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Sample records for egenkontrollen vid svenska

  1. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  2. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Vids for Grids. New Media for the New Energy Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, Gene

    2012-02-29

    The objective of this program was to use a new media videos posted on YouTube to augment education about the emerging Smart Grid. All of the specific tasks have been completed per plan, with twelve videos and three podcasts posted on YouTube on the NEMA Vids4Grids channel.

  3. VID-R and SCAN: Tools and Methods for the Automated Analysis of Visual Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; And Others

    The VID-R (Visual Information Display and Retrieval) system that enables computer-aided analysis of visual records is composed of a film-to-television chain, two videotape recorders with complete remote control of functions, a video-disc recorder, three high-resolution television monitors, a teletype, a PDP-8, a video and audio interface, three…

  4. Enhancement of malate-production and increase in sensitivity to dimethyl succinate by mutation of the VID24 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji

    2016-06-01

    Malate in sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage) is an important component for taste that is produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. To date, many researchers have developed methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeasts; however, genes responsible for the high-acidity phenotype are not known. We determined the mutated gene involved in high malate production in yeast, isolated as a sensitive mutant to dimethyl succinate. In the comparative whole genome analysis between high-malate-producing strain and its parent strain, one of the non-synonymous substitutions was identified in the VID24 gene. The mutation of VID24 resulted in enhancement of malate-productivity and sensitivity to dimethyl succinate. The mutation appeared to lead to a deficiency in Vid24p function. Furthermore, disruption of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2p) gene in the VID24 mutant inhibited the high-malate-producing phenotype. Vid24p is known as a component of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase and participates in the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes such as Mdh2p. We suggest that the enhancement of malate-productivity results from an accumulation of Mdh2p due to the loss of Vid24p function. These findings propose a novel mechanism for the regulation of organic acid production in yeast cells by the component of ubiquitin ligase, Vid24p. PMID:26983942

  5. VidCat: an image and video analysis service for personal media management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begeja, Lee; Zavesky, Eric; Liu, Zhu; Gibbon, David; Gopalan, Raghuraman; Shahraray, Behzad

    2013-03-01

    Cloud-based storage and consumption of personal photos and videos provides increased accessibility, functionality, and satisfaction for mobile users. One cloud service frontier that is recently growing is that of personal media management. This work presents a system called VidCat that assists users in the tagging, organization, and retrieval of their personal media by faces and visual content similarity, time, and date information. Evaluations for the effectiveness of the copy detection and face recognition algorithms on standard datasets are also discussed. Finally, the system includes a set of application programming interfaces (API's) allowing content to be uploaded, analyzed, and retrieved on any client with simple HTTP-based methods as demonstrated with a prototype developed on the iOS and Android mobile platforms.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility variations in carbonates of the La Vid Group (Cantabrian Zone, NW-Spain) related to burial diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; de Wall, H.; Kontny, A.; Bechstädt, T.

    2004-04-01

    The carbonates of the Lower Devonian La Vid Group in the Cantabrian Zone (NW-Spain) reveal distinct variations in low-field magnetic susceptibility (MS) from base to top. There is good correlation between MS-variations and bulk Fe-content. A predominance of paramagnetic minerals (Fe-carbonate cements, pyrite, Fe-chlorite), mainly responsible for these MS-variations, is evidenced by optical methods, temperature-dependent MS-measurements and high-field magnetisation behaviour. These minerals are members of the diagenetic mineral assemblage formed during migration of a reducing Fe-bearing fluid. We interpret the variation in MS to reflect two stages of Fe-bearing mineral precipitation with an earlier Fe-carbonate and a later Fe-chlorite crystallisation; the latter restricted to interbedded carbonates and shales. Furthermore, porosity has an additional influence on the MS-signature, with high values in coarse-grained sandstones and carbonates, and lower values in fine-grained dolostones and limestones. This study highlights the influence of diagenetic mineral formation on MS-variations in carbonate-bearing successions.

  7. The "Kid Vid" Crusade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Susan Bartlett; Mnookin, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the events surrounding the Federal Trade Commission's efforts to regulate television advertising aimed at children. Discusses the fairness of children's advertising and considers the question of who should make decisions regulating children's viewing: the family or the government. (GC)

  8. Covariance of C- and O-isotopes with magnetic susceptibility as a result of burial diagenesis of sandstones and carbonates: an example from the Lower Devonian La Vid Group, Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Bechstädt, T.; Machel, H. G.

    2004-12-01

    The burial diagenesis of sandstones, limestones, and dolostones of the Lower Devonian La Vid Group in the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain) reveal a covariance of carbon and oxygen isotope values with magnetic susceptibility. Also, strontium isotopes, and to a minor degree Fe, follow this trend. The main carriers of the magnetic susceptibility appear to be diagenetic Fe-carbonates, i.e., siderite, ferroan dolomite, and ankerite, which occur as cements in primary and secondary voids, as well as in fractures. In some layers, especially at the top of the succession there occurs additionally secondary Fe-chlorite and pyrite. The Fe-carbonates were formed during upward migration of a reducing, iron-bearing, petroliferous fluid that was depleted in 13C and carried radiogenic Sr. Similar geochemical covariance and/or correlations can be expected in other sedimentary successions affected by the migration of petroliferous formation fluids.

  9. Vid/Tele-Reference: The New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, Helen M.

    1982-01-01

    Presents overview of developments in telecommunications, noting their effects on the role of the library as information center. Television growth, videodisc technology, library uses for interactive videodisc (storage and display of mixed media, programed instruction, storage of visual materials, and text), videotex, and teletext are highlighted.…

  10. Inside KidVid: The Essential Parents' Guide to Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAlpine, Loretta

    This guide aims to help parents choose stimulating, educational, and fun videos for their children from the more than 7,000 currently available. The guide includes: 10 tips for evaluating and choosing videos; interviews with and advice from experts; annotated descriptions of more than 400 recommended videos; essential information such as suggested…

  11. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a Video-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VeBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VeBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VeBIRD's effectiveness. PMID:26693249

  12. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shu; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a Video-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VeBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VeBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VeBIRD's effectiveness. PMID:26693249

  13. Public health assessment for Tutu Wellfield, St. Thomas, St. Thomas County, Virgin Islands. Cerclis No. VID982272569. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-14

    The Tutu Wellfield National Priorities List (NPL) site is in east-central St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Island. Twenty-two wells in the Turpentine Run Basin contain at minimum a trace of volatile organic contaminants. Volatile and chlorinated hydrocarbons including benzene; toluene; 1,2-trans-dichloroethene (DCE); trichloroethene (TCE); and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were detected in several of the wells. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that the Tutu Wellfield National Priorities List (NPL) site, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, poses a public health hazard for past, present, and possible future ingestion of contaminated groundwater.

  14. These umbilical lesions weren't granulomas after all.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Umran; Javed, Muhammad; Wright, Thomas; Dawson, Allan; Wilson-Jones, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Consider a VID remnant as part of the differential diagnosis for any patient who has what appears to be a granulomatous umbilical lesion. Order ultrasonography to evaluate a suspected VID, especially for lesions that fail to respond to 2 or 3 silver nitrate treatments. Surgical excision of a VID remnant is usually curative. PMID:26977468

  15. Energigeologi - exempel pa verksamhet inom energisektorn vid sgu (energy geology - examples of activity in the energy sector within the Swedish geological survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Increased energy costs have led to expanded research into alternative energy systems, including solar heat, earth heat and storage in earth and rock. Long term planning for these systems requires information on a number of geoparameters and other factors and parameters. Conditions for the extraction and storage of energy in the earth are largely controlled by geological circumstances. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are important in determining heat loss, storage capacity, etc. Chemical conditions are important in judging operation, functioning and maintenance of systems. Geotechnical data is important in analyzing the risk of settlement and tendency to crack with temperature changes. The report contains chapters on energy-geology applications of geological mapping, thermal parameters, natural variations of ground water temperature in Swedish friction earth, calculation of thermal diffusivity in earth based on temperature measurements in ground water observation pipes, energy wells, energy storage, energy-geology mapping and radioactive heat production by the decay of radioactive isotopes in the earth's crust. Numerous tables and charts, plus bibliographical listings following most chapters.

  16. Eleven-bit parity generator with a single, vertically integrated resonant tunneling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, A. A.; Potter, R. C.; Hier, H. S.

    1988-05-01

    A vertically integrated diode (VID) with five negative differential resistance regions has been developed by stacking five resonant tunneling structures. This device can be used for processing both analogue and digital signals. An 11-bit parity checker was demonstrated using the VID. In this approach, a single device replaced a large number of exclusive-OR gates in a conventional parity checker.

  17. A Tool for the Analysis of Motion Picture Film or Video Tape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1969-01-01

    A visual information display and retrieval system (VID-R) is described for application to visual records. VID-R searches and retrieves events by time address (location) or by previously stored ovservations or measurements. Fields are labeled by writing discriminable binary addresses on the horizontal lines outside the normal viewing area. The…

  18. Project Referral, Evaluation, and Placement Training, 1980-1981, Title VI-D. Final Evaluation Report. [and] System Design Requirements for the Child Assistance Program for the Division of Special Education, New York City Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; And Others

    The final evaluation report examines the effectiveness of Project Referral, Evaluation, and Placement Training, a New York City program to improve the delivery of services to handicapped children. The program consisted of three components: (1) the computerized Management Information System, (2) the Nondiscriminatory Assessment Component, and (3)…

  19. Sma Barn Pa Daghem: En studie av personalens samspel med barn och foraldrar vid lamning, hamtning och fri lek (Infants at Day Care: A Study of Staff Interaction with Children and Their Parents during Leaving, Collecting and Free Play).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lothigius, Anita Holmstedt

    This thesis presents a picture of how staff interact with infants (age group 1-3 years old) and parents at three day care centers. The study focused on the situations of leaving and collecting the children and the children's time of free play both in and outdoors. The theoretical content has an attachment/psycho-dynamical perspective with emphasis…

  20. Microbial problems in connection with storage of jet fuel in rock caverns. Development of a process for purification of corrosive jet fuel). Mikrobiella problem vid bergrumslagring av jetbraensle. Utveckling av process foer rening av korrosivt jetbraensle

    SciTech Connect

    Roffey, R.

    1985-06-01

    The literature concerning desulfurization is summarized. Investigations concerning the use of different compounds in order to purify corrosive jet fuel are described. A process for purification of corrosive jet fuel with 1-5 mg/l elemental sulphur was developed which is based on powdered silver as adsorbent. The capacity for adsorption was determined. On the basis of the data obtained, a scale-up was carried out to a full scale plant. The plant was planned for a capacity of 100 - 300 mT fuel/hour and so that it can be constructed as a mobile unit enabling it to be transported to various storage plants.

  1. Microbial problems in connection with storage of jet fuel in rock caverns. Methods to inhibit development of corrosive fuel. Mikrobiella problem vid bergrumslagring av jetbraensle. Inhiberingsmetoder foer att foerhindra uppkomst av korrosivt braensle

    SciTech Connect

    Norqvist, A.; Edlund, A.; Roffey

    1986-04-01

    Problems with long-term storage of jet fuel in rock caverns have during the last years been observed. The problems have mainly been concerned with the accumulation of corrosive compounds in the fuel. Studies in laboratory model systems were carried out in order to understand which factors are important in causing the problems. The rate of groundwater leaking in, the oxygen and sulfate concentration in the bedwater, the amount of sediment, and the temperature were shown to be some of the more-important factors. With the aim to find some suitable methods to prevent the problems from arising, studies in model systems were also carried out. Oxygenation of the bedwater or addition of a biodegradable biocide gave positive effects resulting in reduction of microbial activities and no development of corrosive fuel.

  2. Modeling and simulation of vertically integrated resonant tunneling diode based high-speed circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tai-Haur

    1993-01-01

    An equivalent circuit is developed for a single-well resonant-tunneling diode (RTD). Based on this equivalent circuit, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of vertically integrated resonant tunneling diodes (VID) are analyzed, assuming each RTD is quantum mechanically isolated from the others. By using a piecewise linear technique, the I-V curve of the multipeaked VID is divided into several regions, and the model of each region is developed and simplified individually. By incorporating the switch model of SPICE, the individual models are combined to form a complete VID model so that the VID model can be used with the SPICE circuit simulation program. The simulated result of a four-bit VID-based A/D converter using this model is shown.

  3. "I Learn More at School": A Critical Perspective on Workplace-Related Second Language Learning In and Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandwall, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a student involved in language learning at a work placement, as part of the basic Swedish language programme for adult immigrants, Svenska for invandrare (Sfi), in Gothenburg, Sweden. In accordance with the predominant economic agenda, this system is assumed to accelerate labour market entrance as well as…

  4. The A-Train Observes Tropical Storm Debby

    NASA Video Gallery

    The A-Train is a group of spacecraft flying in close formation allowing data taken by each instrument to be correlated to the other instruments: Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, Parasol, and Aura. This vid...

