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1

Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

2004-01-01

2

Utilization and fairness in spectrum assignment for opportunistic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive distributed spectrum assignment can lead to significant interference between devices. In this paper, we define a general framework that defines the spectrum access problem for several definitions of overall system utility. By reducing the allocation problem

Chunyi Peng; Haitao Zheng; Ben Y. Zhao

2006-01-01

3

Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract--- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near­optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

Zhao, Ben Y.

4

Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

1 Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Chunyi Peng, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao Abstract-- The Open Spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal utilization by allowing devices to sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive

Almeroth, Kevin C.

5

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2014-10-01

6

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2013-10-01

7

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2010-10-01

8

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2011-10-01

9

47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication...Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All applicants for DEMS...

2012-10-01

10

High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01

11

SPARTA: Stable and Efficient Spectrum Access in Next Generation Dynamic Spectrum Networks  

E-print Network

SPARTA: Stable and Efficient Spectrum Access in Next Generation Dynamic Spectrum Networks Lili Cao.S.A Abstract--Future wireless infrastructure networks will dynam- ically access spectrum for maximum utilization. However, the fundamental challenge is how to provide stable spectrum access required for most

Almeroth, Kevin C.

12

Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect

The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

NONE

2007-11-15

13

Efficient electric-utility operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eelctric utilities should be organized to provide reliable service at the lowest possible cost. Changes should be made to eliminate outdated procedures and institute new methods of operation in those areas that will respond to efficiency improvements. The author describes his efficiency-rating system, which should apply to a 12-month monitoring schedule. His major concerns are land rights, tree clearing, lightning,

Seevers

1982-01-01

14

Towards Cognitive Radio Networks: Spectrum Utilization Measurements in Suburb Environment  

E-print Network

Towards Cognitive Radio Networks: Spectrum Utilization Measurements in Suburb Environment Václav or more utilized licensed frequency bands that could be possibly used by cognitive radios in an opportunistic way. Cognitive radio concept for better spectrum utilization is introduced here along

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Combined power\\/channel allocation method for efficient spectrum sharing in TV white space scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum scarcity and the corresponding efficient spectrum utilization are one of the major challenges in wireless communications today. Cognitive radios are the devices that will enable spectrum availability detection and efficient opportunistic spectrum sharing. This paper addresses the problems of joint power and channel allocation in a spectrum sharing scenario for WiFi-like secondary users in TV white spaces. Due

B. Jankuloska; V. Atanasovski; L. Gavrilovska

2011-01-01

16

Asymptotically Efficient Multi-Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

Asymptotically Efficient Multi-Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Access Pouya Tehrani efficient as the total sensing time increases. This result finds application in opportunistic spectrum for efficient exploitation of spectrum opportunities. I. INTRODUCTION In opportunistic spectrum access

Islam, M. Saif

17

Enhancing spectrum utilization through cooperation and cognition in wireless systems  

E-print Network

We have seen a proliferation of wireless technologies and devices in recent years. The resulting explosion of wireless demand has put immense pressure on available spectrum. Improving spectrum utilization is therefore ...

Rahul, Hariharan Shankar, 1975-

2013-01-01

18

Spectrum agile radios: utilization and sensing architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, the largest and most desirable portion of the radio spectrum is allocated to licensed services, which has resulted in the well-known profound scarcity of this resource for emerging applications. With the rapid growth of wireless technologies, current spectrum scarcity has become a serious problem as more and more wireless applications compete for very little spectrum. On the other hand,

Sai Shankar N; Carlos Cordeiro; Kiran Challapali

2005-01-01

19

Phenomena and Performance of High-Efficiency Split Spectrum Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-efficiency photovoltaics are one of the most promising technologies for supplying sustainable energy in the near future. These technologies allow for high energy conversion efficiencies and long system lifetimes, which is becoming an increasingly profitable power generation option. One high-efficiency photovoltaic technology gaining increasing attention recent years is that of split-spectrum photovoltaics. This technology divides the incident solar spectrum on the basis of wavelength, directing each portion of the spectrum to a different cell where the light can be utilized most efficiently. In this dissertation, a number of aspects of high-efficiency photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics, are examined. First, the ideal bandgap placements of the subcells of a split-spectrum photovoltaic system are calculated, specifically determined with an eye towards practical fabrication of the cells. Two viable designs are determined which improve theoretical absolute conversion efficiency by 4-5%. Next, those systems are simulated using the TCAD Sentaurus software package to project conversion efficiencies and determine additional device specifications (doping levels, layer thicknesses, etc.). These cells show comparable conversion efficiencies to high performing, full-spectrum multijunction photovoltaics in fabrication today. In the last section, a theoretical examination of semiconductor performance under high optical concentration is performed, including the prediction and characterization of various phenomena in those devices. This work aims to improve the understanding of the performance of high concentration photovoltaics, most notably split-spectrum photovoltaics. This understanding will aid in the advancement of this technology as a widespread, sustainable energy source for use worldwide, reducing greenhouse emissions and providing cheap, clean energy.

Downs, Chandler

20

Cutoff wavelength optimization for high-efficiency split spectrum photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split spectrum photovoltaics, where incident light is divided onto multiple cells on the basis of wavelength, are an exciting recent development in the solar energy field. This technology has the potential to exceed record conversion efficiencies by utilizing a large number of p-n junctions while mitigating the constraints that plague monolithic cells: lattice matching and current matching. Each cell in a split spectrum system can have a different lattice constant (allowing for more combinations of materials) and to have different operating currents (allowing for more combinations of band spacing). In this work, we examine a split spectrum system utilizing a single spectrum splitting device (a dichroic filter) to divide the solar spectrum onto two cells. Whereas many split spectrum designs use numerous filters to direct light onto single junction cells, in this system each cell is composed of multiple active junctions. Each cell is then tailored to absorb a portion of the solar spectrum. The combination of the two cells allows for four, five, or more active junctions while maintaining lattice and current matching conditions in each cell. A number of different cutoff frequencies for the dichroic filter are examined. Each cutoff frequency corresponds to its own combination of ideal band placements for both the shorter and longer wavelength cells. Materials corresponding to those band placements are examined to determine if any combinations can satisfy lattice matching parameters; designs which do are then simulated using TCAD Sentaurus.

Downs, Chandler; Vandervelde, Thomas E.

2014-03-01

21

A new asymmetric spectrum assignment method to improve spectrum efficiency for spectrum-sliced optical network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bandwidth flexible optical network, referred to as spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE), is a promising solution to achieve both high data rate transport and high spectrum-efficient. However, current methods to solve Routing and Spectrum Assignment (RSA) problems for SLICE network, conservatively accept the constraint that spectrum resources should be assigned symmetrically in both directions of one optical path. Since most data traffics are asymmetric by nature, the conventional way to simply aggregate them to form symmetric flows for transport layer is not as flexible as offering a direct asymmetric transport layer mechanism. In this paper, we present a novel Asymmetric Spectrum Assignment (ASA) method to future improve spectrum efficiency by saving redundant spectrum resources for the lighter load direction of one optical path to accommodate more incoming connection requests. We describe the concept of ASA and the enabling technologies to implement it. To compare the performance of proposed ASA with conventional Symmetric Spectrum Assignment (SSA), we classify the evaluations into four scenarios. We also observe the effect of various grid width values. Simulation result shows that: (i) ASA method always significantly outperforms the SSA method in any situation. (ii) Routing asymmetry is not necessary needed and spectrum assignment optimization takes obvious effect only under the situation of "random slot" grid width value.

Guo, Junhu; Wang, Jinyu; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng

2013-12-01

22

The effects of geography on spectrum-orbit utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With over forty satellites in geostationary orbit, and many more planned, it is becoming increasingly difficult to find suitable orbit positions for new systems operating at 4 and 6 GHz. Efficient spectrum-orbit utilization can be achieved with frequency-reuse techniques - orthogonal polarization, earth-station antenna discrimination, and satellite antenna discrimination - provided that service-area geography is considered. Service arc - that portion of the orbit which affords useful service to all points in a given area - is a function of the area's climate, terrain, and location as well as its size and shape. Of the three techniques, satellite antenna discrimination is the most sensitive to these factors. According to the BSS (broadcasting-satellite service) antenna reference pattern, the maximum discrimination possible is the on-axis gain, which can be as high as 49 dB for a beamwidth of 0.6 degrees, or as low as 32 dB for a 3.5-degree beamwidth. Unlike the Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS), the BSS will normally have beams that cover no more than one or two time zones.

Sawitz, P. H.

1979-01-01

23

Spectrum Efficiency & Mesh Networks Asipita M. Omuya, Lionel Sacks  

E-print Network

Spectrum Efficiency & Mesh Networks Asipita M. Omuya, Lionel Sacks University College London ABSTRACT: This paper examines the issues affecting the efficient use of spectrum. It looks at the origins ­ the use of spectrum as a commons ­ with particular emphasis on Mesh networks and how they might influence

Haddadi, Hamed

24

Concentrating and spectrum splitting optical device in high efficiency CPV module with five bandgaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system. Currently, most concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems concentrate the solar spectrum onto triple junction cells to strive for high conversion efficiencies and low cost. Other approaches to high efficiency use spectrum splitting. Triple junction systems are limited in efficiency and spectrum splitting systems are usually too costly for mass production. The objective is to design a spectrum splitting solar concentrator, using reverse ray tracing methods, to overcome the efficiency and cost limitations of current systems by using a single low cost optical device to concentrate and split the solar spectrum onto a large number of target photovoltaic (PV) cells. Dispersive properties of standard optical materials, such as glass or plastic, are utilized to achieve the desired spectral separation. Reverse ray tracing is used to simultaneously optimize the shape of the top and bottom interfaces of the solar concentrator to achieve the desired split spectrum at the target PV cells. Additional strategies to increase system efficiency and minimize optical losses, including draft surface shading and corner rounding losses, are explored. A CPV module, including the spectrum splitting solar concentrator and five PV cells of different bandgaps, is proposed. This spectrum splitting CPV system has a calculated aggregate cell conversion efficiency that exceeds 45%, has the potential to be mass produced, and meets the need for a high efficiency low cost solar energy conversion system.

Taudien, Jerker Y.; Kern, Ludwig A.

2013-09-01

25

Reclaiming the White Spaces: Spectrum Efficient Coexistence with Primary Users  

E-print Network

Reclaiming the White Spaces: Spectrum Efficient Coexistence with Primary Users George Nychis for increasing spectrum availability, but white space devices (WSDs) cannot interfere with pri- mary users primary users threaten the very goal the white spaces are trying to achieve: additional spectrum

Treuille, Adrien

26

Spectrum pooling: an innovative strategy for the enhancement of spectrum efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the technical challenges that have to be met when implementing the interesting new technology of spectrum pooling. This notion represents the coexistence of two mobile radio systems within the same frequency range. It enables the secondary utilization of already licensed frequency bands as aimed at by several regulatory authorities worldwide. The goal of spectrum pooling is to

T. A. Weiss; F. K. Jondral

2004-01-01

27

Enhancing the light utilization efficiency of microalgae using organic dyes.  

PubMed

Solar radiation is composed of wide light spectrum including the range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. To enhance the light utilization efficiency, organic dye solutions of rhodamine101 and 9,10-diphenylanthracene were used as wavelength converters. Each dye affected cell growth and lipid accumulation differently, based on the response of each to different light spectrum. Under a light intensity of 50W/m(2), maximum cell growth (1.5g/L) was obtained with the red organic dye rhodamine101, whereas best lipid content (30%) with the blue type 9,10-diphenylanthracene. These two separate and complementary traits could be combined by simple mixing, and in so doing optimal growth (1.5g/L) as well as lipid accumulation (30%) was achieved: lipid productivity was 2.3 times greater than without the organic dye. This study proved that certain organic dye solutions could convert useless wavelengths to be useful for algae cultivation, thereby increasing the productivity of biomass and lipids. PMID:25681096

Seo, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Yonghee; Jeon, Duk Young; Han, Jong-In

2015-04-01

28

Efficient Energy Utilization in the Industrial Sector - Case Studies  

E-print Network

EFFICIENT ENERGY UTILIZATION IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR - CASE STUDIES Dr. Stephen R. Davis GMI Engineering & Management Institute Flint, Michigan ABSTRACT The need for more efficient use of the world's energy resources has become one...

Davis, S. R.

1984-01-01

29

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

2013-10-01

30

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

2012-10-01

31

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

2014-10-01

32

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

2011-10-01

33

47 CFR 90.535 - Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. 90...MHz Bands § 90.535 Modulation and spectrum usage efficiency requirements. ...least one voice path per 6.25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth. (2) Licensees...

2010-10-01

34

75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies. '' The complete text of...issues arising from the deployment of smart grid technologies, can be found at: http...surely play in the deployment of smart grid technologies. At this spectrum...

2010-11-18

35

Maximizing the utility of radio spectrum: Broadband spectrum measurements and occupancy model for use by cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio spectrum is a vital national asset; proper management of this finite resource is essential to the operation and development of telecommunications, radio-navigation, radio astronomy, and passive remote sensing services. To maximize the utility of the radio spectrum, knowledge of its current usage is beneficial. As a result, several spectrum studies have been conducted in urban Atlanta, suburban Atlanta, and rural North Carolina. These studies improve upon past spectrum studies by resolving spectrum usage by nearly all its possible parameters: frequency, time, polarization, azimuth, and location type. The continuous frequency range from 400MHz to 7.2 GHz was measured with a custom-designed system. More than 8 billion spectrum measurements were taken over several months of observation. A multi-parameter spectrum usage detection method was developed and analyzed with data from the spectrum studies. This method was designed to exploit all the characteristics of spectral information that was available from the spectrum studies. Analysis of the spectrum studies showed significant levels of underuse. The level of spectrum usage in time and azimuthal space was determined to be only 6.5 % for the urban Atlanta, 5.3 % for suburban Atlanta, and 0.8 % for the rural North Carolina spectrum studies. Most of the frequencies measured never experienced usage. Interference was detected in several protected radio astronomy and sensitive radio navigation bands. A cognitive radio network architecture to share spectrum with fixed microwave systems was developed. The architecture uses a broker-based sharing method to control spectrum access and investigate interference issues.

Petrin, Allen J.

36

Promoting Energy Efficiency in Industry: Utility Roles and Perspectives  

E-print Network

This paper identifies the factors that influence industrial firms' decisions to invest in energy efficiency and notes how the emerging wave of electric utility 'demand-side' planning and marketing can help industry control costs of production...

Limaye, D. R.; Davis, T. D.

1984-01-01

37

Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting  

E-print Network

Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials to enable novel, flat optical components and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces at visible frequencies has been a significant challenge due to high plasmonic losses and difficulties in high-uniformity nanofabrication. Here, we propose a highly-efficient yet simple metasurface design comprising of single gradient antenna as unit cell. We demonstrate visible broadband (450 - 850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting with 85% conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction was calculated to be ~ 103 and measured to be ~ 10. The anomalous reflected photons and spectrum splitting performance have been visualized using CCD and characterized using angle-resolved measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed here is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic resonators, and coul...

Li, Zhongyang; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

2014-01-01

38

Analysis of Spectrum Utilization in Suburb Environment Evaluation of Potentials for Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

exist sporadically utilized licensed frequency bands that could be possibly used by cognitive radios in an opportunistic way. Cognitive radio concept for better spectrum utilization is introduced here along of the Cognitive Radio (CR) concept, a technology that envisages a flexible access to unused or underutilized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Manganese influx and its utilization efficiency in wheat.  

PubMed

Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg(-1) soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4 x H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, F(v)/F(m)ratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase. PMID:24956896

Jhanji, Shalini; Sadana, Upkar Singh; Shankar, Arun; Shukla, Arvind Kumar

2014-06-01

40

Rational Learning: Finding A Balance between Utility and Efficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of machine learning has developed a wide array of techniques for improving the effectiveness of performance elements. Ideally, a learning system would adapt its commitments to the demands of a particular learning situation, rather than relying on fixed commitments that impose tradeoffs between the efficiency and utility of a learning…

Gratch, Jonathan; And Others

41

Cooperation and Learning in Multiuser Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

Cooperation and Learning in Multiuser Opportunistic Spectrum Access Hua Liu§ , Bhaskar spectrum access net- work where spectrum opportunities are time varying and spatially inhomogeneous for the efficient utilization of the radio frequency spectrum is opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), where

Islam, M. Saif

42

Utility investments in low-income-energy-efficiency programs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to describe the energy-efficiency programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers. The study focuses, in particular, on programs that install major residential weatherization measures free-of-charge to low-income households. A survey was mailed to a targeted list of 600 utility program managers. Follow-up telephone calls were made to key non- respondents, and a random sample of other non-respondents also was contacted. Completed surveys were received from 180 utilities, 95 of which provided information on one or more of their 1992 low-income energy-efficiency programs for a total of 132 individual programs. These 132 utility programs spent a total of $140.6 million in 1992. This represents 27% of the total program resources available to weatherize the dwellings of low-income households in that year. Both the total funding and the number of programs has grown by 29% since 1989. A majority of the 132 programs are concentrated in a few regions of the country (California, the Pacific Northwest, the Upper Midwest, and the Northeast). Although a majority of the programs are funded by electric utilities, gas utilities have a significantly greater average expenditure per participant ($864 vs. $307 per participant). The most common primary goal of low-income energy-efficiency programs operating in 1992 was {open_quotes}to make energy services more affordable to low-income customers{close_quotes}. Only 44% of the programs were operated primarily to provide a cost-effective energy resource. Based on a review of household and measure selection criteria, equity and not the efficiency of resource acquisition appears to dominate the design of these programs.

Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eisenberg, J.; Power, M. [Economic Opportunity Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Lapsa, E.J. [Manhattan Data Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-09-01

43

BINGO: a code for the efficient computation of the scalar bi-spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We present a new and accurate Fortran code, the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO), for the efficient numerical computation of the scalar bi-spectrum and the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} in single field inflationary models involving the canonical scalar field. The code can calculate all the different contributions to the bi-spectrum and the parameter f{sub NL} for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. Focusing firstly on the equilateral limit, we illustrate the accuracy of BINGO by comparing the results from the code with the spectral dependence of the bi-spectrum expected in power law inflation. Then, considering an arbitrary triangular configuration, we contrast the numerical results with the analytical expression available in the slow roll limit, for, say, the case of the conventional quadratic potential. Considering a non-trivial scenario involving deviations from slow roll, we compare the results from the code with the analytical results that have recently been obtained in the case of the Starobinsky model in the equilateral limit. As an immediate application, we utilize BINGO to examine of the power of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} to discriminate between various inflationary models that admit departures from slow roll and lead to similar features in the scalar power spectrum. We close with a summary and discussion on the implications of the results we obtain.

Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sriramkumar, L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Martin, Jérôme, E-mail: dhiraj@apctp.org, E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in, E-mail: jmartin@iap.fr [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2013-05-01

44

Efficiency in wood and fiber utilization in OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization efficiency has been defined as the ratio of the amount of industrial roundwood (or wood pulp) consumed in a country\\u000a and year to the amount that would have been consumed to produce the same output with a reference technology. The reference\\u000a technology was described by the average input–output relationships in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation\\u000a and Development

Hiroko Kando; Joseph Buongiorno

2009-01-01

45

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

46

Implementation of a shaped beam model in Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using elliptical beam models the mutual interference among all DBS (direct broadcast satellite) systems within a region can be calculated using a software package called SOUP (Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program). The authors discuss the addition of a shaped beam model to this software. This software has been used extensively for the DirecTv Direct Broadcast Satellite system for the United States.

B. Williams; P. Ramanujam; J. Meyers

1993-01-01

47

Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sharing in Relay-Assisted Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sharing in Relay-Assisted Cognitive Radio Systems (Invited Paper) Mariem of a relevant spectrum game. Two energy-efficient sources communicating with their respective destination energy-efficient sources. Keywords: resource allocation, cognitive radio, cooperative transmission, Nash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Efficient population utilization strategy for particle swarm optimizer.  

PubMed

The particle swarm optimizer (PSO) is a population-based optimization technique that can be applied to a wide range of problems. This paper presents a variation on the traditional PSO algorithm, called the efficient population utilization strategy for PSO (EPUS-PSO), adopting a population manager to significantly improve the efficiency of PSO. This is achieved by using variable particles in swarms to enhance the searching ability and drive particles more efficiently. Moreover, sharing principals are constructed to stop particles from falling into the local minimum and make the global optimal solution easier found by particles. Experiments were conducted on unimodal and multimodal test functions such as Quadric, Griewanks, Rastrigin, Ackley, and Weierstrass, with and without coordinate rotation. The results show good performance of the EPUS-PSO in solving most benchmark problems as compared to other recent variants of the PSO. PMID:19095550

Hsieh, Sheng-Ta; Sun, Tsung-Ying; Liu, Chan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Jeng

2009-04-01

49

An increase of utilization efficiency of X-ray beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of absorbed dose field formation in objects irradiated with scanned X-ray beams at double—and four-sided irradiation were investigated both analytically and by Monte Carlo methods. An analytical approach uses an angular/spectrum X-ray characteristics calculated with PENELOPE, JEANT 4 and ModeXR codes. It was shown that the special angular orientation of electron beam incidence on the X-ray converter leads to X-ray dose smoothing on the surface of the irradiated object. At the same time, a double-sided irradiation can provide high X-ray beam efficiency at dose uniformity ration (DUR) <1.5 for sizeable object thickness. At four-sided irradiation, the angular orientation of electron beam incidence on the X-ray converter should be changed so as to focus the electrons to the center of the converter. At this mode X-ray beam efficiency is more than 60%.

Lazurik, V. T.; Pismenesky, S. A.; Popov, G. F.; Rudychev, D. V.; Rudychev, V. G.

2007-11-01

50

Efficient spectrum sharing with autonomous primary users: Distributed dynamic spectrum leasing (D-DSL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new architecture for dynamic spectrum sharing called the distributed dynamic spectrum leasing (D-DSL) and a game theoretic framework for its implementation on a cognitive radio network. In D-DSL, it is assumed that each channel is assigned to a primary user who may lease the channel to secondary users. The spectrum owners can thus dynamically

Georges El-Howayek; Sudharman K. Jayaweera

2010-01-01

51

Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting.  

PubMed

Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials that have huge potential to enable novel, flat optical components, and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. Metasurfaces offer new degrees of freedom in molding the optical wavefronts by introducing abrupt and drastic changes in the amplitude, phase, and/or polarization of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelength scale. By carefully arranging multiple subwavelength anisotropic or gradient optical resonators, metasurfaces have been shown to enable anomalous transmission, anomalous reflection, optical holograms, and spin-orbit interaction. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces that can operate at visible frequency range has been a significant challenge due to high optical losses of plasmonic materials and difficulties in fabricating several plasmonic resonators of subwavelength size with high uniformity. Here, we propose a highly efficient yet a simple metasurface design comprising of a single, anisotropic silver antenna in its unit cell. We demonstrate broadband (450-850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting at visible and near-IR frequencies with high conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction mode was calculated to be on the order of 10(3) and measured to be on the order of 10. The anomalous reflected photons have been visualized using a charge-coupled device camera, and broadband spectrum splitting performance has been confirmed experimentally using a free space, angle-resolved reflection measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed in this study is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic and/or gradient optical resonators and could enable high-efficiency, broadband metasurfaces for achieving flat high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectrometers, polarization beam splitters, directional emitters, and spectrum splitting surfaces for photovoltaics. PMID:25664815

Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

2015-03-11

52

Comparison of efficiency: Cogeneration vs. utility-supplied energy  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the benefits of cogeneration -- the on site production of electricity and hot water -- it is beneficial to know the overall efficiency of the energy media presently being used when compared to cogeneration. Virtually every commercial and industrial establishment purchases their electricity from the local utility company and heat their water by using on site boilers and hot water heaters fired by natural gas or propane -- which they also purchase from an outside supplier. When on-site cogeneration is compared to purchased power the results in fuel usage efficiency are: cogeneration -- 89.2%; purchased power -- 52.6%. The overall result of on site, properly applied cogeneration is an economical, environmental, and conservational tool that preserves an establishment`s cash, helps reduce pollution and conserves a precious natural resource.

Kolanowski, B.F. [Kolanowski and Associates, Carlsbad, CA (United States)

1996-06-01

53

RISM: An Efficient Spectrum Management System for Underwater Cognitive Acoustic Networks  

E-print Network

RISM: An Efficient Spectrum Management System for Underwater Cognitive Acoustic Networks Yu Luo-- Cognitive acoustic (CA) is emerging as a promising technique for environment-friendly and spectrum management systems used for radio networks need an overhaul to work efficiently in un- derwater environments

Zhou, Shengli

54

Energy and Throughput Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios  

E-print Network

Energy and Throughput Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios sensing based cognitive radio network employs a certain number of secondary users to sense the spectrum efficient setup, the number of cooperating cognitive radios is minimized for a k-out- of-N fusion rule

Langendoen, Koen

55

Robust Distributed Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio is an enabling technology for efficient utilization of radio spectrum. A key function of cognitive radios is spectrum sensing, which enables secondary users to identify vacant spectrum not used by primary users (a.k.a. spectrum \\

Ruiliang Chen; Jung-Min Park; Kaigui Bian

2008-01-01

56

Efficient utilization of graphics technology for space animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient utilization of computer graphics technology has become a major investment in the work of aerospace engineers and mission designers. These new tools are having a significant impact in the development and analysis of complex tasks and procedures which must be prepared prior to actual space flight. Design and implementation of useful methods in applying these tools has evolved into a complex interaction of hardware, software, network, video and various user interfaces. Because few people can understand every aspect of this broad mix of technology, many specialists are required to build, train, maintain and adapt these tools to changing user needs. Researchers have set out to create systems where an engineering designer can easily work to achieve goals with a minimum of technological distraction. This was accomplished with high-performance flight simulation visual systems and supercomputer computational horsepower. Control throughout the creative process is judiciously applied while maintaining generality and ease of use to accommodate a wide variety of engineering needs.

Panos, Gregory Peter

1989-01-01

57

Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. Fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the entire life cycle of Exploration by: reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the fabrication infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; these infrastructures allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon, Mars and beyond.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Manning, Curtis W.; Good, Jim

2007-01-01

58

Reclaiming the white spaces: spectrum efficient coexistence with primary users  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV white spaces offer an exciting opportunity for increasing spectrum availability, but white space devices (WSDs) cannot interfere with primary users, including TV channels and wireless microphones (mics). Mics are particularly challenging because their use is dynamic and it is hard to avoid interference since mic receivers are receive-only devices. For this reason the FCC and other regulatory agencies have

George Nychis; Ranveer Chandra; Thomas Moscibroda; Ivan Tashev; Peter Steenkiste

2011-01-01

59

78 FR 18374 - Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV AGENCY: The National...released on June 28, 2010, directed the federal agencies to work together and with the non-federal community, including...

2013-03-26

60

Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization  

PubMed Central

Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38°C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature treatments, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32°C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:19625322

Miller, Gabriel A.; Clissold, Fiona J.; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

61

Modeling and Optimization of Efficiency and NOx Emission at a Coal-Fired Utility Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve boiler efficiency and to reduce the NOx emission of a coal-fired utility boiler using combustion optimization, a hybrid model, by combining support vector regression (SVR) with simplified boiler efficiency model, was proposed to express the relation between operational parameters of the utility boiler and both NOx emission and boiler efficiency. SVR' parameters were determined by the

Huan Zhao; Pei-hong Wang

2009-01-01

62

75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...promote and facilitate wireless innovation to ensure that the promise...potential that these technological innovations have for enabling more effective...additional investment and innovation that can benefit American...work is still in its early stages, and far more efficient...

2010-12-28

63

Energy efficient water utilization systems in process plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach for the design of water utilization networks featuring minimum freshwater usage and minimum utility consumption in process plants. The procedure is confined to treat the single pollutant case, and it is based on a linear programming formulation that relies on necessary conditions of optimality and a heat transshipment model. An LP model is first

Miguel Bagajewicz; Hernán Rodera; Mariano Savelski

2002-01-01

64

USpan: An Efficient Algorithm for Mining High Utility Sequential Patterns  

E-print Network

identified, most of which are not informative enough for business decision-making. In frequent pattern mining utility (frequent or infrequent) patterns are mined which ad- dress typical business concerns concatenation mechanisms for calculating the utility of a node and its children with two ef- fective pruning

Cao, Longbing

65

A spectrum etiquette protocol for efficient coordination of radio devices in unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a spectrum etiquette protocol for efficient coordination of radio communication devices in unlicensed (e.g. 2.4 GHz ISM and 5 GHz U-NII) frequency bands. The proposed etiquette method enables spectrum coordination between multiple wireless devices using different radio technologies such as IEEE 802.11.x, 802.15.x, Bluetooth, Hiperlan, etc. The basic idea is to standardize a simple common protocol for

D. Raychaudhuri; Xiangpeng Jing

2003-01-01

66

Encouraging the Construction of Energy Efficient Homes - A Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

Historically an industry with a supply side orientation, electric utilities are becoming increasingly involved with the end usage, or demand side, of their product as a means of effectively managing their systems....

Kimmons, G. H.

