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Sample records for egg burden hepatic

  1. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada Hassan; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-11-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained

  2. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  3. Disease burden of chronic hepatitis C among immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Krahn, M

    2015-12-01

    Immigrants with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Canada have doubled risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. To measure the burden of CHC among immigrants in Canada. A decision analytic model was developed to compare immigrants with CHC and age-matched immigrants without CHC for survival years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and medical costs per life year. Hepatitis C epidemiology among immigrants was based on hepatitis C prevalence in their home countries. A cohort of immigrant patients was retrospectively followed up to estimate fibrosis stage distribution, treatment patterns and prognosis of compensated cirrhosis. Other model variables were based on published sources. Base case analysis, one-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to measure the burden of CHC and assess the impact of uncertainty associated with model variables on the burden of CHC. CHC could reduce survival by 9.6 years [95% credible interval (CI): 8.0-10.9 years], reduce QALYs by 9.5 years (95% CI: 6.0-13.8 years) and increase medical costs per life year by $1950 (95% CI: $1518 to $2486, 2006 Canadian dollars). Because nearly half of immigrants with CHC were not diagnosed until the development of cirrhosis, the burden of CHC was highly sensitive to the risks of liver-related complications and mortality but insensitive to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. The burden of CHC among immigrants in Canada is substantial mainly due to liver-related complications and mortality. The delay in diagnosis was another important contributor to the burden of CHC among immigrants. PMID:26110922

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge R; Estes, Chris; Gadano, Adrián C; Razavi, Homie; Villamil, Federico G; Silva, Marcelo O

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCV-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed: (1) increased sustained virologic response (SVR); and (2) increased SVR and treatment. RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liver-related deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina. PMID:27239258

  5. Tackling the Hepatitis B Disease Burden in India.

    PubMed

    Puri, Pankaj

    2014-12-01

    Globally, approximately 240 people have been infected worldwide with hepatitis B Virus (HBV). India has approximately HBV carrier rate of 3.0% with a high prevalence rate in the tribal population. With a population of more than 1.25 billion, India has more than 37 million HBV carriers and contributes a large proportion of this HBV burden. While horizontal transmission in childhood appears to be a major route of transmission, the role of vertical transmission is probably underestimated. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic injections continue to be important modes of transmission of HBV. There is a need for large field studies to better understand HBV epidemiology and identify high prevalence areas, and public health measures to prevent disease transmission and decrease the burden of the disease. PMID:25755578

  6. Comparative hatchability of lake trout eggs differing in contaminant burden and incubation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, M.J.; Berlin, W.H.; Rottiers, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    In 1972, fertilized eggs of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Marquette (Michigan) State Fish Hatchery (where levels of contaminants are relatively low) and eggs from lake trout collected in Michigan waters of Lake Michigan near Saugatuck and Charlevoix (where levels of PCB's and DDE are elevated) were incubated at hatchery temperatures (6° C) and at temperatures simulating the natural temperature cycle of Lake Michigan (1-8° C). Survival to yolk absorption of larvae from these three sources ranged from 40.3 to 65.5%, and no correlation was observed between survival and the level of PCB's and DDE in the eggs. Additional studies in 1975 with lake trout eggs from the same three sources confirmed previous observations that the elevated levels of PCB's and DDE in eggs from Lake Michigan did not appear to affect the percent hatch of lake trout eggs or survival of the fry to the swim-up stage. When fry hatched from eggs with an elevated contaminant burden were starved for several weeks, we observed no abnormal increase in posthatching mortality during the period when the yolk stores were being consumed.

  7. Economic burden of hepatitis B infection among patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Gaurav; Klink, Andrew J.; Shenolikar, Rahul; Singer, Joseph; Eisenberg Lawrence, Debra F.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite ACIP recommendation and cost-effectiveness established in those 19–59 y old diabetes patients the uptake of Hepatitis B vaccine in diabetes patients is low. There is need to highlight the impact of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in diabetes patients in terms of healthcare utilization and costs to recognize the burden of HBV in this population. This retrospective claims analysis included patients with diabetes and HBV (cases; n=1,236) and those with diabetes without HBV (controls; n=4,944), identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Cases were matched with 4 controls using propensity score matching. Healthcare utilization and cost were compared; incremental effect of HBV infection was assessed using multivariate analysis. In the adjusted analyses, the mean number of hospitalizations (0.6 vs 0.4), outpatient service visits (34.2 vs. 20.4), and office visits (10.9 vs. 9.8) were 41%, 68%, and 11% higher, respectively, in cases vs. controls (all p<0.05). Gastroenterologist visits (0.8 vs. 0.2) and infectious disease visits (0.1 vs. 0.0) were 80% and 18% higher in subset of case and controls with these events. Cases ($39,435) incurred $16,397 incremental total costs compared with controls ($23,038). Medical ($30,968 vs. $17,765) and pharmacy costs ($8,029 vs. $5,114) were both significantly higher for cases (p < 0.0001). Healthcare utilization and costs were higher among patients with diabetes and HBV than in those with diabetes alone. These results provide evidence supporting the need for HBV vaccination among unvaccinated diabetes patients. PMID:27050021

  8. Chronic hepatitis C: an age wave of disease burden.

    PubMed

    McHutchison, John G; Bacon, Bruce R

    2005-10-01

    There are at least 2.7 million individuals in the United States, most of them in their 40s and 50s, who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). As these infected individuals get older, about 20% will develop cirrhosis, and a significant fraction of those with cirrhosis (about 1 in 10) will then develop serious decompensated liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, HCV is the primary cause of death in 8000 to 12 000 people every year; the virus is also the primary reason for liver transplantation in the United States. Although the number of new cases of HCV infection has been dropping steadily since the introduction of improved blood-supply screening, the "age wave" of existing chronic HCV in baby boomers is expected to contribute to a substantial rise in morbidity, mortality, and costs over the next 2 decades. Although it is difficult to predict which HCV-infected patients will progress to serious liver disease, the availability of a combination drug regimen (peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin) that essentially "cures" the disease in more than half of treated patients now provides clinicians and pharmacists in managed care settings with the tools needed to diminish the impact of the anticipated wave of liver disease. This article reviews the epidemiology, natural history, clinical and economic burden, and screening and treatment options for HCV. PMID:16232012

  9. Predicting maternal body burdens of organochlorine pesticides from eggs and evidence of maternal transfer in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Szabo, N.J.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Few data exist regarding maternal-embryonal transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in reptiles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate maternal transfer of OCPs in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from low-, intermediate-, and high-OCP-exposure sites. Overall, total OCP burdens ranged from less than 0.8 ppb in blood to more than 44,000 ppb in abdominal adipose tissue (wet wt concentrations). Lipid-adjusted ratios of maternal adipose burdens (total OCPs) to yolk burdens were close to one (0.94 ?? 0.31:1), suggesting that animals were in steady state and that OCPs in eggs originated from adipose lipids. In contrast, lipid-adjusted muscle and liver OCP burdens were greater than yolk OCP burdens, suggesting that lipids in muscle were not utilized during oogenesis and that nonlipid liver tissue sequesters OCPs. Predictive equations were derived for several tissues and several OCP analytes with r2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.99 (p < 0.05). We suggest that yolk burdens are predictive of maternal tissue burdens for certain tissues and OCPs and that certain OCPs are maternally transferred in the American alligator. Furthermore, we suggest that future studies should investigate the applicability of these predictive equations for assessing maternal exposure in other crocodilian species.

  10. Global burden of hepatitis C: considerations for healthcare providers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Averhoff, Francisco M; Glass, Nancy; Holtzman, Deborah

    2012-07-01

    An estimated 2%-3% of the world's population is living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and each year, >350 000 die of HCV-related conditions, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. The epidemiology and burden of HCV infection varies throughout the world, with country-specific prevalence ranging from <1% to >10%. In contrast to the United States and other developed countries, HCV transmission in developing countries frequently results from exposure to infected blood in healthcare and community settings. Hepatitis C prevention, care, and treatment programs must recognize country-specific epidemiology, which varies by setting and level of economic development. Awareness of the global epidemiology of HCV infection is important for US healthcare providers treating foreign-born patients from countries where HCV infection is endemic and for counseling patients who travel to these countries. Countries with a high burden of HCV infection also would benefit from establishing comprehensive prevention, care, and treatment programs. PMID:22715208

  11. Reducing the neglected burden of viral hepatitis in Africa: strategies for a global approach.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Maud; Eholié, Serge; Lacombe, Karine

    2015-02-01

    The burden of liver disease may dramatically increase in the near future in Africa, where screening and access to care and treatment are hampered by inadequate disease surveillance, lack of high-quality tools to assess chronic liver disease, and underestimated needs for human and financial resources. Chronic hepatitis may be considered as silent and neglected killer, fuelled by many years of global inertia from stakeholders and policy makers alike. However, the global battle against viral hepatitis is facing a new era owing to the advent of highly effective drugs, innovative tools for screening and clinical follow-up, and recent signs that governments, advocacy groups and global health organizations are mobilizing to advocate universal access-to-treatment. This review details the barriers to prevention, screening and treatment of viral hepatitis on the African continent, focuses on the urgent need for operational and research programmes, and suggests integrated ways to tackle the global epidemic. PMID:25457207

  12. Disease Burden from Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianpeng; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Shao, Xiaoping; Tan, Qiu; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Zheng, Huizhen; Ma, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the disease burden and financial burden attributed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Guangdong Province. Methods: Based on the data of incidence, mortality and healthcare cost of HBV-related diseases and other socio-economic data in Guangdong Province, we estimated deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and economic cost for the three HBV-related diseases—hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—in Guangdong following the procedures developed for the global burden of disease study. Then disease burden and economic cost attributed to HBV infection was estimated. Results: HBV infection was estimated to have caused 33,600 (95% confidence interval (CI): 29,300–37,800) premature deaths and the loss of 583,200 (95% CI: 495,200–671,100) DALYs in Guangdong in 2005. The greatest loss of deaths and DALYs were from liver cancer. The 45–59 years age group had the greatest burden attributable to HBV infection. The estimated total annual cost of HBV-related diseases in Guangdong was RMB 10.8 (95% CI: 8.7–13.0) billion,the direct and indirect cost were RMB 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1–3.2) and 8.2 (95% CI: 6.6–9.8) billion. Conclusions: HBV infection is a great medical challenge as well as a significant economic burden to Guangdong Province. The results suggest that substantial health benefits could be gained by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce HBV infection in Guangdong Province. PMID:26540065

  13. The Multi-Dimensional Burden of Cirrhosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy on Patients and Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Wade, James B.; Gibson, Douglas P.; Heuman, Douglas M.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Sterling, Richard K.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Luketic, Velimir; Fuchs, Michael; White, Melanie B.; Bell, Debulon E.; Gilles, HoChong; Morton, Katherine; Noble, Nicole; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can adversely affect survival, but their effect on socioeconomic and emotional burden on the family is not clear. The aim was to study the emotional and socioeconomic burden of cirrhosis and HE on patients and informal caregivers. Methods A cross-sectional study in two transplant centers (Veterans and University) of cirrhotic patients and their informal caregivers was performed. Demographics for patient/caregivers, model-for-end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and cirrhosis complications were recorded. Patients underwent a cognitive battery, sociodemographic, and financial questionnaires. Caregivers were given the perceived caregiver burden (PCB; maximum = 155) and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI)-Short Form (maximum = 48) and questionnaires for depression, anxiety, and social support. Results A total of 104 cirrhotics (70% men, 44% previous HE, median MELD 12, 49% veterans) and their caregivers (66% women, 77% married, relationship duration 32 ± 14 years) were included. Cirrhosis severely impacted the family unit with respect to work (only 56% employed), finances, and adherence. Those with previous HE had worse unemployment (87.5 vs. 19%, P = 0.0001) and financial status (85 vs. 61%, P = 0.019) and posed a higher caregiver burden; PCB (75 vs. 65, P = 0.019) and ZBI (16 vs. 11, P = 0.015) compared with others. Cognitive performance and MELD score were significantly correlated with employment and caregiver burden. Veterans and non-veterans were equally affected. On regression, depression score, MELD, and cognitive tests predicted both PCB and ZBI score. Conclusions Previous HE and cognitive dysfunction are associated with worse employment, financial status, and caregiver burden. Cirrhosis-related expenses impact the family unit's daily functioning and medical adherence. A multidisciplinary approach to address this burden is required. PMID:21556040

  14. Projections of the Current and Future Disease Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Scott A.; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Naning, Herlianna; Shabaruddin, Fatiha Hana; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Malaysia has been estimated at 2.5% of the adult population. Our objective, satisfying one of the directives of the WHO Framework for Global Action on Viral Hepatitis, was to forecast the HCV disease burden in Malaysia using modelling methods. Methods An age-structured multi-state Markov model was developed to simulate the natural history of HCV infection. We tested three historical incidence scenarios that would give rise to the estimated prevalence in 2009, and calculated the incidence of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and death, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under each scenario, to the year 2039. In the baseline scenario, current antiviral treatment levels were extended from 2014 to the end of the simulation period. To estimate the disease burden averted under current sustained virological response rates and treatment levels, the baseline scenario was compared to a counterfactual scenario in which no past or future treatment is assumed. Results In the baseline scenario, the projected disease burden for the year 2039 is 94,900 DALYs/year (95% credible interval (CrI): 77,100 to 124,500), with 2,002 (95% CrI: 1340 to 3040) and 540 (95% CrI: 251 to 1,030) individuals predicted to develop decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, in that year. Although current treatment practice is estimated to avert a cumulative total of 2,200 deaths from DC or HCC, a cumulative total of 63,900 HCV-related deaths is projected by 2039. Conclusions The HCV-related disease burden is already high and is forecast to rise steeply over the coming decades under current levels of antiviral treatment. Increased governmental resources to improve HCV screening and treatment rates and to reduce transmission are essential to address the high projected HCV disease burden in Malaysia. PMID:26042425

  15. Comparison of Angiographic Burden of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Versus Without Hepatitis C Infection.

    PubMed

    Pothineni, Naga V; Rochlani, Yogita; Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Kovelamudi, Swathi; Ahmed, Zubair; Hakeem, Abdul; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, perhaps secondary to increased inflammation. We sought to examine the angiographic burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with HCV compared to HCV-negative patients. All consecutive HCV RNA-positive patients (n = 61) who underwent coronary angiography at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences from 2001 to 2013 were identified. A parallel group of HCV-negative controls (n = 61), matched for age, gender, and indication for coronary angiography served as control. Angiographic burden of CAD was assessed by computing Gensini scores. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0. Patients with HCV had significantly lower levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Preangiographic use of aspirin and statin was significantly lower in the HCV cohort. Number of patients with obstructive CAD was less in HCV group (23% vs 39%, p <0.05). However, angiographic Gensini score was similar in both groups. There was no correlation between HCV RNA titers and Gensini score (p = 0.9, analysis of variance). In conclusion, patients with active HCV infection have similar angiographic CAD burden as HCV-negative patients. Furthermore, viral load does not appear to correlate with atherosclerosis burden. Patients with HCV have less-obstructive CAD and less-frequent use of aspirin and statins. PMID:26256578

  16. The disease burden of hepatitis B, influenza, measles and salmonellosis in Germany: first results of the burden of communicable diseases in Europe study.

