTech Connect

We extend the pure pseudo-power-spectrum formalism proposed recently in the context of the cosmic microwave background polarized power spectra estimation by Smith (2006) to incorporate cross-spectra computed for multiple maps of the same sky area. We present an implementation of such a technique, paying particular attention to a calculation of the relevant window functions and mixing (mode-coupling) matrices. We discuss the relevance and treatment of the residual E/B leakage for a number of considered sky apodizations as well as compromises and assumptions involved in an optimization of the resulting power spectrum uncertainty. In particular, we investigate the importance of a pixelization scheme, patch geometry, and sky signal priors used in apodization optimization procedures. In addition, we also present results derived for more realistic sky scans as motivated by the proposed balloon-borne experiment EBEX. We conclude that the presented formalism, thanks to its speed and efficiency, can provide an interesting alternative to the CMB polarized power spectra estimators based on the optimal methods at least on angular scales smaller than {approx}10 deg. In this regime, we find that it is capable of suppressing the total variance of the estimated B-mode spectrum to within a factor of {approx}2 of the variance due to only the sampling and noise uncertainty of the B modes alone, as derived from the Fisher matrix approach.

Grain, J. [CNRS, Laboratoire AstroParticule and Cosmologie, Universite Paris 7, Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiments 120-121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tristram, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Stompor, R. [CNRS, Laboratoire AstroParticule and Cosmologie, Universite Paris 7, Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2009-06-15

446

A Dynamic Characterization of Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition and measurement of dynamic economic performance has been addressed obliquely in the literature with the notions of scope economies and capacity utilization measures, but little work has focused on develop the static theory analogs of efficiency measures into the dynamic context. This paper is an attempt to identify some of the conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed.

Spiro E. Stefanou

2009-01-01

447

Time functions as utilities  

E-print Network

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

E. Minguzzi

2009-09-04

448

Time Functions as Utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

Minguzzi, E.

2010-09-01

449

Utility of Thin-Film Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates for Space Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thin-film solar cell program at NASA GRC is developing solar cell technologies for space applications which address two critical metrics: specific power (power per unit mass) and launch stowed volume. To be competitive for many space applications, an array using thin film solar cells must significantly increase specific power while reducing stowed volume when compared to the present baseline technology utilizing crystalline solar cells. The NASA GRC program is developing two approaches. Since the vast majority of the mass of a thin film solar cell is in the substrate, a thin film solar cell on a very lightweight flexible substrate (polymer or metal films) is being developed as the first approach. The second approach is the development of multijunction thin film solar cells. Total cell efficiency can be increased by stacking multiple cells having bandgaps tuned to convert the spectrum passing through the upper cells to the lower cells. Once developed, the two approaches will be merged to yield a multijunction, thin film solar cell on a very lightweight, flexible substrate. The ultimate utility of such solar cells in space require the development of monolithic interconnections, lightweight array structures, and ultra-lightweight support and deployment techniques.

Dickman, J. E.; Hepp, A. F.; Morel, D. L.; Ferekides, C. S.; Tuttle, J. R.; Hoffman, D. J.; Dhere, N. G.

2004-01-01

450

Density Spectrums from Kinetic Inflations  

E-print Network

The pole-like accelerated expansion stages purely driven by the coupling between the gravity and the dilaton field without referring to the potential term can be realized in a class of generalized gravity theories. We consider three such scenarios based on the scalar-tensor gravity, the induced gravity and the string theory. Quantum fluctuations during the expansion stages (including more general situations) can be derived in exact analytic forms. Assuming that the pole-like acceleration stage provides a viable inflation scenario in the early universe we derive the generated classical density spectrums. The generated classical density field shows a generic tilted spectrum with $n \\simeq 4$ which differs from the observed spectrum supporting $n \\simeq 1$.