1985-01-01

67

Center for By-Products Utilization CARBONATION: AN EFFICIENT  

E-print Network

and water Calcium silicate hydrate Calcite, silica gel, and water Calcium aluminate hydrate Calcite, alumina Products of Portland Cement Hydrates Cement Hydration Carbonation Products Calcium hydroxide Calcite and calcium monosulfoaluminate Gypsum, alumina gel, and water #12;Center for By-Products Utilization

Saldin, Dilano

68

Privatization of state-owned electric utility in Thailand: Expected effects on economic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation analyzes the prospects of improving the economic efficiency of electricity generation in Thailand by privatization. It examines the monopoly state-owned electric utility, its cost minimizing behavior, and the induced distortion in input prices. This study employs the generalized cost function to investigate the economic efficiency. The basic model follows the relative price efficiency analysis developed by Atkinson and

Ruangrong

1992-01-01

69

The Remle Project: A Study Utilizing the iPad with Families of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of The REMLE Project was to develop a best practices model for using the iPad as an assistive technology device with families of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Implementation of a double-blind, randomized control trial during a six-week intervention utilizing the iPad was measured for effectiveness in empowerment, social…

Vasquez-Terry, Teresa LaDoan

2013-01-01

70

Utilization and Expenditure of Hospital Admission in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: National Health Insurance Claims Database Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There were not many studies to provide information on health access and health utilization of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study describes a general profile of hospital admission and the medical cost among people with ASD, and to analyze the determinants of medical cost. A retrospective study was employed to analyze…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Hung, Wen-Jiu; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im

2011-01-01

71

Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

2014-01-01

72

Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility  

SciTech Connect

Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of alternative incentive approaches on utility shareholders and customers if energy efficiency is implemented under various utility operating, cost, and supply conditions.We used and adapted a spreadsheet-based financial model (the Benefits Calculator) which was developed originally as a tool to support the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE). The major steps in our analysis are displayed graphically in Figure ES- 1. Two main inputs are required: (1) characterization of the utility which includes its initial financial and physical market position, a forecast of the utility?s future sales, peak demand, and resource strategy to meet projected growth; and (2) characterization of the Demand-Side Resource (DSR) portfolio ? projected electricity and demand savings, costs and economic lifetime of a portfolio of energy efficiency (and/or demand response) programs that the utility is planning or considering implementing during the analysis period. The Benefits Calculator also estimates total resource costs and benefits of the DSR portfolio using a forecast of avoided capacity and energy costs. The Benefits Calculator then uses inputs provided in the Utility Characterization to produce a ?business-as usual? base case as well as alternative scenarios that include energy efficiency resources, including the corresponding utility financial budgets required in each case. If a decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism are instituted, the Benefits Calculator model readjusts the utility?s revenue requirement and retail rates accordingly. Finally, for each scenario, the Benefits Calculator produces several metrics that provides insights on how energy efficiency resources, decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism impacts utility shareholders (e.g. overall earnings, return on equity), ratepayers (e.g., average customer bills and rates) and society (e.g. net resource benefits).

Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

2009-03-04

73

Efficiency of Lexical Access in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Modality Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The provision of visual support to individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely recommended. We explored one mechanism underlying the use of visual supports: efficiency of language processing. Two groups of children, one with and one without an ASD, participated. The groups had comparable oral and written language skills and…

Harper-Hill, Keely; Copland, David; Arnott, Wendy

2014-01-01

74

Study on a strategy for spectrum efficiency enhancement of DTV White Space in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a direction for a White Space management scheme to enhance spectrum efficiency by considering unoccupied channel conditions according to the density of DTV transmitters and relays. Unoccupied channels are predicted to foresee White Space within three pilot areas, Uljin, Gangjin and Danyang, in Korea. We considered two DTV service coverage criteria based on two kinds of minimum

Heejoong Kim; Hyungoo Yoon; Hideki Sunahara

2011-01-01

75

Experimental evaluation of efficient routing and distributed spectrum allocation algorithms for GMPLS elastic networks.  

PubMed

This paper presents and experimentally evaluates efficient strategies for dynamic source/Path Computation Element (PCE) routing with aggregated resource information and advanced distributed spectrum allocation algorithms in Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)-controlled elastic optical networks. PMID:23263090

Muñoz, Raül; Casellas, Ramon; Martínez, Ricardo; Liu, Lei; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro

2012-12-17

76

High Efficiency Spectrum Splitting Prototype Submodule Using Commercial CPV Cells (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes progress on the design, fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept, prototype spectrum splitting CPV submodule using commercial CPV cells, aimed at demonstrating an independently confirmed efficiency above 40% at STC (1000 W/m2, AM1.5D ASTM G173-03, 25 degrees C).

Keevers, M.; Lau, J.; Green, M.; Thomas, I.; Lasich, J.; King, R.; Emery, K.

2014-11-01

77

Energy utilization and efficiency analysis for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an energy analysis for load-following versus battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The analysis utilizes dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tools previously presented [R.M. Moore, K.H. Hauer, J. Cunningham, S. Ramaswamy, A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, Fuel Cells, submitted for publication; R.M. Moore, K.H. Hauer, D.J. Friedman, J.M. Cunningham,

R. M. Moore; K. H. Hauer; S. Ramaswamy; J. M. Cunningham

2006-01-01

78

Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

2014-01-01

79

Reviewing the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves--a reductionist approach.  

PubMed

The efficiency of protein utilization for growth in preruminant calves is decreasing with increasing body weight. In contrast to calves weighing less than 100 kg of body weight, heavy preruminant calves do not respond in protein retention to an increased intake of indispensable amino acids in dose-response studies. The marginal efficiency of protein utilization is low compared with pigs and milk-fed lambs at a similar stage of maturity. A reductionist approach was taken to perceive the potential mechanisms for the low protein utilization in preruminant calves. Neither an imbalance in the dietary protein to energy ratio nor a single limiting indispensable amino acid was responsible for the low efficiency. Also, amino acids were not specifically used to detoxify ammonia. Alternative hypotheses to explain the low efficiency are discussed and result in (i) a reduced post-absorptive supply of amino acids: e.g. by fermentation of milk in the (premature) rumen or preferential amino acid utilization by specific tissues; or (ii) a reduced post-absorptive amino acid utilization: e.g. by decreased insulin sensitivity, utilization of amino acids for gluconeogenesis or an asynchronous nutrient supply. In conclusion, several mechanisms for the low efficiency of protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves were excluded. Other physiological processes which are potentially involved remain to be studied, because the large potential for improving protein utilization in heavy preruminant calves asks for further exploration of their amino acid metabolism. PMID:16597419

van den Borne, Joost J G C; Verdonk, Johannes M A J; Schrama, Johan W; Gerrits, Walter J J

2006-01-01

80

The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-print Network

planning, designing and implementing an energy efficiencyefficiency with supply-side resources for the purposes of utility planning.Planning _Data_and_Reference_Docs/Data_and_Reference_Docs/2013_GoldBook.pdf) and the 2014 Energy-Efficiency

Billingsley, Megan A.

2014-01-01

81

High Efficiency Resonant DC/DC Converter Utilizing a Resistance Compression Network  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new topology for a high-efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network (RCN) to provide simultaneous zero-voltage switching and near-zero-current switching ...

Inam, Wardah

82

High efficiency resonant dc/dc converter utilizing a resistance compression network  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new topology for a high efficiency dc/dc resonant power converter that utilizes a resistance compression network to provide simultaneous zero voltage switching and near zero current switching across ...

Inam, Wardah

83

Implications of the Public Utility Regulatory Act for Energy Efficiency in Texas  

E-print Network

to prepare energy efficiency plans. In their plans, utilities must consider the potential for economically producing capacity through supply? side and demand-side alternatives to new power plant construction. These alter? natives are identified... in the definition of energy efficiency included in the Rules. Supply-side alternatives are: optimizing existing and planned generation, transmission, and distribution facilities; purchasing power from cogenerators and small power producers; utilizing direct...

Biedrzycki, C. J.

84

Electric-utility energy-efficiency and load-management programs: Resources for the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this report is to suggest much larger and more active roles for utilities in acquiring energy-efficiency and load-management resources. Valuable utility actions include increased efforts to: Assess existing and new demand-side technologies; Test alternative ways to implement demand-side programs; Aggressively acquire energy and capacity resources through efficiency and load- management programs; Work with governments to support

1989-01-01

85

Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 5979 Energy efficient water utilization systems in process plants  

E-print Network

Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 59­79 Energy efficient water utilization systems. Once the energy and water targets have been identified, an MILP model is generated. This model, which. Keywords: Water utilization networks; Process plants; Energy minimization; Wastewater minimization

Savelski, Mariano J.

86

Rapid Sensing of Underutilized, Wideband Spectrum Using the Random Demodulator  

E-print Network

efficiently use wireless spectrum. The so-called white-space devices are an exam- ple that utilize unused technologies which more efficiently utilize large swaths of spectrum. For example, cognitive radio and white-spaceRapid Sensing of Underutilized, Wideband Spectrum Using the Random Demodulator Andrew Harms1

Bajwa, Waheed U.

87

An Efficient Moving Target Detection Algorithm Based on Sparsity-Aware Spectrum Estimation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, an efficient direct data domain space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm for moving targets detection is proposed, which is achieved based on the distinct spectrum features of clutter and target signals in the angle-Doppler domain. To reduce the computational complexity, the high-resolution angle-Doppler spectrum is obtained by finding the sparsest coefficients in the angle domain using the reduced-dimension data within each Doppler bin. Moreover, we will then present a knowledge-aided block-size detection algorithm that can discriminate between the moving targets and the clutter based on the extracted spectrum features. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through both numerical simulations and raw data processing results. PMID:25222035

Shen, Mingwei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

2014-01-01

88

Effects of neutron energy spectrum on the efficiency calibration of epithermal neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 235U epithermal neutron fission detector system at TFTR has been calibrated in situ, using three different neutron sources: 252Cf, a D-D, and a D-T neutron generator. These sources produced a continuous spectrum, a line spectrum at ˜2.5 MeV, and a line spectrum at ˜14 MeV, respectively. The toroidally averaged detection efficiencies are 4.61×10-9 (252Cf), 4.80×10-9 (D-D), and 5.42×10-9 (D-T) counts/neutron for a moderated 1.3-g 235U detector placed ˜4 m from the torus centerline. The effects of (n,2n) and (n,n'?) reactions are discussed.

Nieschmidt, E. B.; England, A. C.; Hendel, H. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Isaacson, J. A.; Ku, L. P.; Tsang, F. Y.

1985-05-01

89

Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

SciTech Connect

Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs administered by state energy offices: the State Energy Program (SEP) formula grants, the portion of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) formula funds administered directly by states, and the State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP). Since these ARRA programs devote significant monies to energy efficiency and serve similar markets as utility customer-funded programs, there are frequent interactions between programs. We exclude the DOE low-income weatherization program and EECBG funding awarded directly to the over 2,200 cities, counties and tribes from our study to keep its scope manageable. We summarize the energy efficiency program design and funding choices made by the 50 state energy offices, 5 territories and the District of Columbia. We then focus on the specific choices made in 12 case study states. These states were selected based on the level of utility customer program funding, diversity of program administrator models, and geographic diversity. Based on interviews with more than 80 energy efficiency actors in those 12 states, we draw observations about states strategies for use of Recovery Act funds. We examine interactions between ARRA programs and utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs in terms of program planning, program design and implementation, policy issues, and potential long-term impacts. We consider how the existing regulatory policy framework and energy efficiency programs in these 12 states may have impacted development of these selected ARRA programs. Finally, we summarize key trends and highlight issues that evaluators of these ARRA programs may want to examine in more depth in their process and impact evaluations.

Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

2011-02-25

90

Utility Function Programs and Optimization over the Efficient Set in Multiple-Objective Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural basic concepts in multiple-objective optimization lead to difficult multiextremal global optimization problems. Examples include detection of efficient points when nonconvexities occur, and optimization of a linear function over the efficient set in the convex (even linear) case. Assuming that a utility function exists allows one to replace in general the multiple-objective program by a single, nonconvex optimization problem, which

R. Horst; N. V. Thoai

1997-01-01

91

MECHANISMS OF PLANT ZINC EFFICIENCY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOCHEMICAL ZINC UTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is widespread in numerous crops and results in significant yield losses around the world. Application of Zn fertilizers is not an economically viable solution for this problem; therefore more efficient utilization in zinc efficient genotypes may be a more reasonable solution. Th...

92

Energy Efficient Scheme for Cognitive Radios Utilizing Soft AbdulRahman Alabbasi , Zouheir Rezki , Basem Shihada  

E-print Network

energy efficient sys- tems by minimizing the system energy while preserving its Quality of Service (QoEnergy Efficient Scheme for Cognitive Radios Utilizing Soft Sensing AbdulRahman Alabbasi , Zouheir: {abdulrahman.alabbasi, zouheir.rezki, basem.shihada}@kaust.edu.sa Abstract--In this paper we propose an energy

Shihada, Basem

93

Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.

1983-01-01

94

Faraday caustics. Singularities in the Faraday spectrum and their utility as probes of magnetic field properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe singularities in the distribution of polarized intensity as a function of Faraday depth (i.e. the Faraday spectrum) caused by line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field reversals. We call these features Faraday caustics because of their similarity to optical caustics. They appear as sharply peaked and asymmetric profiles in the Faraday spectrum, that have a tail that extends to one side.

M. R. Bell; H. Junklewitz; T. A. Enßlin

2011-01-01

95

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

2010-06-01

96

A 1MHz Area-Efficient On-Chip Spectrum Analyzer for Analog Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 0.35-?m CMOS on-chip spectrum analyzer based on switched-capacitor (SC) techniques. The prototype device\\u000a utilizes a 3-V supply and basically includes an SC sine-wave generator, a fourth-order high-selectivity SC filter, and a programmable\\u000a gain amplifier followed by an 8-b analog-to-digital converter. A non-uniform sampling scheme, which adds one degree of freedom\\u000a in determining the frequency response parameters

Miguel Angel Domínguez; José L. Ausín; J. Francisco Duque-carrillo; Guido Torelli

2006-01-01

97

A Social Group Utility Maximization Framework with Applications in Database Assisted Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

between these two extreme cases. Indeed, with the explosive growth of online social networks maximization (SGUM) framework for cooperative networking that takes into account both social relationships network utility, each user aims to maximize its social group utility that hinges heavily on its social

Reisslein, Martin

98

A Social Group Utility Maximization Framework with Applications in Database Assisted Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

. Indeed, with the explosive growth of online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, more and more maximization (SGUM) framework for cooperative networking that takes into account both social relationships network utility, each user aims to maximize its social group utility that hinges heavily on its social

Reisslein, Martin

99

Engineering Pseudomonas putida S12 for efficient utilization of D-xylose and L-arabinose.  

PubMed

The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to utilize xylose as a substrate by expressing xylose isomerase (XylA) and xylulokinase (XylB) from Escherichia coli. The initial yield on xylose was low (9% [g CDW g substrate(-1)], where CDW is cell dry weight), and the growth rate was poor (0.01 h(-1)). The main cause of the low yield was the oxidation of xylose into the dead-end product xylonate by endogenous glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd). Subjecting the XylAB-expressing P. putida S12 to laboratory evolution yielded a strain that efficiently utilized xylose (yield, 52% [g CDW g xylose(-1)]) at a considerably improved growth rate (0.35 h(-1)). The high yield could be attributed in part to Gcd inactivity, whereas the improved growth rate may be connected to alterations in the primary metabolism. Surprisingly, without any further engineering, the evolved D-xylose-utilizing strain metabolized l-arabinose as efficiently as D-xylose. Furthermore, despite the loss of Gcd activity, the ability to utilize glucose was not affected. Thus, a P. putida S12-derived strain was obtained that efficiently utilizes the three main sugars present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate: glucose, xylose, and arabinose. This strain will form the basis for a platform host for the efficient production of biochemicals from renewable feedstock. PMID:18586973

Meijnen, Jean-Paul; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

2008-08-01

100

Spectrum converter dye for enhancement of blue-green laser efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In order to enhance the efficiency of a blue-green laser through spectrum conversion of the pumping light, a converter dye BBQ was mixed in the laser dye solutions. The laser was pumped with a plasma radiation source. The increase of laser output over the maximum obtainable from the pure dye operation was better than 80% for the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ or coumarin 503+BBQ. The estimated enhancement calculated by a simple spectrum conversion model agrees well with the experimental results. The enhancement is mainly effected by irradiance in the UV from the pumping source, the fairly good match of the fluorescence band of converter dye with the absorption band of the laser dye, and the lack of the overlap of the fluorescence band of the laser dyes with the triplet--triplet absorption band of the converter dye used.

Han, K.S.; Oh, C.H.; Lee, J.H.

1986-11-15

101

Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

Wolfer, B. M.

1977-01-01

102

Acoustic Feature Selection Utilizing Multiple Kernel Learning for Classification of Children with Autism Spectrum and Typically  

E-print Network

) [11], Applied Behavier Analysis (ABA) [12], Social Skills Training (SST) [13]) is effective [7 (ASD) has also been focused on. An autistic spectrum obstacle is a congenital cerebral dysfunction, and it is a type of the developmental dis- ease causing difficulty in communication, perceptual, cognitive

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

103

UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

104

Spectrum splitting photovoltaics: light trapping filtered concentrator for ultrahigh photovoltaic efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While monolithic multijunction solar cell approaches have been quite successful, current and lattice matching requirements limit the maximum possible achievable efficiencies. Spectrum splitting, where light is optically distributed among subcells with differing bandgaps, avoids these constraints and offers a route to achieving higher efficiencies (<50%). We investigate a spectrum splitting approach where concentrated sunlight is trapped in a textured dielectric slab and then selectively coupled into underlying solar cells of different bandgaps through omnidirectional filters. We develop a multipass optical model to find regimes of high optical efficiency based on parameters such as slab refractive index, number of subcells, and angle restriction of light escape from the slab. Based on these results and filter design considerations, we describe a specific design featuring a textured slab of SiO2 coated with angle restricting incoupling elements based on compound parabolic concentrators and three underlying multijunction junction solar cells, for a total of eight junctions with bandgaps ranging from 2.2eV to 0.7. Using the multipass model in conjunction with modified detailed balance calculations, we find module efficiencies exceeding 50% are possible with an acceptance angle restricted to 20° or less and concentrations of a few hundred suns with ideal omnidirectional filters. Finally as proof of concept, we design a full set of omnidirectional filters for this design. Based on alternating layers of TiO2 and SiO2, we achieve angle averaged reflectivity greater than 90% within the reflection band and angle averaged transmission of approximately 90% within the transmission band for the long pass filter, for nearly 48% receiver efficiency.

Kosten, Emily D.; Warmann, Emily C.; Lloyd, John; Atwater, Harry A.

2013-09-01

105

Efficient Utilization of Scratch-Pad Memory in Embedded Processor Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient utilization of on-chip memory space is extremely important in modern embedded system applications based on microprocessor cores. In addition to a data cache that interfaces with slower off-chip memory, a fast on-chip SRAM, called Scratch-Pad memory, is often used in several applications. We present a technique for efficiently exploiting on-chip Scratch-Pad memory by partitioning the application's scalar and array

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

1997-01-01

106

HC-MAC: A Hardware-Constrained Cognitive MAC for Efficient Spectrum Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio spectrum resource is of fundamental impor- tance for wireless communication. Recent reports show that most available spectrum has been allocated. While some of the spectrum bands (e.g., unlicensed band, GSM band) have seen increasingly crowded usage, most of the other spectrum resources are underutilized. This drives the emergence of open spectrum and dynamic spectrum access concepts, which allow unlicensed

Juncheng Jia; Qian Zhang; Xuemin Shen

2008-01-01

107

Effects of fouling on the efficiency of heat exchangers in lignite utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this article is directed towards the understanding of the mechanism of ash deposition on the surfaces of tubes of heat exchangers in lignite utility boilers and the evaluation of the influence of fouling on heat exchanger efficiency. For this purpose a numerical model was developed to predict the deposition of particles onto the heat transfer surfaces.

G. Bergeles; D. Bouris; M. Yianneskis; S. Balabani; A. Kravaritis; S. Itskos

1997-01-01

108

Modelling and analysis of blast furnace performance for efficient utilization of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model is presented to assess thermal performance of blast furnace (BF) for efficient utilization of energy with an integrated view to improving the productivity of the plant. The model is developed using the mass, energy and availability balance equations and is applied to an existing Iron and Steel industry in India. A comparison of the actual operation of

M. G. Rasul; B. S. Tanty; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

109

Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Prediction for Improved Utilization and Efficiency in Datacenters and Backbone requirements prevent easy integration with highly variable renewable energy sources. Short-term green energy of 11%. Their energy needs are supplied mainly by non-renewable, or brown energy sources, which

Simunic, Tajana

110

Nitrogen utilization efficiency: Relationships with grain yield, grain protein, and yield-related traits in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeders have historically not included nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) as a selection criterion in breeding for cultivars, even though it has economic and ecological implications. This study examined the significance and magnitude of variation in N content, NUE, N trans...

111

Using Milk Urea Nitrogen to Predict Nitrogen Excretion and Utilization Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because animal agriculture has been identified as a major source of nonpoint N pollution, ways to reduce the excretion of N by production animals must be examined. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model that inte- grates milk urea N to predict excretion, intake, and utilization efficiency of N in lactating dairy cows. Three

J. S. Jonker; R. A. Kohn; R. A. Erdman

1998-01-01

112

Analyzing the Energy Utilization Efficiency of Renewable Energy Resources. Part 2: Exergy Analysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exergy analysis is a powerful tool in the design, simulation and performance evaluation of thermal and thermo chemical systems. A particular thermo dynamical system is the society of a country or a region. This method of exergy analysis has recently been used with an increasing interest to assess the energy utilization efficiencies of countries. Part 2 of the present study,

Arif Hepbasli; Zafer Utlu

2006-01-01

113

Efficient Electrocatalyst Utilization: Electrochemical Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles Using Nafion Membrane as a Template  

E-print Network

Efficient Electrocatalyst Utilization: Electrochemical Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles Using Nafion Form: January 20, 2006 We deposit Pt particles electrochemically on an electrode covered with a Nafion of the membrane on top. Introduction Nafion membranes are used as electrolytes in methanol and hydrogen fuel cells

Buratto, Steve

114

Bayesian Analysis (2009) 4, Number 3, pp. 539572 Efficient Utility-based Clustering over High  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis (2009) 4, Number 3, pp. 539­572 Efficient Utility-based Clustering over High, even when Bayes factors have a closed form, in model-based clustering a comprehensive search for the highest scoring (MAP) partition is usually impossible. However, when each cluster in a partition has

Millar, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

115

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01

116

Theoretical investigation of the spectrum and conversion efficiency of short wavelength extreme-ultraviolet light sources based on terbium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The emission spectrum and conversion efficiency of laser-produced terbium plasmas are theoretically investigated on the basis of computational atomic data. The theoretically calculated spectrum reproduces the main peak of observed spectrum at {lambda}=6.5 nm, which originates from 4d-4f transitions of near palladiumlike ions (Tb{sup 19+}). A simple model of the isothermal expansion of terbium plasma suggests that efficient emission can be achieved by pumping the plasma with a laser pulse at an intensity of approximately one order of magnitude greater than that used with tin sources at {lambda}=13.5 nm.

Sasaki, Akira [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Nishihara, Katsunobu [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki [Institute for Laser Technology, 1-8-4 Utsubohonmachi, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0004 (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 1-1 Naka 3-Chome, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Koike, Fumihiro [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

2010-12-06

117

Effects of space flight, clinorotation, and centrifugation on the substrate utilization efficiency of E. coli  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultures of Escherichia coli grown in space reached a 25% higher average final cell population than those in comparably matched ground controls (p<0.05). However, both groups consumed the same quantity of glucose, which suggests that space flight not only stimulated bacterial growth as has been previously reported, but also resulted in a 25% more efficient utilization of the available nutrients. Supporting experiments performed in "simulated weightlessness" under clinorotation produced similar trends of increased growth and efficiency, but to a lesser extent in absolute values. These experiments resulted in increases of 12% and 9% in average final cell population (p<0.05), while the efficiency of substrate utilization improved by 6% and 9% relative to static controls (p=0.12 and p<0.05, respectively). In contrast, hypergravity, produced by centrifugation, predictably resulted in the opposite effect--a decrease of 33% to 40% in final cell numbers with corresponding 29% to 40% lower net growth efficiencies (p<0.01). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that the increased bacterial growth observed in weightlessness is a result of reduced extracellular mass transport that occurs in the absence of sedimentation and buoyancy-driven convection, which consequently also improves substrate utilization efficiency in suspended cultures.

Brown, Robert B.; Klaus, D.; Todd, P.

2002-01-01

118

A Comparison of Health Care Utilization and Costs of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Large Group-Model Health Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Data on the current costs of medical services for children with autism spectrum disorders are lacking. Our purpose for this study was to compare health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in the same health plan. Patients and Methods: Participants included all 2- to 18-year-old children with…

Croen, Lisa A.; Najjar, Daniel V.; Ray, G. Thomas; Lotspeich, Linda; Bernal, Pilar

2007-01-01

119

Protein requirements of bobwhite chicks for survival, growth and efficiency of feed utilization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer and fall of 1939 four experiments were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the protein requirements of bobwhite chicks. A total of 816 chicks were used to compare six levels of protein, namely, 22,24,26, 28, 30, and 32 per cent.....From the three standpoints of survival, rate of growth, and efficiency of feed utilization for the first ten weeks of life, the 28 per cent level of protein gave the best results. During the ninth and tenth weeks, the highest efficiency of feed utilization was obtained on the 22 per cent level. The results indicate that after the birds have reached about twothirds of their mature weight, the difference in efficiency between a diet containing 28 per cent of protein and one containing 22 per cent may be small enough to justify, in the interest of economy, the use of a diet containing the lower percentage of protein.

Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; McClure, H.E.

1942-01-01

120

Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

1990-12-01

121

Efficient Single-Mode Photon-Coupling Device Utilizing a Nanofiber Tip  

PubMed Central

Single-photon sources are important elements in quantum optics and quantum information science. It is crucial that such sources be able to couple photons emitted from a single quantum emitter to a single propagating mode, preferably to the guided mode of a single-mode optical fiber, with high efficiency. Various photonic devices have been successfully demonstrated to efficiently couple photons from an emitter to a single mode of a cavity or a waveguide. However, efficient coupling of these devices to optical fibers is sometimes challenging. Here we show that up to 38% of photons from an emitter can be directly coupled to a single-mode optical fiber by utilizing the flat tip of a silica nanofiber. With the aid of a metallic mirror, the efficiency can be increased to 76%. The use of a silicon waveguide further increases the efficiency to 87%. This simple device can be applied to various quantum emitters. PMID:24759303

Chonan, Sho; Kato, Shinya; Aoki, Takao

2014-01-01

122

Faraday caustics: Singularities in the Faraday spectrum and their utility as probes of magnetic field properties  

E-print Network

We describe singularities in the distribution of polarized intensity as a function of Faraday depth (i.e. the Faraday spectrum) that arise due to line of sight (LOS) magnetic field reversals. We call these features Faraday caustics due to their similarity to optical caustics. They appear sharply spiked in the Faraday spectrum with a tail that extends to one side. The direction in which the tail extends depends on the way in which the LOS magnetic field reversal occurs (either changing from oncoming to retreating or vice versa). We describe how surfaces of Faraday caustics relate to boundaries between regions where the LOS magnetic field has opposite polarity. Examples from simulations of the polarized synchrotron emission from the Milky Way are provided. We derive the probability or luminosity distribution of Faraday caustics produced in a Gaussian magnetic field distribution as a function of their strength, F, and find that for strong Faraday caustics P(F) ~ F^(-3). If fully resolved, this distribution is al...

Bell, M R; Enßlin, T A

2011-01-01

123

Area spectrum efficiency of TV White Space wireless system with transmit power control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a technical approach to solve spectrum scarcity problem, cognitive radio (CR), which enables more flexible use of spectrum through spectrum sharing technology, draws huge attention recently. TV White Space which means geographically unused spectrum in TV broadcasting band is considered as a good frequency band candidate for CR based spectrum sharing technology due to some reasons. However, primary user

Sang Yun Lee; Sung Hee An; Yang Moon Yoon

2010-01-01

124

A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs  

SciTech Connect

Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

1996-07-01

125

High-performance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based dye-sensitized solar cells: rational design of quantum dots for wide solar-spectrum utilization.  

PubMed

High-performance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been successfully fabricated through the optimized design of a CdSe/CdS quantum-dot (QD) donor and a dye acceptor. This simple approach enables quantum dots and dyes to simultaneously utilize the wide solar spectrum, thereby resulting in high conversion efficiency over a wide wavelength range. In addition, major parameters that affect the FRET interaction between donor and acceptor have been investigated including the fluorescent emission spectrum of QD, and the content of deposited QDs into the TiO2 matrix. By judicious control of these parameters, the FRET interaction can be readily optimized for high photovoltaic performance. In addition, the as-synthesized water-soluble quantum dots were highly dispersed in a nanoporous TiO2 matrix, thereby resulting in excellent contact between donors and acceptors. Importantly, high-performance FRET-based DSSCs can be prepared without any infrared (IR) dye synthetic procedures. This novel strategy offers great potential for applications of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:23765414

Lee, Eunwoo; Kim, Chanhoi; Jang, Jyongsik

2013-07-29

126

Efficiency of utilization of nitrogen coated with urease inhibitor in maize.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate under field conditions the efficiency in the use ofN coated with urease inhibitor in maize. The experiment was conducted in the year of 2007/2008. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a factorial 2 x 6, with five repetitions, constituted the N sources (common and coated with urease inhibitor) and levels (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1 of N) sidedressing nitrogen application in the growth stage V4. Based on the data obtained were determined recovery efficiencies, utilization, agronomic and physiological N applied. In all cases, the efficiency levels for maize were influenced by levels of sidedressing nitrogen application, in which increasing levels of N resulted in a decrease of the efficiencies, regardless of the source being common urea or coated with urease inhibitor. PMID:24498841

Okumura, Ricardo S; Mariano, Daiane de C; Zaccheo, Paulo V C; de Albuquerque, Amanda N; Giebelmeier, Carmo G; da S Lobato, Allan K; Franco, Antônio A N; de Oliveira, Neto Cândido F; Saldanha, Eduardo C M; da Conceição, Heráclito E O; da Silva, Raimundo T L

2013-09-01

127

Design optimization of highly efficient spectrum-splitting and beam-concentrating diffractive optical element for lateral multijunction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two improved algorithms are proposed to extend a diffractive optical element (DOE) to work under the broad spectrum of sunlight. An optimum design has been found for the DOE, with a weighted average optical efficiency of about 6.8% better than that of the previous design. The optimization of designing high optical efficiency DOEs will pave the way for future designs of high-efficiency, low-cost lateral multijunction solar cells based on such a DOE.

Wang, Jin-Ze; Ye, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Qing-Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Dong-Mei; Meng, Qing-Bo; Yang, Guo-Zhen

2014-04-01

128

A Method for Efficient Transmittance Spectrum Prediction of Transparent Composite Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in indium-free transparent composite electrode (TCE), a thin metal layer embedded between two transparent metal oxide (TMO) layers resulting in TMO/metal/TMO composite structure, has grown recently with the advent of their high figures of merit and its potential application in photovoltaic applications. However, most of the work to date has focused on experimentally producing the best optically transmitting TCE. To better design TCEs and minimize experimental work, it would be useful to develop a model that predicts the optical transmission. In the current work, the transfer-matrix method is employed to calculate the transmittance spectrum of TCE. To validate this approach, the transmittance spectra of TiO2/Au/TiO2 and TiO2/Ag/TiO2 multilayer thin-film TCEs are calculated with use of extracted material parameters. The calculated transmittance spectrum of TiO2/Au/TiO2 matches the measured spectrum quite well. However, the calcualted transmittance of TiO2/Ag/TiO2 is higher than its measured transmittance. The presence of voids in the Ag film is probably responsible for the decreased transmittance of the TiO2/Ag/TiO2 sample, and the continuous Au film in TiO2/Au/TiO2 ensures a good agreement between transmittance prediction and measurement. Our approach is a reliable tool to predict the optical transmittance of TCE with continuous films, and it can efficiently expedite the selection from numerous possible combinations of transparent metal oxides and metals when developing TCEs for future photovoltaic applications. It can also serve as a convenient method to assess the continuity of embedded metal layer.