    PubMed

    Plass, D; Mangen, M-J J; Kraemer, A; Pinheiro, P; Gilsdorf, A; Krause, G; Gibbons, C L; VAN Lier, A; McDONALD, S A; Brooke, R J; Kramarz, P; Cassini, A; Kretzschmar, M E E

    2014-10-01

    Setting priorities in the field of infectious diseases requires evidence-based and robust baseline estimates of disease burden. Therefore, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project. The project uses an incidence- and pathogen-based approach to measure the impact of both acute illness and sequelae of infectious diseases expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). This study presents first estimates of disease burden for four pathogens in Germany. The number of reported incident cases adjusted for underestimation served as model input. For the study period 2005-2007, the average disease burden was estimated at 33 116 DALYs/year for influenza virus, 19 115 DALYs/year for Salmonella spp., 8708 DALYs/year for hepatitis B virus and 740 DALYs/year for measles virus. This methodology highlights the importance of sequelae, particularly for hepatitis B and salmonellosis, because if omitted, the burden would have been underestimated by 98% and 56%, respectively. PMID:24480146

  17. Characterizing the burden of hepatitis C infection among entrants to Pennsylvania state prisons, 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, Madeline K; Larney, Sarah; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Scharff, Nicholas; Taylor, Lynn E.; Beckwith, Curt G.; Noska, Amanda; Rich, Josiah D.; Flanigan, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Although hepatitis C infection (HCV) is common among prisoners, relatively few undergo evaluation for treatment. This study reports the prevalence of chronic infection and the genotype distribution among an incarcerated population. HCV antibody testing was provided to adults entering Pennsylvania prisons; confirmatory and genotype testing were offered to those eligible for treatment. Antibody prevalence among 101,727 individuals was 18.1%. Among 7,633 individuals who underwent confirmatory testing, 69.3% had detectable RNA. Among 3,247 individuals who underwent genotype testing, genotype 1 was the most common (76.6%). The rate of chronic infection after HCV exposure is similar to that reported in the community, as is genotype distribution. Correctional facilities provide access to a population with a high disease burden, creating a public health opportunity for evaluation and treatment. PMID:26672118

  18. Characterizing the Burden of Hepatitis C Infection Among Entrants to Pennsylvania State Prisons, 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Madeline K; Larney, Sarah; Zaller, Nickolas D; Scharff, Nicholas; Taylor, Lynn E; Beckwith, Curt G; Noska, Amanda; Rich, Josiah D; Flanigan, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Although hepatitis C (HCV) infection is common among prisoners, relatively few undergo evaluation for treatment. This study reports the prevalence of chronic infection and the genotype distribution among an incarcerated population. HCV antibody testing was provided to adults entering Pennsylvania prisons; confirmatory and genotype testing were offered to those eligible for treatment. Antibody prevalence among 101,727 individuals was 18.1%. Among 7,633 individuals who underwent confirmatory testing, 69.3% had detectable RNA. Among 3,247 individuals who underwent genotype testing, genotype 1 was the most common (76.6%). The rate of chronic infection after HCV exposure is similar to that reported in the community, as is genotype distribution. Correctional facilities provide access to a population with a high disease burden, creating a public health opportunity for evaluation and treatment. PMID:26672118

  19. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p<0.01) in those birds infected at an age of 12 or 18 weeks. The serum protein and triiodothyronine (T3) levels did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (p<0.05), and those at 6 and 24 weeks of age (p<0.01). The thyroid hormone levels correlated significantly with the FEC. Age does not seem to play a major role in resistance to A. galli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  20. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus infection disease burden - volume 3.

    PubMed

    Alfaleh, F Z; Nugrahini, N; Matičič, M; Tolmane, I; Alzaabi, M; Hajarizadeh, B; Valantinas, J; Kim, D Y; Hunyady, B; Abaalkhail, F; Abbas, Z; Abdou, A; Abourached, A; Al Braiki, F; Al Hosani, F; Al Jaberi, K; Al Khatry, M; Al Mulla, M A; Al Quraishi, H; Al Rifai, A; Al Serkal, Y; Alam, A; Alashgar, H I; Alavian, S M; Alawadhi, S; Al-Dabal, L; Aldins, P; Alghamdi, A S; Al-Hakeem, R; Aljumah, A A; Almessabi, A; Alqutub, A N; Alswat, K A; Altraif, I; Andrea, N; Assiri, A M; Babatin, M A; Baqir, A; Barakat, M T; Bergmann, O M; Bizri, A R; Chaudhry, A; Choi, M S; Diab, T; Djauzi, S; El Hassan, E S; El Khoury, S; Estes, C; Fakhry, S; Farooqi, J I; Fridjonsdottir, H; Gani, R A; Ghafoor Khan, A; Gheorghe, L; Goldis, A; Gottfredsson, M; Gregorcic, S; Gunter, J; Hamid, S; Han, K H; Hasan, I; Hashim, A; Horvath, G; Husni, R; Jafri, W; Jeruma, A; Jonasson, J G; Karlsdottir, B; Kim, Y S; Koutoubi, Z; Lesmana, L A; Liakina, V; Lim, Y S; Löve, A; Maimets, M; Makara, M; Malekzadeh, R; Memon, M S; Merat, S; Mokhbat, J E; Mourad, F H; Muljono, D H; Nawaz, A; Olafsson, S; Priohutomo, S; Qureshi, H; Rassam, P; Razavi, H; Razavi-Shearer, D; Razavi-Shearer, K; Rozentale, B; Sadik, M; Saeed, K; Salamat, A; Salupere, R; Sanai, F M; Sanityoso Sulaiman, A; Sayegh, R A; Schmelzer, J D; Sharara, A I; Sibley, A; Siddiq, M; Siddiqui, A M; Sigmundsdottir, G; Sigurdardottir, B; Speiciene, D; Sulaiman, A; Sultan, M A; Taha, M; Tanaka, J; Tarifi, H; Tayyab, G; Ud Din, M; Umar, M; Videčnik-Zorman, J; Yaghi, C; Yunihastuti, E; Yusuf, M A; Zuberi, B F; Blach, S

    2015-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic was forecasted through 2030 for 15 countries in Europe, the Middle East and Asia, and the relative impact of two scenarios was considered: increased treatment efficacy while holding the annual number of treated patients constant and increased treatment efficacy and an increased annual number of treated patients. Increasing levels of diagnosis and treatment, in combination with improved treatment efficacy, were critical for achieving substantial reductions in disease burden. A 90% reduction in total HCV infections within 15 years is feasible in most countries studied, but it required a coordinated effort to introduce harm reduction programmes to reduce new infections, screening to identify those already infected and treatment with high cure rate therapies. This suggests that increased capacity for screening and treatment will be critical in many countries. Birth cohort screening is a helpful tool for maximizing resources. Among European countries, the majority of patients were born between 1940 and 1985. A wider range of birth cohorts was seen in the Middle East and Asia (between 1925 and 1995). PMID:26513447

  1. The high comorbidity burden of the hepatitis C virus infected population in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) disease can be complicated with comorbid conditions that may impact treatment eligibility and outcomes. The aim of the study was to systematically review comorbidities and symptoms in an HCV infected population, specifically assessing comorbidities associated with HCV anti-viral treatment and disease, as well as comparing comorbidities between an HCV infected and uninfected control population. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study within a United States medical claims database among patients with chronic HCV designed to estimate the two-year period prevalence of comorbidities. Patients with two HCV diagnosis codes, 24 months of continuous health insurance coverage, and full medical and pharmacy benefits were included. Results Among a chronic HCV cohort of 7411 patients, at least one comorbid condition was seen in almost all patients (> 99%) during the study period. HCV-infected patients reported almost double the number of comorbidities compared to uninfected controls. Of the 25 most common comorbidities, the majority of the comorbidities (n = 22) were known to be associated with either HCV antiviral treatment or disease. The five most frequent comorbidities were liver disease [other] (37.5%), connective tissue disease (37.5%), abdominal pain (36.1%), upper respiratory infections (35.6%), and lower respiratory disease (33.7%). Three notable comorbidities not known to be associated with antiviral treatment or disease were benign neoplasms (24.3%), genitourinary symptoms & ill-defined conditions (14.8%), and viral infections (13.8%). Conclusions This US medically insured HCV population is highly comorbid. Effective strategies to manage these comorbidities are necessary to allow wider access to HCV treatment and reduce the future burden of HCV disease and its manifestations. PMID:22494445

  2. Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Different Stages of Disease: A Report From Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Fatemeh; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Safarpour, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major blood-borne infection which imposes high economic cost on the patients. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the total annual cost due to chronic HCV related diseases imposed on each patient and their family in Southern Iran. Patients and Methods Economic burden of chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) were examined. The current retrospective study evaluated 200 Iranian patients for their socioeconomic status, utilization (direct and indirect costs) and treatment costs and work days lost due to illness by a structured questionnaire in 2015. Costs of hospital admissions were extracted from databases of Nemazee hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The outpatient expenditure per patient was measured through the rate of outpatient visits and average cost per visit reported by the patients; while the inpatient costs were calculated through annual rate of hospital admissions and average expenditure. Self-medication and direct non-medical costs were also reported. The human capital approach was used to measure the work loss cost. Results The total annual cost per patient for chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on purchasing power parity (PPP) were USD 1625.50, USD 6117.2, and USD 11047.2 in 2015, respectively. Conclusions Chronic hepatitis C-related liver diseases impose a substantial economic burden on patients, families and the society. The current study provides useful information on cost of treatment and work loss for different disease states, which can be further used in cost-effectiveness evaluations. PMID:27257424

  3. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V T T; Law, M G; Dore, G J

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) who are at greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with uninfected people. The relative risks of HCC among people infected with HBV ranges from 5 to 49 in case-control studies and from 7 to 98 in cohort studies. More than 50% of HCC cases worldwide and 70-80% of HCC cases in highly HBV endemic regions are attributable to HBV. Incidence of HCC (per 100,000 person/year) among people with chronic HBV infection ranges from 400 to 800 in male and from 120 to 180 in female. Factors associated with increased risk of HCC include demographic characteristics (male sex and older age), lifestyles (heavy alcohol consumption and smoking), viral factors (genotype C, D F, high level of HBV DNA, core/precore mutation) and clinical factors (cirrhosis, elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)). HBV-related HCC has extremely poor prognosis with median survival less than 16 months. Survival rates of HBV-related HCC ranged from 36% to 67% after 1 year and from 15% to 26% after 5 year of diagnosis. Older age, liver function impairment, vascular invasion, tumour aggressiveness and elevated AFP are associated with HCC survival. Global burden of HBV-related liver disease is still a major challenge for public health in the 21st century. While decreases in incidence of HBV infection have been observed in birth cohorts following the introduction of universal infant HBV vaccination programme, HBV-related HCC incidence in is projected to increase for at least two decades because of the high prevalence of chronic HBV infection and prolonged latency to HCC development. To reduce HBV-related HCC continued expansion of universal infant HBV vaccination is required along with antiviral therapy targeted to those individuals at highest risk of HCC. Broad public health strategies should include routine testing to identify chronic HBV infection, improved health infrastructures

  4. Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Mice Perorally Infected with Echinococcus multilocularis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wittwer, Matthias; Schild, Marc; Merli, Michael; Leib, Stephen L.; Müller, Norbert; Müller, Joachim; Jaggi, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe chronic hepatic parasitic disease currently emerging in central and eastern Europe. Untreated AE presents a high mortality (>90%) due to a severe hepatic destruction as a result of parasitic metacestode proliferation which behaves like a malignant tumor. Despite this severe course and outcome of disease, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to organ damage as a consequence of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis is largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mouse model of AE to assess gene expression profiles in the liver after establishment of a chronic disease status as a result of a primary peroral infection with eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Among 38 genes differentially regulated (false discovery rate adjusted p≤0.05), 35 genes were assigned to the functional gene ontology group , while 3 associated with the functional group . Upregulated genes associated with could be clustered into functional subgroups including , , , and . Two downregulated genes related to and , respectively. The genes either associated with an or an pathway. From the overexpressed genes, 18 genes were subsequently processed with a Custom Array microfluidic card system in order to assess respective expression status at the mRNA level relative to 5 reference genes (Gapdh, Est1, Rlp3, Mdh-1, Rpl37) selected upon a constitutive and stable expression level. The results generated by the two independent tools used for the assessment of gene expression, i.e., microarray and microfluidic card system, exhibited a high level of congruency (Spearman correlation rho = 0.81, p = 7.87e-5) and thus validated the applied

  5. Contaminants in eggs of colonial waterbirds and hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme levels in pipped tern embryos, Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) collected in 1991 from nesting colonies on Crescent Island (Columbia River) and the Potholes Reservoir in south central Washington generally contained low residues of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in pipped embryos of Forster's terns from the two colonies seemed unaffected by contaminants. At Crescent Island, examination of 23 Forster's tern eggs with large embryos (19 viable [10 pipped] and four dead [two pipped]) revealed developmental abnormalities in two viable pipped embryos (missing maxilla and deformed pelvic girdle) and a viable prepipping embryos (shortened beak). Our limited sample sizes and number of compounds analyzed preclude us from determining whether or not the abnormalities are related to contaminants. No abnormalities were noted in 10 pipped eggs (nine viable and one dead at collection) of Forster's terns collected from the Potholes Reservoir colony. Eggs of Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) collected from Crescent Island in 1991 also contained generally low residues of contaminants, only one developmental abnormality was noted, and limited data indicated that cytochrome P450 enzyme activity apparently was unaffected by contaminants. Organochlorine contaminants were generally low in addled eggs of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) collected from Crescent Island in 1994

  6. Contaminants in eggs of colonial waterbirds and hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme levels in pipped tern embryos, Washington State.