  5. Drainage water quality and end-member identification in La Violada irrigation district (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, D.; Quílez, D.; Aragüés, R.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe identification of the different components in a water course is required to individualize and assess the actual contribution of irrigated agriculture to the pollution of the water course. This paper aimed at identifying and assessing the composition of the end-members in La Violada irrigation district (VID) and establishing a statistical procedure to reduce the sampling effort needed to establish drainage water quality. The quality of irrigation water, groundwater, and irrigated-land drainage water in VID was monitored during three hydrologic years to identify the components of flow in La Violada Gully, the natural exit course of VID. A network of sampling points in the secondary ditches and main drains of VID allowed identifying and separating those collecting irrigated-land drainage waters from those conveying high proportions of irrigation waters. Three end-member flows were identified in La Violada Gully during the irrigation season: (a) irrigation water arising from tail-waters, leakages and spills from the irrigation canals, very low in salts; (b) groundwater originating from the non-irrigated upper reaches of La Violada Gully watershed, high in Cl - and Na +; and (c) VID drainage water, high in SO42- and Ca 2+. The overall VID drainage water quality was accurately assessed through a simplified sampling scheme of only four sampling points that produced low errors of 0.1 dS/m for EC and 0.1 mmol c/L for Cl -. The separation of La Violada Gully flow in these three components is essential for estimating the actual contribution of irrigation in VID to the salt and nitrogen loads in La Violada Gully.

  6. Êtes-vous prêt pour un code bleu en cabinet?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Problème traité Les urgences médicales sont fréquentes dans le cabinet des médecins de famille, mais nombreux sont ceux qui ne sont pas préparés à répondre aux urgences. Une vidéo éducative en ligne traitant des urgences en cabinet pourrait améliorer la réponse des médecins et de leur personnel aux urgences. Un outil comme celui-là n’a jamais été décrit auparavant. Objectif du programme Utiliser les pratiques fondées sur les données probantes pour produire une vidéo éducative expliquant comment se préparer à parer à une urgence dans un cabinet médical, disséminer la vidéo en ligne et évaluer l’attitude des médecins et de leur personnel à l’égard de la vidéo. Description du programme Une vidéo de 6 minutes a été produite en s’appuyant sur une revue de la littérature récente et des politiques des organismes réglementaires canadiens. La vidéo décrit l’équipement d’urgence recommandé, l’amélioration de la réponse à l’urgence et la formation du personnel en cabinet. Les médecins et leur personnel ont été invités à visualiser la vidéo en ligne à www.OfficeEmergencies.ca. L’opinion de l’auditoire sur le format de la vidéo et son contenu a été évaluée par l’entremise d’un sondage (N = 275). Conclusion Les résultats du sondage indiquent que la vidéo était pertinente et bien présentée, et le format en ligne était pratique et satisfaisant. Les participants s’inscriraient à d’autres formations ayant recours à cette technologie et étaient d’accord pour dire que ce programme améliorerait les soins aux patients.

  7. A New Aspect of the Vertical Incidence Doppler Radar Spectrum of Ice Particle Fallspeeds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Richard E., Jr.; Srivastava, Ramesh C.

    1980-11-01

    Unlike raindrops, ice particles of the same mass can have different fallspeeds, due to variations in the particle shape and bulk density. (This is an extension of the popular axiom that no two snowflakes are alike.) This is an additional source of variance for vertical incidence Doppler (VID) spectra taken in snow that has been neglected in previous studies which assume a one-to-one fallspeed-mass relationship. The total VID spectral variance due to the dispersion of ice particle fallspeeds can be broken down into two components, i.e., that due to the mean fallspeed-mass relationship and that due to fluctuations about the mean. Existing data on ice particle fallspeeds are not adequate for a thorough evaluation, but do indicate that these two sources of fallspeed variance can be of the same order. These results suggest that the task of deducing snow-size spectra from VID measurements is more difficult than has been recognized.

  8. Analytical dynamics: Numismatic gyrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Engh, Ger; Nelson, Peter; Roach, Jared

    2000-11-01

    The familiar shuddering motions of spinning coins as they come to rest are not at all intuitive. Moffatt's analysis (Nature <vid> 404vid>, 833-834 2000) identifies air viscosity as the causative factor in coin jitter, so we tested this hypothesis by studying coins spinning in a vacuum. We discovered that the presence of air has little effect on the final motions of the coins, indicating that slippage and friction between the coin's edge and the supporting surface might cause the vibrations that accompany the end of the spin.

  9. Detecting forest canopy change due to insect activity using Landsat MSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner data were analyzed to test various computer-aided analysis techniques for detecting significant forest canopy alteration. Three data transformations - differencing, ratioing, and a vegetative index difference - were tested to determine which best delineated gypsy moth defoliation. Response surface analyses were conducted to determine optimal threshold levels for the individual transformed bands and band combinations. Results indicate that, of the three transformations investigated, a vegetative index difference (VID) transformation most accurately delineates forest canopy change. Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron ratioed data did nearly as well. However, other single bands and band combinations did not improve upon the band 5 ratio and VID results.

  10. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom (L'utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales menées par les enseignants : sentir que l'on a la compétence d'adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Caroline; Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led…

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and its impact on the fetus, the newborn and in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Solé, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pregnant women and their children is an important health problem with severe consequences for the health of both. Thus, the objectives of this review were to reassess the magnitude and consequences of VDD during pregnancy, lactation and infancy, associated risk factors, prevention methods, and to explore epigenetic mechanisms in early fetal life capable of explaining many of the non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D (ViD). DATA SOURCE: Original and review articles, and consensus documents with elevated level of evidence for VDD-related clinical decisions on the health of pregnant women and their children, as well as articles on the influence of ViD on epigenetic mechanisms of fetal programming of chronic diseases in adulthood were selected among articles published on PubMed over the last 20 years, using the search term VitD status, in combination with Pregnancy, Offspring health, Child outcomes, and Programming. DATA SYNTHESIS: The following items were analyzed: ViD physiology and metabolism, risk factors for VDD and implications in pregnancy, lactation and infancy, concentration cutoff to define VDD, the variability of methods for VDD detection, recommendations on ViD replacement in pregnant women, the newborn and the child, and the epigenetic influence of ViD. CONCLUSIONS: VDD is a common condition among high-risk pregnant women and their children. The routine monitoring of serum 25(OH)D3 levels in antenatal period is mandatory. Early preventive measures should be taken at the slightest suspicion of VDD in pregnant women, to reduce morbidity during pregnancy and lactation, as well as its subsequent impact on the fetus, the newborn and the child. PMID:25662013

  12. Social responsibility tools in online gambling: a survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Wood, Richard T A; Parke, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    To date, little empirical research has focused on social responsibility in gambling. This study examined players' attitudes and behavior toward using the social responsibility tool PlayScan designed by the Swedish gaming company Svenska Spel. Via PlayScan, players have the option to utilize various social responsibility control tools (e.g., personal gaming budgets, self-diagnostic tests of gambling habits, self-exclusion options). A total of 2,348 participants took part in an online questionnaire study. Participants were clientele of the Svenska Spel online gambling Web site. Results showed that just over a quarter of players (26%) had used PlayScan. The vast majority of those who had activated PlayScan (almost 9 in 10 users) said that PlayScan was easy to use. Over half of PlayScan users (52%) said it was useful; 19% said it was not. Many features were seen as useful by online gamblers, including limit setting (70%), viewing their gambling profile (49%), self-exclusion facilities (42%), self-diagnostic problem gambling tests (46%), information and support for gambling issues (40%), and gambling profile predictions (36%). In terms of actual (as opposed to theoretical) use, over half of PlayScan users (56%) had set spending limits, 40% had taken a self-diagnostic problem gambling test, and 17% had used a self-exclusion feature. PMID:19594379

  13. Brachytherapy treatment planning commissioning: effect of the election of proper bibliography and finite size of TG-43 input data on standard treatments.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Christian N; Píriz, Gustavo H; Lozano, Enrrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS) with TG-43 Vendors Input Data (VID), analyze possible discrepancies with respect to a proper reference source and its implications for standard treatments, and judge the effectiveness of certain widespread recommended quality controls to find potential errors related with the interpolations of TG-43 VID tables. The TPS evaluated was a BrachyVision 8.6 loaded with TG-43 VID for a VariSource high-dose-rate 192Ir source (Vs2000). The reference data chosen were the TG-43 data published in the literature. In the first step, we compared TG-43 VID with respect to the chosen reference data. Next, we used percent dose-rate differences in a point array matrix to compare the outcomes of the TPS on standard treatment setup with respect to an in-house developed program (MATLAB R2009a-based) loaded with the chosen full TG-43 reference data. The cases with major discrepancies were evaluated using the gamma-index analysis. The comparison with the reference data indicated a lack of sample in the angles between near to the tip (between 165 < θ < 180) and cable (0 < θ < 15) of the F(r,θ)(VID), which causes a dose underestimation of approximately 17% in the investigated points due to inaccurate interpolations. The differences over 2% encompassed approximately 17% of the surrounding source volume. These results have special relevance in treatment using one applicator with a few dwell steps or in Fletcher treatments where 10% dose underestimates were identified within the tumor or in organs at risk, respectively. Our results suggest that the differences found in the TPS under study are created by a lack of information on the angles in high-gradient zones in the F(r,θ)(VID), which generates important differences in dosimetric results. In contrast, the gamma analysis shows very good results (between 90% and 100% of passed points) in the analyzed treatments (one dwell and

  14. Liquid-filled Canyons on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggiali, Valerio; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Hayes, Alexander; Seu, Roberto; Birch, Samuel; Lorenz, Ralph; Grima, Cyril; Kargel, Jeffrey; Hofgartner, Jason

    2016-04-01

    During a close flyby, Cassini's RADAR altimeter observed a system of channels pertaining to the Vid Flumina system that drain into Titan's Ligeia Mare. While SAR images have been used to identify fluvial valleys in networks that extend for hundreds of kilometers, they can't directly prove the presence and/or physical extent of liquid channels filling them. Analysis of altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (~500 m) canyons and have strongly specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid-filled. Liquid elevations in Vid Flumina and its lower tributaries are at the same level of Ligeia Mare to within the altimeter's vertical accuracy of ~15m, which is a function of both the RADAR instrument as well as the precision of Cassini's reconstructed ephemeris. Specular reflections are also observed in higher order tributaries that occur hundred meters above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  15. Evaluation of Die Chilling Effects during Forging of Nimonic-80A Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriari, D.; Sadeghi, M. H.; Amiri, A.; Cheraghzadeh, M.

    2010-06-01

    Nimonic-80A is a kind of nickel-based superalloys which is used in high temperature components of land gas turbines. In this paper, the influence of four design factors: die temperature, strain rate, friction coefficient and geometry size of ring sample over the variation of internal diameters (VID) and forging load (FL) was studied. It was done by means of design methodology based on DOE-designated full factorial and FE simulations. FEM and experimental results showed that the variation of internal diameters and forging load had inverse proportion to the die temperature. Regression models were developed by using the response surface methodology (RSM) for VID and FL. Rate of the dynamic recrystallization varied depending on different amounts of die temperature. The results can be used in the semi-isothermal forging of complex part of the Nimonic-80A.

  16. Simulation and interpretation of ion beam diagnostics on PBFA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Nelson, W.E.; Maenchen, J.E.; Stygar, W.A.; Ruiz, C.L.; Lockner, T.R.; Johnson, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    Ion diode and beam focusing experiments are in progress on PBFA-II working toward an ultimate goal of significant burn of an ICF pellet. Beam diagnostics on these experiments include a Thomson parabola, K..cap alpha.. x-ray pinhole cameras, filtered ion pinhole cameras, and a magnetic spectrometer. We are developing two new computer programs to simulate and interpret the data obtained from these diagnostics. VId-smcapsA is a VAX-based program that manipulates and unfolds data from digitized particle and x-ray diagnostic images. VId-smcapsA operations include: image display, background subtraction, relative-to-absolute coordinate transformations, and image projection into the beam reference frame. p-smcapsIc-smcapsd-smcapsIAg-smcaps allows us to study the effects of time-dependent ion focusing on the performance of ion beam diagnostics.

  17. Evaluation of Die Chilling Effects during Forging of Nimonic-80A Superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriari, D.; Sadeghi, M. H.; Amiri, A.; Cheraghzadeh, M.

    2010-06-15

    Nimonic-80A is a kind of nickel-based superalloys which is used in high temperature components of land gas turbines. In this paper, the influence of four design factors: die temperature, strain rate, friction coefficient and geometry size of ring sample over the variation of internal diameters (VID) and forging load (FL) was studied. It was done by means of design methodology based on DOE-designated full factorial and FE simulations. FEM and experimental results showed that the variation of internal diameters and forging load had inverse proportion to the die temperature. Regression models were developed by using the response surface methodology (RSM) for VID and FL. Rate of the dynamic recrystallization varied depending on different amounts of die temperature. The results can be used in the semi-isothermal forging of complex part of the Nimonic-80A.