Zhao, Zhao; Dhar, A.; Alford, T. L.

2015-02-01

129

Resource-Efficient Fusion over Fading and Non-Fading Reporting Channels for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel resource-efficient technique for the reporting channel transmissions in cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed. In this technique, secondary users are allowed to simultaneously send their local decisions to the fusion center, saving time and frequency resources. Expressions for the probabilities of detection and false alarm for the unitary-gain AWGN reporting channels were derived, while simulation results were given for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. Here, we provide an expression that is applicable to AWGN channels with different real-valued gains and to time-varying real-valued gains. A simple suboptimum receiver is proposed for the general complex-valued fading and non-fading channels, with an improved performance in the low signal-to-noise ratio condition. Numerical results are shown for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading reporting channels, demonstrating the accuracy of the derived expressions and the attractive performance of the proposed receiver. PMID:25602264

Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro

2015-01-01

130

Generic Spectrum and Ionization Efficiency of a Heavy Initial Mass Function for the First Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the generic spectral signature of an early population of massive stars at high redshifts. For metal-free stars with mass above 300 Msolar, we find that the combined spectral luminosity per unit stellar mass is almost independent of the mass distribution of these stars. To zeroth order, the generic spectrum resembles a blackbody with an effective temperature of ~105 K, making these stars highly efficient at ionizing hydrogen and helium. The production rate of ionizing radiation per stellar mass by stars more massive than ~300 Msolar is larger by ~1 order of magnitude for hydrogen and He I and by ~2 orders of magnitude for He II than the emission from a standard initial mass function. This would result in unusually strong hydrogen and helium recombination lines from the surrounding interstellar medium. It could also alleviate the current difficulty of ionizing the intergalactic medium at z>~6 with the cosmic star formation rate inferred at somewhat lower redshifts.

Bromm, Volker; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Loeb, Abraham

2001-05-01

131

Efficiency of lexical access in children with autism spectrum disorders: does modality matter?  

PubMed

The provision of visual support to individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely recommended. We explored one mechanism underlying the use of visual supports: efficiency of language processing. Two groups of children, one with and one without an ASD, participated. The groups had comparable oral and written language skills and nonverbal cognitive abilities. In two semantic priming experiments, prime modality and prime-target relatedness were manipulated. Response time and accuracy of lexical decisions on the spoken word targets were measured. In the first uni-modal experiment, both groups demonstrated significant priming effects. In the second experiment which was cross-modal, no effect for relatedness or group was found. This result is considered in the light of the attentional capacity required for access to the lexicon via written stimuli within the developing semantic system. These preliminary findings are also considered with respect to the use of visual support for children with ASD. PMID:24519698

Harper-Hill, Keely; Copland, David; Arnott, Wendy

2014-08-01

132

Price-Based Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radios (CRs) have a great potential to improve spectrum utilization by enabling users to access the spectrum dynamically without disturbing licensed primary radios (PRs). A key challenge in operating these radios as a network is how to implement an efficient medium access control (MAC) mechanism that can adaptively and efficiently allocate transmission powers and spectrum among CRs according to

Fan Wang; Marwan Krunz; Shuguang Cui

2008-01-01

133

Effect of temperature on light utilization efficiency of leaves in C 3 legumes and C 4 grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperatures between 15 and 50°C on the light utilization efficiency of leaf net photosynthesis was studied in two C4 grasses and two C3 legumes. In the legumes, light utilization efficiency (? mol of CO2 fixed per ? Einstein of incident photosynthetic quantum flux) declined linearly with temperature between 15 and 45°C. On the other hand, it was

M. M. Ludlow

1981-01-01

134

[Utility of composite and multiple criteria measuring discriminative efficiency in personnel selection].  

PubMed

The present study examined the utility of decision making in personnel selection comparing multiple and composite criteria by discriminative efficiency, in a bricklaying training program. We have found valid predictors (aptitudes, personality and experience) with different forms of the criterion, the ERPF scale, in logistic and multiple regression analysis. Results seem indicate that there is not a better criterion, so it depends on different conditions and different aims to reach. We proposed criteria as combining measures but not opposed. PMID:17296039

García Izquierdo, Mariano; García Izquierdo, Antonio León

2006-05-01

135

Utility planning implications of efficient electric cooking in a developing country: Case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine implications of electric cooking as a demand-side management (DSM) option for power development plans, as well as emission of pollutants, for the predominantly hydroelectric utility of Nepal. Options considered include seasonal and year-round electric cooking with high- and low-efficiency appliances. For both types of appliances, seasonal electric cooking is economically and environmentally attractive. However, substantial reductions in electricity

Ram M. Shrestha; Gopal B. Bhattarai

1995-01-01

136

Efficient Uplink Bandwidth Utilization in P2P-TV Streaming Systems  

E-print Network

Efficient Uplink Bandwidth Utilization in P2P-TV Streaming Systems Alessandra Carta, Marco Mellia.lastname}@tlc.polito.it Abstract--Peer-to-Peer streaming systems (or P2P-TV) have been studied in the literature for some time, and they are becoming popular among users as well. P2P-TV systems target the real time delivery of a video stream

137

The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states with Republican governors, Democratic and professionalized legislatures, dominant interest groups, higher levels of GSP, greater growth in per capita personal income, traditionalistic political cultures, and lower levels of environmental commitment. Moreover, economics is not always the most influential factor in determining regulatory policy. Rather, political institutions and government bureaucracies make a considerable difference.

Altman, John Arthur

138

OS-MAC: An Efficient MAC Protocol for Spectrum-Agile Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networks and devices have been rapidly gaining popularity over their wired counterparts. This popularity, in turn, has been generating an explosive and ever-increasing demand for, and hence creating a shortage of, the radio spectrum. Existing studies indicate that this foreseen spectrum shortage is not so much due to the scarcity of the radio spectrum, but due to the inefficiency

Bechir Hamdaoui; Kang G. Shin

2008-01-01

139

Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

2008-09-15

140

Arc View/Avenue: Coding styles and utility scripts for efficient development  

SciTech Connect

Effectiveness and efficiency of software development can be greatly increased by writing modularized code using informal (styles) and formal (standards) work approaches. Software development is about connecting pieces into a coherent whole. Thus consistent work approaches provide a structure that allows individuals and teams to minimize the time and thought put into making these connections. These investments in structure return even more benefits in the maintenance phase when old code has to be examined by new programmers, or after time has passed. We present some examples of coding style for Avenue: a simplified form of Hungarian notation (notationHungarian, stringCustomerName, etc.), script naming prefixes and suffixes, and options in script headers. We demonstrate several modular, object-like utility scripts that can be used alone or combined into other utilities. These include developer tools such as a System.Echo substitute for Windows, a Window inspector, and a script for detecting and dealing with multiple display resolutions.

Ganter, J.

1996-05-07

141

Federal government, utility, manufacturer: A unique partnership for comprehensive water efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A partnership among the Federal government, a utility, and water efficient equipment manufacturers was developed in response to the Executive Order 12902, Energy and Efficiency in Federal Facilities, where water conservation is still a fairly undeveloped part of resource conservation in the Federal government. The Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program (with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) managed the project, bringing together the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration and Bureau of Reclamation with Denver Water and four water use equipment manufacturers to install and test water-saving indoor and outdoor technologies at the Denver Federal Center. This paper will describe the process used to form this partnership and document the results and its potential impact.

Mayo, K.

1995-10-01

142

CFTR mutations spectrum and the efficiency of molecular diagnostics in Polish cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR). In light of the strong allelic heterogeneity and regional specificity of the mutation spectrum, the strategy of molecular diagnostics and counseling in CF requires genetic tests to reflect the frequency profile characteristic for a given population. The goal of the study was to provide an updated comprehensive estimation of the distribution of CFTR mutations in Polish CF patients and to assess the effectiveness of INNOLiPA_CFTR tests in Polish population. The analyzed cohort consisted of 738 patients with the clinically confirmed CF diagnosis, prescreened for molecular defects using INNOLiPA_CFTR panels from Innogenetics. A combined efficiency of INNOLiPA CFTR_19 and CFTR_17_TnUpdate tests was 75.5%; both mutations were detected in 68.2%, and one mutation in 14.8% of the affected individuals. The group composed of all the patients with only one or with no mutation detected (109 and 126 individuals, respectively) was analyzed further using a mutation screening approach, i.e. SSCP/HD (single strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex) analysis of PCR products followed by sequencing of the coding sequence. As a result, 53 more mutations were found in 97 patients. The overall efficiency of the CF allele detection was 82.5% (7.0% increase compared to INNOLiPA tests alone). The distribution of the most frequent mutations in Poland was assessed. Most of the mutations repetitively found in Polish patients had been previously described in other European populations. The most frequent mutated allele, F508del, represented 54.5% of Polish CF chromosomes. Another eight mutations had frequencies over 1%, 24 had frequencies between 1 and 0.1%; c.2052-2053insA and c.3468+2_3468+3insT were the most frequent non-INNOLiPA mutations. Mutation distribution described herein is also relevant to the Polish diaspora. Our study also demonstrates that the reported efficiency of mutation detection strongly depends on the diagnostic experience of referring health centers. PMID:24586523

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Rutkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Klimek, Barbara; Voelkel, Katarzyna; Witt, Micha?

2014-01-01

143

Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer  

PubMed Central

A highly efficient sequentially deposited bilayer (SD-bilayer) of polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is developed via the solution process. Herein, we resolve two essential problems regarding the construction of an efficient SD-bilayer OPV. First, the solution process fabrication of the SD-bilayer is resolved by incorporating an ordering agent (OA) to the polymer solution, which improves the ordering of the polymer chain and prevents the bottom-layer from dissolving into the top-layer solution. Second, a non-planar heterojunction with a large surface area is formed by the incorporation of a heterojunction agent (HA) to the top-layer solution. Poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) is used for the bottom-layer and phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC70BM) is used for the top-layer. The SD-bilayer OPV produced utilizing both an OA and HA exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12% with a high internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We believe our bilayer system affords a new way of forming OPVs distinct from bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems and offers a chance to reconsider the polymers that have thus far shown unsatisfactory performance in BHJ systems. PMID:25670623

Seok, Jeesoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Yeol Ryu, Du; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Kyungkon

2015-01-01

144

Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly efficient sequentially deposited bilayer (SD-bilayer) of polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is developed via the solution process. Herein, we resolve two essential problems regarding the construction of an efficient SD-bilayer OPV. First, the solution process fabrication of the SD-bilayer is resolved by incorporating an ordering agent (OA) to the polymer solution, which improves the ordering of the polymer chain and prevents the bottom-layer from dissolving into the top-layer solution. Second, a non-planar heterojunction with a large surface area is formed by the incorporation of a heterojunction agent (HA) to the top-layer solution. Poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) is used for the bottom-layer and phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC70BM) is used for the top-layer. The SD-bilayer OPV produced utilizing both an OA and HA exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12% with a high internal quantum efficiency (IQE). We believe our bilayer system affords a new way of forming OPVs distinct from bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems and offers a chance to reconsider the polymers that have thus far shown unsatisfactory performance in BHJ systems.

Seok, Jeesoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Yeol Ryu, Du; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Kyungkon

2015-02-01

145

Efficient Discovery of Spectrum Opportunities with MAC-Layer Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing\\/monitoring of spectrum-availability has been identified as a key requirement for dynamic spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). An important issue associated with MAC-layer sensing in CRNs is how often to sense the availability of licensed channels and in which order to sense those channels. To resolve this issue, we address (1) how to maximize the discovery of spectrum

Hyoil Kim; Kang G. Shin

2008-01-01

146

HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi, Mark Handley, Kyle Jamieson, Brad Karp  

E-print Network

HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi acquisition overhead for TCP ACKs. In this paper, we propose TCP/HACK (Hierarchical AC- Knowledgment in unidirectional TCP flows, TCP/HACK significantly improves medium utilization, and thus significantly in- creases

Handley, Mark

147

The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

SciTech Connect

End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

2014-03-19

148

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 60, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2012 2851 Efficient Spectrum Sensing for  

E-print Network

up "white spaces" [1] (temporally under- used spectrum) in the VHF and UHF bands. As a result to detect available white spaces for occupancy and subsequent spectrum sharing (release of the white space constitute the primary network that must be protected when unlicensed users attempt to use white spaces

Roy, Sumit

149

Area utilization efficiency of a sloping heliostat system for solar concentration.  

PubMed

Area utilization efficiency (AUE) is formulated for a sloping heliostat system facing any direction. The effects of slope shading, incidence factor, sun shading, and tower blocking by the mirrors are all taken into account. Our results show that annually averaged AUEs calculated for heliostat systems (1) increase with tower height at low slope angles but less rapidly at high slopes, (2) increase monotonically with slope angle and saturate at large slopes for systems facing due south, (3) reach a maximum at a certain slope for systems facing other directions than due south, and (4) drop sharply at slopes greater than a certain value for systems facing due east or west due to slope shading effect. The results are useful for solar energy collection on nonflat terrains. PMID:18195827

Wei, L Y

1983-02-15

150

On-Site Fabrication Infrastructure to Enable Efficient Exploration and Utilization of Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike past one-at-a-time mission approaches, system-of-systems infrastructures will be needed to enable ambitious scenarios for sustainable future space exploration and utilization. So what do we do when we get to the moon for sustainable exploration. On-site fabrication infrastructure will be needed to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, vehicle components and crew systems. The on-site fabrication infrastructure will need the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR element has worked closely with the ISRU element in the past year to assess the ability of using lunar regolith as a viable feedstock for fabrication material. Preliminary work has shown promise and the ISFR Element will continue to concentrate on this activity. Fabrication capabilities have been furthered with the process certification effort that, when completed, will allow for space-qualified hardware to be manufactured. Materials being investigated include titanium and aluminum alloys as well as lunar regolith simulants with binders. This paper addresses the latest advancements made in the fabrication of infrastructures that support efficient, affordable, reliable infrastructures for both space exploration systems and logistics; infrastructures that allow sustained, affordable and highly effective operations on the Moon and beyond.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; McLemore, Carole A.; Good, James E.

2008-01-01

151

Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District  

SciTech Connect

Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

Price, Phillip

2014-12-22

152

Simultaneous boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability utilizing neural network modeling  

SciTech Connect

Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements and to achieve specific company goals. Unfortunately, these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires Utilities to reduce NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NO{sub x} burners. Boiler tuning for NO{sub x} control can be used as an alternative to low NO{sub x} burner installation. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and it provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at several fossil plants. The tests were primarily for NO{sub x} reduction, but the performance parameters were optimized simultaneously.

Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.

1996-07-01

153

Cost-efficient hermetic fibre pigtailed laser module utilizing passive device alignment on an LTCC substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hermetic fibre pigtailed laser module utilizing passive device alignment on a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) substrate is demonstrated. The 3-dimensional shape of the laminated and fired ceramic substrate provides the necessary alignment structures including holes, grooves and cavities for the laser to fibre coupling. The achieved passive alignment accuracy allows high coupling efficiency realizations of multi-mode fibre pigtailed laser modules. The ceramic substrate is intrinsically hermetic and it opens up a possibility to produce cost efficient hermetic packaging. In our concept hermetic sealing is produced by utilizing Kovar frame, which is soldered to an LTCC substrate. Kovar frame has a hole for fibre feed-trough and a hermetic glass-metal sealing between fibre and frame is processed using glass preform. The heart of the module is a power laser diode chip, which can produce several watts of continuous power. The module, however, can be finally used as a transmitter in a laser pulse time-of-flight distance sensor and in this application it can be overdriven by a factor of 10. This means that the peak optical power in the pulses can be several tens of watts. The laser chip allows this kind of overdriving due to the fact that the duty factor in the operation is only 0.0001 at 2 kHz pulsing frequency. Optical coupling efficiency of the multi-mode laser system was simulated using optical systems simulation software. The nominal coupling efficiency between 210 ?m x 1?m stripe laser and 200/220 ?m step index fibre (NA=0.22) was 0.65. The simulated coupling efficiency was verified by prototype realization and characterization. The measured average coupling efficiency of the hermetically sealed prototypes was 0.39. The coupling efficiencies of prototypes varied from 0.14 to 0.64. Leak rate of 1 x 10 -7 [atm x cm 3/s] was measured in the helium leak tests for the final prototype module, when the module was tested according to MIL-STD-883D method 1014.9 specification. Leak rate for the module using a buffer stripper fibre without a rubber guard tube was 3 x 10 -9 [atm x cm 3/s]. The background helium level before and after the tests was less than 3 x 10 -10 [atm x cm 3/s]. This clearly higher leak rate in the final module leak measurement is mainly due to the absorbed helium to the fibre polymer buffer layer and rubber guard tube in the pressurization process. Measurements show that the implemented module is hermetic. Cost-of-ownership modelling was performed starting from low production volume up to production of 10 million good modules per year. Module production cost was estimated through COO modelling. Modelling forecasted that the module production can be lower than 10 EUR in high volume production.

Keränen, K.; Ollila, J.; Mäkinen, J.-T.; Kautio, K.; Korhonen, P.; Heikkinen, V.; Väätäinen, O.; Heilala, J.; Karioja, P.

2006-04-01

154

Polyhedral Specular Reflector Design for Ultra-High Spectrum Splitting Solar Module Efficiencies (>50%)  

E-print Network

, multijunction solar cell, solar concentrator 1. INTRODUCTION Solar cell efficiency is increased through significant progress has been made for multijunction cells, ultra-high efficiencies (>50%) have yet to be achieved in isolated cells or upon incorporation into modules.3, 4 The efficiency in current multijunction

Atwater, Harry

155

Effect of rate cases on public-utility stock prices: a test of semi-strong market efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the impact of rate-case applications and settlements on the common-stock returns of electric utilities. Under the rational expectations and efficient market hypothesis, only surprises should affect stock return. Since rate cases are filed and settled regularly, adjustments to the security return should occur only when a settlement is larger or smaller than expected. Sixty-five electric utilities

1982-01-01

156

Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-print Network

significant source of financing for future energy efficiencyfuture regulatory and market environment with more diverse energy efficiency funding sourcesfuture regulatory and market environment with more diverse energy efficiency funding sources

Goldman, Charles A.

2011-01-01

157

Instantaneous Shoreline Extraction Utilizing Integrated Spectrum and Shadow Analysis From LiDAR Data and High-resolution Satellite Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoreline delineation and shoreline change detection are expensive processes in data source acquisition and manual shoreline delineation. These costs confine the frequency and interval of shoreline mapping periods. In this dissertation, a new shoreline delineation approach was developed targeting on lowering the data source cost and reducing human labor. To lower the cost of data sources, we used the public domain LiDAR data sets and satellite images to delineate shorelines without the requirement of data sets being acquired simultaneously, which is a new concept in this field. To reduce the labor cost, we made improvements in classifying LiDAR points and satellite images. Analyzing shadow relations with topography to improve the satellite image classification performance is also a brand-new concept. The extracted shoreline of the proposed approach could achieve an accuracy of 1.495 m RMSE, or 4.452m at the 95% confidence level. Consequently, the proposed approach could successfully lower the cost and shorten the processing time, in other words, to increase the shoreline mapping frequency with a reasonable accuracy. However, the extracted shoreline may not compete with the shoreline extracted by aerial photogrammetric procedures in the aspect of accuracy. Hence, this is a trade-off between cost and accuracy. This approach consists of three phases, first, a shoreline extraction procedure based mainly on LiDAR point cloud data with multispectral information from satellite images. Second, an object oriented shoreline extraction procedure to delineate shoreline solely from satellite images; in this case WorldView-2 images were used. Third, a shoreline integration procedure combining these two shorelines based on actual shoreline changes and physical terrain properties. The actual data source cost would only be from the acquisition of satellite images. On the other hand, only two processes needed human attention. First, the shoreline within harbor areas needed to be manually connected, for its length was less than 3% of the total shoreline length in our dataset. Secondly, the parameters for satellite image classification needed to be manually determined. The need for manpower was significantly less compared to the ground surveying or aerial photogrammetry. The first phase of shoreline extraction was to utilize Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Mean-Shift segmentation on the coordinate (X, Y, Z), and attributes (multispectral bands from satellite images) of the LiDAR points to classify each LiDAR point into land or water surface. Boundary of the land points were then traced to create the shoreline. The second phase of shoreline extraction solely from satellite images utilized spectrum, NDVI, and shadow analysis to classify the satellite images into classes. These classes were then refined by mean-shift segmentation on the panchromatic band. By tracing the boundary of the water surface, the shoreline can be created. Since these two shorelines may represent different shoreline instances in time, evaluating the changes of shoreline was the first to be done. Then an independent scenario analysis and a procedure are performed for the shoreline of each of the three conditions: in the process of erosion, in the process of accession, and remaining the same. With these three conditions, we could analysis the actual terrain type and correct the classification errors to obtain a more accurate shoreline. Meanwhile, methods of evaluating the quality of shorelines had also been discussed. The experiment showed that there were three indicators could best represent the quality of the shoreline. These indicators were: (1) shoreline accuracy, (2) land area difference between extracted shoreline and ground truth shoreline, and (3) bias factor from shoreline quality metrics.

Lee, I.-Chieh

158

An Efficient Technique to Determine the Power Spectrum from Cosmic Microwave Background Sky Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is enormous potential to advance cosmology from statistical\\u000acharacterizations of cosmic microwave background sky maps. The angular power\\u000aspectrum of the microwave anisotropy is a particularly important statistic.\\u000aExisting algorithms for computing the angular power spectrum of a pixelized map\\u000atypically require O(N^3) operations and O(N^2) storage, where N is the number\\u000aof independent pixels in the map. The

Siang Peng Oh; David N. Spergel; Gary Hinshaw

1998-01-01

159

Electric Utility Executives' forum. [Rate design, operating costs, nuclear plant options, and efficiency standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fifteenth annual Electric Utility Executives' Forum to appear in Public Utilities Fortnightly posed the following four questions to 21 contributors: (1) do you think that a fundamental or lasting change is now taking place in electric utility rate design, under pressure of continued need for overall rate increases, which will be oriented towards customer usage; (2) do you think

Smartt

1976-01-01

160

U.S. utilities' experiences with the implementation of energy efficiency programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the U.S., many electric utility companies are offering demand-side management (DSM) programs to their customers as ways to save money and energy. However, it is challenging to compare these programs between utility companies throughout the U.S. because of the variability of state energy policies. For example, some states in the U.S. have deregulated electricity markets and others do not. In addition, utility companies within a state differ depending on ownership and size. This study examines 12 utilities' experiences with DSM programs and compares the programs' annual energy savings results that the selected utilities reported to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2009 EIA data suggests that DSM program effectiveness is not significantly affected by electricity market deregulation or utility ownership. However, DSM programs seem to generally be more effective when administered by utilities located in states with energy savings requirements and DSM program mandates.

Goss, Courtney

161

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30

162

Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing various searches (e.g. Search by map, Tree, Icon, Keyword et al.). The video annotation is enabled with the same interface, and the usability of use and management is raised. Moreover, In the "Biological Information System for Marine Life : BISMaL (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/bismal/e/index.html)" which is a data system for biodiversity information, particularly in biogeographic data of marine organisms, based on photography position information, the visualization of living thing distribution, the life list of a deep sea living thing, and the deep sea video were used, and aim at the contribution to biodiversity grasp. Future, aiming at the accuracy improvement of the information given to the video by Work support of the comment registration by automatic recognition of an image and Development of a comment registration tool onboard, it aims at offering higher quality information.

Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

2012-12-01

163

Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C{sub 70}) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of {approx}0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

Kekuda, Dhananjaya [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal, India 576 104 (India); Chu, Chih-Wei [Research Center for Applied Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 300 13 (China)

2011-10-20

164

Enforcing Dynamic Spectrum Access with Spectrum Permits  

E-print Network

Enforcing Dynamic Spectrum Access with Spectrum Permits Lei Yang , Zengbin Zhang, Ben Y. Zhao}@cs.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Dynamic spectrum access is a maturing technology that allows next generation wireless devices to make highly efficient use of wireless spectrum. Spectrum can be allocated on an on-demand basis

California at Santa Barbara, University of

165

Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells  

PubMed Central

Recently, atomically well-defined cove-shaped graphene nanoribbons have been obtained using bottom-up synthesis. These nanoribbons have an optical gap in the visible range of the spectrum which make them candidates for donor materials in photovoltaic devices. From the atomistic point of view, their electronic and optical properties are not clearly understood. Therefore, in this work we carry out ab-initio density functional theory calculations combine with many-body perturbation formalism to study their electronic and optical properties. Through the comparison with experimental measurements, we show that an accurate description of the nanoribbon's optical properties requires the inclusion of electron-hole correlation effects. The energy, binding energy and the corresponding excitonic transitions involved are analyzed. We found that in contrast to zigzag graphene nanoribbons, the excitonic peaks in the absorption spectrum are a consequence of a group of transitions involving the first and second conduction and valence bands. Finally, we estimate some relevant optical properties that strengthen the potential of these nanoribbons for acting as a donor materials in photovoltaic. PMID:25301001

Villegas, Cesar E. P.; Mendonça, P. B.; Rocha, A. R.

2014-01-01

166

Utility of the Psychoeducational Profile-3 for Assessing Cognitive and Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychoeducational Profile-3's (PEP-3) ability to estimate cognitive and language skills of 136 children (20-75 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) across a range of functioning, and the association between the PEP-3 and ASD symptomatology was examined using retrospective data. PEP-3 cognitive and language measures were…

Fulton, Mandy L.; D'Entremont, Barbara

2013-01-01

167

Exploring the Utility of Narrative Analysis in Diagnostic Decision Making: Picture-Bound Reference, Elaboration, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate classification accuracy and clinical feasibility of a narrative analysis tool for identifying children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Method: Picture-elicited narratives generated by 16 age-matched pairs of school-aged children (FASD vs. typical development [TD]) were coded for semantic elaboration and…

Thorne, John C.; Coggins, Truman E.; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Astley, Susan J.

2007-01-01

168

Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important—rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in

Elizabeth J. Wilson; Joseph Plummer; Miriam Fischlein; Timothy M. Smith

2008-01-01

169

Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

2011-01-01

170

Efficient light emitting devices utilizing CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots in organic host matrices  

E-print Network

We demonstrate efficient electroluminescence from thin film structures containing core-shell CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots dispersed in molecular organic host materials. In the most efficient devices, excitons are created on the ...

Coe-Sullivan, Seth (Seth Alexander)

2002-01-01

171

Genomic architecture of energy utilization and its role in beef cattle efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, academia revisits energy utilization every 10 to 15 years with each cycle providing some benefit to the producer. The lack of progress in factors limiting the understanding of the genetics of energy utilization include the difficulty and costs to accurately measure individual intakes, ...

172

Analyzing the Energy Utilization Efficiency of Renewable Energy Resources. Part 1: Energy Analysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption depends mainly on the available amounts of local resources, which are closely connected with the present rural economy and living standards. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using energy and exergy modeling techniques for energy utilization assessments in order to attain energy savings, and hence financial savings. The energy utilization of a country can be evaluated using

Zafer Utlu; Arif Hepbasli

2006-01-01

173

Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

1994-01-01

174

Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources  

PubMed Central

Background It is known that the soil near roots, the so-called rhizosphere, has physical and chemical properties different from those of the bulk soil. Rhizosphere properties are the result of several processes: root and soil shrinking/swelling during drying/wetting cycles, soil compaction by root growth, mucilage exuded by root caps, interaction of mucilage with soil particles, mucilage shrinking/swelling and mucilage biodegradation. These processes may lead to variable rhizosphere properties, i.e. the presence of air-filled gaps between soil and roots; water repellence in the rhizosphere caused by drying of mucilage around the soil particles; or water accumulation in the rhizosphere due to the high water-holding capacity of mucilage. The resulting properties are not constant in time but they change as a function of soil condition, root growth rate and mucilage age. Scope We consider such a variability as an expression of rhizosphere plasticity, which may be a strategy for plants to control which part of the root system will have a facilitated access to water and which roots will be disconnected from the soil, for instance by air-filled gaps or by rhizosphere hydrophobicity. To describe such a dualism, we suggest classifying rhizosphere into two categories: class A refers to a rhizosphere covered with hydrated mucilage that optimally connects roots to soil and facilitates water uptake from dry soils. Class B refers to the case of air-filled gaps and/or hydrophobic rhizosphere, which isolate roots from the soil and may limit water uptake from the soil as well water loss to the soil. The main function of roots covered by class B will be long-distance transport of water. Outlook This concept has implications for soil and plant water relations at the plant scale. Root water uptake in dry conditions is expected to shift to regions covered with rhizosphere class A. On the other hand, hydraulic lift may be limited in regions covered with rhizosphere class B. New experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

2013-01-01

175

Collaboration and fairness in opportunistic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open spectrum approach to spectrum access can achieve near-optimal spectrum utilization by letting users sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. However, naive spectrum assignment can lead to significant interference. We propose a network controlled spectrum access scheme where users behave collaboratively to optimize spectrum allocation for the entire network. We develop a graph-theoretical model to characterize the spectrum access

Haitao Zheng; Chunyi Peng

2005-01-01

176

Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"  

SciTech Connect

Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

2009-12-01

177

Photosynthetic utilization efficiency of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by Scots pine and birch forest stands in the southern Taiga.  