    PubMed

    Blus, L J; Melancon, M J; Hoffman, D J; Henny, C J

    1998-10-01

    Eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) collected in 1991 from nesting colonies on Crescent Island (Columbia River) and the Potholes Reservoir in south central Washington generally contained low residues of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in pipped embryos of Forster's terns from the two colonies seemed unaffected by contaminants. At Crescent Island, examination of 23 Forster's tern eggs with large embryos (19 viable [10 pipped] and four dead [two pipped]) revealed developmental abnormalities in two viable pipped embryos (missing maxilla and deformed pelvic girdle) and a viable prepipping embryo (shortened beak). Our limited sample sizes and number of compounds analyzed preclude us from determining whether or not the abnormalities are related to contaminants. No abnormalities were noted in 10 pipped eggs (nine viable and one dead at collection) of Forster's terns collected from the Potholes Reservoir colony. Eggs of Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) collected from Crescent Island in 1991 also contained generally low residues of contaminants, only one developmental abnormality was noted, and limited data indicated that cytochrome P450 enzyme activity apparently was unaffected by contaminants. Organochlorine contaminants were generally low in addled eggs of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) collected from Crescent Island in 1994. PMID:9732482

  7. How big is the financial burden of hepatitis B to society? A cost-of-illness study of hepatitis B infection in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ong, S C; Lim, S G; Li, S C

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of chronic viral liver disease in Singapore. Nevertheless, very little data exist on the financial burden of HBV infection to the society as a whole. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the direct and indirect cost of HBV infection in a cost-of-illness analysis. The combined data from the direct and indirect cost with the estimated prevalence for different disease stages of HBV infection would represent the annual financial burden of HBV infection to the Singaporean society as a whole. The estimated total annual cost of chronic HBV infection and its associated complications in Singapore was US$279 million (range US$34-941 million when allowing various assumptions as tested by the sensitivity analyses), with 58% or US$161 million attributable to direct cost. Based on the base-case estimation, total direct cost alone is equivalent to 12% of the national healthcare expenditure for 2003. The total cost incurred by chronic hepatitis B patients represents the biggest cost component, followed by decompensated cirrhosis (DC) patients. The ratio of direct to indirect costs based on the base-case estimation increased with disease severity, with the highest ratio obtained for the post-liver transplants (40.2:1), followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (7.4:1) and DC patients (2.7:1). The results of this study suggest that the management of HBV infection poses more than a medical challenge as it is a sizeable economic burden from both the payer and societal perspectives. PMID:19192158

  8. The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus infections with today's treatment paradigm - volume 3.

    PubMed

    Sibley, A; Han, K H; Abourached, A; Lesmana, L A; Makara, M; Jafri, W; Salupere, R; Assiri, A M; Goldis, A; Abaalkhail, F; Abbas, Z; Abdou, A; Al Braiki, F; Al Hosani, F; Al Jaberi, K; Al Khatry, M; Al Mulla, M A; Al Quraishi, H; Al Rifai, A; Al Serkal, Y; Alam, A; Alavian, S M; Alashgar, H I; Alawadhi, S; Al-Dabal, L; Aldins, P; Alfaleh, F Z; Alghamdi, A S; Al-Hakeem, R; Aljumah, A A; Almessabi, A; Alqutub, A N; Alswat, K A; Altraif, I; Alzaabi, M; Andrea, N; Babatin, M A; Baqir, A; Barakat, M T; Bergmann, O M; Bizri, A R; Blach, S; Chaudhry, A; Choi, M S; Diab, T; Djauzi, S; El Hassan, E S; El Khoury, S; Estes, C; Fakhry, S; Farooqi, J I; Fridjonsdottir, H; Gani, R A; Ghafoor Khan, A; Gheorghe, L; Gottfredsson, M; Gregorcic, S; Gunter, J; Hajarizadeh, B; Hamid, S; Hasan, I; Hashim, A; Horvath, G; Hunyady, B; Husni, R; Jeruma, A; Jonasson, J G; Karlsdottir, B; Kim, D Y; Kim, Y S; Koutoubi, Z; Liakina, V; Lim, Y S; Löve, A; Maimets, M; Malekzadeh, R; Matičič, M; Memon, M S; Merat, S; Mokhbat, J E; Mourad, F H; Muljono, D H; Nawaz, A; Nugrahini, N; Olafsson, S; Priohutomo, S; Qureshi, H; Rassam, P; Razavi, H; Razavi-Shearer, D; Razavi-Shearer, K; Rozentale, B; Sadik, M; Saeed, K; Salamat, A; Sanai, F M; Sanityoso Sulaiman, A; Sayegh, R A; Sharara, A I; Siddiq, M; Siddiqui, A M; Sigmundsdottir, G; Sigurdardottir, B; Speiciene, D; Sulaiman, A; Sultan, M A; Taha, M; Tanaka, J; Tarifi, H; Tayyab, G; Tolmane, I; Ud Din, M; Umar, M; Valantinas, J; Videčnik-Zorman, J; Yaghi, C; Yunihastuti, E; Yusuf, M A; Zuberi, B F; Schmelzer, J D

    2015-12-01

    The total number, morbidity and mortality attributed to viraemic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections change over time making it difficult to compare reported estimates from different years. Models were developed for 15 countries to quantify and characterize the viraemic population and forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2014 to 2030. With the exception of Iceland, Iran, Latvia and Pakistan, the total number of viraemic HCV infections is expected to decline from 2014 to 2030, but the associated morbidity and mortality are expected to increase in all countries except for Japan and South Korea. In the latter two countries, mortality due to an ageing population will drive down prevalence, morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, both countries have already experienced a rapid increase in HCV-related mortality and morbidity. HCV-related morbidity and mortality are projected to increase between 2014 and 2030 in all other countries as result of an ageing HCV-infected population. Thus, although the total number of HCV countries is expected to decline in most countries studied, the associated disease burden is expected to increase. The current treatment paradigm is inadequate if large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality are to be achieved. PMID:26513446

  9. An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Hepatic Schistosomiasis and the Effect of Released Protein from Dying Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Nawaratna, Sujeevi K.; Harvie, Marina; Ramm, Grant A.; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Background We report the use of an ex vivo precision cut liver slice (PCLS) mouse model for studying hepatic schistosomiasis. In this system, liver tissue is unfixed, unfrozen, and alive for maintenance in culture and subsequent molecular analysis. Methods and Findings Using thick naive mouse liver tissue and sterile culture conditions, the addition of soluble egg antigen (SEA) derived from Schistosoma japonicum eggs, followed 4, 24 and 48hrs time points. Tissue was collected for transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate liver enzymes, cytokines and chemokines. No significant hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by supernatant liver enzymes due to the presence of SEA. A proinflammatory response was observed both at the transcriptional level and at the protein level by cytokine and chemokine bead assay. Key genes observed elevated transcription in response to the addition of SEA included: IL1-α and IL1-β, IL6, all associated with inflammation. The recruitment of antigen presenting cells was reflected in increases in transcription of CD40, CCL4 and CSF1. Indications of tissue remodeling were seen in elevated gene expression of various Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMP3, 9, 10, 13) and delayed increases in TIMP1. Collagen deposition was significantly reduced in the presence of SEA as shown in COL1A1 expression by qPCR after 24hrs culture. Cytokine and chemokine analysis of the culture supernatants confirmed the elevation of proteins including IL6, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL5. Conclusions This ex vivo model system for the synchronised delivery of parasite antigen to liver tissue provides an insight into the early phase of hepatic schistosomiasis, corresponding with the release of soluble proteins from dying schistosome eggs. PMID:25965781

  10. Annual economic burden of hepatitis B virus-related diseases among hospitalized patients in twelve cities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Ma, Q; Liang, S; Xiao, H; Zhuang, G; Zou, Y; Tan, H; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Feng, X; Xue, L; Hu, D; Cui, F; Liang, X

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated economic burden has not previously been performed in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of HBV-related diseases within the span of one year. A random sample was taken from specialty and general hospitals across 12 cities in six provinces of China. Intangible costs were estimated based on willingness to pay or open-ended answers provided by patients. The results showed that 27 hospitals were enrolled, with a sample population of 4726 patients (77.7% response rate). The average annual costs were $4454.0 (direct), $924.3 (indirect), and $6611.10 (intangible), corresponding to 37.3%, 7.7%, and 55.1% of the total costs, respectively. The direct medical fees were substantially greater than the non-medical fees. Annual indirect costs were divided into outpatient ($112.9) and inpatient ($811.40) loss of income. The intangible costs of chronic HBV were notably higher than either the direct or indirect costs, consistent with the social stigma in China. The comparison amongst individual cities for the average ratio of direct to indirect costs revealed that the sizes of ratios were negatively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the regions. This study suggested that as a whole in China, the HBV-related diseases caused a heavy financial burden which was positively associated with disease severity. Although the intangible costs coincided with a high prevalence of discrimination against CHB patients in Chinese society, our study may serve as future reference for detailed exploration. PMID:26663525

  11. Wide variation in estimates of global prevalence and burden of chronic hepatitis B and C infection cited in published literature.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, S K; Easterbrook, P J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity in global estimates of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) cited in the published literature, we undertook a systematic review of the published literature. We identified articles from 2010 to 2014 that had cited global estimates for at least one of ten indicators [prevalence and numbers infected with HBV, HCV, HIV-HBV or HIV-HCV co-infection, and mortality (number of deaths annually) for HBV and HCV]. Overall, 488 articles were retrieved: 239 articles cited a HBV-related global estimate [prevalence (n = 12), number infected (n = 193) and number of annual deaths (n = 82)]; 280 articles had HCV-related global estimates [prevalence (n = 86), number infected (n = 203) and number of annual deaths (n = 31)]; 31 had estimates on both HBV and HCV; 54 had HIV-HBV co-infection estimates [prevalence (n = 42) and number co-infected (n = 12)]; and 68 had estimates for HIV-HCV co-infection [prevalence (n = 40) and number co-infected (n = 28)]. There was considerable heterogeneity in the estimates cited and also a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Although 40% of 488 articles cited WHO as the source of the estimate, many of these were from outdated or secondary sources. Our findings highlight the importance of clear and consistent communication from WHO and other global health agencies on current consensus estimates of hepatitis B and C burden and prevalence, the need for standardisation in their citation, and for regular updates. PMID:27028545

  12. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-08-19

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion--that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories--is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

  13. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

  14. Chronic hepatitis B and C infection in the United States: a review of current guidelines, disease burden and cost effectiveness of screening.

    PubMed

    Sarpel, Dost; Baichoo, Esha; Dieterich, Douglas T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C infection are the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver related death in the world and in the United States respectively. Screening guidelines have been developed based on estimated prevalence determined by NHANES data. However, individuals with the most risk of chronic infection (incarcerated, homeless, immigrants, nursing home residents, and hospitalized persons) are underrepresented in this cohort leading to an underestimation of the true prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C infection. This has led to recent updates in the screening guidelines. This review examines the change in the guidelines, the likely true seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, as well as the burden of chronic infection in this population. PMID:27043049

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  16. Hepatic lipogenesis gene expression in two experimental egg-laying lines divergently selected on residual food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Daval, Stéphanie; Bordas, André; Douaire, Madeleine

    2000-01-01

    Two Rhode Island Red egg-laying lines have been divergently selected on residual food intake (low intake R- line, high intake R+ line) for 19 generations. In addition to direct response, correlated responses have altered several other traits such as carcass adiposity and lipid contents of several tissues, the R+ animals being leaner than the R- ones. In a search for the biological origin of the differences observed in fat deposit, the hepatic mRNA amounts of genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. No difference was found between lines for mRNA levels of ATP citrate-lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, a transcription factor acting on several lipogenesis genes. The genes coding for stearoyl-CoA desaturase and apolipoprotein A1 displayed significantly lower mRNA levels in the R+ cockerels compared to the R-. All together these mRNA levels explained 40% of the overall variability of abdominal adipose tissue weight, suggesting an important role of both genes in the fatness variability. PMID:14736402

  17. Co-Infection Burden of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Injecting Heroin Users at the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mwatelah, Ruth S.; Lwembe, Raphael M.; Osman, Saida; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Aman, Rashid; Kitawi, Rose C.; Wangai, Laura N.; Oloo, Florence A.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. Methods A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and screened for HIV-1 and HCV by serology and PCR and their CD4 T-cells enumerated by FACS. Results Prevalence of HIV-1 was 87.5%, that of HCV was 16.4%, co-infection was 17.9% and 18/152 (11.8%) were uninfected. Only 5.26% of the HIV-1 negative injectors were HCV positive. Co-infection was higher among injectors aged 30 to 40 years (20.7%) and among males (22.1%) than comparable groups. About 35% of the injectors were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Co-infection was highest among injectors receiving D4T (75%) compared to those receiving AZT (21.6%) or TDF (10.5%) or those not on ART (10.5%). Mean CD4 T-cells were 404 (95% CI, 365 - 443) cells/mm3 overall, significantly lower for co-infected (mean, 146; 95% CI 114 – 179 cells/mm3) than HIV mono infected (mean, 437, 95% CI 386 – 487 cells/mm3, p<0.001) or uninfected (mean, 618, 95% CI 549 – 687 cells/mm3, p<0.001) injectors and lower for HIV mono-infected than uninfected injectors (p=0.002). By treatment arm, CD4 T-cells were lower for injectors receiving D4T (mean, 78; 95% CI, 0.4 – 156 cells/mm3) than TDF (mean 607, 95% CI, 196 – 1018 cells/mm3, p=0.005) or AZT (mean 474, 95% CI -377 – 571 cells/mm3, p=0.004). Conclusion Mono and dual infections with HIV-1 and HCV is high among IHUs in Malindi, but ART coverage is low. The co-infected IHUs have elevated risk of immunodeficiency due to significantly depressed CD4 T-cell numbers. Coinfection screening, treatment-as-prevention for both HIV and HCV and harm reduction should be scaled up to alleviate infection burden. PMID:26208212

  18. Effects of an ageing population and the replacement of immune birth cohorts on the burden of hepatitis A in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In populations in which the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has declined due to socio-economic improvements, better sanitation and hygiene, and vaccination, birth cohorts who have long-term immunity through exposure early in life are now being replaced by non-immune cohorts, meaning that more cases in the elderly may occur in future. Our goal was to qualitatively investigate the interaction of this cohort effect and demographic change (population ageing) on the estimated disease burden of HAV infection in the Netherlands. Methods We used dynamic MSIR (maternal immunity–susceptible–infectious–recovered) transmission and demographic models to simulate annual HAV incidence over the period 2000–2030, and estimated disease burden using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure and a pre-defined disease progression model. Five scenarios representing different force of infection situations were simulated. Results The overall disease burden was projected to decrease over the simulation period in the baseline scenario (310 DALYs in 2000 compared with 67 in 2030). This decreasing trend was absent for the 55+ years age group; 23.5% of all new infections were predicted to occur in the 55+ group in 2030, compared with 5.5% in the 55+ group in 2000. Conclusions In the absence of further public health interventions and under the assumption of a continued steady decline in the force of infection, the HAV disease burden in the Netherlands is predicted to decrease over the coming decades, but with proportionally more of the burden occurring within the increasingly larger segment of the population represented by elderly persons who are no longer naturally immune. PMID:23497182

  19. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  20. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  1. Epidemiology, Disease Burden, and Treatment Strategies of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Saudi Arabia in the New Treatment Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Aljumah, Abdulrahman A.; Abaalkhail, Faisal; Al-Ashgar, Hamad; Assiri, Abdullah; Babatin, Mohamed; Al Faleh, Faleh; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Al-Hakeem, Raafat; Hashim, Almoataz; Alqutub, Adel; Razavi, Homie; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Swat, Khalid; Schmelzer, Jonathan; Altraif, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Around 101,000 individuals are estimated to be viremic for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2014; however, only about 20% have been diagnosed. We aim to assess baseline epidemiology, disease burden, and evaluate strategies to eliminate HCV in KSA. Materials and Methods: The infected population and disease progression were modeled using age- and gender-defined cohorts to track HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. Baseline assumptions and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. The impacts of two scenarios on HCV-related disease burden were considered through increases in treatment efficacy alone or treatment and diagnosis. Results: In 2030, it is estimated by the base scenario that viremic prevalence will increase to 103,000 cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to 470, decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases to 1,300 and 15,400, respectively, and liver-related mortality to 670 deaths. Using high efficacy treatment alone resulted in 2030 projection of 80,700 viremic cases, 350 HCC cases, 480 liver-related deaths, and 850 and 11,500 decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases, respectively. With an aggressive treatment strategy, in 2030 there will be about 1,700 viremic cases, 1 HCC case, about 20 liver-related deaths, and 5 and 130 cases of decompensated and compensated cirrhosis, respectively. Delaying this strategy by one year would result in 360 additional deaths by 2030. Conclusions: HCV in KSA remains constant, and cases of advanced liver disease and mortality continue to rise. Considered increases in treatment efficacy and number treated would have a significantly greater impact than increased treatment efficacy alone. The projected impact will facilitate disease forecasting, resource planning, and strategies for HCV management. Increased screening and diagnosis would likely be required as part of a national strategy. PMID:27488321