  18. Waveguide switches using asymmetric coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Kenneth J.; Horst, Scott C.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the results of a three-year effort to investigate the use of Asymmetric Coupled Quantum Well in optical waveguide cross bar switches. The two types of devices investigated are the standard delta beta switch and the delta alpha switch. The delta alpha switch uses the imaginary part of the refractive index to modulate the intensity along different waveguide paths in the switch structure. Both types of switch were fabricated and tested. The delta beta switches produced are suitable as 1-input 2-output devices. The delta alpha switches were demonstrated as 2 by 2 cross bar switches with up to 40% throughput. To compensate for losses in the switches the use of amplifying elements was investigated. To provide gain at a longer wavelength than that of the excitons in the modulation waveguides, the quantum wells in the modulation waveguides were blue shifted using vacancy induced disordering (VID). The VID shifted quantum wells showed less Stark shift than the unshifted quantum wells. This effect is explained by the nearly parabolic shape of the disordered wells. Coupled quantum wells can be used to create a structure that will maintain a strongly Stark shifted spatially indirect transition even after VID. Modeling of the various waveguide structures used is also discussed.

  19. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  20. Mapping Soil hydrologic features in a semi-arid irrigated area in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aguirre, M.° Teresa; Isidoro, Daniel; Usón, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    The lack of soil information is a managerial problem in irrigated areas in Spain. The Violada Irrigation District (VID; 5234 ha) is a gypsic, semi-arid region in the Middle Ebro River Basin, northeast Spain. VID is under irrigation since the 1940's. The implementation of the flood irrigation system gave rise to waterlogging problems, solved along the years with the installation of an artificial drainage network. Aggregated water balances have been performed in VID since the early 1980's considering average soil properties and aggregated irrigation data for the calculations (crop evapotranspiration, canal seepage, and soil drainage). In 2008-2009, 91% of the VID was modernized to sprinkler irrigation. This new system provides detailed irrigation management information that together with detailed soil information would allow for disaggregated water balances for a better understanding of the system. Our goal was to draw a semi-detailed soil map of VID presenting the main soil characteristics related to irrigation management. A second step of the work was to set up pedotransfer functions (PTF) to estimate the water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) from easily measurable parameters. Thirty four pits were opened, described and sampled for chemical and physical properties. Thirty three additional auger holes were sampled for water holding capacity (WHC; down to 60 cm), helping to draw the soil units boundaries. And 15 Ks tests (inverse auger hole method) were made. The WHC was determined as the difference between the field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) measured in samples dried at 40°C during 5 days. The comparison with old values dried at 105°C for 2 days highlighted the importance of the method when gypsum is present in order to avoid water removal from gypsum molecules. The soil map was drawn down to family level. Thirteen soil units were defined by the combination of five subgroups [Typic Calcixerept (A), Petrocalcic Calcixerept (B), Gypsic

  1. Imaging of thyroid tumor angiogenesis with microbubbles targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether Contrast Enhanced Ultrasund (CEUS) with microbubbles (MBs) targeted to VEGFR-2 is able to characterize in vivo the VEGFR-2 expression in the tumor vasculature of a mouse model of thyroid cancer (Tg-TRK-T1). Methods Animal protocol was approved by Institutional committee on Laboratory Animal Care. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with MBs targeted with an anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody (UCAVEGFR-2) and isotype control antibody (UCAIgG) was performed in 7 mice with thyroid carcinoma, 5 mice with hyperplasia or benign thyroid nodules and 4 mice with normal thyroid. After ultrasonography, the tumor samples were harvested for histological examination and VEGFR-2 expression was tested by immunohistochemistry. Data were reported as median and range. Paired non parametric Wilcoxon’s test and ANOVA of Kruskal-Wallis were used. The correlation between the contrast signal and the VEGFR-2 expression was assessed by the Spearman coefficient. Results The Video intensity difference (VID) caused by backscatter of the retained UCAVEGFR-2 was significantly higher in mice harboring thyroid tumors compared to mice with normal thyroids (P < 0.01) and to mice harboring benign nodules (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences of VID were observed in the group of mice carrying benign nodules compared to mice with normal thyroids. Moreover in thyroid tumors VID of retained VEGFR-2-targeted UCA was significantly higher than that of control UCAIgG (P <0.05). Results of immunohistochemical analysis confirmed VEGFR-2 overexpression. The magnitude of the molecular ultrasonographic signal from a VEGFR-2-targeted UCA retained by tissue correlates with VEGFR-2 expression determined by immunohistochemistry (rho 0.793, P=0.0003). Conclusions We demonstrated that CEUS with UCAVEGFR-2 might be used for in vivo non invasive detection and quantification of VEGFR-2 expression in thyroid cancer in mice, and to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid

  2. Influences of consolidation processes on local paper structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yongjoo

    The accurate measurement of the structural parameters such as thickness, grammage, apparent density and surface topography, and the proper evaluation of the variation of each parameter, are very important not only for predicting the end use properties of the paper, but also for diagnosing the pa permaking processes. The difficulty of the measurement of thickness at fine scale ˜1 mm has been an impediment to the understanding of local paper structure. To address this problem, a twin laser profilometer instrument (TLP) for non-contacting measurement of local thickness and surface topography was developed, characterized and calibrated in this work. The fundamental relationships between structural parameters were reexamined with various handsheet samples. The effects of wet pressing on the local paper structure were evaluated using laboratory static press and commercial press felts. The different press pressure had no significant influence on the local density variation of the handsheet samples. The influences of felts on the surface topography were also successfully observed. The different densification effects of soft nip and hard nip calendering processes were evaluated by direct comparison of structural parameters before and after processing. The much higher selective reduction in local thickness (larger reduction for the thicker area) by the hard nip calendering process resulted in different relationships between structural parameters. The various periodic variations in the paper structure were also detected, analyzed and identified. The effects of different forming elements such as the conventional foil system and the velocity induced drainage (VID) system on the paper structure and end use properties were evaluated with pilot machine trials and commercial product produced using different forming elements. Generally, the VID samples showed better formation, less two sidedness in the fine distribution through thickness direction, and less densification during

  3. Principles of identification of new mineral species and recognition of their names (some thoughts on mineral names)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshevsky, A. A.; Bagdasarov, Yu. A.

    2008-12-01

    The paper focuses on the problems of the large flow of new mineral names triggered by the current CNMNCM of IMA procedures and guidelines on mineral nomenclature. We believe that Russian term raznovidnost’ (variety) should be an equivalent to the English term species, and, as a rule, new minerals do not require a special proper name and can be identified by chemical and/or structural symbols. We believe also that Russian equivalent of the English system group-subgroup-speciesmust appear as gruppa-vid i podvid-raznovidnost’, i.e., group-species and subspecies-variety.

  4. Phase retrieval from single frame projection fringe pattern with variational image decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinjun; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Sun, Chen; Wang, Linlin

    2014-08-01

    Phase retrieval from single frame projection fringe pattern is of fundamental importance, and is also a challenging problem in fringe projection measurement. In this paper, we present a new method for phase retrieval from a single frame projection fringe pattern based on variational image decomposition (VID) methods. We propose a new image decomposition model TV-G-Shearlet in order to effectively split a projection fringe pattern into background part, fringe part and noise part. The performance of the proposed approach is verified by simulated and real projection fringes as well as the comparison with the widely used and well-known Fourier transform method and wavelet transform method.

  5. PFAS - A threat for groundwater and drinking water supply in Sweden?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Banzhaf, Stefan; Ahlkrona, Malva; Arnheimer, Berit; Barthel, Roland; Bergvall, Martin; Blomquist, Niklas; Jacks, Gunnar; Jansson, Cecilia; Lissel, Patrik; Marklund, Lars; Olofsson, Bo; Persson, Kenneth M.; Sjöström, Jan; Sparrenbom, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    , namely, A Non-Toxic Environment, Flourishing Lakes and Streams and Good-Quality Groundwater. Although the survey of PFAS in our groundwater supplies will take time, it is feasible. Much research in the field of hydrogeology and geochemistry remains before a viable and cost-effective groundwater remediation method can be operational. Until then, it is essential that measures are taken to identify the present distribution and magnitude of PFAS in groundwater and prevents its further spread in our most important aquifers. Afzelius, H. et al., 2014. Vågar vi dricka kranvattnet? (Do we dare drinking tap water?), Svenska Dagbladet. Bergman, Å., Hansson, S.O., Hellsten, E., 2014. En miljöskandal av historiska mått (An environmental scandal of historic proportions), Svenska Dagbladet. Lewis, J. et al., 2014. Kartlägg det förorenade dricksvattnet (Survey the contaminated drinking water), Svenska Dagbladet. OECD, 2002. Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salt.

  6. Where the Periodic Table of Elements Ends? Additional Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2011-03-01

    Already 40 years ago, physicists claimed that the elements with number higher than 110 cannot exist. However at this day, Period 7 has been complete. Experiementalists syntesed 10 new syperheavy elements during only the last because. The method of synthesis is so finely developed that the experimentalists of Dubna tell about element No.150 as the higher limit of theTable of Elements (they do not provide a ground to the calculation). In contrast, our calculation are based neither on calculation of the stability of the electronic shells of the atoms, nor synthesis of the superheavy elements. Our caculation is based on study of the chemical processes, which give a new law of the Periodic Table (Albert Khazan. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table---Element No. 155. Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2009). The core of the delusion of numerous scientists was that they, in their calculationsbased on Quantum Mechanics, initially set up the number of the elements (number of the protons) then calculated the atomic mass proceeding from the data. According to our theory, the atomic mass of the last element (411.66) should be calculated first, only then its number (155)!

  7. On the Systematic Error in the Quantum Mechanical Calculations to the Periodic Table of Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2011-05-01

    The scientists working on the problems of the Periodic Table of Elements regularly attempt to create models of the elements on the basis of the laws of Quantum Mechanics. One even attempted to use the calculation of the dependency ``atomic mass - element's number'' on this basis, in order to extend the Table by introducing two new Periods containing 50 elements each. The hyperbolic law we have found in the Periodic Table allows to find, first, the atomic mass of the last (heaviest stable) element (411.66), then - the number of the protons in it (155). Two functions were compared: the IUPAC 2007 function (elements 80-118) and another one created according the other data (elements 80-224). Both functions have a large deviation of data in No.104-118. Commencing in Period 8, there are three ``shifts'' of atomic mass for 17, 20, and 25 AMU. Also, our analysis manifests that there in all the aforementioned data is a single point with atomic mass 412 and number 155, where the parameters meet each other. This fact verifies our theory (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155. 2nd ed., Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010).

  8. Measuring Double Stars with the Modified Video Drift Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Ernest W.; Nugent, Richard L.

    2015-05-01

    The usefulness of a common CCTV video camera for measuring the position angle and separation of a double star is limited by the camera sensitivity and telescope aperture. The video drift method is enhanced by using an integrating camera but frame integrations longer than 0.132 seconds (4 frames) are impractical. This is due to the target stars elongating (streaking) and moving in incremental steps. A simple modification to the Video Drift Method and corresponding VidPro analysis program significantly increases the magnitude at which double stars can be measured. Double stars down to magnitude +16 have been measured with a 14-inch (35.6-cm) telescope using this method compared to magnitude +12 using the original video drift method under comparable seeing conditions.

  9. Thermodynamics of Combustion in a Confined Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Ferguson, R.E.

    2000-02-05

    Considered here are explosions from condensed TNT charges--where the expanded detonation products gases are rich in C and CO [1]. Mixing with air causes oxidation/combustion [2], which dramatically increases the pressure in confined systems (vid. Fig. 1). We treat this as an Inverse Problem: infer fuel consumption from the measured pressure P {triple_bond} {bar p}(t)/p{sub i}. The Model expounded here represents a valuable tool for extracting the evolution of combustion system from a readily measurable quantity (pressure). The Model establishes the fuel consumption history as well as the evolution of thermodynamic solution (specific volumes, energies and densities) of the components that will generate the observed pressure profile. This solution in Thermodynamic (State) Space provides extraordinarily clear insight into the combustion process, which is normally clouded by a myriad of transport processes that occur in physical space.

  10. Determination of crystal lattice defects by investigation of the channeling shoulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, H.; Aichinger, R.; Mäser, S.; Semrad, D.

    1999-09-01

    It is common practice to guard the development of beam damage of a crystal by looking at an increase of the minimum backscattering yield from the aligned crystal. Alternatively, we propose to observe the decrease of the channeling shoulders. The shoulders are found in an angular scan across a plane or axis on both sides of the channeling dip. They demonstrate the validity of Lindhard's rule of angular average [J. Lindhard, Dansk. Vid. Selsk, Mat. Fys. Medd. 34 (14) (1965)]. However, from this rule it would also follow that under beam bombardment both characteristics, dip and shoulder should disappear at about the same rate. By way of contrast, we find that at a charge of 300 μC deposited onto Te the shoulders have almost disappeared, whereas the dip is still clearly discernible. Investigations of the shoulder in a uni-directional double alignment geometry makes this method even more surface sensitive.

  11. Diagnostic signature of low-energy secondary electron emission at the boundary of a partially-ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) from a solid surface in contact with plasma are important for conducting and interpreting plasma experiments and modeling. Those effects are especially strong for contaminated surfaces. Measurements of SEE reported here are conducted in a plasma having a nearly mono-energetic population of electrons that is energetically well resolved and separated from a broader-energy-range electron population. By performing the SEE measurement in an afterglow or afterglow-like plasma, we take advantage of the nearly mono-energetic electron population that arises in ionizing plasma-chemical reactions, such as binary like-particle collisions of metastable atoms. We demonstrate a diagnostic method for measuring the low-energy electron absorption coefficient across the broader energy range and the effects of contamination on the swept-bias probe characteristic trace. A part of this research was performed while VID held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at AFRL.