PubMed

Absorption and utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stands that were 41 years old at the end of the experimental period. Canopy depth of the Scots pine stand was about half that of the birch stand (6.5 versus 11.0 m), but absorption of PAR was similar in the two stands. The Scots pine forest canopy, with a leaf area index of 8.9, absorbed 90% of the incoming PAR (APAR), whereas the birch forest canopy, with a leaf area index of 5.9, absorbed 92% of APAR. During maximum foliage development, the upper Scots pine canopy absorbed more PAR than the upper birch canopy (75 versus 66%). The upper, middle and lower layers of the Scots pine canopy contained 37, 48 and 15% of the total needle surface area, respectively. The corresponding distribution of foliage surface area in the three layers of the birch canopy was 50, 30 and 20%, respectively. Measurements of photosynthetic rate were combined with estimates of leaf area index and stand phytomass to determine rates of primary production on a sunny day, a cloudy day, and on an annual basis. The energy equivalents of short- and long-term carbon gain were used with determinations of APAR to calculate photosynthetic utilization efficiency. Throughout the growing season, photosynthetic utilization efficiency of APAR in the upper canopy layer of the Scots pine forest was almost twice that in the lower canopy layer. In the birch forest, photosynthetic utilization efficiency was greater in the lower canopy layer than in the upper canopy layer. In all cases, utilization efficiency was higher in the birch stand than in the Scots pine stand (52 versus 29 J kJ(-1)). Taking account of respiration of the non-photosynthetic parts of each stand (night respiration of needles or leaves; respiration of branches, trunk and roots), estimated utilization efficiency of APAR for net primary production was 11 J kJ(-1) for Scots pine and 19 J kJ(-1) for birch. Solar conversion ratios, expressed as whole-plant net primary productivity per unit of APAR for the growing season, were 0.81 g MJ(-1) for Scots pine and 0.93 g MJ(-1) for birch. PMID:12651489

Molchanov, Alexander G.

2000-11-01

178

Efficient scheduling to reduce setup times and increase utilization in a multiple-part manufacturing system  

E-print Network

Two scheduling procedures were developed to reduce the total setup time and increase utilization in a multiple-part-type manufacturing system with sequence-dependent setups. These scheduling systems focus on reducing setup ...

Puszko, Gregory D

2014-01-01

179

Utility Goals for the Efficiency Resource: Impact of PUC Rulemaking Project No. 39674 on Future Programs  

E-print Network

language clarifies that performance bonuses are included in program costs Bonus and EM&V Costs should be included in the calculation (what about other costs related to EECRFs [utility/muni EECRF proceeding expenses]?) Avoided Costs (d)(2) and (3) (d)(2... deemed savings Costs to be Recovered: General (f)(1) - (5) (f)(1)(A) and (B) EECRF shall be calculated to recover forecasted program expenditures, over/under recovery including municipal and util ity EECRF proceeding expenses, performance bonus and EM...

Martin, A.

2012-01-01

180

Proposal for a high efficiency LNG power-generation system utilizing waste heat from the combined cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency power-generation with an LNG vaporizing system is proposed: it utilizes the LNG's cold energy to the best potential limit. This system can be applied to LNG vaporizers in gas companies or electric power companies and recover the LNG's cold energy as electric power. The system consists of a Rankine cycle using a freon mixture, natural-gas Rankine cycle and a

Y. Hisazumi; Y. Yamasaki; S. Sugiyama

1998-01-01

181

LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has proven that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present both our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system.

Stupl, J.; Faber, N.; Foster, C.; Yang, F.; Nelson, B.; Aziz, J.; Nuttall, A.; Henze, C.; Levit, C.

2014-09-01

182

Discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometric study of HOI: Photoionization efficiency spectrum and ionization energy  

SciTech Connect

Photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra of HOI were measured over the wavelength range {lambda} = 115-130 nm and in the ionization threshold region, {lambda} = 123-129 nm, using a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer apparatus coupled to a synchrotron radiation source. HOI was generated, in situ but in varying amounts, by three separate reactions: OH + I{sub 2}; OH + CF{sub 3}I; O({sup 3}P) + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I. The PIE spectra displayed steplike behavior near threshold, and the HO-I stretching frequency in the cation was determined to be 702 {+-} 60 cm{sup -1}. Even though the present result appears to be the first reported determination of IE(HOI), the experimental value is compared to an estimated value previously derived via a trend analysis and it is considered in terms of trends in the series IE(HOX), where X = F, Cl, Br, and I. Based on the value for IE(HOI) derived in the present study, a value for IE(IO) = 9.66 {+-} 0.10 eV has been predicted. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Monks, P.S.; Stief, L.J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Tardy, D.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Liebman, J.F. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Z.; Kuo, S.C.; Klemm, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-11-09

183

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

2011-01-20

184

Detecting Spectrum Misuse in Wireless Networks Kefeng Tan, Kai Zeng, Daniel Wu, Prasant Mohapatra  

E-print Network

Detecting Spectrum Misuse in Wireless Networks Kefeng Tan, Kai Zeng, Daniel Wu, Prasant Mohapatra the fairness, throughput, and spectrum efficiency of wireless networks. Air- time utilization (the percentage of time spent on transmissions) is often used to characterize the spectrum demand of networks. The higher

California at Davis, University of

185

Adaptive Games for Agile Spectrum Access Based on Extended Kalman Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

For dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA), distributed game has emerged as an attractive approach that enhances radio spectrum utilization efficiency at scalable complexity in network size. Cognitive radios act as game players to judiciously decide their transmission power spectrum density (TPSD) based on channel state information (CSI), which is generally estimated independently from the DSA games and may cause large computational

Duo Zhang; Zhi Tian

2007-01-01

186

Optimal Linear Cooperation for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio technology has been proposed to improve spectrum efficiency by having the cognitive radios act as secondary users to opportunistically access under-utilized frequency bands. Spectrum sensing, as a key enabling functionality in cognitive radio networks, needs to reliably detect signals from licensed primary radios to avoid harmful interference. However, due to the effects of channel fading\\/shadowing, individual cognitive radios

Zhi Quan; Shuguang Cui; Ali H. Sayed

2008-01-01

187

Air Conditioner Efficiency Under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective  

E-print Network

energy efficiency programs; ? Actively engage in the USDOE standards proceedings through technical input from collaborative organizations like EPRI and EEI; ? Support emerging technology procurement of air conditioning equipment that is super...

Amarnath, A.

188

Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Novel Hybrid Solar System for Photovoltaic, Thermoelectric, and Heat Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid solar system has been designed to utilize photovoltaic (PV) cells, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and hot water (HW) through a multilayered building envelope. Water pipelines are cast within a functionally graded material layer to serve as a heat sink, allowing heat to be easily transferred into flowing water through an aluminum-rich surface, while remain- ing insulated by a

Dajiang Yang; Huiming Yin

2011-01-01

189

Efficient Behavior Learning by Utilizing Estimated State Value of Self and Teammates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement learning applications to real robots in multi-agent dynamic environments are limited because of huge exploration space and enormously long learning time. One of the typical examples is a case of RoboCup com- petitions since other agents and their behavior easily cause state and action space explosion. This paper presents a method that utilizes state value functions of macro actions

Kouki Shimada; Yasutake Takahashi; Minoru Asada

2009-01-01

190

LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an updated efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme. LightForce aims to prevent collisions on warning by utilizing photon pressure from ground based, commercial off the shelf lasers. Past research has shown that a few ground-based systems consisting of 10 kilowatt class lasers directed by 1.5 meter telescopes with adaptive optics could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. Our simulation approach utilizes the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalogue in LEO for a given day as initial input. Least-squares fitting of a TLE time series is used for an improved orbit estimate. We then calculate the probability of collision for all LEO objects in the catalogue for a time step of the simulation. The conjunctions that exceed a threshold probability of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the probability of collision and evaluate the efficiency of the system. This paper describes new simulations with three updated aspects: 1) By utilizing a highly parallel simulation approach employing hundreds of processors, we have extended our analysis to a much broader dataset. The simulation time is extended to one year. 2) We analyze not only the efficiency of LightForce on conjunctions that naturally occur, but also take into account conjunctions caused by orbit perturbations due to LightForce engagements. 3) We use a new simulation approach that is regularly updating the LightForce engagement strategy, as it would be during actual operations. In this paper we present our simulation approach to parallelize the efficiency analysis, its computational performance and the resulting expected efficiency of the LightForce collision avoidance system. Results indicate that utilizing a network of four LightForce stations with 20 kilowatt lasers, 85% of all conjunctions with a probability of collision Pc > 10 (sup -6) can be mitigated.

Stupl, Jan; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang, Fan Yang; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Nuttall, Andrew; Henze, Chris; Levit, Creon

2014-01-01

191

Spectrum agile radio: radio resource measurements for opportunistic spectrum usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio spectrum allocation is undergoing radical rethinking. Regulators, government agencies, industry, and the research community have recently established many initiatives for new spectrum policies and seek approaches to more efficiently manage the radio spectrum. In this paper, we examine new approaches, namely, spectrum agile radios, for opportunistic spectrum usage. Spectrum agile radios use parts of the radio spectrum that were

Stefan Mangold; Zhun Zhong; Kiran Challapali; Chun-Ting Chou

2004-01-01

192

Observation of nue appearance from an off-axis nu mu beam utilizing the neutrino energy spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T2K (Tokai to Kamiokande) is a long baseline neutrino experiment located in Japan. It uses a 30 GeV proton beam at the J-PARC accelerator in Tokai to produce an intense off-axis muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km through the Earth to Super-Kamiokande. One of its primary goals is to measure neutrino oscillation parameters by directly detecting nue at Super-Kamiokande that have oscillated from the numu beam. The measurement of numu ? nue oscillations are of a particular interest because this mode is sensitive to both mixing angle theta 13 and CP phase deltaCP of the PMNS matrix. Precise measurement of numu ? nue allows us to explore the possibility of CP violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation will describe the recent 2013 nue appearance oscillation analysis using the reconstructed neutrino energy spectrum by means of a maximum likelihood fit. The data used for this analysis corresponds to 6.57 x 1020 POT. A total of 28 nu e candidate events were observed, corresponding to a 7.2 sigma significance of nue appearance by non-zero theta13. These results are then combined with the world average value of theta13 from reactor experiments and some values of deltaCP are disfavored at the 90% CL.

Hignight, Joshua

193

A ROBUST ABSOLUTE DETECTION EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION METHOD UTILIZING BETA/GAMMA COINCIDENCE SIGNATURES AND ISOTOPICALLY PURIFIED NEUTRON ACTIVATED RADIOXENON ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to calibrate the absolute efficiency of gas cell radiations detectors have utilized a number of methodologies which allow adequate calibration but are time consuming and prone to a host of difficult-to-determine uncertainties. A method that extrapolates the total source strength from the measured beta and gamma gated beta coincidence signal was developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It has become clear that it is possible to achieve more consistent results across a range of isotopes and a range of activities using this method. Even more compelling is the ease with which this process can be used on routine samples to determine the total activity present in the detector. Additionally, recent advances in the generation of isotopically pure radioxenon samples of Xe-131m, Xe-133, and Xe-135 have allowed these measurement techniques to achieve much better results than would have been possible before when using mixed isotopic radioxenon source. This paper will discuss the beta/gamma absolute detection efficiency technique that utilizes several of the beta-gamma decay signatures to more precisely determine the beta and gamma efficiencies. It will than compare these results with other methods using pure sources of Xe-133, Xe-131m, and Xe-135 and a Xe-133/Xe-133m mix.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Schrom, Brian T.

2012-09-21

194

Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

Rabago, K.R.

2008-06-28

195

Analysis of power sector efficiency improvements for an integrated utility planning process in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

1990-01-01

196

Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

Pak, Pyong Sik

197

Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

2012-01-01

198

Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10(3)-10(5) molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online. PMID:25770527

Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul

2015-03-14

199

Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 103-105 molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.

Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul

2015-03-01

200

Physically based volumetric efficiency model for diesel engines utilizing variable intake valve actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced diesel engine architectures employing flexible valve trains enable emissions reductions and fuel economy improvements. Flexibility in the valve train allows engine designers to optimize the gas exchange process in a manner similar to how common rail fuel injection systems enable optimization of the fuel injection process. Modulating valve timings directly impacts the volumetric efficiency of the engine since it

L Kocher; E Koeberlein; D G Van Alstine; K Stricker; G Shaver

2012-01-01

201

Utility-function-driven energy-efficient cooling in data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharp rise in energy usage in data centers, fueled by increased IT workload and high server density, and coupled with a concomitant increase in the cost and volatility of the energy supply, have triggered urgent calls to improve data center energy efficiency. In response, researchers have developed energy-aware IT systems that slow or shut down servers without sacrificing performance

Rajarshi Das; Jeffrey O. Kephart; Jonathan Lenchner; Hendrik Hamann

2010-01-01

202

POSSIBILITY OF EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF WOOD WASTE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE IN SERBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood biomass in Serbia is traditionally used for energy. However, the manner of its use is outdated, and efficiency is very low. Annually over 3.5 million m3 of wood is cut down for energy needs in Serbia. In order to better exploit all forms of woody biomass, especially the one that is now treated as waste, and in order to

Bojan ?er?an; Tamara Luki?; Milka Bubalo-Živkovi?; Branislav ?ur?ev; Rastislav Stojsavljevi?; Milana Panteli?

2012-01-01

203

Energy-efficient optical pulse multiplication and shaping based on triply-sampled spectral filter utilizing fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel all-optical simultaneous pulse multiplication and shaping approach is proposed, which is based on a triply sampled spectral filter utilizing fiber Bragg grating. This proposed method enables one to create a pulse train efficiently with both a high multiplication factor and arbitrary pulse profile. As an example, pulse train with a repetition rate of 225-GHz and flat-top intensity profile is numerically demonstrated, which is generated from 1-GHz transform-limited Gaussian pulse train with pulse width of 0.4 ps.

Li, Hongpu; Chen, Xuxing

2014-11-01

204

Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.

Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.

2012-04-01

205

Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06410k

Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G. Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

2015-01-01

206

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI), can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications. METHODS: In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened

Guiqing Cai; Lisa Edelmann; Juliet E Goldsmith; Ninette Cohen; Alisa Nakamine; Jennifer G Reichert; Ellen J Hoffman; Danielle M Zurawiecki; Jeremy M Silverman; Eric Hollander; Latha Soorya; Evdokia Anagnostou; Catalina Betancur; Joseph D Buxbaum

2008-01-01

207

Sugar transporters in efficient utilization of mixed sugar substrates: current knowledge and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in production of transportation fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, most\\u000a desirably through biological fermentation. Considerable effort has been expended to develop efficient biocatalysts that convert\\u000a sugars derived from lignocellulose directly to value-added products. Glucose, the building block of cellulose, is the most\\u000a suitable fermentation substrate for industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum,

Toru Jojima; Crispinus A. Omumasaba; Masayuki Inui; Hideaki Yukawa

2010-01-01

208

Determination of desorption efficiency utilizing direct injection: a dynamic calibration system and phase equilibrium  

E-print Network

, more often (with organic vapors), a solid medium which adsorbs the contam'nant. Because of its high affinity for organic compounds, activated char- coal i. s frequently used as the solid adsorbent medium. The citations used on the following pages... efficiency is customarily determined by placing a known amount of . he compound of inte. est on activated charcoal (loading) and desor bing the compound with a known amount of solvent. This solution is analyzed chromatographically and the amount...

Williams, Ronald H

1979-01-01

209

Efficient utilization of short rotation tree biomass for cooking in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human as well as livestock population increase is phenomenal in developing world including India. The survival of this huge population certainly depends on the carrying capacity of the natural systems, which is essentially determined by the nature itself. Present state of the forests can satisfy the needs of certain population and the demand for wood has rapidly outstripped the sustainability of forests. The fuelwood requirements in the developing world is approximately 80 per cent of total wood requirements and is the major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, there is need to maximize the productivity on one hand and protection/extention of the area on another hand. Wood substitution is an option including shifting from fuelwood for cooking to fossil fuels but in the changing climatic situation, this option is short term alternative. There is need to produce more and use the same efficiently to reduce the demands. Millions of households across the country are using crude cooking stoves for their daily needs which are not only energy inefficient but detrimental to women health also. It has been the policy of Government to encourage trees outside forests to minimize the pressure from forests through meeting requirements outside forests, which is possible through intensively managed short rotation forestry and also some initiatives have been taken to increase the fuelwood efficiency through improved cooking stove, which are working successfully. Woodfuel remained the most important source of household energy in India but regular attempts have not been made to improve the efficiency in its use. This paper will focus on potential of short rotation forestry plantations for energy consumption and its efficient use at domestic scale. This has three fold interrelated economic, environmental and social impact. Key words: Short Rotation Forestry, trees outside forests, wood energy, cooking stove

Sharma, R.; Chauhan, S. K.

2012-04-01

210

Light requirement and photosynthetic cell cultivation – Development of processes for efficient light utilization in photobioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the potential of photosyntheticmicroorganisms for production of various metabolitesand in environmental bioremediation is recognized,their practical application has been limited by thedifficulty in supplying light efficiently tophotobioreactors. Various types of photobioreactorwith high illumination to volume ratios have beenproposed, but most are limited by cost, mass transfer,contamination, scale-up or a combination of these.The problem of light supply to photobioreactorscan be solved

James C. Ogbonna; Hideo Tanaka

2000-01-01

211

The Development of Improved Energy Efficient Housing for Thailand Utilizing Renewable Energy Technology  

E-print Network

strategies and renewable energy technologies using the annualized life-cycle cost analysis method described in ASHRAE Handbook (ASHRAE, 1999; Haberl, 1993). RESULTS Measured Space Temperatures in the Case-study House The living room, bedroom-3... could be accomplished with an additional modest investment. Results of Economic Analysis An annualized life-cycle cost analysis of the case-study house, which included energy efficiency strategies and the renewable energy technologies...

Rasisuttha, S.; Haberl, J.

212

Modeling and coordinative optimization of NO x emission and efficiency of utility boilers with neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical model to predict the boiler efficiency and pollutant emissions was developed with artificial neural networks\\u000a based on the experimental data on a 360 MW W-flame coal fired boiler. The temperature of the furnace was selected as an intermediate\\u000a variable in the hybrid model so that the predictive precision of NO\\u000a x\\u000a emissions was enhanced. The predictive precision of

Yi Zhang; Yanjun Ding; Zhansong Wu; Liang Kong; Tao Chou

2007-01-01

213

Energy Efficiency: Marketing and Service Potential for Energy Utilities' Industrial Markets  

E-print Network

token, industries that enjoy dynamic growth generate a more active technology assessment dialog for its incumbents. The same study also recognizes barriers resulting from industry codes and standards (e.g. operator licensing requirements... margins Profit margins Shareholder value Return on assets (ROA) Workplace safety Economy of operations is directly increased through reduced fuel consumption in energy-intensive processes. Efficiency is the product of proper monitoring...

Russel, C.; Tate, R.; Tubiolo, A.

214

High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.  

PubMed

The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations. PMID:23131649

Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

2013-01-01

215

Optimizing Efficiency of Psychopathology Assessment through Quantitative Modeling: Development of a Brief Form of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory  

PubMed Central

The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides for integrated, hierarchical assessment of a broad range of problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI assesses traits and problems in this domain through 23 lower-order facet scales organized around three higher-order dimensions, reflecting general disinhibition, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The full-form ESI contains 415 items, and a shorter form would be useful for questionnaire screening studies or multi-domain research protocols. The current work employed item response theory and structural modeling methods to create a 160-item brief form (ESI-bf) that provides for efficient measurement of the ESI’s lower-order facets and quantification of its higher-order dimensions either as scale-based factors or as item-based composites. The ESI-bf is recommended for use in research on psychological or neurobiological correlates of problems such as risk-taking, delinquency, aggression, and substance abuse, and studies of general and specific mechanisms that give rise to problems of these kinds. PMID:24320765

Patrick, Christopher J.; Kramer, Mark D.; Krueger, Robert F.; Markon, Kristian E.

2014-01-01

216

Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

2014-01-01

217

Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE?AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

2014-01-01

218

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05

219

Efficient Power Converters for PV Arrays : Scalable Submodule Power Conversion for Utility-Scale Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: SolarBridge is developing a new power conversion technique to improve the energy output of PV power plants. This new technique is specifically aimed at large plants where many solar panels are connected together. SolarBridge is correcting for the inefficiencies that occur when two solar panels that encounter different amounts of sun are connected together. In most conventional PV system, the weakest panel limits the energy production of the entire system. That’s because all of the energy collected by the PV system feeds into a single collection point where a central inverter then converts it into useable energy for the grid. SolarBridge has found a more efficient and cost-effective way to convert solar energy, correcting these power differences before they reach the grid.

None

2012-02-23

220

Utilization of a whole genome SNP panel for efficient genetic mapping in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Phenotype-driven genetics can be used to create mouse models of human disease and birth defects. However, the utility of these mutant models is limited without identification of the causal gene. To facilitate genetic mapping, we developed a fixed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel of 394 SNPs as an alternative to analyses using simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) marker mapping. With the SNP panel, chromosomal locations for 22 monogenic mutants were identified. The average number of affected progeny genotyped for mapped monogenic mutations is nine. Map locations for several mutants have been obtained with as few as four affected progeny. The average size of genetic intervals obtained for these mutants is 43 Mb, with a range of 17–83 Mb. Thus, our SNP panel allows for identification of moderate resolution map position with small numbers of mice in a high-throughput manner. Importantly, the panel is suitable for mapping crosses from many inbred and wild-derived inbred strain combinations. The chromosomal localizations obtained with the SNP panel allow one to quickly distinguish between potentially novel loci or remutations in known genes, and facilitates fine mapping and positional cloning. By using this approach, we identified DNA sequence changes in two ethylnitrosourea-induced mutants. PMID:16461637

Moran, Jennifer L.; Bolton, Andrew D.; Tran, Pamela V.; Brown, Alison; Dwyer, Noelle D.; Manning, Danielle K.; Bjork, Bryan C.; Li, Cheng; Montgomery, Kate; Siepka, Sandra M.; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Wiltshire, Tim; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Beier, David R.

2006-01-01

221

Equity and efficiency in health status and health services utilization: a household perspective.  

PubMed

Health economists examine the existing pattern of disease, the initial distributional structure of public policies, and the behavioral response of households in allocating resources towards health promoting activities to understand the health consequences of public fiscal and income policies. They hope that this analysis will guide health policymakers to minimize differentials in health service utilization and health outcomes. The household production of health serves as the general framework. The analysis reveals that the demand for health and the demand for health services depend on the organization of government fiscal and distribution policies. Further the demand for health services hinges on its own price as well as on the prices of other inputs including nutrition and environmental sanitation. The government basically subsidizes these inputs, but it does not equally distribute the subsidies. For people with the lower subsidy on other health inputs, the health benefit from using health services tend to be lower. Thus the fact that these households have a low demand for health and low use of health services may indicate a rational decision which reveals low perceived productivity of these inputs. Therefore policymakers should include the effect of public subsidies when examining the effect of public policies on health status. These policies may include structural adjustment or cost recovery schemes. In fact, as evidenced in a case study in the Ivory Coast, structural adjustments did not affect the rural poor and urban poor, but instead adversely affected middle class urban households. Hence policymakers should not limit their examinations to traditional income groups. PMID:12285361

Sirageldin, I; Diop, F

1991-01-01

222

Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.  

PubMed

The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed. PMID:25581777

Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

2015-02-14

223

Efficient 2,3-Butanediol Production from Cassava Powder by a Crop-Biomass-Utilizer, Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM  

PubMed Central

Background 2,3-Butanediol (BD) is considered as one of the key platform chemicals used in a variety of industrial applications. It is crucial to find an efficient sugar-utilizing strain and feasible carbon source for the economical production of BD. Methodology/Principal Findings Efficient BD production by a newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM was studied using crop-biomass cassava powder as substrate. The culture conditions and fermentation medium for BD production were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, 78.3 g l?1 of BD was produced after 24 h in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with a yield of 0.42 g BD g?1 cassava powder and a specific productivity of 3.3 g l?1 h?1. A higher BD concentration (93.9 g l?1) was produced after 47 h in fed-batch SSF. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that strain SDM is a good candidate for the BD production, and cassava powder could be used as an alternative substrate for the efficient production of BD. PMID:22792324

Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2012-01-01

224

Truthful Spectrum Auctions With Approximate Revenue Mahmoud Al-Ayyoub and Himanshu Gupta. Stony Brook University, NY  

E-print Network

Truthful Spectrum Auctions With Approximate Revenue Mahmoud Al-Ayyoub and Himanshu Gupta. Stony Brook University, NY Abstract--In cellular networks, a recent trend is to make spectrum access dynamic in the spatial and temporal dimensions, for the sake of efficient utilization of spectrum. In such a model

Gupta, Himanshu

225

Adapting wave-front algorithms to efficiently utilize systems with deep communication hierarchies  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance. Processor-cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contain wave-front processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model and an implementation on the Petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

226

Development of Phase-Stable Photon Upconverters for Efficient Solar Energy Utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) of excited triplet molecules is drawing attention due to its applicability for weak incident light, possessing a potential for improving efficiencies of solar energy conversion devices. Since energy transfer between triplet levels of different molecules and TTA are based on the Dexter mechanism, inter-molecular collision is necessary and hence the majority of previous studies have been done with organic solvents, which are volatile and flammable. This paper presents the development and characterization of phase-stable photon upconverters fabricated with ionic liquids, which are room temperature molten salts with negligible vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The employed aromatic molecules, which are carrier of photo-created energies and are non-polar (or weakly polar) molecules, are found to be stable in the polar environment of ionic liquids, contrary to expectation. The mechanism of the stable solvation is proposed. The upconversion quantum yields are found to rapidly saturate as the excitation light power increases. An analytical model was developed and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that ionic liquids are not viscous media for the purpose of TTA-based upconversion.

Murakami, Yoichi

227

Adapting Wave-front Algorithms to Efficiently Utilize Systems with Deep Communication Hierarchies  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance especially in hybrid systems using accelerators. Processorcores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contains wavefront processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional steps in the parallel computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model. An implementation using the Reverse-acceleration programming model on the petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

Kerbyson, Darren J.; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott

2011-09-30

228

Survivable wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network system with centralized protection routing scheme and efficient wavelength utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survivable wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) with centralized protection scheme and colorless optical network units is proposed. The sideband channels generated via optical carrier suppression technique are used to carry both the downstream (DS) and the upstream (US) remodulated signals for two neighboring sub-PONs. By employing alternate path routing of sideband channels, the centralized protection scheme can provide reliable protection against any failure in feed fibers, remote node, and distribution fibers. The number of extra fibers is greatly reduced, and efficient utilization of wavelength resource is achieved. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified by 10-Gb/s DS and 1.25-Gb/s US signals over 25-km single-mode fiber transmission in both working and protection modes.

Zhou, Zhao; Xiao, Shilin; Bi, Meihua; Qi, Tao; Li, Pingqing; Hu, Weisheng

2013-09-01

229

Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California  

SciTech Connect

The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

Vine, Edward L.

2000-07-01

230

Reliable Open Spectrum Communications Through Proactive Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

1 Reliable Open Spectrum Communications Through Proactive Spectrum Access Prashanth Aravinda Kumar@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract-- Open Spectrum systems offer an attractive solution to the reuse of under-utilized licensed spectrum. Existing pro- posals take a reactive sense-and-avoid approach to impulsively reconfigure spectrum

Madhow, Upamanyu

231

Partitioning of heat production in growing pigs as a tool to improve the determination of efficiency of energy utilization  

PubMed Central

In growing pigs, the feed cost accounts for more than 60% of total production costs. The determination of efficiency of energy utilization through calorimetry measurements is of importance to sustain suitable feeding practice. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology to correct daily heat production (HP) obtained from measurements in respiration chamber for the difference in energy expenditure related to physical activity between animals. The calculation is based on a preliminary published approach for partitioning HP between HP due to physical activity (AHP), thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and basal metabolic rate (fasting HP; FHP). Measurements with male growing pigs [mean body weight (BW): 115 kg] which were surgically castrated (SC), castrated through immunization against GnRH (IC), or kept as entire male (EM) were used as an example. Animals were fed the same diet ad-libitum and were housed individually in two 12-m3 open-circuit respiration chambers during 6 days when fed ad-libitum and one supplementary day when fasted. Physical activity was recorded through interruption of an infrared beam to detect standing and lying positions and with force transducers that recorded the mechanical force the animal exerted on the floor of the cage. Corrected AHP (AHPc), TEF (TEFc), and HP (HPc) were calculated to standardize the level of AHP between animals, assuming that the ratio between AHPc and ME intake should be constant. Inefficiency of energy utilization (sum of AHPc and TEFc) was lower than the inefficiency estimated from the slope of the classical relationship between HPc and ME intake but was associated with higher requirements for maintenance. Results indicate that EM pigs had higher FHP but lower TEFc than IC and SC pigs. These results agree with the higher contents in viscera of EM pigs that stimulate their basal metabolic rate and with the reduced utilization of dietary protein to provide energy for maintenance energy requirements and fat deposition (FD). PMID:23801965

Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Noblet, Jean

2013-01-01

232

Building efficient comparative effectiveness trials through adaptive designs, utility functions, and accrual rate optimization: finding the sweet spot.  

PubMed

The time is right for the use of Bayesian Adaptive Designs (BAD) in comparative effectiveness trials. For example, Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute has joined the Food and Drug Administration and National Intitutes of Health in adopting policies/guidelines encouraging their use. There are multiple aspects to BAD that need to be considered when designing a comparative effectiveness design. First, the adaptation rules can determine the expected size of the trial. Second, a utility function can be used to combine extremely important co-endpoints (e.g., efficacy and tolerability) and is a valuable tool for incorporating clinical expertise and potentially patient preference. Third, accrual rate is also very, very important. Specifically, there is a juxtaposition related to accrual and BAD. If accrual rate is too fast we never gain efficient information for adapting. If accrual rate is too slow we never finish the clinical trial. We propose methodology for finding the 'sweet spot' for BAD that addresses these as design parameters. We demonstrate the methodology on a comparative effectiveness BAD of pharmaceutical agents in cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy. The study has five arms with two endpoints that are combined with a utility function. The accrual rate is assumed to stem from multiple sites. We perform simulations from which the composite accrual rates across sites result in various piecewise Poisson distributions as parameter inputs. We balance both average number of patients needed and average length of time to finish the study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25640114

Gajewski, Byron J; Berry, Scott M; Quintana, Melanie; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard

2015-03-30

233

The Ustilago maydis Nit2 Homolog Regulates Nitrogen Utilization and Is Required for Efficient Induction of Filamentous Growth  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a regulatory strategy found in microorganisms that restricts the utilization of complex and unfavored nitrogen sources in the presence of favored nitrogen sources. In fungi, this concept has been best studied in yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes, where the GATA transcription factors Gln3p and Gat1p (in yeasts) and Nit2/AreA (in ascomycetes) constitute the main positive regulators of NCR. The reason why functional Nit2 homologs of some phytopathogenic fungi are required for full virulence in their hosts has remained elusive. We have identified the Nit2 homolog in the basidiomycetous phytopathogen Ustilago maydis and show that it is a major, but not the exclusive, positive regulator of nitrogen utilization. By transcriptome analysis of sporidia grown on artificial media devoid of favored nitrogen sources, we show that only a subset of nitrogen-responsive genes are regulated by Nit2, including the Gal4-like transcription factor Ton1 (a target of Nit2). Ustilagic acid biosynthesis is not under the control of Nit2, while nitrogen starvation-induced filamentous growth is largely dependent on functional Nit2. nit2 deletion mutants show the delayed initiation of filamentous growth on maize leaves and exhibit strongly compromised virulence, demonstrating that Nit2 is required to efficiently initiate the pathogenicity program of U. maydis. PMID:22247264

Horst, Robin J.; Zeh, Christine; Saur, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

234

Route and Spectrum Selection in Dynamic Spectrum Networks  

E-print Network

Route and Spectrum Selection in Dynamic Spectrum Networks Qiwei Wang Tsinghua University Beijing Barbara htzheng@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract-- Efficient spectrum allocation in dynamic spectrum systems and spectrum management makes it important to examine interaction between the two and the corresponding

Almeroth, Kevin C.