J. Hwang; H. Noh

1996-12-30

451

Space Resources Utilization Roundtable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Space Resources Utilization Roundtable, October 27-29, 1999, in Golden, Colorado. The program committee consisted of M. B. Duke (Lunar and Planetary Institute), G. Baughman (Colorado School of Mines), D. Criswell (University of Houston), C. Graham (Canadian Mining Industry Research Organization), H. H. Schmitt (Apollo Astronaut), W. Sharp (Colorado School of Mines), L. Taylor (University of Tennessee), and a space manufacturing representative. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

1999-01-01

452

Light duty utility arm  

SciTech Connect

The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

NONE

1998-12-01

453

Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks  

PubMed Central

Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. PMID:25254255

Huixin, Wu; Duo, Mo; He, Li

2014-01-01

454

Energy efficiency improvements in longan drying practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and evaluates methods of improvement of energy utilization and reduction of energy cost in conventional unpeeled longan drying. Existing dryers were modified into a new dryer arrangement. Performance in terms of specific energy utilization, thermal efficiency and operating cost indices for both traditional and new designs was evaluated. Results showed that the modified dryer yielded an average

N. Tippayawong; C. Tantakitti; S. Thavornun

2008-01-01

455

Towards highly efficient water photoelectrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motivation for this work was to develop an efficient and relatively inexpensive material architecture suitable for solar water splitting by photoelectrolysis. Iron (III) Oxide (hematite), has bandgap energy (˜ 2.2 eV) well suited for capturing solar spectrum, is abundant and non-toxic. However, it suffers from recombination losses due to low electron mobility and a minority carrier diffusion length of

Haripriya Elavambedu Prakasam

2008-01-01

456

Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response  

E-print Network

Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response October 10, 2012 ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS OVERVIEW ?Program rules and guidelines established by Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) ?All Texas investor... to be administered by transmission-distribution utilities ?Programs are implemented by Energy Efficiency Services Providers and Retail Electric Providers 1 WHY DOES ONCOR DO SOLAR PV? ?Helps meet our energy efficiency goals ?Helps customers reduce...

Tyra, K.; Hanel, J.

2012-01-01

457

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

aT Possible First glance may show only 3 or 4 utility levels (temperatures) to choose from. These might well be 1000e apart. Some ways to increase the options are: ' multieffect distillation (this spreads the 6T across 2 or 3 towers) use of waste heat...). Cooling below top? Liquid composition Heating above bottom FIG. 3 INTERNED lATE CONDENSER AND REBOILER Plax efficiency Max ett'iclenc)' SO, of heavy 95' of heavy component in component In feed teed 1 condenser r 1 [eboiler 67 20 2 con6ensers r 1...

Steinmeyer, D.

458

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

459

Spectrum splitting metrics and effect of filter characteristics on photovoltaic system performance.  

PubMed

During the past few years there has been a significant interest in spectrum splitting systems to increase the overall efficiency of photovoltaic solar energy systems. However, methods for comparing the performance of spectrum splitting systems and the effects of optical spectral filter design on system performance are not well developed. This paper addresses these two areas. The system conversion efficiency is examined in detail and the role of optical spectral filters with respect to the efficiency is developed. A new metric termed the Improvement over Best Bandgap is defined which expresses the efficiency gain of the spectrum splitting system with respect to a similar system that contains the highest constituent single bandgap photovoltaic cell. This parameter indicates the benefit of using the more complex spectrum splitting system with respect to a single bandgap photovoltaic system. Metrics are also provided to assess the performance of experimental spectral filters in different spectrum splitting configurations. The paper concludes by using the methodology to evaluate spectrum splitting systems with different filter configurations and indicates the overall efficiency improvement that is possible with ideal and experimental designs. PMID:24922262

Russo, Juan M; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Kostuk, Raymond K

2014-03-10

460

Managing utilization of new diagnostic tests.  