  12. Distribution of radiative crystal imperfections through a silicon ingot

    SciTech Connect

    Flø, A. Burud, I.; Kvaal, K.; Olsen, E.; Søndenå, R.

    2013-11-15

    Crystal imperfections limit the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Recombination through traps is more prominent in areas with high density of crystal imperfections. A method to visualize the distribution of radiative emission from Shockley Read Hall recombination in silicon is demonstrated. We use hyperspectral photoluminescence, a fast non-destructive method, to image radiatively active recombination processes on a set of 50 wafers through a silicon block. The defect related emission lines D1 and D2 may be detected together or alone. The D3 and D4 seem to be correlated if we assume that an emission at the similar energy as D3 (VID3) is caused by a separate mechanism. The content of interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) correlates with D4. This method yields a spectral map of the inter band gap transitions, which opens up for a new way to characterize mechanisms related to loss of efficiency for solar cells processed from the block.

  13. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject. PMID:20446988

  14. Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Knight, J C; Skryabin, D V

    2007-11-12

    vid=36">Focus Serial: Frontiers of Nonlinear Optics

    Optical fibers and waveguides provide unique and distinct environments for nonlinear optics, because of the combination of high intensities, long interaction lengths, and control of the propagation constants. They are also becoming of technological importance. The topic has a long history but continues to generate rapid development, most recently through the invention of the new forms of optical fiber collectively known as photonic crystal fibers. Some of the discoveries and ideas from the new fibers look set to have lasting influence in the broader field of guided-wave nonlinear optics. In this paper we introduce some of these ideas. PMID:19550822

  15. An alternative to the TEM (Transformed Eulerian Mean) equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaßmann, Almut

    2013-04-01

    The TEM equations constitute a powerful means to get access to the residual circulation. However, due to their foundation on the wave perspective, they deliver only a zonally averaged picture without access to the three-dimensional structure or the local origins of the residual circulation. Therefore it is worth to investigate whether there are alternatives. The pathway followed here is to perform a transformation of the momentum and the potential temperature equation before taking the zonal mean. This is done by removing the steady state ideal wind solution vid = ?×?B-(?±P) from the equations (? - potential temperature, B - Bernoulli function, P - Ertel's potential vorticity EPV, ?± - density). The advantage of that approach is that the total EPV-flux does no longer contain an explicitly visible 'do-nothing-flux'. This flux, ?? ×?B, does only vanish when averaging on isentropic surfaces, but not on other isosurfaces. Here we find the reason why the conventional zonal mean on isentropes delivers a direct overturning cell on each hemisphere, whereas on other isosurfaces we obtain the typical three-cell structure with Headley, Ferrel, and polar cells. It will be demonstrated and made visible through idealized climate experiments with the ICON-IAP model that the zonal averages of the nonideal wind components vnid = v - vid and wnid = w - wid constitute similar direct overturning cells on non-isentropic surfaces as obtained with the TEM-generated v* and w*. It is also interesting to inspect fields of local nonideal wind components, the very origin of the residual circulation.

  16. Accuracy of nonmolecular identification of growth-hormone- transgenic coho salmon after simulated escape.

    PubMed

    SundströM, L F; Lõhmus, M; Devlin, R H

    2015-09-01

    Concerns with transgenic animals include the potential ecological risks associated with release or escape to the natural environment, and a critical requirement for assessment of ecological effects is the ability to distinguish transgenic animals from wild type. Here, we explore geometric morphometrics (GeoM) and human expertise to distinguish growth-hormone-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) specimens from wild type. First, we simulated an escape of 3-month-old hatchery-reared wild-type and transgenic fish to an artificial stream, and recaptured them at the time of seaward migration at an age of 13 months. Second, we reared fish in the stream from first-feeding fry until an age of 13 months, thereby simulating fish arising from a successful spawn in the wild of an escaped hatchery-reared transgenic fish. All fish were then assessed from 'photographs by visual identification (VID) by local staff and by GeoM based on 13 morphological landmarks. A leave-one-out discriminant analysis of GeoM data had on average 86% (72-100% for individual groups) accuracy in assigning the correct genotypes, whereas the human experts were correct, on average, in only 49% of cases (range of 18-100% for individual fish groups). However, serious errors (i.e., classifying transgenic specimens as wild type) occurred for 7% (GeoM) and 67% (VID) of transgenic fish, and all of these incorrect assignments arose with fish reared in the stream from the first-feeding stage. The results show that we presently lack the skills of visually distinguishing transgenic coho salmon from wild type with a high level of accuracy, but that further development-of GeoM methods could be useful in identifying second-generation,fish from nature as a nonmolecular approach. PMID:26552269

  17. Evolution of vertical knickpoints (waterfalls) with resistant caprock: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Matmon, A.; Stone, J.; Fifield, K. L.

    2010-09-01

    Vertical knickpoints (waterfalls) mark a prominent process transition zone whose governing mechanics is not represented by conventional stream power incision models. We examine the evolution of vertical knickpoints with resistant caprock utilizing numerical simulations that explicitly represent (1) face failure mechanisms, (2) flow acceleration and amplified erosion above a knickpoint lip, (3) deposition and removal of coarse debris below the knickpoint, and (4) base level lowering or tectonic uplift rates. Our model demonstrates that knickpoint retreat rate, where the subcaprock is weak or vertically jointed and base level fall rates are steady, is likely to become tied to downstream conditions and equal to the downstream incision rate divided by channel gradient. Mechanically, this coupling occurs where the subcaprock reaches a threshold height for failure in shear or buckling or where the weathering rate of the subcaprock is higher than the downstream incision wave velocity (Vi_ds). The height of the subcaprock face can influence its gravitational stability and the knickpoint lateral erosion rate and lead to a feedback between downstream incision and retreat rate. Retreat rate can be lower than Vi_ds during transients, which could be long (>106 years) and set by the weathering rate of the subcaprock or influenced by lag debris evacuation. Key variables other than discharge can be important in setting retreat rates. These include base level lowering rate, the rock strength of stratigraphic units downstream of the knickpoint, and the size and flux of sediment contributed from above the knickpoint or from the canyon walls. Two types of oversteepened reaches can form in association with a vertical knickpoint: (1) an upstream, free fall-induced, oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone and (2) a downstream coarse debris-induced oversteepened reach. Although the model was constructed with caprock-type knickpoints in mind, some of its

  18. SU-E-J-104: Evaluation of Accuracy for Various Deformable Image Registrations with Virtual Deformation QA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Kim, K; Kim, M; Jung, H; Ji, Y; Choi, S; Park, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) has a significant dosimetric impact in radiation treatment planning. We evaluated accuracy of various DIR algorithms using virtual deformation QA software (ImSimQA, Oncology System Limited, UK). Methods: The reference image (Iref) and volume (Vref) was first generated with IMSIMQA software. We deformed Iref with axial movement of deformation point and Vref depending on the type of deformation that are the deformation1 is to increase the Vref (relaxation) and the deformation 2 is to decrease the Vref (contraction) .The deformed image (Idef) and volume (Vdef) were inversely deformed to Iref and Vref using DIR algorithms. As a Result, we acquired deformed image (Iid) and volume (Vid). The DIR algorithms were optical flow (HS, IOF) and demons (MD, FD) of the DIRART. The image similarity evaluation between Iref and Iid was calculated by Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) and Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC). The value of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) was used for evaluation of volume similarity. Results: When moving distance of deformation point was 4 mm, the value of NMI was above 1.81 and NCC was above 0.99 in all DIR algorithms. Since the degree of deformation was increased, the degree of image similarity was decreased. When the Vref increased or decreased about 12%, the difference between Vref and Vid was within ±5% regardless of the type of deformation. The value of DSC was above 0.95 in deformation1 except for the MD algorithm. In case of deformation 2, that of DSC was above 0.95 in all DIR algorithms. Conclusion: The Idef and Vdef have not been completely restored to Iref and Vref and the accuracy of DIR algorithms was different depending on the degree of deformation. Hence, the performance of DIR algorithms should be verified for the desired applications.

  19. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization. PMID:12577658

  20. VICAR - VIDEO IMAGE COMMUNICATION AND RETRIEVAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    I/O, label I/O, parameter I/O, etc.) to facilitate image processing and provide the fastest I/O possible while maintaining a wide variety of capabilities. The run-time library also includes the Virtual Raster Display Interface (VRDI) which allows display oriented applications programs to be written for a variety of display devices using a set of common routines. (A display device can be any frame-buffer type device which is attached to the host computer and has memory planes for the display and manipulation of images. A display device may have any number of separate 8-bit image memory planes (IMPs), a graphics overlay plane, pseudo-color capabilities, hardware zoom and pan, and other features). The VRDI supports the following display devices: VICOM (Gould/Deanza) IP8500, RAMTEK RM-9465, ADAGE (Ikonas) IK3000 and the International Imaging Systems IVAS. VRDI's purpose is to provide a uniform operating environment not only for an application programmer, but for the user as well. The programmer is able to write programs without being concerned with the specifics of the device for which the application is intended. The VICAR Interactive Display Subsystem (VIDS) is a collection of utilities for easy interactive display and manipulation of images on a display device. VIDS has characteristics of both the executive and an application program, and offers a wide menu of image manipulation options. VIDS uses the VRDI to communicate with display devices. The first step in using VIDS to analyze and enhance an image (one simple example of VICAR's numerous capabilities) is to examine the histogram of the image. The histogram is a plot of frequency of occurrence for each pixel value (0 - 255) loaded in the image plane. If, for example, the histogram shows that there are no pixel values below 64 or above 192, the histogram can be "stretched" so that the value of 64 is mapped to zero and 192 is mapped to 255. Now the user can use the full dynamic range of the display device to display

  1. VICAR - VIDEO IMAGE COMMUNICATION AND RETRIEVAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    I/O, label I/O, parameter I/O, etc.) to facilitate image processing and provide the fastest I/O possible while maintaining a wide variety of capabilities. The run-time library also includes the Virtual Raster Display Interface (VRDI) which allows display oriented applications programs to be written for a variety of display devices using a set of common routines. (A display device can be any frame-buffer type device which is attached to the host computer and has memory planes for the display and manipulation of images. A display device may have any number of separate 8-bit image memory planes (IMPs), a graphics overlay plane, pseudo-color capabilities, hardware zoom and pan, and other features). The VRDI supports the following display devices: VICOM (Gould/Deanza) IP8500, RAMTEK RM-9465, ADAGE (Ikonas) IK3000 and the International Imaging Systems IVAS. VRDI's purpose is to provide a uniform operating environment not only for an application programmer, but for the user as well. The programmer is able to write programs without being concerned with the specifics of the device for which the application is intended. The VICAR Interactive Display Subsystem (VIDS) is a collection of utilities for easy interactive display and manipulation of images on a display device. VIDS has characteristics of both the executive and an application program, and offers a wide menu of image manipulation options. VIDS uses the VRDI to communicate with display devices. The first step in using VIDS to analyze and enhance an image (one simple example of VICAR's numerous capabilities) is to examine the histogram of the image. The histogram is a plot of frequency of occurrence for each pixel value (0 - 255) loaded in the image plane. If, for example, the histogram shows that there are no pixel values below 64 or above 192, the histogram can be "stretched" so that the value of 64 is mapped to zero and 192 is mapped to 255. Now the user can use the full dynamic range of the display device to display

  2. Charging of the Electric Vehicles in Private Sector: Technical and Economic Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Oleinikova, I.; Klavs, G.

    2014-12-01

    The economic aspect considered in the work is related to the charging of an electric vehicle (EV) at a single private house when this is done every day. To perform the relevant cost estimation it was necessary to determine: the average annual electricity consumption under the condition of everyday charging an EV and the average electricity consumption off the mains for covering a distance of 100 km by an EV and the time in hours for its charging. Comparison is made for the day-time intervals from which it is possible to choose the preferable for proper loading the electric line and the most beneficial for the consumer. Under analysis are two EV connection scenarios for 100 individual households from which 10%, 20% and 30% have EVs, with 8-h duration of each charging at the current of 13A. The authors consider the consumption and electric energy payment packages which - with planned opening of the electric energy market on January 1, 2015 - will offer the clients the enterprises rendering services on the electric energy sale. Šajā rakstā tiek analizēts vidējais diennakts elektroenerģijas patēriņš un diennakts slodzes grafiki privātmājās apstākļos, kad privātmājas īpašnieki lādē elektroautomobili katru dienu vidējam brauciena attālumam 100 km. Elektroautomobiļa uzlādes režīmi tiek analizēti, ņemot vērā patēriņa elektriskās slodzes grafika kvalitāti raksturojošos rādītājus un patērētāja ekonomiskos ieguvumus. Lai novērtētu ekonomiski stimulētu patērētāju elektroautomobiļa uzlādes laika izvēles ietekmi uz diennakts elektriskās slodzes aizpildījuma koeficientu, tika izveidoti un analizēti 2 scenāriji, kas apraksta 100 privātmāju ar dažādu elektroautomobiļu piederības īpatsvaru divas atšķirīgas automobiļu uzlādes gadījumus.

  3. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  4. Efficiency estimation for permanent magnets of synchronous wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryakov, A.; Levin, N.; Sokolov, A.; Kamolins, E.