235

Efficiency of Purine Utilization by Helicobacter pylori: Roles for Adenosine Deaminase and a NupC Homolog  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and salvage purines is crucial for colonization by a variety of human bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelium of humans, yet its specific purine requirements are poorly understood, and the transport mechanisms underlying purine uptake remain unknown. Using a fully defined synthetic growth medium, we determined that H. pylori 26695 possesses a complete salvage pathway that allows for growth on any biological purine nucleobase or nucleoside with the exception of xanthosine. Doubling times in this medium varied between 7 and 14 hours depending on the purine source, with hypoxanthine, inosine and adenosine representing the purines utilized most efficiently for growth. The ability to grow on adenine or adenosine was studied using enzyme assays, revealing deamination of adenosine but not adenine by H. pylori 26695 cell lysates. Using mutant analysis we show that a strain lacking the gene encoding a NupC homolog (HP1180) was growth-retarded in a defined medium supplemented with certain purines. This strain was attenuated for uptake of radiolabeled adenosine, guanosine, and inosine, showing a role for this transporter in uptake of purine nucleosides. Deletion of the GMP biosynthesis gene guaA had no discernible effect on mouse stomach colonization, in contrast to findings in numerous bacterial pathogens. In this study we define a more comprehensive model for purine acquisition and salvage in H. pylori that includes purine uptake by a NupC homolog and catabolism of adenosine via adenosine deaminase. PMID:22701700

Miller, Erica F.; Vaish, Soumya; Maier, Robert J.

2012-01-01

236

A decentralized MAC for opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive MAC protocols are designed to efficiently utilize the spectral resources without affecting the performance characteristics of the primary users. The use of spectrum opportunities, so called white spaces, can often require stochastic approaches due to difficulty in predicting their appearance. Infrastructure based coordinated access techniques are not a viable option for all the applications and spectrum bands. In this

Junaid Ansari; Xi Zhang; Petri Mähönen

2010-01-01

237

An Assessment Model for Energy Efficiency Program Planning in Electric Utilities: Case of the Pacific of Northwest U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency stands out with its potential to address a number of challenges that today's electric utilities face, including increasing and changing electricity demand, shrinking operating capacity, and decreasing system reliability and flexibility. Being the least cost and least risky alternative, the share of energy efficiency programs in utilities' energy portfolios has been on the rise since the 1980s, and their increasing importance is expected to continue in the future. Despite holding great promise, the ability to determine and invest in only the most promising program alternatives plays a key role in the successful use of energy efficiency as a utility-wide resource. This issue becomes even more significant considering the availability of a vast number of potential energy efficiency programs, the rapidly changing business environment, and the existence of multiple stakeholders. This dissertation introduces hierarchical decision modeling as the framework for energy efficiency program planning in electric utilities. The model focuses on the assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs and proposes to bridge the gap between technology screening and cost/benefit evaluation practices. This approach is expected to identify emerging technology alternatives which have the highest potential to pass cost/benefit ratio testing procedures and contribute to the effectiveness of decision practices in energy efficiency program planning. The model also incorporates rank order analysis and sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness of results from different stakeholder perspectives and future uncertainties in an attempt to enable more informed decision-making practices. The model was applied to the case of 13 high priority emerging energy efficiency program alternatives identified in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The results of this study reveal that energy savings potential is the most important program management consideration in selecting emerging energy efficiency programs. Market dissemination potential and program development and implementation potential are the second and third most important, whereas ancillary benefits potential is the least important program management consideration. The results imply that program value considerations, comprised of energy savings potential and ancillary benefits potential; and program feasibility considerations, comprised of program development and implementation potential and market dissemination potential, have almost equal impacts on assessment of emerging energy efficiency programs. Considering the overwhelming number of value-focused studies and the few feasibility-focused studies in the literature, this finding clearly shows that feasibility-focused studies are greatly understudied. The hierarchical decision model developed in this dissertation is generalizable. Thus, other utilities or power systems can adopt the research steps employed in this study as guidelines and conduct similar assessment studies on emerging energy efficiency programs of their interest.

Iskin, Ibrahim

238

A spectrum-adjusted white organic light-emitting diode for the optimization of luminous efficiency and color rendering index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High luminous efficiency and high color rendering index (CRI) are both the foremost factors for white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) to serve as next generation solid-state lighting sources. In this paper, we show that both luminous efficiency and CRI can be improved by adjusting the green/red spectra of WOLEDs. With green emission spectra matching with the human photopic curve, the WOLEDs exhibit higher luminous efficiency and higher CRI. Theoretical calculation shows that by tuning the white emission spectra to maximally match with the human photopic curve, the luminous efficiency can be improved by 41.8% without altering the color coordinates, the color correlated temperature (CCT) and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the WOLEDs.

Chen, Wei; Chen, Shu-ming

2015-01-01

239

Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Second interim report (March 1979): identification of components and parameters for cost and energy-efficiency analysis  

SciTech Connect

This interim report provides documentation on the second task, Identification of Components and Parameters for Cost and Energy-Efficiency Analysis, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes an identification of the elements of the distribution/utilization system, a characterization of the distribution elements and a characterization of end use elements. The purpose of this task is to identify the distribution and utilization system elements which will be subjected to a detailed analysis and computer modeling in later tasks. The elements identified are characterized in terms of their interface with other elements in the system and with respect to their energy consumption, efficiency, and costs. A major output of this task is a list of elements to be modeled under Task 3 and a set of specifications for the computer model to be developed under that task.

Not Available

1981-04-01

240

MINING SPECTRUM USAGE DATA: A LARGE-SCALE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT  

E-print Network

1 MINING SPECTRUM USAGE DATA: A LARGE-SCALE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT STUDY Sixing Yin , Dawei Chen,qianzh}@cse.ust.hk University of Michigan mingyan@eecs.umich.edu November 19, 2009 DRAFT #12;Abstract Dynamic spectrum access calls for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of current spectrum utilization. In this paper

Liu, Mingyan

241

High-Efficiency Phosphorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Stable Emission Spectrum Based on RGB Separately Monochromatic Emission Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with stable emission spectra are successfully fabricated by using an RGB three-color separately monochromatic emission layer (EML) structure. The EML consists of a sequence of bis(2-methyldibenzo[f, h]quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate) iridium (III) (Ir(MDQ)2 (acac)) doped tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) as the red emission layer, iridium, tris(2-phenylpyidine)(Ir(ppy)3) doped TCTA as the green emission layer and iridium(III) [bis(4, 6-difuorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2']picolinate (FIrpic) doped a mixed-host of TCTA and tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (26DCz PPy) as the blue emission layer. Without using any out-coupling techniques, the resulting WOLEDs achieve a power efficiency of 42lm/W at 100 cd/m2, and 34 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. The WOLEDs also show excellent spectrum stability with bias voltages, remaining the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates at (0.44, 0.43) from 1000 cd/m2 to 10000 cd/m2 and the color rendering index is as high as over 80. We contribute the stable emission spectrum to the RGB separate EML structure that successfully suppresses the undesired competition between host-guest energy transfer and direct exciton formation on emissive dopants by effectively controlling the position of exciton recombination region.

Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Peng; Dai, Yan-Feng; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Ma, Dong-Ge; Zhang, Hong-Mei

2014-04-01

242

The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in the United States: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025  

E-print Network

efficiency” resources; long-term integrated resource planningplanning Demand Side Management plan or multi- year energy efficiencyplanning and/or IRP (without an associated EERS or “all cost-effective energy efficiency

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01

243

An Energy and Peak Loads Analysis of the Texas Department of Health Building, Final Report, Prepared for the Energy Efficiency Division, Texas Public Utility Commission  

E-print Network

ESL-TR-86/10-01 AN ENERGY AND PEAK LOADS ANALYSIS OF THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH BUILDING FINAL REPORT October 1986 Submitted by Srinivas Katipamula Dennis O'Neal Prepared For Energy Efficiency Division Texas Public Utility Commission Austin... Management Group at Texas A&M University is working with the Texas Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) and the State Purchasing and General Services Commission (SPGSC) to analyze the energy use for new state buildings. The proposed Department of Health...

Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

1986-01-01

244

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

John H. Stang

2005-12-31

245

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

Stang, John H.

1997-12-01

246

Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test procedure that allowed compliance with the Tier 2 Interim Bin 10 Standards and would apply to vehicles in MY2004 through MY2007 timeframe. In further technology development with active aftertreatment management, Cummins has been able to report that the emissions goals for the Tier 2 Bin 5 standards were met on an engine running the full FTP-75 test procedure. The fuel economy on the chassis tests was measured at over 59 percent MPG improvement over the gasoline engines that are offered in typical SUVs and light trucks. The above demonstration used only in-cylinder fueling for management of the aftertreatment system.

Stang, John H.

2005-12-19

247

Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project  

SciTech Connect

Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

Vine, E.

1995-08-01

248

On a Rising Tide: The Future of U.S. Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-print Network

planning, developed funding mechanisms and energy savings targets, and created business incentives for delivering energy efficiencyefficiency programs is state and federal emissions regulations. For example, many utilities are planning

Goldman, Charles

2014-01-01

249

Utility of the "Social Communication Questionnaire-Current" and "Social Responsiveness Scale" as Teacher-Report Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research exists regarding the role of teachers in screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study examined the use of the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ) and "Social Responsiveness Scale" (SRS) as completed by parents and teachers about school-age children from the Simons Simplex Collection. Using the…

Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

2012-01-01

250

About efficiency of identification of materials using spectrum dynamics of medium response under the action of THz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method, suggested by us earlier for identification of materials with close spectra in terahertz range of frequencies and based on the analysis of medium response spectral lines dynamics, is verified experimentally. The temporal dynamics of spectral lines allows to determine relaxation time of rotational transitions as well. A question about measurement time, that is sufficient for determining of material response characteristic time, is discussed. To demonstrate the efficiency of proposed method, we treat the response of soap and chocolate under the action of terahertz pulse with a few cycles. Our investigation shows that it is possible to identify these materials with high probability.

Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

2009-05-01

251

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trucks currently reject up to 40% of the total fuel energy in the exhaust. Since petroleum costs are continuing to increase, there is growing interest in techniques that can utilize this waste heat to improve overall system efficiency. The report given evaluates and compares improvement in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts.

C. J. Leising; G. P. Purohit; S. P. DeGrey; J. G. Finegold

1978-01-01

252

The effect of spectrum range limitation to the efficiency of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/InP/Ge multijunction solar cells: a simulation case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Spectrum Range Limitation (SRL) to the efficiency and performances of multijunction solar cells Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/InP/Ge was investigated using simulation approach. Simulations were done using two different models, first with No Spectrum Range Limitation (NSRL) and the second with SRL. In the first model each subcell (material) was free to absorb AM1.5G solar radiation spectrum from 280 nm up to 2500 nm, while for the second model, the absorption spectrum for each subcell depends on the cut-off wavelength of its previous subcell. For each model, a non-identical current flow in each layer was simulated. The results have shown that SRL dropped the efficiency by almost a half (44.90 %) compared to simulation with NSRL. All current-producing simulations were performed using freely available PC1D program.

Sumaryada, T.; Wahyuni, E. S.; Syafutra, H.; Alatas, H.

2015-01-01

253

Efficient trans-splicing in the retina expands the utility of adeno-associated virus as a vector for gene therapy.  

PubMed

Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) can efficiently transduce many different cell types, including cells of the retina, resulting in stable gene expression. A major shortcoming of this vector is its small packaging capacity. A trans-splicing approach, which reconstitutes gene expression from two independent AAV vectors, can be used to overcome the vector's packaging limitations. The efficiency of this system to date has been disappointing, and therefore its utility for therapeutic application limited. We demonstrate here that efficiency and cellular specificity of trans-splicing is dependent on selection of the appropriate AAV serotype. Efficiency of transgene expression resulting from trans-splicing in skeletal muscle approaches that obtained when delivering the intact transgene when using AAV2 vectors packaged with AAV5 capsids (AAV2/5). This expands the potential of AAV vectors for retinal gene therapy. The use of AAV2/5 also increases the efficiency of trans-splicing in photoreceptors. Selection of the appropriate AAV serotype is likely to affect efficiency of trans-splicing in other organ systems as well. PMID:12573057

Reich, S J; Auricchio, A; Hildinger, M; Glover, E; Maguire, A M; Wilson, J M; Bennett, J

2003-01-01

254

Lipopolysaccharide-induced reductions in food intake do not decrease the efficiency of lysine and threonine utilization for protein accretion in chickens.  

PubMed

Exposure of animals to infectious agents induces immune responses that result in reductions in food consumption and weight gain. The effect of these changes on amino acid requirements and utilization remains unclear. Three assays were conducted with young chicks with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) used to stimulate the immune system. An initial study was conducted to evaluate the effects of LPS on animal performance. In a daily or alternate day injection regimen for 9 d, chicks were given intraperitoneal injections of sterile saline containing 0, 100 or 400 microgram LPS. Administration of 100 or 400 microgram LPS daily, or every other day, decreased both weight gain and food consumption. In two subsequent growth assays, chicks were fed graded levels of lysine or threonine and injected with either 0 or 400 microgram LPS every other day to evaluate the effect of LPS administration on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. At the three lowest amino acid doses, whole-body protein accretion was a linear function of supplemental lysine or threonine intake, and slopes of the accretion curves were not altered by LPS administration. The dietary lysine concentration required to maximize protein accretion was unaffected by LPS, but the absolute lysine intake required to maximize chick performance was lower in LPS-injected chicks than in saline-injected chicks. These results show that LPS administration reduces weight gain, food intake, efficiency of food utilization and the absolute quantity of lysine required to maximize these criteria. However, LPS administration does not affect the efficiency of amino acid utilization, nor does it affect the concentration of dietary lysine required to maximize performance. PMID:9772147

Webel, D M; Johnson, R W; Baker, D H

1998-10-01

255

A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

Mohammed S. Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Robert L. Steigerwald; Juan A. Sabate; Song Chi; Adam J. McCann; Li Zhang; Frank Mueller

2012-09-01

256

Public utility planning and cost efficiency in a decentralized regulation context: the case of the Italian integrated water service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reformed Italian water and sewerage industry has several distinctive features. It is based on a decentralized structure\\u000a where local authorities are entitled to define detailed long-term budget plans that claim to provide efficiency incentives\\u000a to operating suppliers. Unlike previous studies, this paper analyzes the cost efficiency embedded in these budget plans to\\u000a evaluate the actual capability of local regulators

Graziano Abrate; Fabrizio Erbetta; Giovanni Fraquelli

2011-01-01

257

Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

258

Performance Evaluation of QoS Parameters in Dynamic Spectrum Sharing for Heterogeneous Wireless Communication Networks  

E-print Network

Cognitive radio nodes have been proposed as means to improve the spectrum utilization. It reuses the spectrum of a primary service provider under the condition that the primary service provider services are not harmfully interrupted. A cognitive radio can sense its operating environment's conditions and it is able to reconfigure itself and to communicate with other counterparts based on the status of the environment and also the requirements of the user to meet the optimal communication conditions and to keep quality of service (QoS) as high as possible. The efficiency of spectrum sharing can be improved by minimizing the interference. The Utility function that captures the cooperative behavior to minimize the interference and the satisfaction to improve the throughput is investigated. The dynamic spectrum sharing algorithm can maintain the quality of service (QoS) of each network while the effective spectrum utilisation is improved under a fluctuation traffic environment when the available spectrum is limite...

R, Kaniezhil; S, NithyaRekha

2012-01-01

259

Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations  

SciTech Connect

The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results obtained from Site No. 1 to obtain the optimum results shown in Table E-1. Approximately 9 tests w

Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

2007-09-30

260

Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

2008-01-01

261

Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.  

PubMed

Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero. PMID:24933030

Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

2014-07-15

262

Zellweger Spectrum  

MedlinePLUS

... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ... What are the clinical symptoms of the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? The disorders of the Zellweger spectrum ...

263

Utilization of a unitary transform for efficient computation in the matrix pencil method to find the direction of arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we use the matrix pencil (MP) method to compute the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signals using a very efficient computational procedure in which the complexity of the computation can be reduced significantly by using a unitary matrix transformation. This method applies the technique directly to the data without forming a covariance matrix. Simulation results show

Nuri Yilmazer; Jinhwan Koh; Tapan K. Sarkar

2006-01-01

264

Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum-span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective and efficient solutions of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.

Heyward, Ann O.

1992-01-01

265

Nanowire-based hierarchical tin oxide/zinc stannate hollow microspheres: Enhanced solar energy utilization efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic degradation of dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowire-based SnO2/Zn2SnO4 hollow microspheres are synthesized using a facile one-pot method for solar energy conversion and environment cleaning. The micrometer-sized hollow spheres possess a hierarchical structure with the shell consisting of nanowires. With the hybrid SnO2/Zn2SnO4 microspheres as photoanodes, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an overall 4.72% photoconversion efficiency is obtained, nearly 240% improvement over the DSSCs that uses nanorod-based hierarchical SnO2 microspheres. The hybrid microspheres are also determined to be high-performance photocatalyst with a better recyclability for the photodegradation of dyes under simulated sunlight irradiation. These improvements of solar energy utilization are ascribed to the formation of the heterojunctions between SnO2 and Zn2SnO4 to enhance electron transport and charge-separation efficiencies.

Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Mao, Wutao; Zou, Zhigang

2015-01-01

266

Variation in the apparent sensitivity of the insulin-mediated inhibition of proteolysis to amino acid supply determines the efficiency of protein utilization.  

PubMed

1. The variability between normal individuals in the efficiency of postprandial protein utilization (PPU), a determinant of the apparent protein requirement, was examined in relation to the relative responses of protein synthesis and proteolysis to protein feeding by means of [1-13C]leucine turnover and balance studies.2. Twenty-five healthy adults were infused intravenously with L-[1-13C]leucine continuously for 9 h. This was started in the postabsorptive state (PA, 3 h) and followed by low-protein feeding (LP, 3 h), and then by isoenergetic high-protein feeding (HP, 3 h). This allowed protein intake to be varied against a constant postprandial insulin level so that the extent of any amino-acid-mediated responses which were additional to those exerted by insulin could be investigated. Leucine oxidation, O, and balance (intake-oxidation), protein synthesis, S, and degradation, D, were calculated from plasma [1-13C]alpha-ketoisocaproic acid enrichment and 13CO2 excretion.3.PPUprotein, calculated as change in leucine balance/change in intake (HP-LP), varied from 0.58 to 0.99 (mean=0. 81+/-0.10), independently of age or sex. PPUprotein varied directly with the inhibition of D and inversely with the increase in leucine concentration and stimulation of O and S.4. Efficient PPU, as demonstrated by the top quintile of individuals categorized in terms of PPUprotein, involves maximal inhibition of D by protein feeding with minimal increases in free amino acid concentrations, O and S. Lesser inhibition of D and greater stimulation of S and O characterized the lower, less efficient quintile. This indicates that the efficiency of protein utilization in individuals, and a component of their apparent protein requirement, is determined by the sensitivity of the insulin-mediated inhibition of proteolysis to amino acid supply. PMID:9831698

Fereday, A; Gibson, N R; Cox, M; Pacy, P J; Millward, D J

1998-12-01

267

Efficient utilization of complex N-linked glycans is a selective advantage for Bacteroides fragilis in extraintestinal infections  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides fragilis is the most common anaerobe isolated from clinical infections, and in this report we demonstrate a characteristic of the species that is critical to their success as an opportunistic pathogen. Among the Bacteroides spp. in the gut, B. fragilis has the unique ability of efficiently harvesting complex N-linked glycans from the glycoproteins common to serum and serous fluid. This activity is mediated by an outer membrane protein complex designated as Don. Using the abundant serum glycoprotein transferrin as a model, it has been shown that B. fragilis alone can rapidly and efficiently deglycosylate this protein in vitro and that transferrin glycans can provide the sole source of carbon and energy for growth in defined media. We then showed that transferrin deglycosylation occurs in vivo when B. fragilis is propagated in the rat tissue cage model of extraintestinal growth, and that this ability provides a competitive advantage in vivo over strains lacking the don locus. PMID:25139987

Cao, Yanlu; Rocha, Edson R.; Smith, C. Jeffrey

2014-01-01

268

ZnO:Al cathode for highly efficient, semitransparent 4% organic solar cells utilizing TiOx and aluminum interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of highly efficient, semitransparent bulk heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9h-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) esters as active layer. As semitransparent cathode sputtered aluminum doped ZnO was used in combination with a sputter damage preventing, thin (8 nm) TiOx layer processed from solution and a sputtered aluminum interlayer (ALI). The short circuit current improves for thicker ALIs due to increased reflectance at the cathode leading to average efficiencies of 4.0% for semitransparent solar cells. Comparable results (3.9%) were achieved for devices comprising thick absorbers and thin ALIs.

Bauer, Andreas; Wahl, Tina; Hanisch, Jonas; Ahlswede, Erik

2012-02-01

269

Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Feed costs represent about 70% of the costs of raising broilers. The main way to decrease these costs is to improve feed efficiency by modification of diet formulation, but one other possibility would be to use genetic selection. Understanding the genetic architecture of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) and the impact of the selection criterion on the GIT would be of particular interest. We therefore studied the genetic parameters of AMEn (Apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance), feed efficiency, and GIT traits in chickens. Genetic parameters were estimated for 630 broiler chickens of the eighth generation of a divergent selection experiment on AMEn. Birds were reared until 23 d of age and fed a wheat-based diet. The traits measured were body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), AMEn, weights of crop, liver, gizzard and proventriculus, and weight, length and density of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Results The heritability estimates of BW, FCR and AMEn were moderate. The heritability estimates were higher for the GIT characteristics except for the weights of the proventriculus and liver. Gizzard weight was negatively correlated with density (weight to length ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Proventriculus and gizzard weights were more strongly correlated with AMEn than with FCR, which was not the case for intestine weight and density. Conclusions GIT traits were largely dependent on genetics and that selecting on AMEn or FCR would modify them. Phenotypic observations carried out in the divergent lines selected on AMEn were consistent with estimated genetic correlations between AMEn and GIT traits. PMID:21733156

2011-01-01

270

Improvement of efficiency and stability utilizing a wide band gap material as the host for red organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high efficiency and stability based on a wide band gap host material 9,10-di (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). In these diodes, N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-4,4'diamine(NPB) and tris-(8- ydroxy-quinoline) aluminium (Alq) are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. 2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl- 1H,5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a,1gh] coumarin (C545T) and 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2- t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) are co-doped into the ADN emitting layer. Utilizing the two-step energy transfer from ADN to C545T and then from C545T to DCJTB, we achieved pure red organic light-emitting devices, which showed improved optical and electrical characteristics. Compared with devices where the emitting layer is made of Alq and DCJTB, the emission efficiency and stability of the ADN-based devices are greatly improved and the turn-on voltage is also decreased. The co-doping technique provides a promising way of utilizing wide band gap materials as the host to make red OLEDs, which will be useful in improving the electroluminesent performance of devices and simplifying the process of fabricating full colour OLEDs.

Tang, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Wengen; Sun, Runguang

2007-03-01

271

Evaluation of Characteristics of High Efficiency Power Generation Systems Utilizing Fermentation Gas of Simply Sorted Municipal Refuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper evaluates characteristics of two kinds of power generation systems utilizing fermentation gas of municipal refuse which is generated with use of a fermentation equipment of sorted refuse from ordinary collected garbage. In evaluation, a garbage incineration plant treating refuse of 100 t/d was adopted. The two systems investigated are the following systems: (a) gas engine power generation system (Sys-GE) and (b) steam turbine power generation system with super heater of steam (Sys-SH). The characteristics of two systems have been estimated together with the conventional steam turbine power generation system (Sys-C). It has been estimated that Sys-GE and Sys-SH has 2.11 and 2.55 times greater energy saving and CO2 reduction effect compared with Sys-C, respectively.

Pak, Pyong Sik

272

High Prescription Drug Utilization and Associated Costs among Medicaid-eligible Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Identified by a Population-based Surveillance Network  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study assessed medication use and associated costs among 8- and 15-yearold children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified by the South Carolina Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (SCADDM) Network. Methods All Medicaid-eligible SCADDM-identified children with ASD from surveillance years 2006 and 2007 were included (n=263). Children were classified as ASD cases when documented behaviors consistent with the DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) were present in health and education evaluation records. Medication and cost data were obtained by linking population-based and Medicaid data. Results All 263 SCADDM-identified children had Medicaid data available; 56% (n=147) had a prescription of any type, 40% (n=105) used psychotropic medication, and 20% (n=52) used multiple psychotropic classes over the study period. Common combinations were (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and an antihypertensive, antidepressant or antipsychotic; and (2) antidepressants and an antipsychotic. Multiple psychotropic classes were more common among older children. Both the overall distribution of the number of prescription claims and medication costs varied significantly by age. Conclusions Results confirm that medication use in ASD, alone or in combination, is common, costly, and may increase with age. PMID:22153288

Logan, Sarah L.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Carpenter, Laura A.; King, Lydia B.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Charles, Jane M.

2011-01-01

273

Final Report Spectrum Efficiency Scheme  

E-print Network

Communications Research Unit Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Chilton, Didcot Oxfordshire OX11 0QX Tel: +44 (0............................................................................................... 39 3.1.1. Directional antennas ................................................................................................ 40 3.1.3. Transmitter power control

Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

274

High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

1999-06-01

275

Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart.  

PubMed

Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart. PMID:24866583

Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

2014-07-01

276

Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

Rodgers, Sandra L.

1992-01-01

277

[Efficient use and problems associated with "home remote medical support system"--utilization of videophones for homecare patients].  

PubMed

"Home Remote Medical Support System" (the support system) is an interactive real time communication system, consisting of a vital health measuring device and a near-television quality home digital videophone installed at a residence, to connect a primary medical care institution and a homecare patient by information communication lines. Exclusive use of a telephone, vital health measuring device, TV monitor and camera are installed as home devices to communicate with a primary personal computer at the medical institution to manage patient's data and to have video phone health consultations. We employed and conducted the support system with a help from "the remote medical assistant task" operated by the local government since April 2004. Two patients actually used the support system in the first year although we initially planned to have three. In conclusion, the support system appears to have been useful for the health management of patients with stable conditions. Meanwhile, we have to reassess the application of the support system and to balance its accountability among the user efficiency, the content of the support provider and user expenses. PMID:16422488

Sugihara, Sachiko; Sekene, Mika; Kanatsu, Hiroko; Kitamikado, Hatsue; Kikukawa, Fumie; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Mori, Hiromichi; Isobe, Katsumi

2005-12-01

278

A General Framework for Wireless Spectrum Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a real-time spectrum auction framework to distribute spectrum among a large number wireless users under interference constraints. Our approach achieves conflict-free spectrum allocations that maximize auction revenue and spectrum utilization. Our design includes a compact and yet highly expressive bidding language, various pricing models to control tradeoffs between revenue and fairness, and fast auction clearing algorithms to compute

Sorabh Gandhi; Chiranjeeb Buragohain; Lili Cao; Haitao Zheng; Subhash Suri

2007-01-01

279

Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios  

E-print Network

Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios Alexander W. Min, Kyu-Han Kim,§ Jatinder spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of ac- cessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary

Shihada, Basem

280

Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the chosen process stimulation software was required to improve the reliability of process simulations for engineering design support. Data from experiments was also employed to calculate critical mass transfer and system design parameters (such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)) to aid in process design. When measured in a less than optimal design state for the stripping of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from a simulated dilute draw solution the HETP for one type of commercial stripper packing material was 1.88 ft/stage. During this study it was observed that the heat duty required to vaporize the draw solution solutes is substantially affected by the amount of water boilup also produced to achieve a low NH{sub 3} stripper bottoms concentration specification. Additionally, fluid loading of the stripper packing media is a critical performance parameter that affects all facets of optimum stripper column performance. Condensation of the draw solution tops vapor requires additional process considerations if being conducted in sub-atmospheric conditions and low temperature. Future work will focus on the commercialization of the Oasys EO technology platform for numerous applications in water and wastewater treatment as well as harvesting low enthalpy energy with our proprietary osmotic heat engine. Engineering design related to thermal integration of Oasys EO technology for both low and hig-grade heat applications is underway. Novel thermal recovery processes are also being investigated in addition to the conventional approaches described in this report. Oasys Water plans to deploy commercial scale systems into the energy and zero liquid discharge markets in 2013. Additional process refinement will lead to integration of low enthalpy renewable heat sources for municipal desalination applications.

NATHAN HANCOCK

2013-01-13

281

A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

2009-02-11

282

Efficient Direct Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase Detection by Multiplex Real-Time PCR: Accurate Assignment of Phenotype by Use of a Limited Set of Genetic Markers ?  

PubMed Central

The number and diversity of genes potentially complicate genetic approaches to the rapid detection of transmissible extended-spectrum ?-lactamase genes. We developed a robust multiplexed real-time PCR assay based on targets identified in a prior survey and used this to detect relevant genes in 617 consecutive clinical isolates of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:21613435

Ellem, Justin; Partridge, Sally R.; Iredell, Jonathan R.

2011-01-01

283

Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.  

PubMed

This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability. PMID:25536510

Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

2015-03-01

284

Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag?S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation.  