PubMed

In appropriate utilization of laboratory testing has been estimated to range from 10% to 50% of the volume encountered in hospital laboratories. Many strategies to control utilization of laboratory testing have been reported, including redesigning test requisitions, changing standing orders, the use of provider order entry, physician profiling, and educational initiatives. The major motivation to reduce utilization of unnecessary testing is financial, although other benefits also may be observed, such as reducing false-positive results stemming from testing patients in low prevalence populations, eliminating unnecessary follow-up procedures, avoiding iatrogenic anemia, and potentially lowering hospital length of stay resulting from the need to track down the significance of falsely abnormal tests. The majority of utilization control efforts have focused on reducing routine laboratory tests such as chemistry profiles and automated blood counts. In many hospitals novel diagnostic tests, especially in molecular genetics and oncology, are the major driver behind increasing laboratory costs. Traditional methods to control utilization of routine testing are usually ineffective in controlling testing of novel diagnostic methods. In most cases, test requests originate from a small group of physician specialists who typically are more knowledgeable in their area of expertise than is the clinical pathologist. For this reason, a different approach is generally required. It is particularly important to establish an institutional structure authorized to review and approve new laboratory tests. The clinical pathologist usually takes the lead in this effort because laboratory-based physicians are familiar with new tests being requested by physicians across a spectrum of medical specialties. To be successful, the laboratory physician must identify potential utilization issues, acquire and analyze data, function on interdepartmental teams, and develop strategies to satisfy the needs of clinicians while at the same time preventing introduction of inappropriate technologies into the laboratory. This article will give a perspective on approaches to laboratory test utilization and offer specific examples of initiatives we have undertaken in our institution. The examples will illustrate how the pathologist can use knowledge of medicine and the clinical laboratory in conjunction with organizational and team building skills. In the final analysis, the process is more of an art than a science. PMID:14692073

Lewandrowski, Kent

2003-01-01

461

Competitive Spectrum Sharing in Wireless Networks: A Dynamic Non-cooperative Game Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Game Theory” is a promising mathematical tool to improve the utilization of radio frequency spectrum in wireless networks.\\u000a In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing between a primary user and a group of secondary users. We formulate\\u000a our solution in such a way that one of the secondary users will be a secondary primary user by sharing

Omar Raoof; Zaineb Al-Banna; H. Al-Raweshidy

2009-01-01

462

Comparative Utilization of Alfalfa-Bromegrass Pasture Under Rotational and Daily Strip Grazing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The efficiency of herbage utilization from alfalfa-bromegrass (M. falcata and B. inermis) pasture under rotational and strip-grazing management was compared for three grazing seasons. The expression of increased efficiency as increased carrying capacity was precluded by restricting grazing, so that the cows on each system had equal opportunity to utilize the available herbage. Under these restrictions, dairy cows at

A. L. Brundage; W. J. Sweetman

1958-01-01

463

Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This

Steven Emery Letendre

1997-01-01

464

An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum is proposed. The image texture spectrum is used to get the adaptive scale parameter of voting field. Then the texture information modifies both the attenuation coefficient and the attenuation field so that we can use this algorithm to create more significant and correct structures in the original image according to the human visual perception. At the same time, the proposed method can improve the edge extraction quality, which includes decreasing the flocculent region efficiently and making image clear. In the experiment for extracting pavement cracks, the original pavement image is processed by the proposed method which is combined with the significant curve feature threshold procedure, and the resulted image displays the faint crack signals submerged in the complicated background efficiently and clearly.

Wang, Gang; Su, Qing-tang; Lü, Gao-huan; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Liu, Yu-huan; He, An-zhi

2015-01-01

465

Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

2011-01-01

466

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2007-01-01

467

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2005-01-01

468

The Spectrum of Bacterial Luminosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of some experiments on the phosphorescence of minerals, especially with regard to the emission of ultra-violet radiation, it was suggested to me by Prof. Strutt that it would be of interest to examine the spectrum of the light from luminous bacteria. Through the kindness of Sir James Dewar, Prof. Strutt was enabled to furnish me with a

R. W. Forsyth

1910-01-01

469

Electromagnetic spectrum and color vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most of occasions the maps, drawings and printed images are elaborated thinking that the observer will visualize them with illuminants like the light of the day. With these illuminants, for example the CIE D65, we can distinguish the great quantity of