    2014-02-01

    Application of wind generators opens wide possibilities for raising the efficiency of low- and medium-power wind generators (WGs). The mass of generators in the proposed version is smaller, their reliability higher, while maintenance costs are lower. At the same time, the use of high-energy permanent magnets in generators of enhanced power comes up against some obstacles, which can be overcome through proper orientation of magnetization at creation of a magnetic field in the airgap of electrical machine. In this regard, it might be preferable to use magnets with indirect action on the airgap instead of those with direct action. A convincing example of the former variant is a generator with tangentially oriented magnetization of permanent magnets. In the work, an attempt is done to prove the advantages of such installation in modern low- and medium-power WGs Pastāvīgo magnētu pielietošana vējģeneratoros paver plašas iespējas mazas un vidējas jaudas vēja enerģētisko iekārtu (VEI) efektivitātes paaugstināšanai. Turklāt samazinās ģeneratoru masa, palielinās drošums, samazinās ekspluatācijas izmaksas. Tomēr, izmantojot augsti enerģētiskos pastāvīgos magnētus ģeneratoros ar paaugstinātu jaudu, rodas virkne problēmu, kuras sekmīgi iespējams pārvarēt, ja pareizi izvieto magnētus pēc to orientācijas, radot magnētisko lauku elektriskās mašīnas gaisa spraugā. Darbā ir mēģināts pierādīt, ka eksistē būtiskas priekšrocības mazas un vidējas jaudas vējģeneratoros, ja pastāvīgie magnēti tiek magnetizēti tangenciāli attiecībā pret gaisa spraugu.

  5. Combination of vitamin D metabolites with selective inhibitors of vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Inge; Egger, Helmut; Reddy, G Satyanarayana; Vorisek, Georg

    2003-01-01

    1alpha,25(OH)2D3 exerts antiproliferative, differentiating effects on many cell types, including cancer tissues. In most of its target cells, levels of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are regulated by local synthesis via CYP27B and metabolism via CYP24. Rapidly induced by vitamin D, CYP24 repeatedly hydroxylates the vitamin D side chain and ultimately terminates hormonal activity. Aiming at increased hormone levels, lifetime and function, numerous vitamin D analogs have been synthesized with structural modifications, which impede oxidation of the vitamin D side chain. Our group followed a different strategy, namely, blocking 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism with inhibitors of CYP24. As appropriate inhibitors, we exploited compounds termed azoles, which directly bind to the heme iron of the CYPs via an azole nitrogen and to other parts of the substrate site. We synthesized some 400 azoles and tested their potential to selectively inhibit CYP24, but not hormone synthesis by the related CYP27B. Using primary human keratinocyte cultures as the source of CYP24 and CYP27, we discovered some 50 inhibitors of CYP24 with IC50 values in the nanomole range and selectivities up to 60-fold. As the first representative of selective CYP24 inhibitors, VID400 underwent preclinical development. In human keratinocytes, VID400 stabilized levels of endogenously produced 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, and thereby strongly amplified and prolonged expression of CYP24, a surrogate marker of hormonal function. In parallel, antiproliferative activity showed up at 100-fold or more lower concentrations of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. This data suggests that CYP24 inhibitors could become attractive drugs in antiproliferative therapy, used as single entities to increase or extend endogenous hormone function or in combination with low doses of potent analogs. Moreover, we used selective inhibitors as valuable tools to (a) elucidate regulatory mechanisms of vitamin D synthesis and metabolism, (b) determine intrinsic activities of the otherwise

  6. Adolescence et pornographie sur la toile

    PubMed Central

    Haza, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous abordons la question de l’accès à la pornographie sur Internet par les adolescents. Nous déclinons plusieurs facettes de ces rencontres: la rencontre «fortuite», quand les adolescents sont confrontés à des images intempestives, des publicités ou spams avec des contenus pornographiques; la rencontre «spectatrice», quand les adolescents cherchent activement des vidéos ou photos mettant en scène la sexualité; et enfin la rencontre «actrice», quand les adolescents se mettent en scène eux-mêmes, seuls ou à plusieurs, de façon pornographique sur le Net. A partir d’exemple, nous réfléchissons aux enjeux de ces rencontres virtuelles précoces de la sexualité adulte par rapport au développement adolescent et à la représentation de leur propre sexualité en construction. PMID:22876261

  7. [Clinical study of the relationship between the lateral recesses and the nerve roots].

    PubMed

    Lian, P; Sun, R; Jia, L

    1997-04-01

    To explicate the relationship and the clinical signification between the normal or narrow lateral recesses and the nerve roots, we measured the diameter of the entrans zone of the lateral recess, the interval between the upper articular processes and the interval between the nerve root and ab line on 50 normal cases, 43 narrow cases and 32 stenosis cases with VIDS image analysis system. The results showed that the nerve root was in the center side of the ab line in the normal station, with the degrees of the degeneration and cohesion ncreasing, the nerve root was in the lateral recess side of the ab line, and was compressed by the lateral recess. The authors considered that the real clinical signification of the entrance zone of the lateral recess was danger to the nerve root, but the deciding factors were the degrees of the degeneration and cohesion of the upper articular processes. The pathological conditions that resulted in the stenosis of the lateral recess and dangered the nerve root such as disc, flavum ligament and posterior port of the fibra ring were discussed in the article. PMID:10374545

  8. Detecting delaminations and disbondings on full-scale wing composite panel by guided waves based SHM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, E.; Boffa, N. D.; Memmolo, V.; Ricci, F.; Maio, L.

    2016-04-01

    A full-scale lower wing panel made of composite material has been designed, manufactured and sensorised within the European Funded research project named SARISTU. The authors contributed to the whole development of the system, from design to implementation as well as to the impacts campaign phase where Barely Visible and Visible Damages (BVID and VID) are to be artificially induced on the panel by a pneumatic impact machine. This work summarise part of the experimental results related to damages production, their assessment by C-SCAN as reference NDT method as well as damage detection of delimitations by a guided waves based SHM. The SHM system is made by customized piezoelectric patches secondary bonded on the wing plate acting both as guided waves sources and receivers. The paper will deal mostly with the experimental impact campaign and the signal analyses carried out to extract the metrics more sensitive to damages induced. Image reconstruction of the damages dimensions and shapes will be also described based mostly on the combination of metrics maps over the plate partial surfaces. Finally a comparison of damages maps obtained by the SHM approach and those obtained by "classic" C-SCAN will be presented analyzing briefly pros and cons of the two different approached as a combination to the most effective structural maintenance scenario of a commercial aircraft.

  9. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  10. Beam to Shell Temperature Differencees for the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-05

    This note documents the calculation of stresses resulting from temperature differences between the CC cryostat shell and the module array support beams, and the calculation of corresponding maximum allowable temperature differences to be monitored during the cooldown of the cryostat. A finite element model of a portion of the inner vessel shell was analyzed for a uniform temperature change. The shell was assumed to be completely restrained by the support beams. A maximum allowable temperature difference was determined based on limits on secondary stress ranges prescribed by the ASME Code (Section VID, Division 2). The maximum allowable difference between the cryostat shell and the support beams was found to vary from about 18K near room temperature to about 30K as the shell temperature approaches liquid argon temperature. The allowable values are tabulated below and plotted in Figure 1. The variation results from the decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion of stainless steels at lower temperatures. As shown in the plot, the variation is roughly linear. Note that although the shell is assumed to be at the lower temperature in Fig. 1, the limitation on temperature difference will also apply during warmup, when the shell will likely be warmer than the beams.

  11. Control of plasma properties in a short direct current glow discharge with active boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Vladimir; Adams, Steven; Bogdanov, Yevgeny; Koepke, Mark; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Kurlyandskaya, Iya

    2015-11-01

    To demonstrate controlling electron and metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify trapping the low-energy part of the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. Those electrons are responsible for heating the slow, thermal electrons, while production of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms is mostly due to energetic electrons with higher energies. Increasing electron temperature results in increasing decay rate of slow, thermal electrons, while decay rate of metastable atoms and production rates of slow electrons and metastable atoms practically are unchanged. The result is in variation of electron and metastable density ratio and electron temperature with variation of the wall negative voltage. A part of this research was performed, while one of the authors (VID) held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at AFRL. The work was also partially supported by SPbGU (Grant No. 11.38.658.2013) and ITMO University (Grant No. 713577).

  12. Full-Scale Test and Analysis of a PRSEUS Fuselage Panel to Assess Damage-Containment Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew; Bakuckas, John G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Linton, Kim A.; Korkosz, Gregory; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2011-01-01

    Stitched composite technology has the potential to substantially decrease structural weight through enhanced damage containment capabilities. The most recent generation of stitched composite technology, the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, has been shown to successfully arrest damage at the sub-component level through tension testing of a three stringer panel with damage in the form of a two-bay notch. In a joint effort undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Boeing Company, further studies are being conducted to characterize the damage containment features of the PRSEUS concept. A full-scale residual strength test will be performed on a fuselage panel to determine if the load capacity will meet strength, deformation, and damage tolerance requirements. A curved panel was designed, fabricated, and prepared for residual strength testing. A pre-test Finite Element Model (FEM) was developed using design allowables from previous test programs to predict test panel deformation characteristics and margins of safety. Three phases of testing with increasing damage severity include: (1) as manufactured; (2) barely visible impact damage (BVID) and visible impact damage (VID); and (3) discrete source damage (DSD) where the panel will be loaded to catastrophic failure. This paper presents the background information, test plan, and experimental procedure. This paper is the first of several future articles reporting the test preparations, results, and analysis conducted in the test program.

  13. Discovering objects and their location in videos using spatial-temporal context words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2010-09-01

    We present a novel unsupervised learning algorithm for discovering objects and their location in videos from moving cameras. The videos can switch between different shots, and contain cluttered background, occlusion, camera motion, and multiple independently moving objects. We exploit both appearance consistency and spatial configuration consistency of local patches across frames for object recognition and localization. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we propose a combined approach for simultaneous spatial context and temporal context generation. Local video patches are extracted and described using the generated spatial-temporal context words. Second, a dynamic topic model, based on the representation of a bag of spatial-temporal context words, is introduced to learn object category models in video sequences. The proposed model can categorize and localize multiple objects in a single video. Objects leaving or entering the scene at multiple times can also be handled efficiently in the dynamic framework. Experimental results on the CamVid data set and the VISAT™ data set demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2016-08-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the brain in older age. We investigated brain size and structure at age 68 years after prenatal famine exposure. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were made in 118 Dutch famine birth cohort members. Of these 118 (44% male, age range 65-69 years), 41 had been exposed to famine in early gestation and 77 had been prenatally unexposed. Structural volumes were automatically assessed using FreeSurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and anisotropy and diffusivity were computed. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery was performed to assess white matter hyperintensities. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with smaller intracranial volume in males, but not females. Volumes of total brain, grey and white matter were also smaller in early exposed males, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for intracranial volume. Prenatally exposed males but not females, had a smaller intracranial and total brain volume compared to unexposed subjects. Our findings show that prenatal undernutrition permanently affected brain size.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww132_video_abstractaww132_video_abstract. PMID:27401522

  15. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction: A 15 Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Yadav, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in a newborn requiring prompt intervention. There are only very few studies done in world regarding pattern of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Aim This study was conducted to see the aetiological spectrum of neonatal intestinal obstruction and to find out the problems and outcome of surgical management. Materials and Methods This study was done retrospectively to include all operated cases of neonatal intestinal obstruction from June 2000 to May 2015 and various factors affecting outcome were analysed. Results A total of 298 newborns were included in the study. Male-female ratio was 1.8:1. Gestational age was variable from 32 to 42 weeks (mean = 37.5 weeks) and birth weight from 1.4 to 3.5kg (mean= 2.25 kg). Mean age of presentation was 6 days with intestinal atresia (49.6%) as the commonest cause. Other causes were Hirschsprung (13%), Malrotation gut (11.7%), Meconium ileus (7.3%), patent VID (5%), duodenal obstruction (4%), duplication cyst (3.7%), obstructed hernia (2.7%) and others (2.7%). Mortality rate was 16.4% with sepsis both pre as well as post operative as the main cause of mortality. Conclusion The morbidity and mortality of neonatal intestinal obstruction has improved over last few years mainly due to antenatal detection, early intervention, meticulous resuscitation before surgery along with good NICU care. PMID:27042546

  16. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  17. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine Saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Game, John C; Williamson, Marsha S; Baccari, Clelia

    2005-01-01

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that cause increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype cosegregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-vs.-dose assays in at least one homozygous diploid and two haploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1, and VID21/EAF1 and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes cause a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, results in at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino acids are also X-ray sensitive, which confirms that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage. PMID:15371366

  18. Acritarchs from Ponta Grossa Formation and their stratigraphic significance: Devonian of Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Devonian fossil record in the Parana basin of Brazil is restricted to the Ponta Grossa Formation, a potential source rock unit. Paleontological studies of the macrofauna from this formation indicated an Early Devonian age. For this paper a wide range of surface samples and core samples from eight wells drilled by Pauliperto (a CESP-IPT joint venture) have been studied. Microplankton from the Devonian of the Parana basin never before described are presented here, together with their biostratigraphical and paleoecological implications. Intrabasinal and interbasinal correlations are also made. From a total of 60 species identified until now, twenty forms having well-defined stratigraphic ranges and broad (intercontinental) geographic representation are described herein. This assemblage is marked by the presence and diversity of the Subgroups Polygonomorphitae and Pteromorphitae. The Subgroup Acanthomorphitae is also well represented. The Emsian-Frasnian age previously established for the Ponta Grossa Formation through other palynological studies is further confirmed by the paleomicroplankton evidence. Moreover, the chronostratigraphic limits of these sediments may now be refined even further. Thus, depsite the presence of long-ranging forms, other species, such as Triangulina alargada, which is restricted to the Emsian in the La Vid Formation in northern Spain, allow a better chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The abundance of forms of Tasmanites together with a large quantity and diversity of microplankton provides the basis for the paleoecologic interpretations.