PubMed

The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (h?th) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction. PMID:25504257

Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M J

2015-01-28

285

Power Generation Efficiency of Photovoltaics and a SOFC-PEFC Combined Micro-grid with Time Shift Utilization of the SOFC Exhaust Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the combined system of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is developed. The proposed system consists of a SOFC-PEFC combined system and a photovoltaic system (PV) as the energy supply to a micro-grid. The exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for the steam reforming of the bio-ethanol gas with time shift utilization of the exhaust heat of the SOFC in optional time. The SOFC-PEFC combined system with the PV was introduced in a micro-grid of 30 residences in Sapporo, Japan. The operation plan of the system has three cases: without solar power, with 50% and with 100% of solar output power. Moreover, three types of system operation of using the SOFC independent operation, PEFC independent operation and SOFC-PEFC combined system are used to supply the demand side. A comparative study between the types of system operation is presented. The power generation efficiency is investigated for different load patterns: average load pattern, compressed load pattern and extended load pattern. This paper reported that the power generation efficiencies of the proposedsystem in consideration of these load patterns are 27% to 48%.

El-Sayed, Abeer Galal; Obara, Shin'ya

286

Phosphate Utilization Efficiency Correlates with Expression of Low-Affinity Phosphate Transporters and Noncoding RNA, IPS1, in Barley1[W  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency exists among wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes, but the underlying mechanisms for the variation remain elusive. High- and low-affinity phosphate (Pi) PHT1 transporters play an indispensable role in P acquisition and remobilization. However, little is known about genetic variation in PHT1 gene expression and association with P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P utilization efficiency (PUE). Here, we present quantitative analyses of transcript levels of high- and low-affinity PHT1 Pi transporters in four barley genotypes differing in PAE. The results showed that there was no clear pattern in the expression of four paralogs of the high-affinity Pi transporter HvPHT1;1 among the four barley genotypes, but the expression of a low-affinity Pi transporter, HvPHT1;6, and its close homolog HvHPT1;3 was correlated with the genotypes differing in PUE. Interestingly, the expression of HvPHT1;6 and HvPHT1;3 was correlated with the expression of HvIPS1 (for P starvation inducible; noncoding RNA) but not with HvIPS2, suggesting that HvIPS1 plays a distinct role in the regulation of the low-affinity Pi transporters. In addition, high PUE was found to be associated with high root-shoot ratios in low-P conditions, indicating that high carbohydrate partitioning into roots occurs simultaneously with high PUE. However, high PUE accompanying high carbon partitioning into roots could result in low PAE. Therefore, the optimization of PUE through the modification of low-affinity Pi transporter expression may assist further improvement of PAE for low-input agriculture systems. PMID:21606317

Huang, Chun Y.; Shirley, Neil; Genc, Yusuf; Shi, Bujun; Langridge, Peter

2011-01-01

287

Spectrum Trading with Insurance in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Spectrum Trading with Insurance in Cognitive Radio Networks Haiming Jin, Gaofei Sun, Xinbing Wang@cs.ust.hk Abstract--Market based spectrum trading has been extensively studied to realize efficient spectrum in spectrum trading so as to improve spectrum efficiency in CRNs. We show that by additionally purchasing

Wang, Xinbing

288

Effects of dietary forage level and monensin on lactation performance, digestibility and fecal excretion of nutrients, and efficiency of feed nitrogen utilization of Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments (Exp. 1 and 2) were conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 2 replications (n = 8) to evaluate effects of feeding Holstein dairy cows a total mixed ration containing 50 or 60% of ration dry matter (DM) from forages with or without supplementation of monensin. In Exp. 1, alfalfa silage (AS) was used as the major forage (55% forage DM), and corn silage (CS; 45% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (55AS:45CS). In Exp. 2, CS was used as the major forage (70% forage DM) and alfalfa hay (AH; 30% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (70CS:30AH). Experimental diets were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with 50 or 60% ration DM from forages and monensin supplemented at 0 or 300 mg/cow daily. In Exp. 1 (55AS:45CS), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DM intake (DMI; 27.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d) but maintained the same levels of milk (45.8 vs. 47.0 kg/d) compared with 50% forage diets. The efficiency of converting feed to milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed 60% compared with 50% forage diets (1.7 vs. 1.6 kg milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk/kg of DMI, respectively). Increasing dietary forage level from 50 to 60% of ration DM increased milk fat percentage (3.4 to 3.5%); however, adding monensin to the 60% forage diet inhibited the increase in milk fat percentage. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased feed cost, but this decrease ($0.5/head per day) in feed cost did not affect income over feed cost. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased fecal excretion of DM (10.6 to 9.6 kg/d) and nitrogen (N; 354 to 324 g/d) and improved apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber from 43 to 49% and apparent efficiency of feed N utilization from 32.3 to 35.9% compared with 50% forage diets. In Exp. 2 (70CS:30AH), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DMI from 29.6 to 28.2 kg but maintained the same level of milk (41.1 vs. 40.8 kg/d) and therefore increased the efficiency of converting feed to milk (1.46 vs. 1.38 kg milk/kg DMI) compared with 50% forage diets. Daily feed cost for feeding 60% forage diets was $0.3/head lower than for the 50% forage diets. Fecal excretion of DM (10.3 vs. 11.5 kg/d) was lower and fecal excretion of N (299 vs. 328 g/d) tended to be lower for 60% compared with 50% forage diets. Results from these 2 experiments suggest that a 60% forage diet consisting of either AS or CS as the major forage can be fed to high producing Holstein dairy cows without affecting milk production while improving or maintaining the efficiency of converting feed to milk and the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N. Cows receiving a 60% forage diet had a similar or improved digestibility of nutrients with a similar or reduced fecal excretion of nutrients. Effects of monensin under the conditions of the current experiments were minimal. PMID:19528598

Martinez, C M; Chung, Y-H; Ishler, V A; Bailey, K W; Varga, G A

2009-07-01

289

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for genetic screening in autism spectrum disorders: Efficient identification of known microduplications and identification of a novel microduplication in ASMT  

PubMed Central

Background It has previously been shown that specific microdeletions and microduplications, many of which also associated with cognitive impairment (CI), can present with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) represents an efficient method to screen for such recurrent microdeletions and microduplications. Methods In the current study, a total of 279 unrelated subjects ascertained for ASDs were screened for genomic disorders associated with CI using MLPA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and/or direct DNA sequencing were used to validate potential microdeletions and microduplications. Methylation-sensitive MLPA was used to characterize individuals with duplications in the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWA) region. Results MLPA showed two subjects with typical ASD-associated interstitial duplications of the 15q11-q13 PWA region of maternal origin. Two additional subjects showed smaller, de novo duplications of the PWA region that had not been previously characterized. Genes in these two novel duplications include GABRB3 and ATP10A in one case, and MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in the other. In addition, two subjects showed duplications of the 22q11/DiGeorge syndrome region. One individual was found to carry a 12 kb deletion in one copy of the ASPA gene on 17p13, which when mutated in both alleles leads to Canavan disease. Two subjects showed partial duplication of the TM4SF2 gene on Xp11.4, previously implicated in X-linked non-specific mental retardation, but in our subsequent analyses such variants were also found in controls. A partial duplication in the ASMT gene, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes and previously suggested to be involved in ASD susceptibility, was observed in 6–7% of the cases but in only 2% of controls (P = 0.003). Conclusion MLPA proves to be an efficient method to screen for chromosomal abnormalities. We identified duplications in 15q11-q13 and in 22q11, including new de novo small duplications, as likely contributing to ASD in the current sample by increasing liability and/or exacerbating symptoms. Our data indicate that duplications in TM4SF2 are not associated with the phenotype given their presence in controls. The results in PAR1/PAR2 are the first large-scale studies of gene dosage in these regions, and the findings at the ASMT locus indicate that further studies of the duplication of the ASMT gene are needed in order to gain insight into its potential involvement in ASD. Our studies also identify some limitations of MLPA, where single base changes in probe binding sequences alter results. In summary, our studies indicate that MLPA, with a focus on accepted medical genetic conditions, may be an inexpensive method for detection of microdeletions and microduplications in ASD patients for purposes of genetic counselling if MLPA-identified deletions are validated by additional methods. PMID:18925931

Cai, Guiqing; Edelmann, Lisa; Goldsmith, Juliet E; Cohen, Ninette; Nakamine, Alisa; Reichert, Jennifer G; Hoffman, Ellen J; Zurawiecki, Danielle M; Silverman, Jeremy M; Hollander, Eric; Soorya, Latha; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D

2008-01-01

290

Traffic-aware dynamic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand-driven spectrum allocation can drastically improve performance for WiFi access points struggling under increasing user demands. While their frequency agility makes cognitive radios ideal for this challenge, performing adaptive spectrum allocation is a complex and difficult process. In th is work, we propose FLEX, an efficient spectrum allocation ar- chitecture that efficiently adapts to dynamic traffic demand s. FLEX tunes

Lei Yang; Lili Cao; Heather Zheng; Elizabeth M. Belding

2008-01-01

291

Efficient Utilization of SIMD Extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper targets automatic performance tuning of numerical kernels in the presence of multilayered memory hierarchies and single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) parallelism. The studied SIMD instruction set extensions include Intel's SSE family, AMD's 3DNow!, Motorola's AltiVec, and IBM's BlueGene\\/L SIMD instructions. FFTW, ATLAS, and SPIRAL demonstrate that near-optimal performance of numerical kernels across a variety of modern computers featuring deep memory

Franz Franchetti; Stefan Kral; Juergen Lorenz; Christoph W. Ueberhuber

2005-01-01

292

Mining Spectrum Usage Data: a Large-scale Spectrum Measurement Study  

E-print Network

Mining Spectrum Usage Data: a Large-scale Spectrum Measurement Study Dawei Chen Dept. of Computer Dynamic spectrum access has been a subject of extensive study in recent years. The increasing volume of literature calls for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of cur- rent spectrum utilization

Liu, Mingyan

293

Achieving cooperative spectrum sensing in wireless cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access has been studied to exploit instant aneous spectrum availability by opening licensed spectrum to secondary use rs. To achieve high spectrum efficiency, secondary unlicensed users need to con tinuously sense spectrum to detect the presence of primary licensed users. Co operative spectrum sensing has been recognized as a powerful solution to improvespectrum sensing performance, which requires nearby

Chengqi Song; Qian Zhang

2009-01-01

294

The Storage Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually every modern computer system incorporates several different storage technologies to process data efficiently. A gentle introduction to data storage is given on this site, part of Red Hat, Inc.'s Linux System Administration Primer. The topics covered include: "The Storage Spectrum," "CPU Registers," "Cache Memory," "Cache Levels," "Main Memory - RAM," "Hard Drives," and "Off-Line Backup Storage."

295

Spectrum Recombination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1984-01-01

296

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2003-01-01

297

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2002-09-01

298

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report emphasizes the design of the thermophotovoltaic receiver and the whole system simulation model.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2003-10-01

299

Development of high efficiency cascade solar cells - an overview  

SciTech Connect

Multiple junction solar cells offer potentially much higher conversion efficiencies than their single junction counterparts by utilizing a larger fraction of each photon's energy and thereby reducing heat losses. The two principal schemes of implementing the multiple junction concept are described: spectrum splitting and tandem cells. 9 refs.

Timmons, M.L.; Hutchby, J.A.; Bedair, S.M.; Simons, M.

1981-01-01

300

Iterative interference cancellation for high spectral efficiency satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of efficient utilization of the frequency spectrum for satellite systems is investigated; one which results as a consequence of highly crowding adjacent channels. An analytical characterization of the resulting interference channel is introduced and then exploited for interference cancellation. Two classes of cancelers are investigated. The first approach does not benefit from the forward error control (FEC) coding

Bassel F. Beidas; Hesham El Gamal; Stan Kay

2002-01-01

301

Expanding the solar spectrum used by photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

A limiting factor for photosynthetic organisms is their light-harvesting efficiency, that is the efficiency of their conversion of light energy to chemical energy. Small modifications or variations of chlorophylls allow photosynthetic organisms to harvest sunlight at different wavelengths. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms usually utilize only the visible portion of the solar spectrum. The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina carries out oxygenic photosynthesis but contains mostly chlorophyll d and only traces of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll d provides a potential selective advantage because it enables Acaryochloris to use infrared light (700–750 nm) that is not absorbed by chlorophyll a. Recently, an even more red-shifted chlorophyll termed chlorophyll f has been reported. Here, we discuss using modified chlorophylls to extend the spectral region of light that drives photosynthetic organisms.

Chen, Min; Blankenship, R. E.

2011-01-01

302

Weatherization Partnerships Project, Grant No. DE FG 0299EE27594, October 1, 1999 - December 31, 2000. Final Technical Report and FY 1999 version of 'Lessons learned the long way: Integrating utility, energy efficiency tasks with weatherization'  

SciTech Connect

Includes reports on (1) the results of focus groups on managing utility residential efficiency [attitudes?] for low-income housing, and (2) low-income household energy consumption and expenditures patterns and weatherization opportunities 1987-1997, intensive analysis of R.E.C.S. data.

Power, Meg

2002-11-01

303

Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

2006-03-30

304

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.

Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears

2006-02-01

305

Wideband Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum sensing is an essential enabling function- ality for cognitive radio networks to detect spectrum holes and opportunistically use the under-utilized frequency bands without causing harmful interference to legacy networks. This paper introduces a novel wideband spectrum sensing technique, called multiband joint detection, which jointly detects the signal energy levels over multiple frequency bands rather than consider one band at

Zhi Quan; Shuguang Cui; Ali H. Sayed; H. Vincent Poor

2008-01-01

306

Broad spectrum solar cell  

DOEpatents

An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

2007-05-15

307

Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger Imagine the Universe educational site, the Electromagnetic Spectrum site is another great resource from NASA. The site gives clear and easy-to-understand explanations, while providing keywords throughout the page that are linked to a dictionary of terms for easy access to further information. Students will enjoy the colorful illustrations accompanying the text, which vertically follow the spectrum from radio to gamma rays, while teachers will appreciate the related lesson plans link that will help reinforce the learning.

308

Decline in Topsoil Microbial Quotient, Fungal Abundance and C Utilization Efficiency of Rice Paddies under Heavy Metal Pollution across South China  

PubMed Central

Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO2 are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO2 production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies. PMID:22701725

Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

2012-01-01

309

Efficiency of reconstitution of immunoglobulin g from blood specimens dried on filter paper and utility in herpes simplex virus type-specific serology screening.  

PubMed

The performance of studies using sera from remote locations is greatly facilitated if whole-blood samples dried on filter paper are shown to be compatible with the serologic assay being employed. Since dried blood samples do not require immediate refrigeration, occupy little space, and are easily transported, they may be used for evaluating the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in geographic locations where laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the utility of dried blood samples for the detection of type-specific HSV antibodies. The efficiency of using immunoglobulin G (IgG) eluted from dried blood samples was found to be consistent with measurement of IgG concentrations in most corresponding serum samples. The ratio of the mean IgG concentration for all dried blood samples to the mean IgG concentration for the corresponding sera was 1:29. When the 1:29 ratio was applied to each of the 22 pairs of samples, there was a deviation of less than 15% between concentrations in the dried blood sample and in the corresponding serum sample in 19 of the pairs. No positive or negative bias was detected for the IgG eluted from dried blood. The presence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies was determined in the paired dried blood and serum samples, and no differences in the HSV serostatuses were detected for 43 of the 44 pairs. One pair's serostatus varied, with the serum sample being weakly positive for HSV-1 and the dried blood sample results being equivocal. The detection of HSV antibodies was generally consistent for dried blood samples stored frozen for over 1 year or at room temperature for 30 days, although decreased reactivities were found in a few samples. PMID:12414771

Hogrefe, Wayne R; Ernst, Carolyn; Su, Xin

2002-11-01

310

ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS  

SciTech Connect

This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system: (1) Performance specifications were developed for the tracking subsystem and collector optics, (2) Thermal management experiments for the fiber optic bundle entrance region, and (3) Bioreactor testing, cost-modeling, and redesign. Much of the planned work has been slowed due to significant procurement delays of the primary mirror. However, taken as a whole, they do confirm progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. Due to this procurement delay, a no-cost extension of the project completion date has been requested and approved.

Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

2005-02-01

311

Smart Radio Spectrum Management for Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

Today's wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum assignment policy. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm to exploit the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wireless communication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. In this work, a fuzzy logic based system for spectrum management is proposed where the radio can share unused spectrum depending on some parameters like distance, signal strength, node velocity and availability of unused spectrum. The system is simulated and is found to give satisfactory results.

Bhattacharya, Partha Pratim; Gera, Rishita; Agarwal, Anjali

2011-01-01

312

Kinetics of blood lipoprotein spectrum indices in patients with angina pectoris during and after low-intensity laser therapy as a paraclinical criterion for treatment efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of applying (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers laser radiation in treating 403 patients affected by angina pectoris. The patients were administered a course of combined laser therapy consisting of the intravenous laser irradiation of blood combined with laser acupuncture. Apart from that, the patients took the maintenance doses of antianginal preparations and therapeutic doses of vitamins A and E. The blood lipoprotein spectrum revealed that this combined laser therapy was capable of producing an antiatherogenic effect. It was also found that the most effective exposure time of laser radiation was in the range of 10 to 15 min.

Babushkina, G. V.; Kartelishev, A. V.

2001-04-01

313

Measuring Academic Library Efficiency and Alignment with Institutional Resource Utilization Priorities Using Data Envelopment Analysis: An Analysis of Institutions of Higher Education in Texas and Their Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic and library administrators are increasingly required to demonstrate efficiency in programs, services, and operations as well as effectiveness. An important component of efficiency measurement is identification of a relevant peer group against which to compare the administrative unit to determine relative efficiency. The two-fold purpose…

Shupala, Christine M.

2012-01-01

314

NASA technology utilization house  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following systems and features, which are predicted to save approximately $20,000 in utility costs over twenty year period, are incorporated into single-level, contemporarily designed, energy efficient residential structure: solar heating and cooling; energy efficient appliances; water recycling; security, smoke, and tornado detectors; and flat conductor electrical wiring.

1977-01-01

315

Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

2014-12-01

316

Device-centric Spectrum Management Haitao Zheng  

E-print Network

Device-centric Spectrum Management Haitao Zheng Department of Computer Science University Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. China Email: cao li li@yahoo.com Abstract-- Efficient spectrum allocation in Open Spectrum systems is a challenging problem, particularly for devices with constrained

Almeroth, Kevin C.

317

Optimization of Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the low utilization of the licensed spectrum across many frequency bands, sensing-based oppor- tunistic spectrum access has recently emerged as an alternative to the outdated exclusive spectrum access policy. Under this new paradigm, a secondary (unlicensed) user monitors a primary (licensed) frequency band for a given time and opportunistically transmits if it does not detect any ongoing licensed

Amir Ghasemi; Elvino S. Sousa

2007-01-01

318

Proposal for a high efficiency LNG power-generation system utilizing waste heat from the combined cycle 1 Published in co-operation with the Japanese Society of Energy Resources. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-efficiency power-generation with an LNG vaporizing system is proposed: it utilizes the LNG's cold energy to the best potential limit. This system can be applied to LNG vaporizers in gas companies or electric power companies and recover the LNG's cold energy as electric power. The system consists of a Rankine cycle using a freon mixture, natural-gas Rankine cycle and a

Y Hisazumi; Y Yamasaki; S Sugiyama

1998-01-01

319

Etiquette Modification for Unlicensed Spectrum: Approach and Impact1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In unlicensed spectrum, any device is free to transmit without a government license that implies exclusive access. Such spectrum has significant benefits, but serious challenges must first be overcome. Foremost is the risk of drastic performance degradation and inefficient spectrum utilization, due to a lack of incentive to conserve shared spectrum. Previous work (8) has shown this problem to be

Durga P. Satapathy; Jon M. Peha

1998-01-01

320

Etiquette modification for unlicensed spectrum: approach and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the unlicensed spectrum, any device is free to transmit without a government license that implies exclusive access. Such spectrum has significant benefits, but serious challenges must first be overcome. Foremost is the risk of drastic performance degradation and inefficient spectrum utilization, due to a lack of incentive to conserve shared spectrum. Previous work has shown this problem to be

Durga P. Satapathy; Jon M. Peha

1998-01-01

321

Evaluation of Efficiency of Capital Sources Utilization and Company Performance of E-Life Mall in Kaohsiung City Based on Data Envelopment Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study is based on 20 direct stores of E-Life Mall in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. After having interviews with 5 store managers of E-Life Mall, we come up with 3 input and 3 output efficiency indices, and apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the performance efficiency of individual store, we also make use of Tobit regression analysis to investigate

Jung-Fang Chen; Pei-Yu Hsieh; Hsi-Wen Chen

2010-01-01

322

Spectrum formation in supernovae - Numerical techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study combines several novel techniques for spectrum simulation in the Eddington computer program which solves the comoving frame equation of transfer coupled with the statistical and radiative equilibrium equations. One of these is a generalization of the accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) scheme to include an approximate frequency-derivative operator. This greatly enhances the convergence rate of ALI in optically thick, high-velocity shear flows. Another is a partial linearization technique which is capable of efficiently solving a very large number of rate equations on a moderately sized computer. An expansion opacity and emissivity approximation is derived which makes it possible to determine the effect on the transfer and statistical equilibrium of a very large number of lines not explicitly represented in the frequency grid and additionally to treat line-blanketing from species not explicitly included in the rate equations. The utility of these techniques is illustrated with models of two supernovae.

Eastman, Ronald G.; Pinto, Philip A.

1993-01-01

323

The SNAP 27 gamma radiation spectrum obtained with a Ge/Li/ detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pulse height distribution, obtained experimentally using a Ge(Li) detector, was employed to determine the photon emission rate characteristic of a PuO2 fuel source known as the SNAP 27 heat source. The selfshielding parameters of the photon emitter, the efficiency of the detector and the geometry of the experiment were utilized to determine the unscattered photon emission rate of the source and the unscattered flux spectrum at a certain specified distance from the source. For the scattered part of the flux spectrum a Monte Carlo technique was employed so that the total flux spectrum could be determined at any point in the radiation field. As a result of this work, a technique was developed to obtain the unfolded radiation spectrum of the SNAP 27 heat source.

Taherzadeh, M.

1976-01-01

324

Error correction coding for frequency-hopping multiple-access spread spectrum communication systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A communication system which would effect channel coding for frequency-hopped multiple-access is described. It is shown that in theory coding can increase the spectrum utilization efficiency of a system with mutual interference to 100 percent. Various coding strategies are discussed and some initial comparisons are given. Some of the problems associated with implementing the type of system described here are discussed.

Healy, T. J.

1982-01-01

325

Final Report for DE-FG36-08GO18007 "All-Inorganic, Efficient Photovoltaic Solid State Devices Utilizing Semiconducting Colloidal Nanocrystal Quantum Dots"  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated robust colloidal quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics with high internal quantum efficiencies. In our structures, device durability is derived from use of all-inorganic atmospherically-stable semiconducting metal-oxide films together with QD photoreceptors. We have shown that both QD and metal-oxide semiconducting films and contacts are amenable to room temperature processing under minimal vacuum conditions, enabling large area processing of PV structures of high internal efficiency. We generated the state of the art devices with power conversion efficiency of more than 4%, and have shown that efficiencies as high as 9% are achievable in the near-term, and as high as 17% in the long-term.

Vladimir Bulovic and Moungi Bawendi

2011-09-30

326

Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency and transgenic plant regeneration of Vitis vinifera L. by optimizing selection regimes and utilizing cryopreserved cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various concentrations of kanamycin and paromomycin were examined for their effect on embryogenic cell suspension viability, transformation efficiency, and transgenic plant regeneration. Paromomycin (10–25mg\\/l) induced an earlier killing effect on cell suspensions than kanamycin (40–100mg\\/l). Transformation efficiency and the number of embryos developed on selection medium were positively correlated with an increase in paromomycin concentrations from 10 to 20 or

Qiaochun Wang; Ping Li; Uri Hanania; Nachman Sahar; Munir Mawassi; Ron Gafny; Ilan Sela; Edna Tanne; Avihai Perl

2005-01-01

327

EFFECT OF YEAST CULTURE ON EFFICIENCY OF NUTRIENT UTILIZATION FOR MILK PRODUCTION AND IMPACT ON FIBER DIGESTIBILITY AND FECAL PARTICLE SIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of Diamond V XP Yeast Culture on milk production, fiber digestibility and fecal particle size. Two groups of 111 cows each (average DIM of 179 and 191 at initiation of trial) were utilized in a two-period (40 d and 49 d) switchback design. Cows ...

328

Monte Carlo simulation of a PhosWatch detector using Geant4 for xenon isotope beta-gamma coincidence spectrum profile and detection efficiency calculations.  

PubMed

A simulation tool has been developed using the Geant4 Toolkit to simulate a PhosWatch single channel beta-gamma coincidence detection system consisting of a CsI(Tl)/BC404 Phoswich well detector and pulse shape analysis algorithms implemented digital signal processor. The tool can be used to simulate the detector's response for all the gamma rays and beta particles emitted from (135)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe, (131m)Xe and (214)Pb. Two- and three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra from the PhosWatch detector can be produced using the simulation tool. The accurately simulated spectra could be used to calculate system coincidence detection efficiency for each xenon isotope, the corrections for the interference from the various spectral components from radon and xenon isotopes, and system gain calibration. Also, it can generate two- and three-dimensional xenon reference spectra to test beta-gamma coincidence spectral deconvolution analysis software. PMID:19647444

Mekarski, P; Zhang, W; Ungar, K; Bean, M; Korpach, E

2009-10-01

329

Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes fabricated utilizing nickel-oxide buffer layers between the anodes and the hole transport layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical and the optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing nickel-oxide (NiO) buffer layers between the anodes and the hole transport layers were investigated. The NiO layer was formed by using a thermally evaporated nickel thin film and a subsequent oxidation process. The tunneling holes in the OLED were increased due to the existence of the NiO

H. C. Im; D. C. Choo; T. W. Kim; J. H. Kim; J. H. Seo; Y. K. Kim

2007-01-01

330

Stress wave communication in concrete: II. Evaluation of low voltage concrete stress wave communications utilizing spectrally efficient modulation schemes with PZT transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric materials, traditionally used for structural health monitoring, have recently been used to implement stress wave communications. Within a protective encasing we fabricate a smart aggregate which enables transmission and reception of modulated stress waves for digital communication within concrete. Our research focuses on building a high efficiency stress wave communication system and comparing the performance of phase shift keying (PSK) with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Our experiments evaluate the performance of QPSK and 16QAM implemented with our stress wave communication system at a transmit voltage ranging from 32 dBV to 37 dBV. We also demonstrate the increase in spectral efficiency of 16QAM compared to QPSK.

Siu, Sam; Qing, Ji; Wang, Kun; Song, Gangbing; Ding, Zhi

2014-12-01

331

Improved efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells utilizing two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide: graphene oxide nanocomposites as hole-collection material.  

PubMed

Improving device efficiency and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for their practical application. Although graphene oxide (GO) could replace the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole-collection material and improve the photovoltaic stability of PSCs, the power conversion efficiency is moderate because of its insulating nature. In this article, nanocomposites of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and GO are used to replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The nanocomposites are formed by dispersing rGO into aqueous solution of GO. GO serves as a surfactant, and it can stabilize rGO. The presence of rGO can quench the photoluminescence of GO in water. The nanocomposite films exhibit higher conductivity than GO films without rGO. They are used as the hole-collection material of PSCs. The optimal PSCs with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester exhibit such photovoltaic performances: short-circuit current density of 10.37 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage of 0.60 V, fill factor of 67.66%, and power conversion efficiency of 4.21%. The photovoltaic efficiency is much higher than that of the control devices with GO only (3.36%) as the hole-collection material. In addition, the presence of rGO in GO gives rise to better stability for the PSCs in air than that of the devices with GO only. The devices with rGO:GO composites as the hole-collection materials exhibit much better stability in power conversion efficiency than the control devices with PEDOT:PSS. PMID:25415184

Chen, Lei; Du, Donghe; Sun, Kuan; Hou, Jianhui; Ouyang, Jianyong

2014-12-24

332

A utility`s view of repowering  

SciTech Connect

Repowering existing fossil fired steam generation is an attractive alternative for utilities today. The repowered plant optimizes the re-use of the existing steam turbine generator and auxiliary assets along with the installation of clean, modern, efficient combustion turbine generators. The conversion results in a plant which compared favorably on a performance basis with a totally new ``greenfield`` plant, but is lower in capital cost. In addition, repowering makes prudent use of existing utility sites, infrastructure, and experience to provide the lowest cost energy for the end customer. The paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company`s views and describes an example of utility repowering at the Bergen Generating Station in New Jersey.

Dunn, R.W. [Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Ridgefield, NJ (United States)

1995-08-01

333

A Wavelet Approach to Wideband Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks, the first cognitive task preceding any form of dynamic spectrum management is the sensing and identification of spectrum holes in wireless environments. This paper develops a wavelet approach to efficient spectrum sensing of wideband channels. The signal spectrum over a wide frequency band is decomposed into elementary building blocks of subbands that are well characterized by

Zhi Tian; Georgios B. Giannakis

2006-01-01

334

Efficient production of Cre-mediated site-directed recombinants through the utilization of the puromycin resistance gene, pac: a transient gene-integration marker for ES cells.  

PubMed Central

Gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a powerful tool for generating mice carrying specifically designed mutations in the germline. Puromycin can completely kill ES cells within 24 to 48 h whereas G418 and hygromycin cannot. We have, therefore, proposed that the puromycin N-acetyltransferase ( pac ) gene, may be utilized as a transient gene-integration marker. Using a circular expression vector of cre and pac genes, Cre-mediated mutant cells were effectively enriched by pulse treatment of puromycin without stable integration of their genes. We have thus demonstrated the first application of pac as a transient gene-integration marker for ES cells. PMID:9421534

Taniguchi, M; Sanbo, M; Watanabe, S; Naruse, I; Mishina, M; Yagi, T

1998-01-01

335

High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm.sup.3+ and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture  

DOEpatents

Wing pumping a Tm.sup.3+ doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 .mu.m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm.sup.3+ absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm.sup.3+ because high Tm.sup.3+ concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation.

Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

336

High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture  

DOEpatents

Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

Beach, R.J.