  2. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  3. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-05-12

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  4. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W.; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Methods The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Results Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90–100%). Conclusion Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV

  5. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be serious. Some can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  6. Schistosoma japonicum egg antigen up-regulates fibrogenesis and inhibits proliferation in primary hepatic stellate cells in a concentration-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wang, Mi; Lu, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Shu-Juan; Tang, Wang-Xian

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) egg antigen on fibrogenesis and apoptosis in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). METHODS: A mouse model of schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis (SSLF) was established by infecting mice with schistosomal cercaria via the abdomen. HSCs were isolated from SSLF mice by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, and their identity was confirmed by immunofluorescence double staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. The growth inhibitory effect and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S. japonicum egg antigen for primary HSCs (24 h) were determined using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The expression levels of α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMOL/LP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in HSCs in response to different concentrations of S. japonicum egg antigen were detected by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of phospho-P38 (P-P38), phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and phospho-Akt (P-AKT) in HSCs were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: An SSLF mouse model was established, and primary HSCs were successfully isolated and cultured. S. japonicum egg antigen inhibited HSC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of the S. japonicum egg antigen was 244.53 ± 35.26 μg/mL. S. japonicum egg antigen enhanced α-SMA expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and enhanced TIMP-1 expression at the mRNA level in HSCs (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of MMOL/LP-9 was attenuated at both the mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). A high concentration of S. japonicum egg antigen enhanced P-P38, P-JNK and P-AKT activation (P < 0.05). The changes in α-SMA and MMOL/LP-9 expression induced by S. japonicum egg antigen were closely correlated with P-P38 and P-JNK activation (P < 0.05). The attenuation of MMOL/LP-9

  7. A Budget Impact Analysis of Newly Available Hepatitis C Therapeutics and the Financial Burden on a State Correctional System.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, John T; Rich, Josiah D; Brockmann, Bradley W; Vohr, Fred; Spaulding, Anne; Montague, Brian T

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to disproportionately affect incarcerated populations. New HCV drugs present opportunities and challenges to address HCV in corrections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the treatment costs for HCV infection in a state correctional population through a budget impact analysis comparing differing treatment strategies. Electronic and paper medical records were reviewed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C within the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Three treatment strategies were evaluated as follows: (1) treating all chronically infected persons, (2) treating only patients with demonstrated fibrosis, and (3) treating only patients with advanced fibrosis. Budget impact was computed as the percentage of pharmacy and overall healthcare expenditures accrued by total drug costs assuming entirely interferon-free therapy. Sensitivity analyses assessed potential variance in costs related to variability in HCV prevalence, genotype, estimated variation in market pricing, length of stay for the sentenced population, and uptake of newly available regimens. Chronic HCV prevalence was estimated at 17% of the total population. Treating all sentenced inmates with at least 6 months remaining of their sentence would cost about $34 million-13 times the pharmacy budget and almost twice the overall healthcare budget. Treating inmates with advanced fibrosis would cost about $15 million. A hypothetical 50% reduction in total drug costs for future therapies could cost $17 million to treat all eligible inmates. With immense costs projected with new treatment, it is unlikely that correctional facilities will have the capacity to treat all those afflicted with HCV. Alternative payment strategies in collaboration with outside programs may be necessary to curb this epidemic. In order to improve care and treatment delivery, drug costs also need to be seriously reevaluated to be more accessible and equitable now that HCV

  8. Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Older Adults in Long-Term Care Settings: a Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Smaldone, Arlene; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The magnitude of the HCV burden has previously been the subject of debate, as representative data tend to exclude high-risk populations, including institutionalized persons. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection among older adults in long-term care (LTC) and assess factors associated with the prevalence of HCVin this setting. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses checklist was used as the methodological guide. Two reviewers independently assessed the study quality using a validated modified quality assessment tool. Six articles met inclusion criteria; the majority were cross-sectional studies (83.3 %) designed to estimate HCV infection prevalence rates and identify associated risk factors. HCV prevalence ranged from 1.4 to 11.8 %. A pooled HCV infection prevalence of 3.3 % (95 % confidence interval: 1.5–7.2 %) was estimated based on 1920 LTC residents with substantial heterogeneity noted (Q=51.1, p<0.001; I2=90.2). Three of six studies reported statistically significant factors associated with an increased risk for HCV infection, including older age, female gender, history of blood transfusions, short duration of LTC residence, and hepatitis B virus positivity. This study reports a higher prevalence of HCV infection among older adults in LTC settings compared to community-dwelling older adults; however, accurate estimation of prevalence is limited by heterogeneity between and within studies, variation in sampling and recruitment methodologies, and absence of the HCV-RNA test to confirm active infection. PMID:26915098

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  10. Morbidity and Mortality Among Community-Based People Who Inject Drugs With a High Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Burden in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shruti H.; McFall, Allison M.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Nandagopal, Paneerselvam; Cepeda, Javier; Thomas, David L.; Sulkowski, Mark S.; Solomon, Sunil S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited data on clinical outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from low- and middle-income countries. We characterize mortality and liver disease progression in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) with high HCV burden. Methods. In a cohort of PWID in Chennai, India, 851 persons were observed semiannually. Information on death was obtained through verbal autopsy and liver disease progression, which was defined as an incident liver stiffness measurement of ≥12.3 kPa if it was <12.3 at baseline. Poisson and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with mortality and disease progression, respectively. Results. At baseline, 36.9% of cases were infected with HCV, 16.7% were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 71.6% had no or mild stiffness, 14.9% had moderate stiffness, and 13.5% had severe stiffness or cirrhosis. Mortality was significantly higher among those with moderate (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 2.31) and severe stiffness (MRR = 4.86) at baseline, those with ongoing substance use, those who were HIV monoinfected and not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (MRR = 6.59), and those who were HIV/HCV coinfected regardless of ART status (MRR for no ART = 5.34; MRR for ART = 4.51). Of those with no or mild stiffness, 25.9% and 6.4% had evidence of progression to moderate and severe stiffness or cirrhosis, respectively; 38.3% of those with moderate stiffness had evidence of progression to severe stiffness or cirrhosis. Factors associated with progression included age, alcohol use, body mass index, and chronic HCV infection. Conclusions. We observed significant morbidity and mortality primarily driven by untreated HIV, HIV/HCV coinfection, and alcohol use. Even with improved access to HIV treatment, in the absence of HCV treatment, outcomes are unlikely to improve for HIV/HCV-coinfected persons. PMID:27419185

  11. Morbidity and Mortality Among Community-Based People Who Inject Drugs With a High Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Burden in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shruti H; McFall, Allison M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Kumar, M Suresh; Nandagopal, Paneerselvam; Cepeda, Javier; Thomas, David L; Sulkowski, Mark S; Solomon, Sunil S

    2016-09-01

    Background.  There are limited data on clinical outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from low- and middle-income countries. We characterize mortality and liver disease progression in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) with high HCV burden. Methods.  In a cohort of PWID in Chennai, India, 851 persons were observed semiannually. Information on death was obtained through verbal autopsy and liver disease progression, which was defined as an incident liver stiffness measurement of ≥12.3 kPa if it was <12.3 at baseline. Poisson and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with mortality and disease progression, respectively. Results.  At baseline, 36.9% of cases were infected with HCV, 16.7% were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 71.6% had no or mild stiffness, 14.9% had moderate stiffness, and 13.5% had severe stiffness or cirrhosis. Mortality was significantly higher among those with moderate (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 2.31) and severe stiffness (MRR = 4.86) at baseline, those with ongoing substance use, those who were HIV monoinfected and not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (MRR = 6.59), and those who were HIV/HCV coinfected regardless of ART status (MRR for no ART = 5.34; MRR for ART = 4.51). Of those with no or mild stiffness, 25.9% and 6.4% had evidence of progression to moderate and severe stiffness or cirrhosis, respectively; 38.3% of those with moderate stiffness had evidence of progression to severe stiffness or cirrhosis. Factors associated with progression included age, alcohol use, body mass index, and chronic HCV infection. Conclusions.  We observed significant morbidity and mortality primarily driven by untreated HIV, HIV/HCV coinfection, and alcohol use. Even with improved access to HIV treatment, in the absence of HCV treatment, outcomes are unlikely to improve for HIV/HCV-coinfected persons. PMID:27419185

  12. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  13. Soluble egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum induce senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinling; Pan, Jing; Wang, Jianxin; Song, Ke; Zhu, Dandan; Huang, Caiqun; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Recent findings suggest that senescence of activated HSCs might limit the development of liver fibrosis. Based on previously observed anti-fibrotic effects of soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma japonicum in vitro, we hypothesized that SEA might play a crucial role in alleviating liver fibrosis through promoting senescence of activated HSCs. We show here that SEA inhibited expression of α-SMA and pro-collagen I and promoted senescence of activated HSCs in vitro. In addition, SEA induced an increased expression of P-p53 and p21. Knockdown of p53 inhibited the expression of p21 and failed to induce senescence of activated-HSCs. Phosphorylated STAT3 was elevated upon SEA stimulation, while loss of STAT3 decreased the level of p53 and senescence of HSCs. Results from immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that SOCS3 might be involved in the SEA-induced senescence in HSCs through its interaction with p53. This study demonstrates the potential capacity of SEA in restricting liver fibrosis through promoting senescence in HSCs. Furthermore, a novel STAT3-p53-p21 pathway might participate in the observed SEA-mediated senescence of HSCs. Our results suggest that SEA might carry potential therapeutic effects of restraining liver fibrosis through promoting senescence. PMID:27489164

  14. Egg antigen p40 of Schistosoma japonicum promotes senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Xu, Tianhua; Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Caiqun; Lyu, Lei; Hu, Bin; Sun, Wei; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a serious disease that is characterized by the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major source of ECM and serve as a key regulator in liver fibrogenesis. Inactivation of HSCs is essential for liver fibrotic regression. The present study explores the underlying mechanisms of Schistosoma japonicum egg antigen p40 (Sjp40) promoting senescence in HSCs and antifibrosis. For the first time we report that Sjp40 inhibits the activation and proliferation of an immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) and promotes cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest. Sjp40 through action on the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway triggered cellular senescence, while knockdown of p53 or STAT3 partly restored cell senescence. In addition, Sjp40-induced cellular senescence caused LX-2 cells to be more sensitive to a human NK cell line (YT cells). Together these findings provide novel insights into the mechanism of antifibrosis and may have implications for the development of antifibrosis therapies. PMID:27468691

  15. Soluble egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum induce senescence in activated hepatic stellate cells by activation of the STAT3/p53/p21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinling; Pan, Jing; Wang, Jianxin; Song, Ke; Zhu, Dandan; Huang, Caiqun; Duan, Yinong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Recent findings suggest that senescence of activated HSCs might limit the development of liver fibrosis. Based on previously observed anti-fibrotic effects of soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma japonicum in vitro, we hypothesized that SEA might play a crucial role in alleviating liver fibrosis through promoting senescence of activated HSCs. We show here that SEA inhibited expression of α-SMA and pro-collagen I and promoted senescence of activated HSCs in vitro. In addition, SEA induced an increased expression of P-p53 and p21. Knockdown of p53 inhibited the expression of p21 and failed to induce senescence of activated-HSCs. Phosphorylated STAT3 was elevated upon SEA stimulation, while loss of STAT3 decreased the level of p53 and senescence of HSCs. Results from immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that SOCS3 might be involved in the SEA-induced senescence in HSCs through its interaction with p53. This study demonstrates the potential capacity of SEA in restricting liver fibrosis through promoting senescence in HSCs. Furthermore, a novel STAT3-p53-p21 pathway might participate in the observed SEA-mediated senescence of HSCs. Our results suggest that SEA might carry potential therapeutic effects of restraining liver fibrosis through promoting senescence. PMID:27489164

  16. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  17. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  18. Epidemiology and Burden of Hepatitis A, Malaria, and Typhoid in New York City Associated With Travel: Implications for Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Rosemary; Reddy, Vasudha; Jones, Lucretia; Antwi, Mike; Bregman, Brooke; Weiss, Don; Phillips, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We examined New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveillance data on hepatitis A, malaria, and typhoid to determine the proportion of these diseases related to travel and their geographic distribution. We found that 61% of hepatitis A cases, 100% of malaria cases, and 78% of typhoid cases were travel related and that cases clustered in specific populations and neighborhoods at which public health interventions could be targeted. High-risk groups include Hispanics (for hepatitis A), West Africans living in the Bronx (for malaria), and South Asians (for typhoid). PMID:20466959

  19. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  20. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  1. Egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  2. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  3. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  4. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved. PMID:15365592

  5. Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Chawla, Sumit; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following acute infection, 20% of people eliminate the virus over weeks or months and are often asymptomatic. The remaining 80% of people will develop chronic disease, of which approximately 20% will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and 1–5% will develop liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected with HCV, and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C related liver diseases. The economic cost of hepatitis C is significant both to the individual and to the society. In the United States the average lifetime cost of the disease was estimated at $33 407 USD with the cost of a liver transplant approximately $200 000 USD. PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment is also expensive and, at an average cost of approximately GB £7000 in the UK for a treatment course, is unaffordable in developing countries. Hepatitis C, not only brings down the quality of the life of individuals but also affect progress of the nation by adding financial burden. If we prevent the disease from occurring or find a perfect cure of the disease, in form of a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine, it will be a boon to not only to the individual but to the nation as a whole. PMID:24165512

  6. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  7. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. The authors summarized the literature, and among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26505635

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  9. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  15. Yeast and Egg Contamination of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry and eggs are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Bacteria such as Salmonella cause illness in human who eat eggs contaminated with them, particularly if the eggs are pooled, improperly refrigerated, and eaten raw or undercooked. Other bacteria such a...

  16. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  17. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  18. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  19. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  20. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  1. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  2. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  3. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  4. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  5. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. Burden of Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home Global Health and Aging The Burden of Dementia The ... this total in less developed countries ( Figure 9 ). Global efforts are underway to understand and find cures ...