  19. Alternate sources of Nitrogen in the Kronian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, R.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    The failure of Titan to live up to its anticipated role as main Nitrogen source for the magnetospheric plasma of Saturn was compensated by the output of the geysering satellite Enceladus located well inside the region of closed flux tubes. It was soon found by various researchers(Smith, Johnson inter alia) that the output of Enceladus was adequate to provide the N+ seen throughout the inner and outer magnetosphere. Recently, however, textit{Cassini/CAPS} data have shown that Rhea appears to be an independent source of Nitrogen plasma (vid. Reisenfeld et al. COSPAR 2011). In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that all the icy satellites in the inner magnetosphere are sources of N+. We find that for the case of Dione there is strong evidence for the existence of indigenous Nitrogen at the satellite with enhanced density around the orbit as well. The case of Tethys is ambiguous because of the dearth of Cassini/CAPSdata at the sole targeted encounter. Enhanced density and a significant N+ fraction are observed around the orbit but comparison to the immediate environment of the satellite is not possible.

  20. LHC, le Big Bang en éprouvette

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Notre compréhension de l?Univers est en train de changer? Bar des Sciences - Tout public Débat modéré par Marie-Odile Montchicourt, journaliste de France Info. Evenement en vidéoconférence entre le Globe de la science et de l?innovation, le bar le Baloard de Montpellier et la Maison des Métallos à Paris. Intervenants au CERN : Philippe Charpentier et Daniel Froideveaux, physiciens au CERN. Intervenants à Paris : Vincent Bontemps, philosophe et chercheur au CEA ; Jacques Arnould, philosophe, historien des sciences et théologien, Jean-Jacques Beineix, réalisateur, producteur, scénariste de cinéma. Intervenants à Montpellier (LPTA) : André Neveu, physicien théoricien et directeur de recherche au CNRS ; Gilbert Moultaka, physicien théoricien et chargé de recherche au CNRS. Partenariat : CERN, CEA, IN2P3, Université MPL2 (LPTA) Dans le cadre de la Fête de la science 2008

  1. Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Même si, au Canada, les mineurs n’ont pas le droit de jouer à des jeux de hasard légalisés, les adolescents participent souvent à des jeux de hasard soit légalisés (produits de loterie, casino, terminaux de jeux vidéo), soit autonomes (jeux de cartes, paris sportifs, dés) à la maison et en milieu scolaire. Chez les adultes, le taux de prévalence de dépendance aux jeux de hasard au cours de la vie se situe entre 1 % et 2 %. D’après les données existantes, la prévalence chez les adolescents serait de deux à quatre fois plus élevée. On ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs de risque d’apparition et de perpétuation d’une dépendance pathologique aux jeux de hasard. Le présent document de principes vise à informer les pédiatres, les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels de la santé des connaissances émergentes sur les jeux de hasard pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence et du risque de conséquences graves qui s’y rattachent. On y exhorte également les gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux à inclure cette question dans leur programme et à tenir compte des facteurs sociopolitiques associés aux jeux de hasard.

  2. Potential (mis)match?: Marriage Markets amidst Socio-Demographic Change in India, 2005–2050

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the impact of socio-demographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities – contemporary patterns by age, by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries – to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: i) female-deficit in sex ratios at birth; ii) declining birth cohort size; iii) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRB) in India’s population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India’s population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differentials and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to IIASA/VID multi-state population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today’s age patterns of marriage are viewed against age-sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women, particularly those with higher education experience a more salient rise in non-marriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns towards greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in non-marriage. PMID:25604846

  3. Impact of CYP24A1 overexpression on growth of colorectal tumour xenografts in mice fed with vitamin D and soy

    PubMed Central

    Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Heffeter, Petra; Groeschel, Charlotte; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Hummel, Doris M.; Thiem, Ursula; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25‐D3) catabolizing enzyme, 1,25‐dihydoxyvitamin D 24 hydroxylase (CYP24A1) was overexpressed in colorectal tumours and its level correlated with increased proliferation. We hypothesised that cells overexpressing CYP24A1 have growth advantage and a diet rich in vitamin D and soy would restore sensitivity to the anti‐tumourigenic effects of vitamin D. Soy contains genistein, a natural CYP24A1 inhibitor. To determine causality between CYP24A1 and tumour growth, we established xenografts in male SCID mice with HT29 cells stably overexpressing either GFP‐tagged CYP24A1 or GFP. Mice were fed with either high (2500 IU D3/kg) or low vitamin D (100 IU D3/kg) diet in the presence or absence of soy (20% diet). In vitro, cells overexpressing CYP24A1 grew faster than controls. 1,25‐D3, the active vitamin D metabolite, reduced cell number only in the presence of the CYP24A1 inhibitor VID400. Regardless of the amount of vitamin D in the diet, xenografts overexpressing CYP24A1 grew faster, were heavier and more aggressive. Soy reduced tumour volume only in the control xenografts, while the tumours overexpressing CYP24A1 were larger in the presence of dietary soy. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CYP24A1 overexpression results in increased aggressiveness and proliferative potential of colorectal tumours. Irrespective of the dietary vitamin D3, dietary soy is able to increase tumour volume when tumours overexpress CYP24A1, suggesting that combination of vitamin D3 and soy could have an anti‐tumourigenic effect only if CYP24A1 levels are normal. PMID:26238339

  4. Energy Transfer via Ion-Beam Driven Weibel and Two-stream instabilities in Two-Temperature Electron-Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Ren, Chuang; Blackman, Eric; Kong, Xianglong

    2009-11-01

    Whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is an open question. Using 2D PIC simulations, we generalize Ren et al.2007 (Phy.Plasmas 012901) into counter-streaming ion beam-driven oblique instabilities where Weibel, two-stream, and oblique modes coexist. We explain in detail the evolution patterns in both linear and non-linear regimes, and how to reach saturation. To compare with simulations, we solve a set of 1+1D quasi-linear calculations. In a real mass ratio, M/m=1836, we estimate that electrons gain 3.2% of initial ion energy for the case, Te=0.2KeV, Ti=375KeV, and vid=0.7c. While this gain of 3.2% does not threaten the existence of two-temperature accretion flow models per se, one might ask whether it threatens the subset of models (Narayan et al.1998 (ApJ492,554)) which employ less than this percentage of energy to be transferred from ions to electrons on an infall time scales. However, in the solution of Narayan et al.1998, the electron and ion temperature are much larger than ours and ion beam drifts as high as 0.7c would probably occur at most in localized regions. As a result, the electron-ion coupling could be smaller than 3.2%. At present, our results do not therefore definitively rule out existing two-temperature accretion solutions.

  5. Impact of CYP24A1 overexpression on growth of colorectal tumour xenografts in mice fed with vitamin D and soy.

    PubMed

    Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Heffeter, Petra; Groeschel, Charlotte; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Hummel, Doris M; Thiem, Ursula; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-01-15

    Our previous studies showed that the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D3) catabolizing enzyme, 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D 24 hydroxylase (CYP24A1) was overexpressed in colorectal tumours and its level correlated with increased proliferation. We hypothesised that cells overexpressing CYP24A1 have growth advantage and a diet rich in vitamin D and soy would restore sensitivity to the anti-tumourigenic effects of vitamin D. Soy contains genistein, a natural CYP24A1 inhibitor. To determine causality between CYP24A1 and tumour growth, we established xenografts in male SCID mice with HT29 cells stably overexpressing either GFP-tagged CYP24A1 or GFP. Mice were fed with either high (2500 IU D3/kg) or low vitamin D (100 IU D3/kg) diet in the presence or absence of soy (20% diet). In vitro, cells overexpressing CYP24A1 grew faster than controls. 1,25-D3, the active vitamin D metabolite, reduced cell number only in the presence of the CYP24A1 inhibitor VID400. Regardless of the amount of vitamin D in the diet, xenografts overexpressing CYP24A1 grew faster, were heavier and more aggressive. Soy reduced tumour volume only in the control xenografts, while the tumours overexpressing CYP24A1 were larger in the presence of dietary soy. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CYP24A1 overexpression results in increased aggressiveness and proliferative potential of colorectal tumours. Irrespective of the dietary vitamin D3, dietary soy is able to increase tumour volume when tumours overexpress CYP24A1, suggesting that combination of vitamin D3 and soy could have an anti-tumourigenic effect only if CYP24A1 levels are normal. PMID:26238339

  6. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  7. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

  8. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Chinese Medical College Campus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jimei; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; Song, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin—an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community. PMID:22114670

  9. An Induction Motor Based Wind Turbine Emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovs, A.; Grigans, L.; Kamolins, E.; Voitkans, J.

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a small-scale wind turbine emulator based on the AC drive system and discuss the methods for power coefficient calculation. In the work, the experimental set-up consisting of an AC induction motor, a frequency converter, a synchronous permanent magnet generator, a DC-DC boost converter and DC load was simulated and tested using real-life equipment. The experimentally obtained wind turbine power and torque diagrams using the emulator are in a good agreement with the theoretical ones. Šajā rakstā parādīta mazas jaudas vēja turbīnas emulatora izveide ar maiņstrāvas piedziņas sistēmu, kā arī analizētas vairākas turbīnas jaudas koeficienta analītiskās aprēķina metodes. Vēja turbīnas emulatora eksperimentālais stends, kas sastāv no asinhronā elektromotora, frekvenču pārveidotāja, sinhronā pastāvīgo magnētu ģeneratora, līdzstrāvas paaugstinošā pārveidotāja un slodzes, tika pārbaudīts gan simulēšanas vidē, gan uz reālām iekārtām. Eksperimentāli iegūtās vēja turbīnas emulatora jaudas un momenta diagrammas ir salīdzinātas ar teorētiskajām.

  10. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    PubMed

    Du, Jimei; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; Song, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community. PMID:22114670

  11. Crowdsourcing reproducible seizure forecasting in human and canine epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Wagenaar, Joost; Abbot, Drew; Adkins, Phillip; Bosshard, Simone C; Chen, Min; Tieng, Quang M; He, Jialune; Muñoz-Almaraz, F J; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma; Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Hills, Michael; Wu, Wei; Korshunova, Iryna; Cukierski, Will; Vite, Charles; Patterson, Edward E; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    epilepsy.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww045_video_abstractaww045_video_abstract. PMID:27034258

  12. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  13. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww019_video_abstractaww019_video_abstract. PMID:26912639

  14. Kinetics of biosorption of hazardous metals by green soil supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant were studied applying different kinetic models such as First order, Second order, Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and the intra particle diffusion model. But among these models best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. The correlation coefficients of all the elements have R2 values close to 1 indicating the applicability of pseudo second order model to the present system. The applicability of this model suggested that biosorption of elements under study, on DCP was based on chemical interactions between metals and active sites of biosorbent. References 1. E. Tipping, Cation Binding by Humic Substances. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 2. S. Lagergren, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens, Handlingar vol. 24, no.4, pp. 1-39, 1898. 3. Y. S. Ho and G. McKay, "Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes," Process Biochem., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 451-465, Jul. 1999. 4. N. S. Barot and H. K. Bagla, "Extraction of humic acid from biological matrix - dry cow dung powder," Green Chem. Lett. Rev., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 217-221, 2009.

  15. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    work, DCP has been utilized without pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principal of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly biosorbent. References 1. N.S. Barot, H.K. Bagla, Biosorption of Radiotoxic 90Sr by Green adsorbent: Dry Cow Dung Powder, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 294, pp. 81-86, (2012). 2. N.S. Barot, H.K. Bagla, Eco-friendly waste water treatment by cow-dung powder (Adsorption studies of Cr(III), Cr (VI) & Cd(II) using Tracer Technique), Desalination & Water Treatment, 38(1-3), pp.104-113, (2012). 3. N.S. Barot, R.P. Khilnani, H.K. Bagla, "Biosorptive profile of Synthetic and Natural Humiresin for the remediation of Metallic Water Pollutants", Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 301(1):1-9, (2014). 4. S. Lagergren, Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens, Handlingar 24(4):1-39, (1898).