1997-11-18

337

Development of an efficient utility interactive combined wind\\/photovoltaic\\/fuel cell power system with MPPT and DC bus voltage regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, development and simulation of an efficient small-scale centralized dc-bus grid connected hybrid wind\\/photovoltaic\\/fuel cell for supplying power to a low voltage distribution system are presented. The hybrid system consists of wind and photovoltaic as a primary power system. A fuel cell is added as a secondary system to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of

Nabil A. Ahmed; A. K. Al-Othman; M. R. AlRashidi

2011-01-01

338

Technology utilization program report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of aerospace technology to the solution of public health and industrial problems is reported. Data cover: (1) development of an externally rechargeable cardiac pacemaker, (2) utilization of ferrofluids-colloidal suspensions of ferrite particles - in the efficient separation of nonferrous metals as Ni, Zn, Cu, and Al from shredded automobile scrap, and (3) development of a breathing system for fire fighters.

1974-01-01

339

Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

2009-09-30

340

Computationally Efficient Approaches to Characterize the Dynamic Response of Microstructures Under Mechanical Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present computationally efficient models and approaches to simulate the response of microstructures under mechanical shock. These approaches include a Galerkin-based reduced-order model and a hybrid approach utilizing the response of structures to static loads combined with the dynamic shock spectrum of a spring-mass-damper system. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of these approaches, we apply them on cantilever and

Mohammad I. Younis; Daniel Jordy; James M. Pitarresi

2007-01-01

341

Enhancing phosphorus and zinc acquisition efficiency in rice: a critical review of root traits and their potential utility in rice breeding  

PubMed Central

Background Rice is the world's most important cereal crop and phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) deficiency are major constraints to its production. Where fertilizer is applied to overcome these nutritional constraints it comes at substantial cost to farmers and the efficiency of fertilizer use is low. Breeding crops that are efficient at acquiring P and Zn from native soil reserves or fertilizer sources has been advocated as a cost-effective solution, but would benefit from knowledge of genes and mechanisms that confer enhanced uptake of these nutrients by roots. Scope This review discusses root traits that have been linked to P and Zn uptake in rice, including traits that increase mobilization of P/Zn from soils, increase the volume of soil explored by roots or root surface area to recapture solubilized nutrients, enhance the rate of P/Zn uptake across the root membrane, and whole-plant traits that affect root growth and nutrient capture. In particular, this review focuses on the potential for these traits to be exploited through breeding programmes to produce nutrient-efficient crop cultivars. Conclusions Few root traits have so far been used successfully in plant breeding for enhanced P and Zn uptake in rice or any other crop. Insufficient genotypic variation for traits or the failure to enhance nutrient uptake under realistic field conditions are likely reasons for the limited success. More emphasis is needed on field studies in mapping populations or association panels to identify those traits and underlying genes that are able to enhance nutrient acquisition beyond the level already present in most cultivars. PMID:23071218

Rose, T. J.; Impa, S. M.; Rose, M. T.; Pariasca-Tanaka, J.; Mori, A.; Heuer, S.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Wissuwa, M.

2013-01-01

342

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

343

Application of ZnO nanoparticles to enhance photoluminescence in porous silicon and its possible utilization for improving the short wavelength quantum efficiency of silicon solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have formed photoluminescent porous silicon (PS) layers and over which a ZnO layer (hereafter called ZnOPS layers) is deposited. We studied the photoluminescent properties of individual layers as well as the composite layer under excitation with 405 nm wavelength. Using the data of PL a theoretical analysis of a solar cell having such a composite layer of a given photoluminescent conversion efficiency ?PL on the front surface has been done. The condition of a photoluminescent composite layer (ZnOPS) useful for enhancing the spectral response of n+-p-p+ structured silicon solar cell has been identified.

Verma, Daisy; Kharkwal, Aneeta; Singh, S. N.; Singh, P. K.; Sharma, S. N.; Mehdi, S. S.; Husain, M.

2014-11-01

344

NeXt generation\\/dynamic spectrum access\\/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's wireless networks are characterized by a fixed spectrum assignment policy. However, a large portion of the assigned spectrum is used sporadically and geographical variations in the utilization of assigned spectrum ranges from 15% to 85% with a high variance in time. The limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage neces- sitate a new communication paradigm to

Ian F. Akyildiz; Won-yeol Lee; Mehmet C. Vuran; Shantidev Mohanty

2006-01-01

345

Hybrid spread spectrum radio system  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Dress, William B. (Camas, WA)

2010-02-02

346

E240V substitution increases catalytic efficiency toward ceftazidime in a new natural TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-149, from Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that belongs to the TEM family, the TEM-149 enzyme, and that was isolated from the urine of two hospitalized patients from different hospitals in southern Italy. The peculiarity of this enzyme was the finding of a valine residue at position 240. The array of amino acid substitutions found in TEM-149 was as follows: E104K, R164S, M182T, and E240V. A reversion of a threonine residue at position 182 was also performed to create a new mutant, TEM-149 T182M, in order to assess the contribution of this substitution on the kinetic profile and the stability of TEM-149. The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. Both enzymes hydrolyzed all beta-lactams tested, with a preference for ceftazidime, which was found to be the best substrate. By comparison of the kinetic parameters of the TEM-149 and the TEM-149 T182M enzymes, a reduction of the catalytic efficiency for the TEM-149 T182M mutant was observed against all substrates tested except benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. Tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam were good inhibitors of the TEM-149 beta-lactamase. PMID:18160520

Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe; De Santis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Cristina; Forcella, Chiara; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Stefani, Stefania; Amicosante, Gianfranco

2008-03-01

347

Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

Berg, Charles A.

1973-01-01

348

Green Wireless Cognition: Future Efficient Spectrum Sharing  

E-print Network

. Collaborative project with TAMU in Qatar, "Layered Coding New Optimization Methods for Emerging Applications". Submitted to Qatar National Research Fund, 2011. #12;Collaborative Inspection & Repair by Autonomous

Shihada, Basem

349

Efficient Online Learning for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

in expected reward compared to a model-aware genie who always plays the best K arms. In this paper, we propose). In this case, all the arms, whether selected (activated) or not, evolve as a Markov chain at every time slot by a suitably defined genie that knows the parameters and that obtained by the given policy. As stated before

Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

350

Multi-antenna compressed wideband spectrum sensing for cognitive radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel wideband spectrum sensing (WSS) scheme, termed multi-antenna compressed wide- band spectrum sensing (MCWSS) scheme, which utilizes com- pressed sensing (CS) to reduce the extremely high sampling rate of wideband signal. Although there are studies on compressed wideband spectrum sensing, they only focus on single antenna signal. Since multi-antenna technology can enhance the detection performance, this

Xianjun Yang; Qimei Cui; Rui Yang; Xiaofeng Tao; Xin Guo

2011-01-01

351

Wireless spectrum prediction model based on time series analysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive Radio (CR) is considered to be a solution for mitigating the conflict between limited spectrum resources and increasing demand of various applications. For the purpose of guaranteeing primary users, we propose a spectrum prediction model using the spectrum historic utilization information with time series analysis. We conduct experiment on wide TV bands of China from 603.25 MHz to 843.25

Jinzhao Su; Wei Wu

2009-01-01

352

Market Structures for Wireless Services with Shared Spectrum  

E-print Network

Market Structures for Wireless Services with Shared Spectrum Randall Berry, Michael Honig--There has been much recent interest in allowing commercial providers to utilize federal spectrum on a shared investment. However, since the spectrum is shared, such a license would differ from traditional exclusive use

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

353

Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

2010-12-31

354

Isolation and characterization of a gamma-aminobutyric acid producing strain Lactobacillus buchneri WPZ001 that could efficiently utilize xylose and corncob hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus buchneri strain WPZ001 that could efficiently produce gamma-aminobutyric acid was isolated from Chinese fermented sausages. Optimal cultivation conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in L. buchneri WPZ001 were determined, and xylose was found to be the best carbon source. Using xylose as the sole carbon source, 70 g/L gamma-aminobutyric acid was produced by flask fermentation of L. buchneri WPZ001 for 48 h, and the harvested cells could continue to convert monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid in buffer and produce 59 g gamma-aminobutyric acid after eight runs of biotransformation; the total yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid reached 129 g/L. This combination strategy also worked well when the low-cost corncob hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source, and the yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid reached 117 g/L. The results indicate that L. buchneri WPZ001 has great potential for industrial production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. PMID:25524701

Zhao, Anqi; Hu, Xiaoqing; Pan, Lu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

2015-04-01

355

An efficient and economical way to enhance the performance of present HTS Maglev systems by utilizing the anisotropy property of bulk superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple, efficient and economical way to enhance the levitation or guidance performance of present high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems by exploring the anisotropic properties of the critical current density in the a-b plane and along the c-axis of bulk superconductors. In the method, the bulk laying mode with different c-axis directions is designed to match with the magnetic field configuration of the applied permanent magnet guideway (PMG). Experimental results indicate that more than a factor of two improvement in the levitation force or guidance force is achieved when changing the laying mode of bulk superconductors from the traditional fashion of keeping the c-axis vertical to the PMG surface to the studied one of keeping the c-axis parallel to the PMG surface, at the maximum horizontal and vertical magnetic field positions of the PMG, respectively. These phenomena resulted from the physical nature of the generated levitation force and guidance force (electromagnetic forces) and the fact that there are different critical current densities in the a-b plane and along the c axis. Based on the experimental results, new HTS Maglev systems can be designed to meet the requirements of practical heavy-load or curved-route applications.

Deng, Zigang; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Suyu

2013-02-01

356

A Survey on Dynamic Spectrum Access Techniques for Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

Cognitive radio (CR) is a new paradigm that utilizes the available spectrum band. The key characteristic of CR system is to sense the electromagnetic environment to adapt their operation and dynamically vary its radio operating parameters. The technique of dynamically accessing the unused spectrum band is known as Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). The dynamic spectrum access technology helps to minimize unused spectrum bands. In this paper, main functions of Cognitive Radio (CR) i.e. spectrum sensing, spectrum management, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing are discussed. Then DSA models are discussed along with different methods of DSA such as Command and Control, Exclusive-Use, Shared Use of Primary Licensed User and Commons method. Game-theoretic approach using Bertrand game model, Markovian Queuing Model for spectrum allocation in centralized architecture and Fuzzy logic based method are also discussed and result are shown.

Garhwal, Anita

2012-01-01

357

Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

Butler, T. G.

1984-01-01

358

Evaluation of Spectrum Occupancy in Indoor and Outdoor Scenario in the Context of Cognitive Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access is an integral part of the Cognitive Radio paradigm. However, efficient spectrum sensing techniques are crucial on the way towards systems, which use idle spectrum bands opportunistically and increase the overall spectral efficiency. Current spectrum occupancy was evaluated in few measurement campaigns at different locations mostly located in the USA. In this paper we report about an

Matthias Wellens; Jin Wu; Petri Mahonen

2007-01-01

359

BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

360

Distributed TV Spectrum Allocation for Cognitive Cellular Network under Game Theoretical  

E-print Network

utilization for secondary users working with TV broadcast spectrum (TV white space) is promising to cope] to obviate spectrum sensing and only rely on the database of TV incumbents to determine the white space cellular base stations to utilize TV white spectrum (such base stations referred to as white base stations

Gross, James

361

Fast synchronization model for UHF spread-spectrum communication system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication systems employing wideband digital techniques and special modulation methods are presently being developed to support the requirements for speed and volume as well as survivability and efficiency in tactical battlefield data distribution. The transport of information in a battlefield scenario presents considerable problems where both the laws of physics and enemy and own actions are limiting factors. Introduction of spread spectrum equipment able to withstand the electronic warfare threat has often been impracticable in tactical systems with push-to-talk signalling. One of the reasons has been synchronization difficulties. Rapid and effective synchronization of spread spectrum systems often requires matched filter processing in the receiver. The realization of such filters presents technological problems for high data speeds. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology has, however, been very promising in this connection. A spread spectrum modem utilizing state of the art SAW technology to process the communication signals is discussed. The system operating at UHF is optimized for push-to-talk operation with a synchronization time of 20 microsec and offers data speeds up to 100 kbit/sec. With a processing gain of approximately 30 dB, the radio modem is also able to resolve and reject multipaths on the order of 10 nsec. It is thus expected to avoid certain selective effects due to multipath which are usually encountered in narrowband communication systems.

Skaug, R.; Olaisen, H.

1984-10-01

362

Service provider competition and pricing for dynamic spectrum allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider dynamic spectrum allocation in the downlink between multiple service providers and users, and develop a model that is applicable for many future scenarios. The service providers set prices for spectrum and transmit data to users, who purchase their spectrum. Each provider transmits at a specific power spectral density which is an indicator of the efficiency of the modulation

Joydeep Acharya; Roy D. Yates

2009-01-01

363

Designing Truthful Spectrum Double Auctions with Local Markets  

E-print Network

and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G4. E-mail: weiwang, bli@eecg.toronto government auctions of spectrum), and unlicensed access is not allowed even if the channel is not used be efficiently determined by a market, governed by spectrum auctions. If designed well, a spectrum auction offers

Li, Baochun

364

Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

Bursty Traffic in Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access Yunxia Chen, Qing Zhao Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783 Abstract--We design opportunistic spectrum access strategies for improving spectrum efficiency. In each slot, a secondary user chooses a subset of channels to sense

Islam, M. Saif

365

Electric Utility Demand Side Management in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government, utility, and private subsidies for energy efficiency play a prominent role in current efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the effectiveness of this policy approach is in dispute. One opportunity for empirical analysis is provided by the past energy efficiency subsidies, called demand-side management programs, offered by electric utilities in North America over several decades. Between 1990 and

Nic Rivers; Mark Jaccard

2011-01-01

366

Energy Efficiency in Process Plant Utilities  

E-print Network

testing. 19. Evaluate the number of stages carefully when using multiple steam jets for evacuation of inert gases and non-condensables. One less stage means a significant steam and cooling water savings. 20. Proper operation and maintenance of steam... air usage. Nitrogen/inert gas systems 1. Explore possibility of substituting steam for nitrogen where possible. 2. In case of liquid nitrogen systems, consider using ambient vaporizers or using coils immersed in cooling tower basin water...

Aggarwal, S.

367

Energy Efficiency in Buildings- the Utilities View  

E-print Network

RWE Energy / Energieeffizienz bei Immobilien / U. K?nig / ICEBO '08 SEITE 16 RWE engagiert sich, die Energieeffizienz zu steigern Das Programm umfasst zw?lf Projekte Research & Technology Smart metering Virtual Power Plants Implementation...

Konig, U.

368

Transmission scheduling for efficient wireless utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an “opportunistic” transmission scheduling policy that exploits time-varying channel conditions and maximizes the system performance stochastically under a certain resource allocation fairness constraint. We establish the optimality of the scheduling scheme and also describe a practical scheduling procedure to implement our scheme. Through simulation results, we show that the scheme also works well for nonstationary scenarios and results

Xin Liu; Edwin K. P. Chong; Ness B. Shroff

2001-01-01

369

Utility Efficiency Programs Nov 10, 2011  

E-print Network

building nuclear plants ­ Emphasize cogeneration, geothermal, wind ­ Small coal plants are better than ­ Power plants in each area ­ DC transmission over short lines to the customers ­ Make money selling lights and other equipment · Westinghouse's Idea ­ Bigger power plants removed from area ­ AC

Ford, Andrew

370

Nitrogen utilization efficiency in sorghum cultivars  

E-print Network

-14E SC326 ? 6 SC279-14E CSM-63 SC283-14E IS9530 RIO BTx378 R8505 R8507 ATx623xRTx430 ATx3197xRTx7000 Zerazera Caudatum-Nigricans Nigricans Conspicuum Marget Conspicuum Caffrorum Kaf ir Zerazera/durra F, hybrid F, h brid 2-dwarf... maturing variety with good foliar disease resistance. SC56-14E is a deep rooting, drought resistant caudatum- nigricans from the Sudan. It is highly sensitive to anthracnose (infected plots in 1987 and 1988 reduced yields to 66% of 1986) . SC326-6 is a...

Reed, Stewart Thomas

1990-01-01

371

A Prior-Free Revenue Maximizing Auction For Secondary Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

A Prior-Free Revenue Maximizing Auction For Secondary Spectrum Access Ajay Gopinathan, Zongpeng Li--Dynamic spectrum allocation has proven promising for mitigating the spectrum scarcity problem. In this model, primary users lease chunks of under-utilized spectrum to sec- ondary users, on a short-term basis. Primary

Li, Zongpeng

372

Increased Photovoltaic Power Output via Diffractive Spectrum Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced spectral bands. These bands are then absorbed by single-junction photovoltaic cells, whose band gaps correspond to the incident spectral bands. We designed such BDOEs by utilizing a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. Gray scale lithography was used to fabricate these multilevel optics. They were experimentally characterized with an overall optical efficiency of 70% over a wavelength range of 350-1100 nm, which was in excellent agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, two prototype devices were assembled: one with a pair of copper indium gallium selenide based photovoltaic devices, and another with GaAs and c-Si photovoltaic devices. These devices demonstrated an increase in output peak electrical power of ˜42% and ˜22%, respectively, under white-light illumination. Because of the optical versatility and manufacturability of the proposed BDOEs, the reported spectrum-splitting approach provides a new approach toward low-cost solar power.

Kim, Ganghun; Dominguez-Caballero, Jose A.; Lee, Howard; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

2013-03-01

373

Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation.  

PubMed

In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced spectral bands. These bands are then absorbed by single-junction photovoltaic cells, whose band gaps correspond to the incident spectral bands. We designed such BDOEs by utilizing a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. Gray scale lithography was used to fabricate these multilevel optics. They were experimentally characterized with an overall optical efficiency of 70% over a wavelength range of 350-1100 nm, which was in excellent agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, two prototype devices were assembled: one with a pair of copper indium gallium selenide based photovoltaic devices, and another with GaAs and c-Si photovoltaic devices. These devices demonstrated an increase in output peak electrical power of ? 42% and ? 22%, respectively, under white-light illumination. Because of the optical versatility and manufacturability of the proposed BDOEs, the reported spectrum-splitting approach provides a new approach toward low-cost solar power. PMID:25166805

Kim, Ganghun; Dominguez-Caballero, Jose A; Lee, Howard; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh

2013-03-22

374

Autism Spectrum Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

375

SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver  

DOEpatents

A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

Brocato, Robert W

2014-04-01

376

Lightweight, broad-band spectrum analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum analyzer, utilizing techniques similar to those used to classify energy levels of nuclear particles, is incorporated into electric field detector. Primary advantage is ability to perform qualitative broad-band frequency analysis over a large dynamic amplitude range with minimum weight and electrical power requirements.

Crook, G. M.

1972-01-01

377

Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP + PSB was not able to generate any significant impact on plant while DAP displayed the superiority over the remaining treatments. Combined use of RP, PM and PSB in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB resulted in the growth, yield and P-uptake of chilli comparative/equivalent to that recorded under DAP. The PUE of applied P varied between 4-29% and higher in the treatments supplemented with PSB compared to those without PSB. These results suggest that use of PSB and PM with insoluble RP or with soluble P fertilizers could be a promising management strategy and viable technology to utilize both low-grade RP and SPF or PM efficiently for crop production and nutrient improvement in our cropping systems.

Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

2015-01-01

378

Will the utility service obligation become a victim of economic theory  

SciTech Connect

There is a movement extending across the entire spectrum of industries subject to economic regulation which would either compel their rates and charges to be fixed to simulate competitive market economics or deregulate them entirely. The author contends that proposals in this vein show little or no concern for the impact they would have on ther service these industries have been rendering. He also warns electric utilities, in particular, against the belief that they are disinterested stakeholders awaiting the outcome of a marginal cost battle being fought out between the Department of Energy and those utility customers who could be most adversely affected. The issue is not an abstract consideration such as economic efficiency, fairness, or optimal resource allocation, he says. Rather, it is the continued viability of present markets and the impact which the sought-after changes in those markets will have on the utilities themselves and on the economy as a whole. 9 references.

Flax, L.

1980-03-27

379

Design of a high-spectral-efficiency MIMO MB-OFDM UWB baseband transceiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) baseband transceiver for multi-band orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) communications is proposed in the paper. In the transceiver, a spatial multiplexing scheme with four transmit and four receive antennas is utilized to increase spectrum efficiency and achieve 1.92-Gbps data rate. Performance of both the MIMO and single-input single-output (SISO) schemes is investigated through simulations under

Jian-Chen Liao; Yuan-Wei Wu; Hsi-Pin Ma

2010-01-01

380

What and how much to gain by spectrum agility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Static spectrum allocation prohibits radio devices from using spectral bands designated for others. As a result, some bands are under-utilized while other bands are over-populated with radio devices. To remedy this problem, the concept of spectrum agility has been considered so as to enable devices to opportunistically utilize others’ spectral bands. In order to help realize this concept, we establish

Chun-ting Chou; Hyoil Kim; Kang G. Shin

2007-01-01

381

An Approximate Truthfulness Motivated Spectrum Auction for Dynamic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

An Approximate Truthfulness Motivated Spectrum Auction for Dynamic Spectrum Access Qinhui Wang, China Institute of Computer Science, University of Goettingen, Germany Abstract--Secondary Spectrum Auction (SSA) has been pro- posed as an effective approach to design spectrum sharing mechanism

Zhou, Yuanyuan

382

Operational spectrum effectiveness: a performance metric for software defined radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced RF systems such as sofware-defined radio (SDR), given a high degree of agility, in spectrum access, modulation and routing discipline, offer new opportunities to achieve expanding mission requirements while optimizing spectrum utilization. Agile RF systems may be employed within a military environment to intelligently minimize the value-limiting effects of interference if we define \\

Leo H. Jones

2001-01-01

383

Allocating dynamic time-spectrum blocks in cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have shown the abundance of unused spectrum in the TV bands. This is in stark contrast to the overcrowding of wireless devices in the ISM bands. A recent trend to alleviate this disparity is the design of Cog- nitive Radios, which constantly sense the spectrum and op- portunistically utilize unused frequencies in the TV bands. In

Yuan Yuan; Paramvir Bahl; Ranveer Chandra; Thomas Moscibroda; Yunnan Wu

2007-01-01

384

Partial Cooperation for Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Network  

E-print Network

Partial Cooperation for Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Network Lok Man Law1, Fen Hou2, Jianwei-- In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio network where secondary users may have different sets of available that many licensed radio spectrums are heavily under-utilized. Cognitive radio technology can improve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

Energy Aware Grid: Global Workload Placement based on Energy Efficiency Chandrakant Patel, Ratnesh.graupner}@hp.com Grid Computing, energy- efficiency, workload placement, cooling, data center, utility computing a global utility infrastructure explicitly incorporating energy efficiency and thermal management among

Simunic, Tajana

386

SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS  

E-print Network

SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITY AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINT IN OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Qing Zhao@ece.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we study two important concepts in opportunis- tic spectrum access: spectrum intuitive terms central to opportunistic spectrum access. Their implications in spectrum opportunity

Islam, M. Saif

387

Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access  

E-print Network

1 Revenue Maximization in Spectrum Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Access Ali Kakhbod, Ashutosh maximization problems in auctions for dynamic spectrum access. We consider the frequency division and spread spectrum methods of dynamic spectrum shar- ing. In the frequency division method, a primary spectrum user

Teneketzis, Demosthenis

388

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

389

DECENTRALIZED TRANSMISSION STRATEGY FOR DELAY-SENSITIVE APPLICATIONS OVER SPECTRUM AGILE NETWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing demand of radio resources, maximiz- ing spectrum efficiency becomes increasingly important. Tra- ditional static spectrum allocation lacks the mechanisms for sharing the spectral resources between different allocated bands. Hence, spectrum agility which allows the radio de- vices to dynamically use the idle spectral band is attracting more and more attention. In this paper, we show how spectrum

Aymeric Larcher; Haitong Sun; Mihaela Van Der Schaar; Zhi Ding

390

Dynamic Spectrum Access with QoS and Interference Temperature Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum is one of the most precious radio resources. With the increasing demand for wireless communication, efficiently using the spectrum resource has become an essential issue. With the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) spectrum policy reform, secondary spectrum sharing has gained increasing interest. One of the policy reforms introduces the concept of an interference temperature—the total allowable interference in a spectral

Yiping Xing; Chetan Nanjunda Mathur; Mohamed A. Haleem; Rajarathnam Chandramouli; K. P. Subbalakshmi

2007-01-01

391

DECENTRALIZED COGNITIVE MAC FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS Qing Zhao, Lang Tong, and Ananthram Swami  

E-print Network

and region, a portion of the spectrum to a radio access network for its exclusive use. As such, white space of eliminating white space in the spectrum. Such DSA strategies are more relevant to applications re- quiring- prove spectrum efficiency through time- and space-dependent spectrum sharing among coexisting radio

Islam, M. Saif

392

Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication  

SciTech Connect

We show that communication of single-photon quantum states in a multi-user environment is improved by using spread spectrum communication techniques. We describe a framework for spreading, transmitting, despreading, and detecting single-photon spectral states that mimics conventional spread spectrum techniques. We show in the cases of inadvertent detection, unintentional interference, and multi-user management, that quantum spread spectrum communications may minimize receiver errors by managing quantum channel access.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL

2011-01-01

393

QoS-aware dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ubiquitous wireless networking requires efficient dynamic spectrum access (DSA) among heterogeneous users with diverse transmission types and bandwidth demands. To meet user-specific quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, the power and spectrum allocated to each user should lie inside a power/spectral-shape bounded region in order to be meaningful for the intended application. Most existing DSA methods aim at enhancing the total system utility. As such, spectrum wastage may arise when the system-wide optimal allocation falls outside individual users' desired regions for QoS provisioning. In this work, novel QoS-aware DSA algorithms are developed for both non-cooperative power allocation (QoSNCPA) and cooperative (QoSCPA) users in cognitive radio (CR) networks. The algorithms maximize the "useful utilities" to the users, and minimize the power consumption and mutual interference within the CR network. Simulations results of the QoSNCPA and QoSCPA for single and multiple channel cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms for DSA.

Tian, Xin; Tian, Zhi; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

2013-05-01

394

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions ...

395

Adaptive channel allocation spectrum etiquette for cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a game theoretic framework to analyze the behavior of cognitive radios for distributed adaptive channel allocation. We define two different objective functions for the spectrum sharing games, which capture the utility of selfish users and cooperative users, respectively. Based on the utility definition for cooperative users, we show that the channel allocation problem can be

Nie Nie; Cristina Comaniciu

2005-01-01

396

Adaptive Channel Allocation Spectrum Etiquette for Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a game theoretic frame- work to analyze the behavior of cognitive radios for distributed adaptive channel allocation. We define two different objective functions for the spectrum sharing games, which capture the utility of selfish users and cooperative users, respectively. Based on the utility definition for cooperative users, we show that the channel allocation problem can

Nie Nie; Cristina Comaniciu

2006-01-01

397

Tan F. Wong: Spread Spectrum & CDMA 2. Intro. Spread Spectrum Introduction to Spread Spectrum  

E-print Network

Tan F. Wong: Spread Spectrum & CDMA 2. Intro. Spread Spectrum Chapter 2 Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications As discussed in Chapter 0, a spread spectrum modulation produces a transmitted spectrum much wider than the minimum bandwidth required. There are many ways to generate spread spectrum

Wong, Tan F.

398

Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands by the communications industry for greater and greater bandwidth push the capability of conventional wireless technology. Part of the Radio Spectrum that is suitable for mobility is very limited. Higher frequency waves above 30 GHz tend to travel only a few miles or less and generally do not penetrate solid materials very well. This offers a sustainable solution for the current Spectrum Crunch in the lower microwave bands. One mission of this paper is to demonstrate practical and usable networks that can select a self-limiting link distance, allowing spectrum reuse. The motivation for operators of such bands to actually choose to self-limit is that by doing so, they improve the signal-tonoise against competing users at a lower cost than trying to overcome interference. These characteristics of wave propagation are not necessarily disadvantageous as they enable more densely packed communications links. Thus, high frequencies can provide very efficient spectrum utilization through "selective spectrum reuse", and naturally increase the security of transmissions. Optical systems and networks offer a far greater bandwidth. This means new devices and systems have to be developed. Semiconductor Light Emitting Diode (LED) is considered to be the future primary lighting source for buildings, automobiles and aircrafts. LED provides higher energy efficiency compared to incandescent and fluorescent light sources and it will play a major role in the global reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, as a consequence of the significant energy savings. Lasers are also under investigation for similar applications. These core devices have the potential to revolutionize how we use light, including not only for illumination, but as well; for communications, sensing, navigation, positioning, surveillance, and imaging.

Kavehrad, M.

2013-01-01

399

Incentive Mechanisms for Hierarchical Spectrum Markets  

E-print Network

We study spectrum allocation mechanisms in hierarchical multi-layer markets which are expected to proliferate in the near future based on the current spectrum policy reform proposals. We consider a setting where a state agency sells spectrum to Primary Operators (POs) and in turn these resell it to Secondary Operators (SOs) through auctions. We show that these hierarchical markets do not result in a socially efficient spectrum allocation which is aimed by the agency, due to lack of coordination among the entities in different layers and the inherently selfish revenue-maximizing strategy of POs. In order to reconcile these opposing objectives, we propose an incentive mechanism which aligns the strategy and the actions of the POs with the objective of the agency, and thus it leads to system performance improvement in terms of social welfare. This pricing based mechanism constitutes a method for hierarchical market regulation and requires the feedback provision from SOs. A basic component of the proposed incenti...

Iosifidis, George; Alpcan, Tansu; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

2011-01-01

400

A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different…

Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Ed.