  7. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  8. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  9. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  10. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  11. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  12. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  13. Number of eggs in egg-noodles.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Emilio; De Acutis, Rodolfo; Festa, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The official method to determine the number of eggs present in egg-noodles is the digitonin method. By applying this method the total content of sterols is determined and expressed as total sterols. The official method is time consuming, not very accurate and its performance is very complicated. Its results are not very reliable either because the composition of the wheat is not considered. In this paper some markers are proposed to verify the correct ratio between eggs and triticum durum (TD) semolina used to prepare egg-noodles. Markers are selected ratios between sterols and FAME. The lipid extract is trans-esterified and injected into a gas chromatograph. The ratio between the areas of the selected components gives the markers. This method is proposed to substitute or alternate the official method because is more accurate and time saving. PMID:11993278

  14. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  15. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  16. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  17. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  18. DIETARY BAKED EGG ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF EGG ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Nowak-Wȩgrzyn, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. Objective To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets plays in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Methods Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Results Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initial baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kUA/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kUA/L; P=0.04) and regular egg (3.1 kUA/L, P=0.05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced SPT wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely to develop regular egg tolerance than subjects in the comparison group (P < 0.0001), and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 versus 78.7 months; P<0.0001). Conclusion Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. PMID:22846751

  19. Undue burden of abortion.

    PubMed

    Charo, A

    1992-07-01

    In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612

  20. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  2. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  3. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  5. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  6. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  7. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  8. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  9. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  11. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  12. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  13. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by viruses. They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests for each type of ...

  14. Establishing a viral hepatitis prevention and control program: Florida's experience.

    PubMed

    Baldy, Linda M; Urbas, Cheryl; Harris, Jennie L; Jones, T Stephen; Reichert, Philip E

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the Florida State Legislature established and funded the statewide Hepatitis Prevention Program (HPP) to address growing concern about hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its potential public health burden. HPP supports county health departments' (CHDs') provision of viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults through free hepatitis A and B vaccine in most CHDs and hepatitis serologic testing and statewide viral hepatitis-related education, consultation, and referral services. Some CHDs are directly funded by HPP. In 2001-2005, HPP support helped CHDs provide 59,228 hepatitis A and 74,039 hepatitis B vaccinations statewide. In 2005, HPP supported almost 17,000 hepatitis B and C tests. From January to June 2005, 1,603 positive HCV tests were reported, a 9.5% seropositivity rate. With $24 million from the Florida State Legislature through 2006, HPP has helped CHDs statewide provide substantial viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults. PMID:17542449

  15. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  16. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  17. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  18. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  19. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Frazier, B.E.; Rada, R.G.; Wiener, J.G.

    1999-04-01

    The authors examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1--7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the material carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. The authors conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  20. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Wiener, James G.; Frazier, Brdaley E.; Rada, Ronald G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1a??7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the maternal carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight (4.5 ng/g wet weight) of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes (range, 2.3a??63 pg), and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. We conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  1. Loan Burdens and Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, James

    2001-01-01

    Studies the impact of the loan burden of seniors at 27 colleges and universities in 1998 on their plans to pursue graduate and professional degrees. Finds no adverse impact of loan burdens on student postgraduate degree plans. (PKP)

  2. Donation of eggs in assisted reproduction and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Uroz, Victoria; Guerra, Lucia

    2009-09-01

    In Spain, there exists an increasing amount of advertising for the donation of eggs for assisted reproduction. This study attempts to assess: (1) scientific evidence available about adverse effects of egg donation; (2) characteristics of the information given in the informed consent to donors; and (3) the legality of this advertising. The main results are: (1) Many severe problems are associated with induction of ovulation, as ovarian hyperstimulation (reported frequencies from 5.9 to 15%), thromboembolism, hepatic failure and increased risk of ovarian, breast, endometrial and colon cancer. (2) Informed consent for egg donors is very incomplete, according to the Spanish law 41/2002 on Patient's Information. (3) Current advertising to promote egg donation does not respect, among others, law 14/2006 about Assisted Human Reproduction, as it includes reference to economic compensation or benefits but no information about the risks. Deontological and judicial disciplinary procedures should be initiated to protect donors' rights. PMID:20157970

  3. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability. PMID:23647192

  4. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:26833263

  5. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected with the hepatitis B virus, can I breastfeed? • If I am infected with the hepatitis B ... infected with the hepatitis C virus, can I breastfeed? • Glossary What are hepatitis B and hepatitis C ...

  6. The Global Burden of Alveolar Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Keller, Krista; Magnotta, Mellissa; Ragland, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is known to be common in certain rural communities in China whilst it is generally rare and sporadic elsewhere. The objective of this study was to provide a first estimate of the global incidence of this disease by country. The second objective was to estimate the global disease burden using age and gender stratified incidences and estimated life expectancy with the disease from previous results of survival analysis. Disability weights were suggested from previous burden studies on echinococcosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed review of published literature and data from other sources. We were unable to make a standardised systematic review as the quality of the data was highly variable from different countries and hence if we had used uniform inclusion criteria many endemic areas lacking data would not have been included. Therefore we used evidence based stochastic techniques to model uncertainty and other modelling and estimating techniques, particularly in regions where data quality was poor. We were able to make an estimate of the annual global incidence of disease and annual disease burden using standard techniques for calculation of DALYs. Our studies suggest that there are approximately 18,235 (CIs 11,900–28,200) new cases of AE per annum globally with 16,629 (91%) occurring in China and 1,606 outside China. Most of these cases are in regions where there is little treatment available and therefore will be fatal cases. Based on using disability weights for hepatic carcinoma and estimated age and gender specific incidence we were able to calculate that AE results in a median of 666,434 DALYs per annum (CIs 331,000-1.3 million). Conclusions/Significance The global burden of AE is comparable to several diseases in the neglected tropical disease cluster and is likely to be one of the most important diseases in certain communities in rural China on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:20582310

  7. Egg and time limitation mediate an egg protection strategy.

    PubMed

    Deas, J B; Hunter, M S

    2014-05-01

    The number of mature eggs remaining in the ovaries and the time left for oviposition determine the reproductive decisions of the hyperdiverse guild of insects that require discrete and potentially limiting resources for oviposition (such as seeds, fruits or other insects). A female may run out of eggs before all available oviposition sites are used (egg limitation), or die before using all of her eggs (time limitation). Females are predicted to change clutch size depending on whether eggs or time is the limiting resource. We extend this framework and ask whether the same constraints influence a strategy in which females modify eggs into protective shields. In response to egg parasitism cues, female seed beetles (Mimosestes amicus) lay eggs in vertical groups of 2-4, modifying the top 1-3 eggs into shields in order to protect the bottom egg from attack by parasitoids. We made contrasting predictions of how egg and time limitation would influence egg size and the incidence and level of egg protection. By varying access to seed pods, we manipulated the number of remaining eggs a female had at the time she received a parasitism cue. Although egg size was not affected, our results confirm that egg-limited females protected fewer eggs and time-limited females protected more eggs. Female body size explained the number of eggs in a stack rather than host deprivation or the timing of parasitoid exposure. Our results clearly show that host availability relative to female age influences the incidence of egg protection in M. amicus. Furthermore, our study represents a novel use of life history theory to explain patterns in an unusual but compelling defensive behaviour. PMID:24735410

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  9. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  10. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  11. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  12. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ... medical care is an important factor in staying as healthy as possible. The American Liver Foundation is ...

  14. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  16. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  17. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  19. Viral Hepatitis and Diabetes: Clinical Implications of Diabetes Prevention Through Hepatitis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, James; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chiu, Ken C

    2016-10-01

    Viral hepatitis has been posited to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis through vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes. We have shown that successful hepatitis B vaccination reduces the risk of diabetes by 33 %. Although diabetes can be prevented by behavior modification and pharmaceutical agents, these require significant personal commitment and cost. In contrast, diabetes prevention through hepatitis B vaccination would require little personal commitment and relatively low cost. In this review, we discuss hepatitis viruses A, B, and C and their interaction with diabetes; explore the potential underlying mechanisms and potential for hepatitis vaccination to reduce diabetes; and estimate the medical expense savings that would result from such an intervention. Given the projected increase of diabetes prevalence in the developing regions, where hepatitis B is endemic, exploration of such an intervention is very timely. PMID:27620495

  20. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  1. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness. PMID:26743045

  2. Global burden of COPD.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century. PMID:26494423

  3. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  5. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  6. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  7. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  8. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  9. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  10. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  11. The metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline affects Schistosoma mansoni motor activity, egg laying and viability.

    PubMed

    Day, T A; Chen, G Z

    1998-04-01

    The Zn(2+)-chelating metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline, 5-150 microM) elicited dose-dependent contraction of the longitudinal and circular (transverse) musculature of adult male schistosomes. At the same concentrations, phenanthroline did not cause contraction of dispersed individual muscle fibres. The phenanthroline-induced contractions were reduced by the inclusion of 100 or 300 microM Zn2+ in the extracellular medium. Phenanthroline (0.5-150 microM) also inhibited the egg production of adult worm pairs in vitro, with a 98% reduction at 50 microM. When worm pairs were exposed to phenanthroline, the males detached from the dish and released the females, resulting in unpaired worms. At the higher concentrations (50 and 150 microM), the worms were killed in vitro. Worm burdens were reduced by over 50% in infected mice injected with phenanthroline (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days), but twice the dose resulted in only a 25% reduction. Phenanthroline injections also induced an hepatic shift and an unpairing of adult worms in infected mice, and the female worms appeared degenerate and lacked gut pigmentation. Mice fed a diet containing 0.3% phenanthroline received significant protection from infection when challenged with schistosome cercaria, where phenanthroline-fed mice had 94% fewer adult worms than control mice. The broad range of phenanthroline effects on schistosomes suggests broad and important functions for metalloproteases in these worms. PMID:9585934

  12. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  13. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  14. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  15. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  16. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  17. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried eggs. 160.105 Section 160.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried eggs. (a) Dried eggs, dried whole...

  18. Microcracks in eggs.

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; MacLeod, N; Thomson, R; Hancock, J W

    2006-11-01

    An experimental program of mechanical testing has shown that microcracks initiate in hens' eggs at loads less than that necessary to cause total structural failure. In contact loading, computational modeling and numerical analysis show that very high stress levels develop on the inner surface of the eggshell as it conforms to a hard contact surface. This causes a series of microcracks to initiate at the inner surface of the shell and radiate out from the load site. A series of concentric circumferential microcracks also develop beneath the cuticle from the edge of the contact zone. Calculations relating to the eggshells' dynamic response indicate that microcracks have a little effect on the structural stiffness and resonant frequencies of the egg. As a result, microcracks are unlikely to be detected by online crack detection systems, which rely on mechanical excitation. Eggs in retail outlets are likely to contain microcracks as a result of insults experienced during the collection, grading, and packing processes. Because the eggshell forms the first line of defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms entering the egg contents, microcracks could potentially compromise egg safety. PMID:17032836

  19. Estimates on HCV disease burden worldwide - filling the gaps.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, H; Dore, G J; Ward, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and represents a major global health burden. Persistent HCV infection can lead to progressive liver disease with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly accounting for up to 0.5 million deaths every year. Treatment of HCV infection is undergoing a profound and radical change. As new treatments are extremely safe and effective, there are virtually no medical reasons to withhold therapy. Yet, the new therapies are expensive. As resources are limited, solid data to estimate the disease burden caused by HCV are urgently needed. Epidemiology data and disease burden analyses for 16 countries are presented. For almost all countries, the peak of HCV-related cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death is a decade or more away. However, a surprising heterogeneity in country-specific HCV-associated disease burden exists. Also, HCV diagnosis and treatment uptake varied markedly between countries. A consistent finding was that a reduction of HCV liver-related mortality is dependent on access to therapy. Increasing efficacy of therapy alone with a constant numbers of treatments will not have a major impact on the HCV-related disease burden. The data presented here should inform public health policy and help drive advocacy for enhanced strategic investment and action. HCV kills patients, and the disease burden will continue to rise in most countries unless action is taken soon. Chronic HCV is a curable infection and a reversible liver disease. Fortunately, the tools to eliminate HCV are now available. PMID:25560838

  20. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  2. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  3. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  4. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  5. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  6. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  7. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  8. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  9. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  10. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  11. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  12. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  13. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  14. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  15. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  16. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  18. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  20. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  1. Egg Donation Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Sauer, Mark V.; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare Websites of agencies that broker the services women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. STUDY DESIGN We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency (40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. RESULTS According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at ≤ 31,require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risks, to future fertility. CONCLUSIONS This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others. PMID:25552124

  2. Egg Bungee Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the spirit of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), many teachers attempt to have their students experience science in a constructivist, inquiry-oriented manner. The egg bungee jump activity will certainly support that mode of teaching, and has the added benefit of providing a concrete context within which students can explore…

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. These include: Graves disease Inflammatory bowel disease Rheumatoid arthritis Scleroderma Sjogren syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Thyroiditis Type 1 diabetes Ulcerative colitis Autoimmune hepatitis may occur in family ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  5. Evaluation of local immune response to Fasciola hepatica experimental infection in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of goats immunized with Sm14 vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo E; Zafra, Rafael; Pérez-Ecija, Rafael A; Buffoni, Leandro; Martínez-Moreno, Alvaro; Tendler, Miriam; Pérez, José

    2010-08-01

    Protection against Fasciola hepatica in goats immunized with a synthetic recombinant antigen from Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein 14 (rSm14) was investigated by assessing worm burdens, serum levels of hepatic enzymes, faecal egg count and hepatic damage, which was evaluated using gross and microscopic morphometric observation. The nature of the local immune response was assessed by examining the distribution of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes along with IgG+, IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes (HLN). The goats used consisted of group 1 (unimmunized and uninfected), group 2 [infected control - immunized with Quillaia A (Quil A)] and group 3 (immunized with rSm14 in Quil A and infected), each containing seven animals. Immunization with rSm14 in Quil A adjuvant induced a reduction in gross hepatic lesions of 56.6% (p < 0.001) and reduced hepatic and HLN infiltration of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes as well as IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells (p < 0.05). This is the first report of caprine immunization against F. hepatica using a complete rSm14 molecule derived from S. mansoni. Immunization reduced hepatic damage and local inflammatory infiltration into the liver and HLN. However, considering that Quil A is not the preferential/first choice adjuvant for Sm14 immunization, further studies will be undertaken using the monophosphoryl lipid A-based family of adjuvants during clinical trials to facilitate anti-Fasciolavaccine development. PMID:20835620

  6. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than those of the LN and TC treatments. Vitelline membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives. PMID:12033425

  7. The double burden.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    One third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and with the lifestyle changes succeeding the on-going urbanization, populations already burdened by tuberculosis are experiencing a dramatic increase in chronic diseases, with diabetes being a serious challenge. Tuberculosis and diabetes are not only becoming co-existing diseases. In fact, the diseases interact, and there is evidence to suggest that especially diabetes disease increases the susceptibility for developing active tuberculosis disease. Furthermore, it is plausible that tuberculosis leads to, either transient or permanent, impairment of the glucose metabolism, which ultimately will turn into diabetes. A number of studies from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and, most lately, from sub-Saharan Africa have reported strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes; on average, the estimated risk of active tuberculosis is thrice as high among people with diabetes. The study from sub-Saharan Africa was conducted in Tanzania and is the basis of this thesis. Based on available evidence on the association between tuberculosis and diabetes, the primary aim of the study was to assess the role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival in a Tanzanian population of tuberculosis patients and non-tuberculosis neighbourhood controls. The study was conducted in Mwanza City in northern Tanzania, with a population exceeding half a million inhabitants, with tuberculosis and HIV being common infections in the region, but with little knowledge about the prevalence of diabetes. We recruited newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from spring 2006 and continuously till the fall 2009, with all participating in a nutritional intervention running in parallel with the medical tuberculosis treatment. All participants underwent diabetes and HIV testing as well as a series of measurements such as anthropometric, clinical and paraclinical

  8. Economic and Disease Burden of Dengue in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Halasa, Yara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA). Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. Methods and Findings We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources—surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO), and published studies—and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001–2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m) dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels) was US$950m (US$610m–US$1,384m) or about US$1.65 (US$1.06–US$2.41) per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000–299,000), which is equivalent to 372 (210–520) DALYs per million inhabitants. Conclusion Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B. PMID:23437406

  9. Microbial Populations Associated with Restricted Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restricted shell eggs are found in all shell egg processing facilities. The manner with which companies handle them can vary greatly. In most cases, restricted eggs are diverted to further processing. Some facilities do not rewash eggs, choosing instead to include dirts in restricted eggs. Eggs ...