  16. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    revision of electrical stimulation of the entire parietal cortex with the aim to evaluate the neurophysiology of this relevant brain region. Our analysis offers a general overview of the multiple roles of the parietal cortex and supports its crucial involvement in different networks related to complex integrative functions.media-1vid110.1093/brain/awv187_video_abstractawv187_video_abstract. PMID:26129769

  17. Functional correlates of the therapeutic and adverse effects evoked by thalamic stimulation for essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William S; Jo, Hang Joon; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Felmlee, Joel P; Welker, Kirk M; Klassen, Bryan T; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H

    2016-08-01

    modelling revealed a correlation between therapeutic effectiveness and attenuated within-region inhibitory connectivity in cerebellum. Finally, specific subregions of sensorimotor cortex were identified in which deep brain stimulation-evoked activation correlated with the presence of unwanted paraesthesias. These results suggest that thalamic deep brain stimulation in tremor likely exerts its effects through modulation of both olivocerebellar and thalamocortical circuits. In addition, our findings indicate that deep brain stimulation-evoked functional activation maps obtained intraoperatively may contain predictive information pertaining to the therapeutic and adverse effects induced by deep brain stimulation.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww145_video_abstractaww145_video_abstract. PMID:27329768

  18. Determination of 3D Surface Roughness Parameters by Cross-Section Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzitis, J.; Krizbergs, J.; Kumermanis, M.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Leitans, A.

    2014-04-01

    Currently, in the production engineering the surface roughness parameters are estimated in three dimensions, however, the equipment for these measurements is rather expensive and not always available. In many cases to buy such equipment is not economically justified. Therefore, the 3D surface roughness parameters are usually determined from the well-known 2D profile ones using the existing 2D equipment. This could be done best using the cross-section (or profile) method, especially in the case of nanoroughness estimation, with calculation of the mean values for the roughness height, spacing, and shape. This method - though mainly meant for irregular rough surfaces - can also be used for other types of rough surfaces. Particular emphasis is here given to the correlation between the surface cross-section (profile) parameters and 3D parameters as well as to the choice of the number of cross-cuttings and their orientation on the surface. Mūsdienu ražošanā ir nepieciešams novērtēt virsmas raupjuma parametrus trijās dimensijās, tomēr, aprīkojums šādu mērījumu veikšanai ir ļoti dārgs un ne vienmēr pieejams. Tādēļ bieži rodas nepieciešamība noteikt 3D virsmas raupjuma parametrus pēc labi zināmajiem profila (2D) parametriem, izmantojot eksistējošo 2D mērīšanas aprīkojumu. Labākais risinājums šai problēmai ir izmantot 3D raupjuma parametru noteikšanai šķēlumu jeb profilu metodi. Metode uzrāda labus rezultātus arī novērtējot nanoraupjumu. Iespējams aprēķināt sekojošu virsmas raupjuma mikrotopogrāfisko parametru vidējās vērtības: raupjuma augstumu; soļu parametrus un formu. Metode ir paredzēta izmantošanai virsmām ar neregulāru raksturu, bet var tikt pielāgota arī citu tipu virsmām.

  19. Structural Changes in Pulsed Laser Ablated CuInSe2 Compound STRUKTURĀLĀS IZMAIŅAS Impulsa LĀZERA ABLĒTAJĀ CuInSe2 SAVIENOJUMĀ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurcovs, A.; Gerbreders, V.; Tamanis, E.; Sledevskis, E.; Gerbreders, A.

    2013-12-01

    CuInSe2 (CISe) compound was produced by high-temperature synthesis. After mechanical milling, the average CISe particle size decreased to 10μm. The authors study structural changes of the compound after ablation in liquid by a 1064 nm pulsed laser. The SEM examination indicated the presence of spherical particles with the average size of ~ 450 nm. A nonlinear relationship was established between the laser radiation dose and the quantity of spherical particles. The XRD analysis has shown an improvement in the CISe crystalline structure and the absence of significant changes in its stoichiometry. The 3 μm thick experimental CISe samples were screen-printed on planar Ni electrodes, and improvement also was revealed in their photosensitivity. The conclusion is that the pulsed-laser ablation can be applied to chalcopyrite structures like CISe without destruction of their initial properties. Darba autori apskata impulsa lāzera ablācijas pielietojuma iespēju CuInSe2 savienojumam. Eksperimentu gaitā tika konstatēts, ka ablācijas procesā CuInSe2 vidē veidojas sfēriskas formas daļiņas, kuru izmēri ir atkarīgi no lāzera starojuma parametriem un no vides īpašībām. Apstarotā materiāla analīze uzrādīja CuInSe2 struktūras kvalitātes uzlabojumus, kā arī gaismjūtības palielināšanos par 8%, salīdzinājumā ar neapstarotu materiālu. Darba rezultāti liecina par to, ka, mainot lāzera starojuma parametrus, ir iespējams uzlabot CuInSe2 savienojumu, nesagraujot tā darba īpašības. Aprakstītās eksperimentālās metodes un tehnoloģijas sniedz plašu darbības lauku tālākiem pētījumiem šajā jomā.

  20. Dopamine D2 receptor gene variants and response to rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease: a pharmacogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Masellis, Mario; Collinson, Shannon; Freeman, Natalie; Tampakeras, Maria; Levy, Joseph; Tchelet, Amir; Eyal, Eli; Berkovich, Elijahu; Eliaz, Rom E; Abler, Victor; Grossman, Iris; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Tiwari, Arun; Hayden, Michael R; Kennedy, James L; Lang, Anthony E; Knight, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson symptoms from Weeks 12 to 36 after correction for multiple testing. This is the largest and most comprehensive pharmacogenetics study to date examining clinical response to an anti-parkinsonian drug and the first to be conducted in patients with early stage Parkinson's disease receiving monotherapy. The results indicate a clinically meaningful benefit to rasagiline in terms of the magnitude of improvement in parkinsonian symptoms for those with the favourable response genotypes. Future work is needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms through which these DRD2 variants operate in modulating the function of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww109_video_abstractaww109_video_abstract. PMID:27190009

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Cowó, Ángel E.; Chen, Marcelo; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hung, Chun-Po; Chen, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2015-01-01

    created a video (www.youtube.com/watch?v=BinExvvOTMM&feature=iv&src_vid=BW81-PfmY3E&annotation_id=annotation_2436493705) to correct such misconception in its AIDS prevention campaign. PMID:26039757

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Cowó, Ángel E; Chen, Marcelo; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hung, Chun-Po; Chen, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2015-01-01

    created a video (www.youtube.com/watch?v=BinExvvOTMM&feature=iv&src_vid=BW81-PfmY3E&annotation_id=annotation_2436493705) to correct such misconception in its AIDS prevention campaign. PMID:26039757

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from vaccinated commercial poultry farms in non-epidemic areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of vaccination might give important insights on the infection dynamics of these viruses. In addition, molecular analyses at the subgenotype level and studies on the relationship of Japanese NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize nine NDVs isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks in five different Prefectures in non-epidemic areas of Japan between 1969 and 2002. Methods Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic studies were performed to characterize the complete fusion (F)-protein gene, 3-prime end of the nucleoprotein (NP)-gene and 5-prime end of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L)-gene. Sequence data were compared with 180 NDV strains from GenBank representing different NDV genotypes and subgenotypes from different regions of the world at different time periods. Deduced amino acids were analyzed for homologies, recombination and mutation. Recombination events were estimated using Recombination Detection Program (RDP) version 3.44. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine evolutionary relationships among strains. Results Mean death time (MDT: 48-56 hr), Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI: 1.7-1.9) and deduced amino acid sequences of the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (112RRQKR116) revealed that all nine field isolates were velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates could be classified into two genetic lineages and three sublineages namely genotypes VIa (lineage 4a), VId (lineage 4d) and VIId (lineage 5d). No recombination events were observed but

  4. Vascular amyloidosis impairs the gliovascular unit in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, Ian F; Robel, Stefanie; Roberson, Erik D; Sontheimer, Harald

    2015-12-01

    reduce the dynamic range of affected vessel segments. These results demonstrate a mechanism that could account in part for the reduction in cerebral blood flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease.media-1vid110.1093/brain/awv327_video_abstractawv327_video_abstract. PMID:26598495

  5. Effects of gravitational acceleration on high pressure combustion of methanol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauveau, C.; Vieille, B.; Gökalp, I.; Segawa, D.; Kadota, T.; Nakainkyo, A.

    1999-06-01

    A Franco-Japanese cooperative research program on microgravity combustion has been initiated. One of the studies is devoted to the experimental investigation of high pressure combustion of methanol droplets, under normal and reduced gravity conditions, which are obtained in a drop tower and during the parabolic flight of an airplane. A methanol droplet is suspended at the center of a high-pressure combustion chamber, and is ignited with an electrically heated kanthal wire. A high-speed video camera is used to obtain the time histories of the squared droplet diameter, which are used to determine the droplet burning rate. The results show that the d-square law is valid for all the conditions of the present experiments. The droplet burning rate increases with ambient pressure and does not show a maximum around the critical pressure of methanol. Experiments also show that the droplet burning rate decreases with the reduction of gravitational acceleration. Un programme de collaboration franco-japonais sur la combustion en microgravité a été initié. Une des études est consacrée à l'investigation expérimentale de la combustion de gouttelettes de métha nol sous haute pression, dans des conditions de gravité terrestre et aussi de gravité réduite obtenues par l'utilisation d'une tour de chute libre et par les vols paraboliques d'un avion-laboratoire. Une goutte de méthanol est suspendue au centre d'une chambre à haute pression et est enflammée par un filament électrique porté à haute température. Une caméra vidéo rapide permet le suivi temporel de l'évolution du diamètre de la goutte qui est utilisé pour déterminer le taux de combustion. Les résultats montrent que la loi en D2 est valide pour toutes les conditions explorées dans la présente étude. Le taux de combustion augmente avec l'augmentation de la pression ambiante et ne démontre pas l'existence d'un maximum à la pression critique du méthanol. Le taux de combustion décroît de mani

  6. Influence of Light Intensity and Temperature on Cultivation of Microalgae Desmodesmus Communis in Flasks and Laboratory-Scale Stirred Tank Photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanags, J.; Kunga, L.; Dubencovs, K.; Galvanauskas, V.; Grīgs, O.

    2015-04-01

    kultivācijas temperatūra ir 25 °C un gaismas intensitāte - 300 μmol m2 s-1. Savukārt D. communis kultivācija fotobioreaktorā pie tādiem pašiem apstākļiem deva vidējus biomasas produktivitātes rezultātus gaismas limitēšanas dēļ arī tad, kad gaismas intensitāte tika palielināta eksperimenta laikā (maksimālā biomasas produktivitāte - 0.25 g 1-1d-1; maksimālā biomasas koncentrācija - 1.78 g 1-1).

  7. La place de la thoracoscopie dans la prise en charge des pathologies thoraciques: à propos de 104 cas

    PubMed Central

    Lakranbi, Marwane; Rabiou, Sani; Ghalimi, Jamal; Issoufou, Ibrahim; Ouadnouni, Yassine; Smahi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La thoracoscopie est l'exploration endoscopique de la cavité pleurale, des organes avoisinants (diaphragme, péricarde, médiastin) et du poumon. Le but de ce travail se veut d'abord didactique; décrivant la thoracoscopie, ses techniques ainsi que sa place dans la prise en charge de la pathologie thoracique (indications et perspectives thérapeutiques) et informatif en rapportant l'expérience de notre équipe. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective intéressant 104 thoracoscopies à visée diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique réalisées au service de chirurgie thoracique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès, sur une période de 04 ans (Août 2008-décembre 2012). Nous avons exclu de notre étude les cas ayant bénéficié d'une médiastinoscopie ainsi que les cas ayant bénéficié d'une thoracoscopie dans le cadre des traumatismes fermés du thorax ou des plaies thoraciques. Résultats L’ âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans, avec des extrêmes allant de 18 à 80 ans, et une légère prédominance masculine à 54%. La thoracoscopie est d'ordre pleural chez 86 patients, pulmonaire chez 10 patients et médiastinale chez 8 patients. La thoracoscopie avait une indication à visée diagnostique chez 87 cas et thérapeutique chez 52 patients (talcage dans 45 cas, décortication pleuropulmonaire dans 2 cas, résection de kystepleuro-péricardique dans 2 cas, cure de pneumothorax dans 2 cas et une fenêtre péricardique). L’évolution post opératoire etait marquée par une amélioration clinico-radiologique chez 40 malades, 11 ont présenté une amélioration clinique seule, 6 ont présenté une persistance ou une récidive de l’épanchement. Conclusion La thoracoscopie représente un réel gain en matière de diagnostic de certaines pathologies intra-thoraciques. Son intérêt thérapeutique limité doit être éventuellement étendu grâce à la chirurgie thoracique vidéo assistée, qui est une technique récente fiable

  8. Geochemical analysis of Lower Toarcian black shale from Mecsek Mountain, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobni, András; Rübsam, Wolfgang; Schwark, Lorenz; Kovács, János; Fekete, József

    2016-04-01

    section investigated. Variable, but mainly high HI values (100-700 mgHC/gTOC) allow attributing the OM to a type II kerogen. Results are in agreement with previous studies showing that the OM is mainly composed of liptinites, which point to algal and land plant-derived OM [2]. Moreover, variable contributions from marine and terrigenous sources are also attested by the ratio of isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) and the corresponding n-alkanes. Accumulation of OM occurred under mildly reducing, most likely anoxic, conditions as indicated by Pr/Phy ratios of about 1.5 and mainly low HHI values <0.1 [3]. It can be thus anticipated that OM preservation was favoured by low oxygen levels in bottom waters and high sediment accumulation rates, resulting in an efficient OM burial. Therefore, OM accumulation at the western margin of the Tethyan Ocean was controlled by processes differing from those in the epicontinental basin of the Western Tetyhan shelf. A high surface productivity at the slope of the shelf might have been stimulated by the upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom waters and might further promoted the formation of an expanded oxygen minimum zone. [1] McArthur, J. M., Algeo, T.J., van de Schootbrugge, B., Li, Q., Howarth, R.J., 2008. Basinal restriction, black shales, Re-Os dating, and the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography 23, PA4217, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001607. [2] Varga, A., Raucsik, B., Hámorné Vidó, M., Rostási, Á., 2007. Isotope geochemistry and characterization of hydrocarbon potential of black shale from Óbánya Siltstone Formation. Földtani Közlöny 137, 449-472. [3] Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C., Moldowan, J.M., 2005. The Biomarker Guide: Volume 2, Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Systems and Earth History. Cambridge University Press, 1132 pp.