2011-01-01

401

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the electromagnetic spectrum. Learners will read two pages of information about the electromagnetic spectrum and answer questions in an accompanying worksheet. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

402

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concepts of electromagnetic waves, wavelength, and the electromagnetic spectrum. Diagrams and written descriptions explain how wavelength is measured and explore the traditional divisions of the spectrum: radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

403

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOEpatents

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09

404

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOEpatents

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

405

Robust Singular Spectrum Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change Point Discovery is a basic algorithm needed in many time series mining applications including rule discovery, motif discovery, casual analysis, etc. Several techniques for change point discovery have been suggested including wavelet analysis, cosine transforms, CUMSUM, and Singular Spectrum Transform. Of these methods Singular Spectrum Transform (SST) have received much attention because of its generality and because it does

Yasser F. O. Mohammad; Toyoaki Nishida

2009-01-01

406

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

2005-01-01

407

The research of optical fiber Brillouin spectrum denoising based on wavelet transform and neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center frequency of Brillouin scattering spectrum is easily influenced by the noise and the measurement accuracy of optical fiber strain is reduced. So a novel denoising method which can be applied in the Brillouin scattering spectrum is developed in this article. The Brillouin scattering spectrum is decomposed into multi-scale detail coefficients and approximation coefficients by using the wavelet transform. The wavelet decomposition detail coefficients are threshold quantified by utilizing the threshold algorithm. At the same time, the wavelet decomposition approximation coefficients are trained and simulated by using the BP neural network in order to remove noise hided in the approximation coefficients. So the novel method can reduce the wavelet decomposition scales. The Brillouin scattering spectrum which has a better denoising effect can be gained by using the inverse wavelet transform, and the measurement accuracy of optical fiber strain is enhanced also. The results of simulation and experiment demonstrate that the proposed method can suppress noise better; accordingly, the new method can gain more precision optical fiber strain and reduce the wavelet decomposition scales effectively than the conventional wavelet denoising method. Theory analysis and experiment show that the method is reasonable and efficient.

Zhang, Zhi-hui; Hu, Wei-liang; Yan, Ji-song; Zhang, Peng

2013-08-01

408

Utilizing optimization in municipal stormwater management  

E-print Network

is also provided on a current linear programming optimization model-Parameters, such as relationships between costs to implement stormwater management practices and their associated pollutant removal efficiencies, needed in the utilization of the model...

Dorman, Stephen Paul

1995-01-01

409

2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities  

E-print Network

2009-2010 1 Energy & Utilities University of Virginia Facilities Management Annual Report 2009-10 Sustainability Reliability Service #12;2 "Sustainability, Reliability, Service" 2009-2010 Annual Report Table..............................................................................................................14 Energy Conservation & Efficiency

Acton, Scott

410

Geomagnetic Temporal Spectrum Catherine Constable 1 GEOMAGNETIC TEMPORAL SPECTRUM  

E-print Network

Geomagnetic Temporal Spectrum Catherine Constable ­1 GEOMAGNETIC TEMPORAL SPECTRUM Catherine Temporal Spectrum Catherine Constable ­2 GEOMAGNETIC TEMPORAL SPECTRUM The geomagnetic field varies in the geomagnetic field are distributed as a function of frequency. This can be done by estimating the spectrum

Constable, Catherine G.

411

Spectrum Sensing for Dynamic Spectrum Access of TV Bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of spectrum sensing in cognitive radio based wireless networks. Spectrum sensing is the key enabler for dynamic spectrum access as it can allow secondary networks to reuse spectrum without causing harmful interference to primary users. Here we propose a set of integrated medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) spectrum sensing techniques

Carlos Cordeiro; Monisha Ghosh; Dave Cavalcanti; Kiran Challapali

2007-01-01

412

Consecutive combined response spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Appropriate estimates of earthquake response spectrum are essential for design of new structures, or seismic safety evaluation of existing structures. This paper presents an alternative procedure to construct design spectrum from a combined normalized response spectrum (NRSC) which is obtained from pseudo-velocity spectrum with the ordinate scaled by different peak ground amplitudes (PGA, PGV, PGD) in different period regions. And a consecutive function f( T) used to normalize the ordinates is defined. Based on a comprehensive study of 220 strong ground motions recorded during recent eleven large worldwide earthquakes, the features of the NRSC are discussed and compared with the traditional normalized acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (NRSA, NRSV, NRSD). And the relationships between ground amplitudes are evaluated by using a weighted mean method instead of the arithmetic mean. Then the NRSC is used to define the design spectrum with given peak ground amplitudes. At last, the smooth spectrum is compared with those derived by the former approaches, and the accuracy of the proposed spectrum is tested through an analysis of the dispersion of ground motion response spectra.

Xu, Longjun; Zhao, Guochen; Liu, Qingyang; Xie, Yujian; Xie, Lili

2014-12-01

413

Flue gas cleaning wastes disposal and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and fly ash, together, are generally referred to as flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes. Modern fossil-fueled boilers (utility and industrial) produce large quantities of FGC wastes. Those boilers employing conventional coal combustion present a broad spectrum of potential environmental problems, which, due to regulatory constraints pertaining to air and water pollution control, will require focusing

C. J. Santhanam; C. R. Ullrich

1981-01-01

414

Benchmarking of North Indian urban water utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a suitable benchmarking framework that encompasses multiple criteria of sustainable water supply services for assessing the performance of select North Indian urban water utilities and also to arrive at potential for input reductions (or efficient input levels). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study considers 35 North Indian urban water utilities pertaining to

Mamata R. Singh; Atul K. Mittal; V. Upadhyay

2011-01-01

415

Top 100 electric utilities 1978 operating performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Electric Light and Power analysis of the top 100 electric utilities in the United States, power plant efficiency continued its long-term decline in 1978. Four large tables give 1978 data on heat rate, peak demand and capability, type of generation in the system, and transmission and distribution lines in operation for each of the 100 utilities. Six

Smock

1979-01-01

416

Office of Spectrum Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Office of Spectrum Management (OSM) is responsible for managing the Federal Government's use of the radio frequency spectrum." There are many informative features on the OSM Web site, most notably a collection of studies and reports about federal policies and regulations. Included in these reports is a long-range plan for accommodating the growing spectrum requirements of the government. Another interesting document is a detailed chart of frequency allocation in the US, which shows the range of frequencies reserved for specific radio services. The site is updated often with national and international news and hot topics.

417

Alloyed steel wastes utilization  

SciTech Connect

Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

Sokol, I.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Materials

1995-12-31

418

Spectrum Sensing of OFDMA Systems for Cognitive Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fully exploit wireless radio resource and then increase spectrum efficiency, cognitive radios shall sense and cognize environments so that the secondary system(s) may coexist with primary communication systems. In this paper, we acquire an effective set of cognitive information under a proposed spectrum sensing cycle for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. To avoid interfering with

Sheng-Yuan Tu; Kwang-Cheng Chen; Ramjee Prasad

2007-01-01

419

Core-Selecting Combinatorial Auction Design for Secondary Spectrum Markets  

E-print Network

and spatial domains: large chunks of spectrum remain idle while non- licensed new users are unable to access), with monetary remuneration in return. In such a secondary spectrum market, auctions are a natural mechanism design is to achieve efficiency, i.e., to maximize social welfare, the aggregated `happiness' of everyone

Li, Baochun

420

Resource utilization during software development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

1988-01-01

421

Overview of Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Erik Axell, Geert Leus and Erik G. Larsson  

E-print Network

--spectrum sensing, cognitive radio, signal detec- tion I. INTRODUCTION Spectrum is a scarce resource, and licensed measurements of spectrum utilization, that show unused resources in frequency, time and space [3], [4 Wallenberg Foundation. Geert Leus is supported in part by the NWO-STW under the VICI program (10382). where x

Langendoen, Koen

422

Replacement of Spectrum Sensing and Avoidance of Hidden Terminal for Cognitive Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio technique has been recently proposed as a novel approach for improving the utilization of the precious limited radio resources, by letting secondary users access primary users' spectrum if not used. There are two major challenges for cognitive radio: spectrum sensing and hidden terminal problem. In this paper, a novel network structure is proposed to separate the spectrum sensing

Zhu Han; Hai Jiang

2008-01-01

423

Entropy Spectrum of Modified Schwarzschild Black Hole via an Action Invariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entropy spectrum of a modified Schwarzschild black hole in the gravity's rainbow are investigated. By utilizing an action invariance of the black hole with the help of Bohr-Sommerfield quantization rule, the entropy spectrum for the modified black hole are calculated. The result of the equally spaced-entropy spectrum being consistent to the original Bekenstein's spectra is derived.

Liu, Cheng-Zhou

2014-09-01

424

Entropy spectrum and area spectrum of a modified Schwarzschild black hole via an action invariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopy of a quantum corrected Schwarzschild black hole in the gravity's rainbow is investigated. By utilizing the action invariance of the black hole and with the help of Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule, the entropy and area spectrum for the modified black hole are calculated. Here, the quasinormal modes of the black hole are not used. The obtained entropy spectrum is equally spaced and has not dependence on the quantum effects of the spacetime. However, due to the spacetime quantum effects of the modified black hole, the obtained area spectra are not equally spaced and the area spacing depends on the horizon area of the black hole. But, as the same to the entropy spectrum, the area spectrum of the gravity's rainbow is independent of the energy of test particle, although the modified spacetime has the dependence on the particle energy.

Liu, C. Z.; Yu, G. X.

2015-01-01

425

Spread spectrum for commercial communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how spread spectrum operates and explain why the FCC has allocated several spectral bands for spread spectrum. They examine what is wrong with the spectrum allocations the way they are now. They show who is using and will use spread spectrum and why. In particular, they discuss the use of spread spectrum for mobile cellular communications: the

D. L. Schilling; L. B. Milstein; R. L. Pickholtz; M. Kullback; F. Miller

1991-01-01

426

Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum sensing is the very task upon which the entire operation of cognitive radio rests. For cognitive radio to fulfill the potential it offers to solve the spectrum underutilization problem and do so in a reliable and computationally feasible manner, we require a spectrum sensor that detects spectrum holes (i.e., underutilized subbands of the radio spectrum), provides high spectral-resolution capability,

Simon Haykin; David J. Thomson; Jeffrey H. Reed

2009-01-01

427

Power Spectrum in Krein Space Quantization  

E-print Network

The power spectrum of scalar field and space-time metric perturbations produced in the process of inflation of universe, have been presented in this paper by an alternative approach to field quantization namely, Krein space quantization [1,2]. Auxiliary negative norm states, the modes of which do not interact with the physical world, have been utilized in this method. Presence of negative norm states play the role of an automatic renormalization device for the theory.

M. Mohsenzadeh; S. Rouhani; M. V. Takook

2008-11-06

428

Guidelines for NOx control by combustion modification for coal-fired utility boilers. procedures for reduction of NOx emissions and maximization of boiler efficiency. Special report Jun 74Dec 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report, which has been reviewed by industry experts, reflects the experience developed in successfully applying combustion modifications to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Although the report emphasizes coal-fired equipment, the same principles can be applied to gas- and oil-fired systems. Techniques, methods, and step-by-step procedures are detailed by example to guide utility personnel who may desire to

Manny

1980-01-01

429

Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

2008-04-01

430

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, online module reviews the basics of the the electromagnetic spectrum and makes the connection between radiation theory and the images we get from weather satellites. Students will learn about: the electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic waves; the electromagnetic spectrum and radiation theory; and how satellite radiometers "see" different sections of the spectrum. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

2012-08-03

431

Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications  

SciTech Connect

Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

Tolbert, L.M.

2005-12-21

432

Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

1983-01-01

433

Exploring the Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of the electromagnetic spectrum and how various types of electromagnetic waves are related in terms of wavelength and energy. In addition, they are introduced to the various types of waves that make up the electromagnetic spectrum including, radio waves, ultraviolet waves, visible light and infrared waves. These topics help inform students before they turn to designing solutions to an overarching engineering challenge question.

2014-09-18

434

Biphoton Spectrum Control  

E-print Network

The main methods for controlling the biphoton field, as well as the problems for which the width and the shape of the spectrum of the biphoton field are of decisive importance, are discussed. The method for controlling the spectrum of the spontaneous parametric downconversion of light based on the spatial modulation of the refractive indices of a nonlinear crystal in which the generation of biphotons has been analyzed. Modulation is due to the thermo-optic and electro-optic effects.

K. G. Katamadze; S. P. Kulik

2011-04-03

435

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................................................................................4 2.2 - Elemental Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes.......................................................................................................7 2.3 - Leachate Analysis of MPU North and South Silo Ashes DIRT")UTILIZING MANITOWOC PUBLIC UTILITIES ASH A Report submitted to Manitowoc Public Utilities

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

436

Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-03-15

437

Highly Efficient Digital Mobile Communications with a Linear Modulation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although linear modulation methods can achieve high spectrum efficiency, very little attention has been directed to their use in mobile radio systems. This is mainly due to the fact that the nonlinearity of the transmitter power amplifier tends to spread the spectrum and thus eliminate any spectrum efficiency advantage gained through the use of linear modulation methods. In this paper,

YOSHIHIKO AKAIWA; Y. Nagata

1987-01-01

438

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

439

Efficient Windows Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

Nils Petermann

2010-02-28

440

Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

2014-01-21

441

Effect of Magnetic Field Characteristics on Thrust Efficiency and Internal Efficiency of a Hall Thruster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of magnetic field strength and shape on thrust efficiency of a Hall thruster were examined experimentally using the THT-IV 1-kW-class Hall thruster. Thrusts were measured with varying magnetic field and channel geometry. Exhaust ion beam measurement was also implemented to evaluate internal efficiencies of propellant utilization efficiency, acceleration efficiency, voltage utilization efficiency and beam focusing efficiency. Spatial ion

Seiro Yuge; Atsushi Shirasaki; Hirokazu Tahara

2007-01-01

442

Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer  

DOEpatents

A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

2004-11-23

443

Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The

C. J. Leising; G. P. Purohit; S. P. Degrey; J. G. Finegold

1978-01-01

444

Enhanced efficiency of single and tandem organic solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based low-bandgap polymer by utilizing combined ZnO/polyelectrolyte electron-transport layers.  

PubMed

Power conversion efficiency up to 8.6% is achieved for a solution-processed tandem solar cell based on a diketopyrrolopyrrole-containing polymer as the low-bandgap material after using a thin polyelectrolyte layer to modify the electron-transport ZnO layers, indicating that interfacial engineering is a useful approach to further enhancing the efficiency of tandem organic solar cells. PMID:23847037

Jo, Jang; Pouliot, Jean-Rémi; Wynands, David; Collins, Samuel D; Kim, Jin Young; Nguyen, Thanh Luan; Woo, Han Young; Sun, Yanming; Leclerc, Mario; Heeger, Alan J

2013-09-14

445

A Facile Route to Efficient, Low-Cost Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Utilizing the High Refractive Index and Built-In Scattering Properties of Industrial-Grade PEN Substrates.  

PubMed

An industrial-grade polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate is explored as a simple, cost-effective platform for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Its high refractive index, combined with the built-in scattering properties inherent to the industrial-grade version, allows for a significant enhancement in outcoupling without any extra structuring or special optical elements. Flexible, color-stable OLEDs with efficiency close to 100 lm W(-1) are demonstrated. PMID:25645389

Kim, Eunhye; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Kyoohyun; Koh, Tae-Wook; Chung, Jin; Lee, Jonghee; Park, YongKeun; Yoo, Seunghyup

2015-03-01

446

The concept of "Green" has always been understood as expensive and not competitive. The new technologies that allow the efficient use of carbon atoms from inexpensive biomasses, even before the utilization of algae,  

E-print Network

the utilization of algae, have provided the opportunity to be "green and competitive" for the first timeThe concept of "Green" has always been understood as expensive and not competitive. The new in the world. Green Chemistry and Entrepreneurship: the Opportunities Guido Ghisolfi ETH Hönggerberg, HCI G 3

Sandoghdar, Vahid

447

NREL Spectrum of Innovation  

ScienceCinema

There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

None

2013-05-29

448

NREL Spectrum of Innovation  

SciTech Connect

There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

None

2011-01-01

449

Wave power estimates utilizing ocean wave spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete formulation of the spectral wave power equations, based upon linear wave theory, to be used with one-dimensional and directional sea spectrum are presented. These equations are quite general and allow for the specification of device specific information, such as, the wave capture\\/conversion efficiency and vertical projected capture height. Previously published field data is used to emphasize that the

John M. Niedzwecki

1983-01-01

450

Spectrum of analytic continuation  

E-print Network

I will show that operator of analytic (harmonic) continuation on a lattice graph has a positive spectrum. I use a theorem about positivity of eigenvalues of totally positive matrices. I conjecture that by approximation the similar result holds in continuous case on a plane.

David V. Ingerman

2008-06-03

451

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

MedlinePLUS

... child’s development. 10 Things to Know About New Autism Data Risk Factors for Autism: Read key findings from new CDC research. Language: ... for families and health professionals. Data and Statistics Data and statistics highlights. ... with Your Friends Share information about autism spectrum disorder with your family, friends, or co- ...

452

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy leads to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in their children. FASD is characterized by typical facial features, growth retardation, intellectual dysfunction and behavioral problems. Justification: Alcohol is neurotoxic to the brain during the developmental stage. Behavioral problems in children with FASD start at an early age and progress to adulthood. It is an important

RAGHAVENDRA BHEEMAPPA N AYAK; PRATIMA MURTHY

453

Stellar Spectrum Synthesizer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a device which employs two diffraction gratings and three or four simple lenses to produce arbitrary absorption or emission spectra that may be doppler shifted and spectroscopically examined by students some distance away. It may be regarded as a sort of artificial star whose spectrum may be analyzed as an undergraduate laboratory…

Landegren, G. F.

1975-01-01

454

Analysis of dispersive spectrum splitting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shockley and Queisser have shown that systems based on single junction PV cells are limited to a system efficiency of 33%. This restriction results from the mismatch between the photon energy of the incident sunlight and the inability of a single junction device to optimally convert the broad incident spectrum. One approach to overcome this difficulty is to incorporate multiple PV cells with different bandgaps that are optimized to convert different parts of the incident spectrum to electrical power. Spectrum splitting configurations distribute incident photons onto several single bandgap PV cells that are spatially separated. Although, systems with different methods and geometries have been proposed, optical systems relying on reflective filters have not been compared to transmissive ones. Since reflection-type films are primarily based on the interference of reflected waves from optical interfaces, systems based on these filters do not have dispersion losses. Dispersive spectrum splitting systems rely on optical elements that use diffraction or refraction for spectral separation. The dispersion from a single broad band optical element can be used for spectral separation. The geometrical relationship between focusing power, the degree of dispersion, the system aperture, and the PV cell aperture and position can be used to tailor the spectral shape of the incident spectrum into each of the PV cells comprising the system. In this paper, the effects of dispersion introduced by transmission type filters are presented compared to reflective filters.

Russo, Juan M.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Kostuk, Raymond

2014-10-01

455

Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing Lingjie Duan, Jianwei Huang, and Biying Shou  

E-print Network

-stage multi-leader dynamic game. Both the operators' equilibrium investment and pricing decisions turn out1 Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing Lingjie Duan, Jianwei Huang, and Biying Shou Department.shou@cityu.edu.hk Abstract--Dynamic spectrum leasing can greatly enhance the spectrum efficiency and encourage more flexible

Huang, Jianwei

456

DECENTRALIZED TRANSMISSION STRATEGIES FOR DELAY-SENSITIVE APPLICATIONS OVER SPECTRUM AGILE NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing demand of radio resources, maximiz- ing spectrum efficiency becomes increasingly important. Tra- ditional static spectrum allocation lacks effective mecha- nisms for sharing spectral resources. Through adaptive re- source allocation, spectrum agility allows the radio devices to dynamically use the idle spectral band and is becoming increasingly attractive because it can provide a large number of resources for

Aymeric Larcher; Haitong Sun; Mihaela van der Schaar; Zhi Ding

2004-01-01

457

Using Classification to Protect the Integrity of Spectrum Measurements in White Space Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging paradigm for using the wireless spectrum more efficiently is based on enabling secondary users to ex- ploit white-space frequencies that are not occupied by pri- mary users. A key enabling technology for forming net- works over white spaces is distributed spectrum measure- ments to identify and assess the quality of unused channels. This spectrum availability data is often

Omid Fatemieh; Ali Farhadi; Ranveer Chandra; Carl A. Gunter; Alexander W. Min

2011-01-01

458

Quantum Spectrum Testing  

E-print Network

In this work, we study the problem of testing properties of the spectrum of a mixed quantum state. Here one is given $n$ copies of a mixed state $\\rho\\in\\mathbb{C}^{d\\times d}$ and the goal is to distinguish whether $\\rho$'s spectrum satisfies some property $\\mathcal{P}$ or is at least $\\epsilon$-far in $\\ell_1$-distance from satisfying $\\mathcal{P}$. This problem was promoted in the survey of Montanaro and de Wolf under the name of testing unitarily invariant properties of mixed states. It is the natural quantum analogue of the classical problem of testing symmetric properties of probability distributions. Here, the hope is for algorithms with subquadratic copy complexity in the dimension $d$. This is because the "empirical Young diagram (EYD) algorithm" can estimate the spectrum of a mixed state up to $\\epsilon$-accuracy using only $\\widetilde{O}(d^2/\\epsilon^2)$ copies. In this work, we show that given a mixed state $\\rho\\in\\mathbb{C}^{d\\times d}$: (i) $\\Theta(d/\\epsilon^2)$ copies are necessary and sufficient to test whether $\\rho$ is the maximally mixed state, i.e., has spectrum $(\\frac1d, ..., \\frac1d)$; (ii) $\\Theta(r^2/\\epsilon)$ copies are necessary and sufficient to test with one-sided error whether $\\rho$ has rank $r$, i.e., has at most $r$ nonzero eigenvalues; (iii) $\\widetilde{\\Theta}(r^2/\\Delta)$ copies are necessary and sufficient to distinguish whether $\\rho$ is maximally mixed on an $r$-dimensional or an $(r+\\Delta)$-dimensional subspace; and (iv) The EYD algorithm requires $\\Omega(d^2/\\epsilon^2)$ copies to estimate the spectrum of $\\rho$ up to $\\epsilon$-accuracy, nearly matching the known upper bound. In addition, we simplify part of the proof of the upper bound. Our techniques involve the asymptotic representation theory of the symmetric group; in particular Kerov's algebra of polynomial functions on Young diagrams.

Ryan O'Donnell; John Wright

2015-01-21

459

Calculating Fired Heater Efficiency  

E-print Network

returns to normal. The authors' experience in this situation is that some operators may not be aware of proper part-load settings for 02 trim, and the excess air runs too. low for complete combustion. In this case, combustibles monitoring would...CALCULATING FIRED HEATER EFFICIENCY James T. Harriz and Edward L. Ritter Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Newark, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking utility and process heater efficiency leads to increased operator awareness and decreased fuel...

Harriz, J. T.; Ritter, E. L.

460

The Utility Energy Savings Contract for Brookhaven National Laboratory  

E-print Network

, including energy and water efficiency improvements and demand-reduction services. #12;4 · In a UESC;2 Tonight's Presentation Answering the questions: ­ What is a Utility Energy Services Contract? ­ Advantages of the contract? · Where will the efficiencies be found? #12;3 What is a Utility Energy Services Contract (or

Johnson, Peter D.

461

Attack Prevention for Collaborative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

Collaborative spectrum sensing can significantly improve the detection performance of secondary unlicensed users (SUs). However, the performance of collaborative sensing is vulnerable to sensing data falsification attacks, where malicious SUs (attackers) submit manipulated sensing reports to mislead the fusion center's decision on spectrum occupancy. Moreover, attackers may not follow the fusion center's decision regarding their spectrum access. This paper considers a challenging attack scenario where multiple rational attackers overhear all honest SUs' sensing reports and cooperatively maximize attackers' aggregate spectrum utilization. We show that, without attack-prevention mechanisms, honest SUs are unable to transmit over the licensed spectrum, and they may further be penalized by the primary user for collisions due to attackers' aggressive transmissions. To prevent such attacks, we propose two novel attack-prevention mechanisms with direct and indirect punishments. The key idea is to identify collisions...

Duan, Lingjie; Huang, Jianwei; Shin, Kang G

2011-01-01

462

The influence of campus experiences on the level of outness among trans-spectrum and queer-spectrum students.  

PubMed

This study utilized MANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationships between campus experiences and coming-out decisions among trans- and queer-spectrum undergraduates. Findings revealed higher levels of outness/disclosure for cisgender LGBQ women, and more negative perceptions of campus climate, classroom climate, and curriculum inclusivity and higher use of campus resources for trans-spectrum students. Results also revealed that higher levels of outness significantly related to poorer perceptions of campus responses and campus resources. Implications address the need to foster an encouraging and supportive campus and classroom climate and to improve the relationships with LGBTQ resource centers for trans- and queer-spectrum students. PMID:25321425

Garvey, Jason C; Rankin, Susan R

2015-03-01

463

Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders within the Simons Simplex Collection: Are Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Related?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychotropic medication use and its relationship to autism spectrum core features were examined in a well-characterized but nonstratified North American sample (N = 1605) of children/adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders utilizing the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" and the "Autism Diagnostic…

Mire, Sarah S.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Kubiszyn, Thomas; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

2014-01-01

464

Exploring the Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to the visible light spectrum, and demonstrates what happens to the appearance of an image when certain wavelengths of light are blocked by filters or made visible using special tools. Students are lead through experiments with light and filters, demonstrating that the broader the range of the electromagnetic spectrum we can detect, the more information we gather about the universe. By completing this activity, students gain background information that is necessary for activities that follow this one. This activity is part of the "Cosmic Questions: Our Place in Space and Time" educator's guide that was developed to support the Cosmic Questions exhibit. Activities in the guide can be used in conjunction with, or independently of, the exhibt.

465

The Electromagnetic Spectrum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are introduced to the electromagnetic spectrum. They observe a demonstration of the visible light spectrum created by a flashlight and a prism, complete an activity sheet where they identify the wavelength that is involved in technologies used in their communities, and learn about satellite sensors that remotely sense data. Student worksheets, a data sheet, answer keys, and Web links are included. This is Lesson 3 in Understanding Light, part of IMAGERS, Interactive Media Adventures for Grade School Education using Remote Sensing. The website provides hands-on activities in the classroom supporting the science content in two interactive media books, The Adventures of Echo the Bat and Amelia the Pigeon.

466

Selling Spectrum Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the FCC spectrum-license auction is a case study in the application of economic theory. Auction theory helped address policy questions such as: Should an open auction or a sealed-bid auction be used? Should the licenses be auctioned sequentially or simultaneously? Should the government allow bids for combinations of licenses, or should it accept only single-license bids? How

John McMillan

1994-01-01

467

Utilization management: a European perspective.  

PubMed

Utilization management (UM) in health care, based on the collection, assessment and monitoring of data pertaining to patient services and treatment, ultimately assures efficiency and effectiveness. The central role of laboratory services in modern medicine created the need to utilize UM programs in clinical laboratories in order to reduce costs, enhance efficiency and improve on quality for patients. Some UM programs have focused on improving efficiency by reducing the cost per test. Consolidation and networking have been proposed as opportunities to increase test volumes, thus achieving economy of scale, and a better ratio between test volumes and fulltime equivalent (FTE) staff. However, little evidence is available in the literature to demonstrate the efficiency of these models, and concern has been expressed regarding the possible increase in pre-analytical errors and the loss of efficient communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals. In Europe, we have seen an increasing emphasis on the importance of demand management strategies as the key to reducing costs and improving on quality in laboratory medicine. The cost of inappropriate requesting includes not only test consumables and reagents, but also additional consultations, treatment and investigations. A number of studies in literature describe strategies and initiatives designed to change and improve test requesting, but the following two items are mandatory for real improvement: a) the active involvement of requesting physicians and other stakeholders, including patients; and b) the use of combined interventions instead of a single strategy. Therefore, the use of approaches for demand management that considers pre-, within- and post-laboratory initiatives is on the increase in clinical laboratories throughout Europe. PMID:23499570

Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Faggian, Diego

2014-01-01

468

CD spectrum of bacteriorhodopsin  

PubMed Central

We summarize the predictions of the exciton model that was originally proposed to explain the observed biphasic band shape of its CD spectrum in the visible region of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). It is shown that to reconcile these predictions with the observed results on the linear dichroism, the retinal isomerization time and, the retinal-retinal distance, the biphasic nature of the observed CD spectrum of bR becomes itself an evidence against the exciton model because of the uncertainty principle. Reduced bR (RbR), which retains its hexagonal structure, shows a monophasic CD spectrum with relatively small rotational strength as compared to bR. This is shown to disagree with predictions made by the exciton model. The results could best be explained in terms of retinal-protein heterogeneity leading to two or more types of bR in which their retinals suffer opposite sense of intramolecular rotational distortion along their retinal long axis. Such a retinal-protein heterogeneity disappears in reduced bR which is known to have a planar (nondistorted) retinal conjugated system, resulting in a monophasic CD with reduced rotational strength, as observed. PMID:19431795

Wu, Shuguang; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

1991-01-01

469

Electric utility conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented financial pressures facing today's electric utilities have encouraged the evolution of conservation as a planning strategy. Electric Utility Conservation Programs is a book to isolate the problems electric utilities encounter and document the solutions they are finding throughout the design, operation, marketing, and evaluation stages of their conservation programs. Including coverage of customer acceptance of their programs and

C. W. Gellings; D. R. Limaye

1986-01-01

470

Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several online mathematical utilities intended for college and university students (math, physics, engineering, etc. students). Numerical utilities to solve (among others): N Equations in N Unknowns, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Roots of Functions, and Numerical Integration. More utilities are constantly being added.

471

Spectrum Services 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Filter and Spectrum Services consisting of easy-to-use web applications and web services for searching, plotting and managing large collections of spectral energy distribution data and filter profiles as well as for performing various scientific operations on spectra in a unified framework. The services provide keyword search, advanced query forms and SQL query possibilities for selecting spectra or bandpass curves which may be retrieved in a variety of file formats including XML, VOTable and ASCII. All SDSS DR1-DR5 spectra had been loaded into a database as well as the entire 2dF catalog that adds up to more than 2.5 million SEDs of about a million spatial objects, but registered users can upload their own data making it available for the rest of the community and are free to modify or delete them at any time. Theoretical catalogs, such as the Bruzual-Charlot stochastic burst model spectrum library (100k spectra) and the BaSeL stellar library are also available. Scientific services allow building rest-frame composite spectra out of selected spectra; calculating synthetic magnitudes by convolving spectra with an arbitrary set of bandpass curves of optical instrument filters to generate simulated photometric catalogs on-the-fly; galactic extinction correction, fitting of the continuum using different set of templates (Bruzual-Charlot '03 templates, SDSS eigenspectra), line fitting. All scientific functionalities are available from the web user interface and via the SOAP web services for programmers. MySpectrum is a cross-platform version of the spectrum web service for setting up your own spectrum repository. It integrates into the main service allowing easy access to your data for the whole VO community. The main idea behind our web services is to move scientific functionalities physically close to the database in order to spare network bandwidth. This way scientists may do research without setting up expensive hardware, downloading large datasets for days or weeks or installing complicated software.

Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Csabai, I.; Szalay, A. S.

2008-10-01