  10. Nurturing the Nest Egg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Seemingly arcane new federal rules about supplemental retirement plans have sparked a seismic shift in responsibility for school districts, thrusting them into the retirement business with new oversight--and burdens--involving their employees' 403(b) accounts. Once merely paper-pushers between their employees and investment choices, district…

  11. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  12. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  13. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  14. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  15. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  16. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  17. Patterns of radiocesium contamination in eggs of free-ranging wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; McCreedy, C.D.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. )

    1993-01-01

    Studies of biological consequences of nuclear industrial contaminants in the environment increase in importance as the potential for exposure of wildlife populations rises. Thus, we examined levels of radiocesium (cesium-137) contamination in wood duck eggs from a Department of Energy nuclear facility in South Carolina during 1990. Radiocesium levels in individual eggs from 5 locations on the site ranged from below detectable concentrations to a maximum of 2.21 Bq/g wet mass. Eggs from an abandoned reactor cooling reservoir contained the greatest burdens; mean egg concentrations there were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from other locations studied. Eggs from a second radionuclide releases, all contained similar low radiocesium levels that were, on average, below detection limits. Variation in radiocesium concentrations of eggs from the most contaminated cooling reservoir was partitioned into within- and among-clutch variation. Approximately 33% of the variation in radiocesium content occurred among eggs laid by the same female, and may have resulted because females fed in both contaminated and uncontaminated habitats during egg formation. Radiation dose rates to developing wood duck embryos, resulting from internal and external sources examined in this study, were below those expected to affect hatchability or any other aspect of the breeding biology of these birds. Wood ducks and their eggs may be useful as bioindicators of radiocesium uptake, but we caution that local foraging patterns could cause variation in contaminant deposition within clutches. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bleibel, Wissam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis affect hundreds of millions of patients all over the world. The majority of patients with cirrhosis will eventually develop complications related to portal hypertension. One of these recurrent and difficult to treat complications is hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have indicated that overt hepatic encephalopathy affects 30 to 45% of patients with cirrhosis and a higher percentage may be affected by minimal degree of encephalopathy. All of these factors add to the impact of hepatic encephalopathy on the healthcare system and presents a major challenge to the gastroenterologist, hospitalist and primary care physician. PMID:23006457

  20. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, P.; Kane, M.; Meheus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunisation programmes by 1997. Some western European countries remain unconvinced that the burden of disease warrants the expense of universal vaccination. However, epidemiological data and economic evaluation show that universal hepatitis B vaccination is cost effective in countries with low endemicity and that it will control hepatitis B, reinforcing the necessity for action. PMID:9112852

  1. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  2. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 ... Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:104-10. PMID: 19124811 www. ...

  3. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  4. Development of a method to control the water evaporation of hatching eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Ohi, A; Inoue, N; Furuta, H; Sugawara, M; Ohta, Y

    2010-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to develop methods to control the amount of water loss and to evaluate the metabolic effects of water condition in the White Leghorn breeder eggs during incubation. One hundred twenty, 54, and 90 Julia strain White Leghorn breeder eggs were incubated at 37.8 degrees C, 60% RH in experiments 1, 2, and 3. In experiment 1, eggs were drilled with various bore diameters of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm on the blunt end of the eggshell. In experiment 2, 4 x 4 mm(2) windows were cut into the eggs or the eggs were drilled with 5 holes of bore diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. In experiment 3, eggs were drilled with 1, 3, 5, and 7 holes of diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. Eggs were treated on d 3 of each experiment and the amount of water loss was recorded on d 19 of incubation. Embryo growth was evaluated in experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the livers of embryos were collected in the 0-, 1-, 3-, and 5-hole treatment groups after weighing eggs to determine 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity. In experiment 1, although higher water loss was observed in all windowed eggs than in control, there were no differences in amount of water loss among all bore diameters. Accordingly, that was not successful to control amount of water loss. In experiment 2, higher water loss was observed in drilled eggs at the same levels in windowed eggs as in control. Drilling holes was a more useful treatment to control amount of water loss on incubated eggs than windowing. In experiment 3, amount of water loss increased linearly with increasing number of holes on the blunt end of eggshell. Hepatic 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity increased with increasing the number of drilled holes. PMID:20181873

  5. Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Asia accounts for 60% of the world population and half the global burden of cancer. The incidence of cancer cases is estimated to increase from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030, due to ageing and growing populations, lifestyle and socioeconomic changes. Striking variations in ethnicity, sociocultural practices, human development index, habits and dietary patterns are reflected in the burden and pattern of cancer in different regions. The existing and emerging cancer patterns and burden in different regions of Asia call for political recognition of cancer as an important public health problem and for balanced investments in public and professional awareness. Prevention as well as early detection of cancers leads to both better health outcomes and considerable savings in treatment costs. Cancer health services are still evolving, and require substantial investment to ensure equitable access to cancer care for all sections of the population. In this review, we discuss the changing burden of cancer in Asia, along with appropriate management strategies. Strategies should promote healthy ageing via healthy lifestyles, tobacco and alcohol control measures, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, cancer screening services, and vertical investments in strengthening cancer healthcare infrastructure to improve equitable access to services. PMID:24400922

  6. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  7. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  8. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  9. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  10. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  11. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Pakistan: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Asad; Donahue, Rafe M.J.; Qureshi, Huma; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Pakistan carries one of the world’s highest burdens of chronic hepatitis and mortality due to liver failure and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, national level estimates of the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C are currently not available. Methods We reviewed the medical and public health literature over a 13-year period ([Au?1] 1994–September 2007) to estimate the prevalence of active hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in Pakistan, analyzing data separately for the general and high-risk populations and for each of the four provinces. We included 84 publications with 139 studies (42 studies had two or more sub-studies). Results Methodological differences in studies made it inappropriate to conduct a formal meta-analysis to determine accurate national prevalence estimates, but we estimated the likely range of prevalence in different population sub-groups. A weighted average of hepatitis B antigen prevalence in pediatric populations was 2.4% (range 1.7–5.5%) and for hepatitis C antibody was 2.1% (range 0.4–5.4%). A weighted average of hepatitis B antigen prevalence among healthy adults (blood donors and non-donors) was 2.4% (range 1.4–11.0%) and for hepatitis C antibody was 3.0% (range 0.3–31.9% [Au?2]). Rates in the high-risk subgroups were far higher. Conclusions Data suggest a moderate to high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in different areas of Pakistan. The published literature on the modes of transmission of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Pakistan implicate contaminated needle use in medical care and drug abuse and unsafe blood and blood product transfusion as the major causal factors. PMID:18835208

  12. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  13. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  14. Hepatitis C - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B . ... Elisofon SA, Jonas MMF. Viral hepatitis in children. In: Boyer TD, Manns MP, Sanyal AJ, eds. Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. ...

  15. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  17. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  18. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  20. The societal burden of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Becker, David J; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis currently affects 10 million Americans and is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually. The financial burden of osteoporosis is substantial, with annual direct medical costs estimated at 17 to 20 billion dollars. Most of these costs are related to the acute and rehabilitative care following osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures. The societal burden of osteoporosis includes these direct medical costs and the monetary (eg, caregiver time) and nonmonetary costs of poor health. The aging of the US population is expected to increase the prevalence of osteoporosis and the number of osteoporotic fractures. Growth of the older adult population will pose significant challenges to Medicare and Medicaid, which bear most of the cost of osteoporosis. Efforts to address the looming financial burden must focus on reducing the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of costly fragility fractures. PMID:20425518

  1. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. PMID:26481200

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will ...

  3. [Vaccination against hepatitis B: success and challenges].

    PubMed

    Michel, Marie-Louise

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s. Vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the hepatitis B-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented. Despite success and efficacy of preventive vaccines, a huge number of chronically infected patients still remain. Therapeutic vaccination may prove to be useful coupled with current antivirals and other immunomodulatory approaches to treat these patients. This review summarizes current unresolved issues and future perspectives on vaccination required for global cure of hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:27615182

  4. Cryopreservation of eggs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Chang, Ching-Chien; Shapiro, Daniel B; Berna, Diana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is playing an increasingly important role in the field of human infertility treatment. The ability to store viable oocytes for later use has given many women the option to delay childbearing in order to pursue other ventures in life, without the concern of losing the opportunity to have a family. Furthermore, oocyte cryopreservation is very valuable for diseased patients who have to undergo treatments that may compromise fertility. Also, infertility patients who produce large numbers of oocytes during a retrieval cycle now have the option of storing some eggs prior to fertilization, thereby reducing the number of embryos that have to be managed. Lastly, oocyte cryopreservation enables egg donation programs that are independent of fresh donations, which makes it possible for numerous recipients to benefit from a single donor.Traditionally, slow freezing was the only method available for oocyte cryopreservation. However, recent years have shown that ultrarapid cooling of oocytes results in higher survival and developmental rates. Thus, vitrification is today's preferred method of oocyte cryopreservation and therefore the only technique described.In this chapter, we present two reliable methods of oocyte vitrification that have been in use for several years and that have been experimentally validated. Since no single vitrification method is clearly superior to the rest, other systems are also briefly described to give the reader options when deciding which methods to utilize in their practice. PMID:24782022

  5. The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss. A particular focus is on the psychosocial functioning of individuals with extreme obesity who present for and undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:27519139

  6. Where next for hepatitis B and C surveillance?

    PubMed

    Wiktor, S Z

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis B and C infections are responsible for significant burden of disease accounting for 1.3 million deaths globally. There is a lack of quality data on the burden of disease due to these infections. One approach to informing policy makers on trends in hepatitis B and C is through case reporting of diagnosed cases. Data on these cases can identify outbreaks of hepatitis and monitor trends in acute and chronic infection. The European Centers for Disease Control (ECDC) has developed standardized case definitions and a harmonized reporting framework. Two articles in this issue summarize the trends in hepatitis B and C infection in Europe. The results show considerable variability in reported cases across countries, reflecting in part differences in testing practices. Risk factor information highlights the continued importance of injecting drug use as a risk factor for hepatitis C infection. Hepatitis case reporting provides valuable information, and more complete reporting will improve the utility of the data. For a comprehensive epidemiologic assessment of the burden of hepatitis, case reporting should be complemented by other sources of data, such as serologic and behavioural surveys. PMID:25754464

  7. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is

  8. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy

  9. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  10. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  11. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  12. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  13. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  14. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in colonial waterbird eggs from Lake Athabasca and the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Macmillan, Stuart; Campbell, David; Nordstrom, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    In 2009, aquatic bird eggs from a variety of species were collected from three sites in northern Alberta, Canada. Two sites were located in receiving waters of the Athabasca River, which drains the oil sands industrial region north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. The third site, located on the Peace River, was remote from the influence of the Athabasca River. Levels of mercury, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the eggs along with nitrogen stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N) as an indicator of bird trophic position. Levels of As and PAHs in eggs were low, whereas Hg was measureable in all samples. Egg Hg levels increased with δ¹⁵N values (a proxy of food web trophic position); however, some eggs exhibited Hg levels greater than expected based on trophic position. These eggs were from sites in receiving waters of the Athabasca River, namely, Mamawi Lake and Egg Island. Levels of Hg in egg pools were correlated with naphthalene levels, perhaps indicating a common source of contamination. Temporal comparison of Hg levels in California gull (Larus californicus) eggs from the Lake Athabasca colony indicated that egg Hg burdens increased 40% from 1977 to 2009. More research is required to evaluate temporal trends in levels of environmental contaminants and to identify sources. PMID:21312251

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mínguez, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of cirrhosis that is related to the effects of ammonia. Analysis of interorgan ammonia trafficking has identified an important role of skeletal muscle in ammonia removal and has highlighted the importance of the nutritional status. Ammonia causes neurotransmitter abnormalities and induces injury to astrocytes that is partially mediated by oxidative stress. These disturbances lead to astrocyte swelling and brain edema, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations. Inflammatory mediators worsen brain disturbances. New methods for assessing hepatic encephalopathy include clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, imaging of portal-systemic circulation, and magnetic resonance of the brain. Reappraisal of current therapy indicates the need for performing placebo-controlled trials and the lack of evidence for administering diets with restricted protein content. Liver transplant should be considered in selected patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Future prospects include new drugs that decrease plasma ammonia, measures to reduce brain edema, and liver-support devices. PMID:18293278

  16. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mur, Rafael Esteban

    2014-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (EH) is a severe complication of hepatic cirrhosis that is characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric manifestations. EH is usually triggered by a precipitating factor and occurs in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. Minimal EH is characterized by minor cognitive impairments that are difficult to specify but represent a risk for the patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism of EH is considered to be an increase in blood ammonia with an impairment in the patency of the blood-brainbarrier and its metabolism to glutamine in astrocytes. The diagnosis is clinical and neuroimaging techniques can be complementary. The diagnosis of minimal EH requires specific neurocognitive tests. The clinical evaluation should be directed towards identifying the trigger. Nonabsorbable disaccharides and rifaximin constitute the treatment of choice, along with prophylaxis for new episodes. PMID:25087716

  17. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  18. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs quality of life.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  19. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  20. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low-grade fever Nausea and vomiting Pale or clay-colored stools Yellow skin (jaundice) ... The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone. Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all people get better within 6 months. There ...