  9. Sail-Type Wind Turbine for Autonomous Power Supplay: Possible Use in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under the conditions of continuous increase in the energy consumption, sharply rising prices of basic energy products (gas, oil, coal), deterioration of environment, etc., it is of vital importance to develop methods and techniques for heat and power generation from renewables. The paper considers the possibility to use a sail-type wind turbine for autonomous power supply in Latvia, taking into account its climatic conditions. The authors discuss the problems of developing a turbine of the type that would operate efficiently at low winds, being primarily designed to supply power to small buildings and farms distant from centralized electricity networks. The authors consider aerodynamic characteristics of such a turbine and the dependence of the thrust moment of its pilot model on the airflow rate at different angles of attack. The pilot model with a changeable blade shape has been tested and shows a good performance. Darbs veltīts vienam no atjaunojamo enerģiju veidiem - vēja enerģijai, analizētas tās izmantošanas iespējas. Vispirms īsi raksturota vēja enerģijas izmantošana pasaulē, kā arī vērtētas izmantošanas perspektīvas no inženiertehniskā un klimatisko apstākļu viedokļa. Turpinājumā raksturota situācija Latvijā, t. sk., arī vēja potenciāla pieejamība dažādos reģionos, kā arī vēja enerģijas izmantošanas efektivitāti raksturojošie lielumi. Konstatējot problēmu, rast vēja turbīnu risinājumus Latvijas apstākļiem ar maziem vidējiem vēja ātrumiem, izveidots buras tipa turbīnas modelis. Šī modeļa raksturlielumu izpēte veikta vēja tunelī Karagandas universitātē, konstatējot relatīvi labus efektivitātes rādītājus tiešai un pretējai vēja plūsmai. Izmantojot mērījumu rezultātus, ierosināti sistēmas uzlabojumi, kurus plānots pētīt turpmāk. Šādas sistēmas potenciāli var rast lietojumu tur, kur nepieciešami autonomi enerģijas avoti.

  10. Neuregulin-1 controls an endogenous repair mechanism after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bartus, Katalin; Galino, Jorge; James, Nicholas D; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R; Dawes, John M; Fricker, Florence R; Garratt, Alistair N; McMahon, Stephen B; Ramer, Matt S; Birchmeier, Carmen; Bennett, David L H; Bradbury, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    tests requiring co-ordination, balance and proprioception. Furthermore, electrophysiological assessments revealed severely impaired axonal conduction in the dorsal columns of global Nrg1 mutants (where Schwann cell-mediated remyelination is prevented), but not immunoglobulin-specific mutants (where Schwann cell-mediated remyelination remains intact), providing robust evidence that the profound demyelinating phenotype observed in the dorsal columns of Nrg1 mutant mice is related to conduction failure. Our data provide novel mechanistic insight into endogenous regenerative processes after spinal cord injury, demonstrating that Nrg1 signalling regulates central axon remyelination and functional repair and drives the trans-differentiation of central precursor cells into peripheral nervous system-like Schwann cells that remyelinate spinal axons after injury. Manipulation of the Nrg1 system could therefore be exploited to enhance spontaneous repair after spinal cord injury and other central nervous system disorders with a demyelinating pathology.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww039_video_abstractaww039_video_abstract. PMID:26993800

  11. Choice of the Optimum Cross-Sections for 20-110-330 kV Overhead Lines Under Market Conditions / 20-110-330 Kv Gaisvadu Līniju Optimālo Šķērsgriezumu Izvēle Tirgus Apstākļos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, S.; Petrichenko, L.

    2012-12-01

    Approach is proposed to the choice of overhead line cross-sections that would be optimal under market conditions. For this purpose, in the design practice and at network reconstruction two methods exist: of the economic current density, and of the economic intervals. As of now, none of them works properly, since the cost of electrical materials, of building and construction as well as the total investments in a line are determined by the market prices. Therefore, a modified economic intervals’ method has been developed that can work under market conditions. The method allows also considering the discrete character of standard cross-sections for the lines and concrete technical and technically-economic parameters. For practical application of the proposed method, universal economic nomograms for 20-110-330 kV overhead lines have been calculated and constructed. In the paper, a user interface is proposed for realization of the modified method in Matlab environment. Viens no pilsētas elektriskā tīkla ekonomiskuma paaugstināšanas būtiskiem veidiem ir tīkla racionālā projektēšana. Elektriskā tīkla projekta ekonomiskuma kritērijs ir minimālās summārās ikgadējās izmaksas pie vienādām peļņas vērtībām projekta variantos. Elektropārvādes līniju optimālo šķērsgriezumu izvēle un summāro ikgadējo izmaksu minimums to izbūvei tiek nodrošināts ar ekonomisko intervālu metodes pielietojumu. Sakarā ar ekonomiskās politikas izmaiņām valstī ir izstrādāta un tiek piedāvāta ekonomisko intervālu metodes adaptācija tirgus ekonomikas apstākļiem. Tiek piedāvāts algoritms elektropārvades gaisvadu līniju optimālo šķērsgriezumu izvēlei. Metodes praktiskai realizācijai izstrādātas ekonomisko intervālu nomogrammas. Tiek izveidots lietotāja grafiskais interfeiss Matlab programmēšanas vidē. Ar šīs programmas palīdzību ir konstruētas universālās strāvu ekonomisko intervālu nomogrammas 20-110-330 kV gaisvadu l

  12. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    or interest. Just let us know your views! Highlights and recommendations can be found on https://ildwg.wordpress.com/ *Moon Village Workshops Organisers Team: Bernard Foing (ESA/ESTEC & ILEWG), Aidan Cowley, Guillermo Ortega, Linda van Hilten (ESA), Vid Beldavs, David Dunlop, Jim Crisafulli (International Lunar Decade), ESTEC Moon Village workshop 2015 WGs co-conveners: Peter Batenburg, Andrea Jaime, Abigail Calzada, Angeliki Kapoglou, Chris Welch, Susanne Pieterse, Daniel Esser, Audrey Berquand, Daniel Winter, Dmitri Ivanov, Simone Paternostro, Matias Hazadi, Oscar Kamps, Marloes Offringa

  13. Small Hydropower in Latvia and Intellectualization of its Operating Systems / Par Mazo HIDROENERĢĒTIKU LATVIJĀ un TĀS Staciju VADĪBAS SISTĒMAS INTELEKTUALIZĀCIJU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Linkevics, O.; Varfolomejeva, R.; Umbrasko, I.

    2013-12-01

    The authors estimate the potential for power generation from water resources of small and medium-sized rivers, which are abundant in Latvia. They propose the algorithm for optimal operation of a small-scale hydropower plant (SHPP) at the chosen optimality criterion in view of the plant's participation in the market. The choice of SHPP optimization algorithm is made based on two mathematical programming methods - dynamic and generalized reduced gradient ones. Approbation of the algorithm is illustrated by an example of optimized SHPP operation. Darbā analizētas tradicionālo un pieejamo vietējo atjaunojamo energoresursu - mazo un vidējo upju hidroresursa izmantošanas iespējas Latvijas enerģētikā. Tiek sniegts faktiskais materiāls šajā jautājumā, kas iegūts, balstoties uz oficiālos avotos publicētiem citu autoru iepriekš veiktajiem pētījumiem. Tiek atzīmēts, ka teritoriju, kas atrodas mazo upju tuvumā un nav ietvertas centralizētās elektroapgādes sistēmā, saimnieciskā apgūšana rada apstākļus patērētāju stimulēšanai izmantot autonomus vietējos energoresursus, ieskaitot hidroenerģiju, izmantojošas mazas jaudas energoiekārtas. Atjaunojamās enerģijas tehnoloģiju un iekārtu pastāvīga attīstība un pilnveidošanās veicinās mazo upju plūsmas izmantošanas elektroenerģijas ražošanas efektivitātes paaugstināšanos. Mūsdienu enerģētikas attīstības koncepcija, kas balstīta uz viedo tīklu (smart grids) izveidi, ļauj paaugstināt mazās hidroenerģētikas darbības efektivitāti, integrējot to elektroenerģētiskajā sistēmā. Mazo hidroelektrostaciju (MHES) darbības vadības sistēmas intelektualizācijas pamatā jābūt kompleksam algoritmam un programmām, kas ļauj tiešsaistes (online) režīmā nodrošināt izdevīgu MHES darbības grafiku (režīmu) maksimālā ienākuma gūšanai, balstoties uz zināmu elektroenerģijas cenas prognozi attiecīgajam laika periodam (diennaktij). MHES darbības optimiz

  14. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    niveaux aquifères. Les méthodes géophysiques utilisées pour les diagraphies en forage étaient le calibrage, la résistivité concentrée, la résistivité par induction, le rayonnement gamma, la température du fluide, la conductivité électrique du fluide, un courantomètre à impulsions et à flux de chaleur, avec une sonde vidéo pour l'examen des parois du forage. Une sonde multiparamètre a été utilisée pour mesurer la température, la conductivité électrique, l'oxygène dissous, le pH et le potentiel redox dans le fluide du forage à la descente. Une forte perméabilité développée dans la craie par les écoulements souterrains forme le principal niveau d'écoulement du site d'étude de Banterwick Barn ; elle est constituée d'un système de conduits qui crée une connexion hydraulique locale efficace entre les forages. Cet horizon est formé de plusieurs niveaux de haut-fonds lithifiés, qui impliquent l'existence d'une lacune de sédimentation susceptible pouvant correspondre à une discordance. Une plus faible température de l'eau souterraine, une plus forte concentration en oxygène dissous, les indications du courantomètre sur un écoulement préférentiel dans la craie indiquent une circulation rapide de l'eau souterraine le long de cet horizon. En répétant les diagraphies à des moments différents de l'année sous des conditions hydrauliques variées, d'autres horizons d'écoulements d'eau dans l'aquifère de la craie ont été reconnus. Resumen. Se ha integrado técnicas geofísicas e hidroquímicas de registro de sondeos para caracterizar las propiedades hidráulicas e hidrogeoquímicas del acuífero de la Creta en perforaciones de Berkshire (Reino Unido). Las medidas en los sondeos tenían como objetivo localizar fisuras en las cretas, así como determinar su extensión espacial entre sondeos y calidad química de las aguas subterráneas. Entre los métodos de testificación geofísica utilizados, se halla el calibre, la resistividad

  15. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, Arup; McWatt, D. G.; Zdrodowski, R. J.; Liu, Zak; Elie, Larry; Simko, S. J.; Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Cuthbert, J.; Hock, E. D.

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  16. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    requises pour de bonnes observations dans le domaine du proche infrarouge ont aussi été étudiées. Ensuite, la construction d'une station mobile de prise de vues est détaillée. Celle-ci doit permettre d'observer l'émission et d'obtenir des résultats exploitables par la suite. Trois méthodes d'observation ont été décrites: visuelle, photographique et à l'aide d'un détecteur CCD. La troisième, qui a été retenue, a été vue plus en détail. Le matériel utilisé, de la caméra à la plate-forme de prise de vues en passant par les objectifs et les filtres optiques, est ensuite décrit. Lorsque le matériel a été choisi, un protocole d'observation a été défini et mis au point. Le choix du site d'observation a été crucial. Plusieurs lieux géographiques ont été retenus et sont présentés dans le mémoire. Le déroulement d'une séance de prise de vue a été décrit afin de faciliter un futur programme d'observation. Deux séquences types d'observations ont été plus particulièrement détaillées: -la réalisation de panoramas permettant une étude des structures que fait apparaître l'émission, -la réalisation de séquences vidéos afin d'étudier la dynamique du phénomène. Dans une quatrième partie, je décris les méthodes de traitement des images qui ont été développées. Tout d'abord, des prétraitements sont appliqués aux images pour corriger les défauts (champ plat, offset,?). Ensuite, une méthode de restitution géographique permet d'obtenir une image plus exploitable de la couche émissive ; elle n'est alors plus observée à partir d'une station au sol, mais en employant une caméra virtuelle située à la verticale du site d'observation. Différents problèmes liés à cette méthode ont aussi été traités: réfraction atmosphérique proche de l'horizon, passage d'une surface atmosphérique à la surface du pixel correspondant, et effet de Van Rhijn. Plusieurs traitements ont été appliqués aux images pour faciliter leur