  1. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider will closely monitor and manage any side effects that may occur, as high doses of prednisone are often prescribed to treat autoimmune hepatitis. Immune system suppressors. Medications that suppress the immune system prevent the body from making autoantibodies and block the immune reaction ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  3. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  4. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  5. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  6. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  7. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  8. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  9. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  10. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  11. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  15. Disease Burden of 32 Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands, 2007-2011

    PubMed Central

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Wallinga, Jacco; de Melker, Hester E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious disease burden estimates provided by a composite health measure give a balanced view of the true impact of a disease on a population, allowing the relative impact of diseases that differ in severity and mortality to be monitored over time. This article presents the first national disease burden estimates for a comprehensive set of 32 infectious diseases in the Netherlands. Methods and Findings The average annual disease burden was computed for the period 2007–2011 for selected infectious diseases in the Netherlands using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) measure. The pathogen- and incidence-based approach was adopted to quantify the burden due to both morbidity and premature mortality associated with all short and long-term consequences of infection. Natural history models, disease progression probabilities, disability weights, and other parameters were adapted from previous research. Annual incidence was obtained from statutory notification and other surveillance systems, which was corrected for under-ascertainment and under-reporting. The highest average annual disease burden was estimated for invasive pneumococcal disease (9444 DALYs/year; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8911–9961) and influenza (8670 DALYs/year; 95% UI: 8468–8874), which represents 16% and 15% of the total burden of all 32 diseases, respectively. The remaining 30 diseases ranked by number of DALYs/year from high to low were: HIV infection, legionellosis, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis, pertussis, tuberculosis, hepatitis C infection, Q fever, norovirus infection, salmonellosis, gonorrhoea, invasive meningococcal disease, hepatitis B infection, invasive Haemophilus influenzae infection, shigellosis, listeriosis, giardiasis, hepatitis A infection, infection with STEC O157, measles, cryptosporidiosis, syphilis, rabies, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, tetanus, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The very low burden for the latter five

  16. The global burden of injuries.

    PubMed

    Krug, E G; Sharma, G K; Lozano, R

    2000-04-01

    The traditional view of injuries as "accidents", or random events, has resulted in the historical neglect of this area of public health. However, the most recent estimates show that injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in the world. They affect all populations, regardless of age, sex, income, or geographic region. In 1998, about 5.8 million people (97.9 per 100,000 population) died of injuries worldwide, and injuries caused 16% of the global burden of disease. Road traffic injuries are the 10th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of the burden of disease; self-inflicted injuries, falls, and interpersonal violence follow closely. Injuries affect mostly young people, often causing long-term disability. Decreasing the burden of injuries is among the main challenges for public health in the next century--injuries are preventable, and many effective strategies are available. Public health officials must gain a better understanding of the magnitude and characteristics of the problem, contribute to the development and evaluation of injury prevention programs, and develop the best possible prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for injured persons. PMID:10754963

  17. Burden of disease from Cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann T.; Moonah, Shannon N.; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The global significance of cryptosporidiosis is widespread and far-reaching. In this review, we present recent data about strain diversity and the burden of disease, along with developments in therapeutic and preventative strategies. Recent findings Cryptosporidium is an emerging pathogen that disproportionately affects children in developing countries and immunocompromised individuals. Without a diagnostic tool amenable for use in developing countries the burden of infection and its relationship to growth faltering, malnutrition, and diarrheal mortality remain underappreciated. Disease incidence is also increasing in industrialized countries largely as a result of outbreaks in recreational water facilities. Advances in molecular methods, including subtyping analysis, have yielded new insights into the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. However, without practical point-of-care diagnostics, an effective treatment for immunocompromised patients, and a promising vaccine candidate, the ability to reduce the burden of disease in the near future is limited. This is compounded by inadequate coverage with antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, the only current means of managing HIV-infected patients with cryptosporidiosis. Summary Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important diarrheal pathogens affecting people worldwide. Effective methods to control and treat cryptosporidiosis among high risk groups present an ongoing problem in need of attention. PMID:22907279

  18. Concordance among anticholinergic burden scales

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Gray, Shelly L.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no gold standard to assess potential anticholinergic burden of medications. Objectives To evaluate concordance among five commonly used anticholinergic scales. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants 3,055 community-dwelling older adults aged 70–79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Measurements Any use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (i.e., Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden [ACB] Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale [ADS], Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS], Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component [DBI-ACh], and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale [SAMS]). Concordance was evaluated with kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations. Results Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured by weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 among the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, and ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50. Conclusions Only low to moderate concordance was found among the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement impact their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26480974

  19. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  20. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  1. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  2. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  3. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  4. 76 FR 6123 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... achieving its regulatory objectives. DATES: Written comments and information are requested on or before... the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining the regulatory objectives, taking into account... approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility. Regulations be guided by objective...

  5. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  6. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Rimón, M.; González, C.; Uranga, J. A.; López-Miranda, V.; López-Fandiño, R.; Miguel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications. PMID:26985993

  7. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  8. MECHANICAL HATCHING EGG SANITIZATION: A FRESH LOOK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg sanitation has had a dubious history in North America until recent years. Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure ...

  9. Egg embryo development detection with hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U. S. egg industry, anywhere from 130 million to over one billion infertile eggs are incubated each year. Some of these infertile eggs explode in the hatching cabinet and can potentially spread molds or bacteria to all the eggs in the cabinet. A method to detect the embryo development of in...

  10. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  11. Application of a Multidimensional Caregiver Burden Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Mark; Guest, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Developed 24-item, 5-subscale Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) as useful diagnostic tool for professional caregivers. Administered CBI to 107 caregivers of cognitively impaired older people. Individual cases illustrated that caregivers with same total burden scores can have markedly different patterns of burden and different social and…

  12. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  13. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  14. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  15. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  16. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  17. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Jacques, Jérémie; Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and is an important therapeutic challenge, with a social and economic issue. If, now, the pathophysiology is not totally understood (main role of ammonia, but a better understanding of cerebral mechanisms), the clinical presentation is well-known. Some treatments are useful (disaccharides, treatment of the trigger) but their efficiency is limited. Nevertheless, the emergence of new treatments, such as non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin essentially), is an interesting therapeutic tool. PMID:26597584

  18. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  19. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the virus and do not practice good hygiene. Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B ... where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  20. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  1. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  2. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  3. Stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) burden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc

    2015-04-01

    An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.

  4. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  5. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w . PMID:26932462

  6. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  7. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  8. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  9. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  10. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  11. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  12. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  13. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  14. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  15. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  16. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective. PMID:26916773

  17. Resolution of Hepatic Encephalopathy Following Hepatic Artery Embolization in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Erinjeri, Joseph P. Deodhar, Ajita; Thornton, Raymond H.; Allen, Peter J.; Getrajdman, George I.; Brown, Karen T.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Reidy, Diane L.

    2010-06-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is considered a contraindication to hepatic artery embolization. We describe a patient with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver with refractory hepatic encephalopathy and normal liver function tests. The encephalopathy was refractory to standard medical therapy with lactulose. The patient's mental status returned to baseline after three hepatic artery embolization procedures. Arteriography and ultrasound imaging before and after embolization suggest that the encephalopathy was due to arterioportal shunting causing hepatofugal portal venous flow and portosystemic shunting. In patients with a primary or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor whose refractory hepatic encephalopathy is due to portosystemic shunting (rather than global hepatic dysfunction secondary to tumor burden), hepatic artery embolization can be performed safely and effectively.

  18. New treatment options for alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shasthry, Saggere Muralikrishna; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The burden of alcoholic liver disease has rapidly grown in the past two decades and is expected to increase further in the coming years. Alcoholic hepatitis, the most florid presentation of alcoholic liver disease, continues to have high morbidity and mortality, with significant financial and healthcare burden with limited treatment options. Steroids remain the current standard of care in severe alcoholic hepatitis in carefully selected patients. No specific treatments are available for those patients who are steroid ineligible, intolerant or unresponsive. Liver transplant has shown good short-term outcome; however, feasibility, ethical and economic concerns remain. Modification of gut microbiota composition and their products, such as lipopolysaccharide, nutritional interventions, immune modulation, increasing steroid sensitivity, genetic polymorphism and epigenetic modification of alcohol induced liver damage, augmenting hepatic regeneration using GCSF are potential therapeutic avenues in steroid non-responsive/ineligible patients. With better understanding of the pathophysiology, using “Omics” platforms, newer options for patients with alcoholic hepatitis are expected soon. PMID:27099434

  19. Good eggs? Evaluating consent forms for egg donation.

    PubMed

    Cattapan, Alana Rose

    2016-07-01

    Beyond gaps in the provision of information, the informed consent process for egg donation is complicated by conflicts of interest, payment and a lack of longitudinal data about physiological and psychological risks. Recent scholarship has suggested that egg donation programmes could improve the informed consent process by revising consent documents. At a minimum, these documents should include information about eight key criteria: the nature and objectives of treatment; the benefits, risks and inconveniences of egg donation; the privacy of donors and their anonymity (where applicable); disclosure that participation is voluntary (withdrawal); the availability of counselling; financial considerations; the possibility of an unsuccessful cycle and potential uses of the eggs retrieved. This study evaluates the incorporation of these minimum criteria in consent forms for egg donation, obtained through requests to Canadian fertility clinics. Even when clinics were considered to have met criteria simply by mentioning them, among the eight consent forms assessed, none met the minimum standards. Only half of clinics addressed privacy/anonymity concerns, financial issues and the possibility of a future cycle. Improving the quality of consent documentation to meet the minimum standards established by this study may not be an onerous task. For some, this will include re-evaluating how they include one or two elements of disclosure, and for others, this will require a substantial overhaul. Using the criteria provided by this study as the minimum standard for consent could ensure that donors have the basic information they need to make informed decisions. PMID:26951214

  20. [To improve the accessibility of hepatitis B treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H

    2016-06-01

    The burden of chronic hepatitis B is substantial in China. An estimated 90 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B. About 7.4 million people are at high risk of advance stage liver disease and cancer due to chronic hepatitis B and who urgently require treatment. However, only 12.5% of chronic hepatitis B patients are receiving antiviral treatment at present. In order to improve the accessibility of antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B we should decrease the price of antiviral drugs; to bring antiviral drugs into the national essential drugs list; to include antiviral drugs in both inpatient and outpatient reimbursement category; to apply the mechanisms for drug price reduction such as rejecting the patent registration for drugs with public health risk and harm to welfare policy; initiating government unified price negotiations with drug companies. PMID:27465940

  1. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  2. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and liver cancer make liver disease one of the 10 leading ... disease are decreasing, those for viral hepatitis and liver cancer are on the rise, both in the U.S. ...

  3. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  4. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  5. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  6. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  7. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  8. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  9. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  10. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  11. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  12. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  13. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  14. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  15. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  16. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  17. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  18. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg...

  19. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  20. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  1. Hepatology after Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fitz, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future. Despite remarkable progress, success at the population level is limited by the resource-intensive nature of caring for patients with end-stage disease. Accordingly, the major advances in the next decade are likely to focus on (i) the earlier identification of individuals and populations at higher risk for liver diseases, and (ii) initiation in high-risk populations of specific strategies for early detection and treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cirrhosis. The answers will lie in large part in the further exploration of the human genome in carefully phenotyped patients. Risk variants in the PNPLA3 gene represent the best example to date. The risk variants are common and are enriched in certain populations around the globe; and individuals that possess risk variants are more likely to have liver injury from fatty liver disease (even as children), alcohol and viral hepatitis. Further, those with liver injury are more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatoma. Similarly, in those with established liver disease, use of biomarkers and other

  2. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  3. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  4. Who moved my eggs? An experimental test of the egg arrangement hypothesis for the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Samaš, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism is an exceptional reproductive strategy whereby parasites reduce their own costs associated with parental care and impose them on the host parents. Consequently, host species have evolved multiple defensive mechanisms to combat parasitism. The vast majority of research attention to date has examined host defenses to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. The recently proposed "egg arrangement hypothesis" suggests that hosts may not focus solely on individual eggs' features, but instead the overall arrangement of the clutch may also provide a cue that parasitism has occurred. Correlative data revealed that host females maintaining a consistent egg arrangement across the incubation period were more likely to reject foreign egg models than females that did not keep a consistent egg arrangement. Here, we provide the first experimental test of this hypothesis in the European blackbird (Turdus merula). We experimentally parasitized nests such that the egg arrangement was either disrupted or not disrupted. We found no evidence that altered egg arrangement was used as a cue for egg rejection by host females. Therefore, we suggest that females that keep consistent egg arrangement are more likely to eject foreign eggs for other correlated reasons. Thus, egg arrangement does not serve as an independent cue to trigger egg rejection responses to parasitism in this host species. PMID:25194716

  5. Unfolding Kinetics of Egg Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dipti

    2011-03-01

    This study explores denaturing kinetics of egg white using high resolution calorimetric technique. Fresh egg was scanned fro heating and cooling to see the thermodynamics 10circ; C to 100circ; C at different heating ramp rates varying from 1 to 20circ; C/min. An endothermic peak was found on heating scan showing denaturing of protein which was found absent at the cooling indicating the absence of any residue after heating. The denature peak shifted towards higher temperature as ramp rate increases following Arrhenius behavior and shows an activated denaturing kinetics of the egg protein. This peak was also compared with the water to avoid water effects. Behavior of denaturing peak can be explained in terms of Arrhenius theory.

  6. A model of egg production.

    PubMed

    Charles, D R

    1984-07-01

    A quantitative literature review has been used as the basis of an empirical simulation model of the responses in food intake and egg output of laying hens to temperature, light pattern, light intensity, feeding system type, crude protein, methionine, lysine and metabolisable energy. The financial consequences are considered, by the calculation of gross margin of egg value minus food cost. Response to protein intake in an optimal environment is taken as the first limiting factor. Depressions below the maximum are calculated for sub-optimal environments. The model was tested against a sample of flocks for which detailed records were available, and found to give realistic answers. A FORTRAN program was written which calculates egg output and food intake by 4-week production periods, permitting the user to examine the effects of management changes made during lay. Shortened versions of the model, based on annual values have been written for a programmable calculator. PMID:6478277

  7. Burden and Nutritional Deficiencies in Opiate Addiction- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    NABIPOUR, Sepideh; AYU SAID, Mas; HUSSAIN HABIL, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy. PMID:25927032

  8. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy. PMID:25927032

  9. Fluid dynamics of liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Kumbár, Vojtěch; Strnková, Jana; Nedomová, Šárka; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    The rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, egg white, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Eggs of three poultry specimens were used: hen (Isa Brown), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), and goose (Anser anser f. domestica). Rheological behavior was pseudoplastic and flow curves fitted by the power law model (Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-De Waele). The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors and velocity profiles during flow of liquid egg products in tube has been shown. PMID:25761859

  10. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  11. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  12. Acceptance of brown-shelled eggs in a white-shelled egg market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, N P; Jefferies, L K; Rodriguez, B; Johnston, D E

    2011-05-01

    Brown eggs have gradually entered the traditional white-egg markets as a distinctive mode for packaging specialty eggs. A test was conducted at the Brigham Young University Sensory Laboratory (Provo, UT) to understand how consumers view attributes of the brown egg relative to the white egg. The objectives were to see how the consumer viewed properties of eggs by color and to examine the preference for brown color intensity. The 52 panelists were all women who routinely purchased and consumed eggs. Some women (53.8%) consumed eggs twice weekly, and 40.4% purchased them at least every 2 wk. Purchases included specialty eggs (14.6%) consisting of cage-free (50.0%), organic (28.6%), and n-3 enhanced (21.4%) eggs. The panelists preferred white eggs (90.4%). Though brown-shelled eggs did not exceed white eggs in preference, they were perceived positively (white-shelled %:brown-shelled %) as being more nutritious (65:29), having more flavor (27:14) and n-3 content (62:39), having a farm-flock origin (46:44), and being from organically fed hens (56:31) To test the preference for shade of brown eggs, a set of 6 eggs with varying intensities of brown color was evaluated for accepted appearance using a 9-point hedonic scale. The egg color intensities were measured using a Hunter Colorflex spectrophotometer (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) and the CIE system. The lightness (L*) values ranged from 83.2 for the white egg to 63.6 to 46.5 for the brown eggs. A significant (P < 0.05) preference was found for the 2 lighter shades of brown-shelled eggs (L* 63.6 and 57.5). Using the 9-point scale, panelists then compared brown eggs side by side with white eggs. Again, the 2 most light-tinted brown eggs were found most comparable with the white egg in acceptability and better (P < 0.05) than the darker brown eggs. In conclusion, white eggs were preferred over brown eggs; however, brown eggs gained in acceptance but did not exceed white as likely to be more nutritious or

  13. The increasing burden of depression.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large. PMID:21750622

  14. The global burden of cholera

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  15. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  16. Hepatic osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Angelo; Verardo, Alberto; Di Pascoli, Marco; Giannini, Sandro; Bolognesi, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic disturbances of bone are frequent in patients with chronic liver disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis among patients with advanced chronic liver disease is reported between 12% and 55%; it is higher in primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients with advanced liver disease should be screened for osteoporosis with a densitometry, especially if the etiology is cholestatic and in the presence of other risk factors. Clinical relevance of hepatic osteodystrophy increases after liver transplantation. After liver transplant, a rapid loss of bone mineral density can be detected in the first 6 months, followed by stabilization and slight improvement of the values. At the time of transplantation, bone density values are very important prognostic factors. Therapy of hepatic osteodystrophy is based primarily on the control of risk factors: cessation of tobacco and alcohol assumption, reduction of caffeine ingestion, exercise, supplementation of calcium and vitamin D, limitation of drugs such as loop diuretics, corticosteroids, cholestyramine. Bisphosphonates have been proposed for the therapy of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease, particularly after liver transplantation. The possible side effects of oral administration of bisphosphonates, such as the occurrence of esophageal ulcerations, are of particular concern in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, due to the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ruptured esophageal varices, although this risk is probably overestimated. PMID:25568651

  17. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Marasco, Giovanni; Ravaioli, Federico; Colecchia, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4). Different and only partially known pathogenic mechanisms have been identified, comprising ammonia, inflammatory cytokines, benzodiazepine-like compounds and manganese deposition. Different therapeutic strategies are available for treating HE, in particular the overt HE, since covert HE needs to be managed case by case. Recognition and treatment of precipitating factors represent fundamental part of the management. The more effective treatments, which can be performed separately or combined, are represented by non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose and lactitol) and the topic antibiotic rifaximin; other possible therapies, mainly used in patients non responders to previous treatments, are represented by branched chain amino acids and metabolic ammonia scavengers. PMID:27571468

  18. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  19. Burden of schizophrenia on caregivers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, P M; Prajapati, A

    2013-06-01

    Schizophrenia is the one of the severest form of psychiatric disorder. The disorder affects not only the patient but the family also. This study is performed to assess the burden faced by care givers of schizophrenic patients. Family burden interview schedule was used in this study. There were forty patients in study, twenty six male and fourteen female. Forty caregivers were interviewed for assessment of burden, among whom thirty were female and ten male. And to compare burden forty care givers of bipolar patients were taken. Female parents were the most usual care givers, with average age of 58.3 years and most of them were housewives. The most burden were in the area of finance and family dynamics and overall burden was moderate. PMID:24696936

  20. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research. PMID:23827008

  1. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  2. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905 Section 590.905 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905 Section 590.905 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  5. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  6. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Gibb, Herman J.; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J.; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old–although they represent only 9% of the global population–and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  7. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-12-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  8. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  9. Put Your Eggs in This Basket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jeane; Leiva, Miriam

    1988-01-01

    Plastic Easter eggs are useful devices for teaching basic mathematics skills, from counting activities to graphing. Eggs are used to reinforce addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills; column addition, estimation, statistics, and other topics are introduced. Sample activities are described. (JL)

  10. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  11. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  12. Trends in the management and burden of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathurin, Philippe; Bataller, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe and is the leading cause of death among adults with excessive alcohol consumption. There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the risk of ALD. The relative risk of cirrhosis increases in subjects who consume more than 25 g/day. The burden of alcohol-attributable liver cirrhosis and liver cancer is high and is entirely preventable. Health agencies should develop population-based policies to reduce the prevalence of harmful and/or hazardous alcohol consumption and foster research in this field to provide new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Disease progression of patients with ALD is heavily influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of fibrosis have opened new perspectives in the early detection of advanced ALD in asymptomatic patients. Alcoholic hepatitis, the most severe form of ALD, carries a high short-term mortality (around 30–50% at 3 months). Corticosteroids improve short-term survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis but duration of therapy should be adapted to early response. Liver transplantation is the best option for patients with severe liver dysfunction. However, alcohol relapse after transplantation remains a critical issue and drinking habits of transplanted patients need to be routinely screened. PMID:25920088

  13. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  14. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg... approved information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the Inspection of Eggs--7 CFR part 57. DATES: Comments received by November 7, 2011 will be considered....

  15. Hepatitis Infection in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, Thomas F; Sylvestre, Diana; Seeff, Leonard; Litwin, Alain H; Hoffman, Kenneth; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H Westley

    2008-01-01

    pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction stabilizes patients and improves patient compliance to care and treatment regimens as well as promotes good patient outcomes. Implementation and integration of effective hepatitis prevention programs, care programs, and treatment regimens in concert with the pharmacological therapy of opioid addiction can reduce the public health burdens of hepatitis and injection drug use. PMID:25977607

  16. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  17. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  18. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  19. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for viral hepatitis-related research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Head, M G; Fitchett, J R; Cooke, G S; Foster, G R; Atun, R

    2015-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is responsible for great health, social and economic burden both globally and in the UK. This study aimed to assess the research funding awarded to UK institutions for viral hepatitis research and the relationship of funded research to clinical and public health burden of viral hepatitis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on infectious disease research studies funded for the period 1997–2010. Studies specifically related to viral hepatitis research were identified and categorized in terms of funding by pathogen, disease and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. The overall data set included 6165 studies (total investment £2.6 billion) of which £76.9 million (3.0%) was directed towards viral hepatitis across 323 studies (5.2%). By pathogen, there were four studies specifically investigating hepatitis A (£3.8 million), 69 studies for hepatitis B (21.4%) with total investment of £14.7 million (19.1%) and 236 (73.1%) hepatitis C studies (£62.7 million, 81.5%). There were 4 studies investigating hepatitis G, and none specifying hepatitis D or E. By associated area, viral hepatitis and therapeutics research received £17.0 million, vaccinology £3.1 million and diagnostics £2.9 million. Preclinical research received £50.3 million (65.4%) across 173 studies, whilst implementation and operational research received £19.4 million (25.3%) across 128 studies. The UK is engaged in much hepatology research, but there are areas where the burden is great and may require greater focus, such as hepatitis E, development of a vaccine for hepatitis C, and further research into hepatitis-associated cancers. Private sector data, and funding information from other countries, would also be useful in priority setting. PMID:25146854

  20. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for viral hepatitis-related research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Head, M G; Fitchett, J R; Cooke, G S; Foster, G R; Atun, R

    2015-03-01

    Viral hepatitis is responsible for great health, social and economic burden both globally and in the UK. This study aimed to assess the research funding awarded to UK institutions for viral hepatitis research and the relationship of funded research to clinical and public health burden of viral hepatitis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on infectious disease research studies funded for the period 1997-2010. Studies specifically related to viral hepatitis research were identified and categorized in terms of funding by pathogen, disease and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. The overall data set included 6165 studies (total investment £2.6 billion) of which £76.9 million (3.0%) was directed towards viral hepatitis across 323 studies (5.2%). By pathogen, there were four studies specifically investigating hepatitis A (£3.8 million), 69 studies for hepatitis B (21.4%) with total investment of £14.7 million (19.1%) and 236 (73.1%) hepatitis C studies (£62.7 million, 81.5%). There were 4 studies investigating hepatitis G, and none specifying hepatitis D or E. By associated area, viral hepatitis and therapeutics research received £17.0 million, vaccinology £3.1 million and diagnostics £2.9 million. Preclinical research received £50.3 million (65.4%) across 173 studies, whilst implementation and operational research received £19.4 million (25.3%) across 128 studies. The UK is engaged in much hepatology research, but there are areas where the burden is great and may require greater focus, such as hepatitis E, development of a vaccine for hepatitis C, and further research into hepatitis-associated cancers. Private sector data, and funding information from other countries, would also be useful in priority setting. PMID:25146854

  1. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  2. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  3. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  4. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  5. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  6. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  7. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  8. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  9. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  10. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  11. Exploring the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI): Further Evidence for a Multidimensional View of Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caserta, Michael S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the multidimensional nature of caregiver burden by specifically analyzing the patterns of association between five dimensions (in a sample of 160 caregivers) as measured by the Caregiver Burden Inventory and selected demographic, health, functioning, and well-being indicators. Time dependence burden was most influenced by patient…

  12. Hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Zordan, Martin; Tirado, Marcela; López, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    A female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in Chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. In spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. Postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. Histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica) eggs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of hepatic capillariasis in prosimians, and its implications are discussed. PMID:22779256

  13. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  14. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  15. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  16. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  17. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  18. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  19. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  20. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  1. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  2. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  3. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  4. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  5. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  6. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  7. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  8. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  9. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  10. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  11. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  12. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-01

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p < 0.05) the rate of egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p < 0.05) the feed:egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p < 0.05) along with the increasing level of dietary Se. The SP supplementation also slowed down (p < 0.05) the drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p < 0.01) with egg Se content and a negative correlation (p < 0.01) with egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:21942342

  13. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, Clémence; Ravaud, Jean-François; Papelard, Agathe; Ravaud, Philippe; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. Methods Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008–2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for analysis. Diagnosis and disabilities were self-reported. We assessed the risk of disability associated with RMDs using odds ratios (ORs) and the societal impact of RMDs using the average attributable fraction (AAF). Results Overall 27.7% (about 17.3 million people) (95% CI 26.9–28.4%) of the population reported having RMDs. The most prevalent RMDs were low back pain (12.5%, 12.1–13.1) and osteoarthritis (12.3%, 11.8–12.7). People reporting osteoarthritis were more disabled in walking (adjusted OR 1.9, 1.7–2.2) than those without. People reporting inflammatory arthritis were more limited in activities of daily living (from 1.4, 1.2–1.8 for walking to 2.1, 1.5–2.9 for moving around). From a societal perspective, osteoarthritis was the main contributor to activity limitations (AAF 22% for walking difficulties). Changing jobs was mainly attributed to neck pain (AAF 13%) and low back pain (11.5%). Conclusion RMDs are highly prevalent and significantly affect activity limitations and participation restrictions. More effort is needed to improve care and research in this field. PMID:24595187

  14. Transfer rates and pattern of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE from mother to egg in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1986-03-01

    Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.

  15. Hepatitis A and E: update on prevention and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    FitzSimons, David; Hendrickx, Greet; Vorsters, Alex; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In March 2009 the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) organized a meeting in Antwerp, in order to review the status of epidemiology and prevention of both hepatitis A and E. International hepatitis experts from the public health and academic sector provided the state of the art on HAV and emphasized the growing public health importance of the disease, in particular in intermediate endemicity regions, and the need for control at global level. The information shared on HEV showed clearly that it is emerging, but still a lot of efforts are needed to clarify among others the transmission routes, the clinical presentations and the burden of disease. First data on hepatitis E vaccines were discussed, showing a promising safety and efficacy profile. The meeting was concluded with lessons learnt, challenges, needs and proposed step forwards for both diseases. PMID:19925903

  16. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bosan, Altaf; Qureshi, Huma; Bile, Khalif Mohamud; Ahmad, Irtaza; Hafiz, Rehan

    2010-12-01

    , 12.3% and 12.0% in patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis and 25.7% and 54% in patients with chronic liver disease respectively. This review has illustrated the high endemicity of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan where hepatitis B and C potentially account for a serious burden of the disease. This review has triggered the launching of a network intervention for the control of hepatitis viral infectious. This review was used as the basis for the launch of hepatitis programme, but putting it into a formal review took time and the hepatitis program was initiated. PMID:21381562

  17. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. PMID:24630119

  18. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  19. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  20. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  1. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  2. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  3. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  4. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  5. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Marta; Canova, Sergio; Rosenzvit, Mara; Guarnera, Eduardo

    2002-09-01

    The eggs from Echinococcus granulosus contaminate the environment spreading out the disease among the herbivorous. The differential diagnosis of the embriophores recovered from the soil is very difficult by morphologic and immunologic methods. In this paper we evaluate the EgO/DNA-IM1 for identification of E. granulosus oncosphere DNA and differentiation of eggs from other Taeniid. The positive result of the PCR technique shows an amplification fragment of the expected size (285 bp) corresponding to the partial sequence of the mitochondrial gene of the cytochrome oxidase CO1 from E. granulosus (391 bp). The fragment is not present in the DNA from Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata, Diphyll-obothrium latum, and Hymenolepis nana. It could be useful to rule out Taenia taeniformis, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia crassiceps, which sequences do not belong to the primer. We concluded that the PCR amplification employing the EgO/DNA-IM1 primer set showed high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. PMID:12376028

  6. Egg shape changes at the theropod-bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D Charles; Ruta, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    The eggs of amniotes exhibit a remarkable variety of shapes, from spherical to elongate and from symmetrical to asymmetrical. We examine eggshell geometry in a diverse sample of fossil and living amniotes using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements. Our goal is to quantify patterns of morphospace occupation and shape variation in the eggs of recent through to Mesozoic birds (neornithe plus non-neornithe avialans), as well as in eggs attributed to non-avialan theropods. In most amniotes, eggs show significant deviation from sphericity, but departure from symmetry around the equatorial axis is mostly confined to theropods and birds. Mesozoic bird eggs differ significantly from extant bird eggs, but extinct Cenozoic bird eggs do not. This suggests that the range of egg shapes in extant birds had already been attained in the Cenozoic. We conclude with a discussion of possible biological factors imparting variation to egg shapes during their formation in the oviduct. PMID:26064565

  7. Contamination of stream fishes with chlorinated hydrocarbons from eggs of Great Lakes salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been stocked in the Great Lakes where they accumulate body burdens of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The transport of these contaminants to resident communities in spawning streams was studied in two tributaries of Lake Michigan accessible to anadromous spawners and one control tributary blocked to them. No polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, or dieldrin were detected in the sediments or biota of the control stream, or in sediments of the test streams. However, trout Salmo spp. and, to a lesser extent, sculpins Cottus spp. accumulated PCBs and DDT as a result of eating contaminated salmon eggs. Eggs constituted as much as 87% (by weight) of the total stomach contents of trout collected during the salmon spawning season early October to early January. Salmon eggs contained 0.46-9.50 mg PCBs/kg,. and 0.14-1.80 mg DDT/kg. Consumption of eggs varied greatly among individual trout, and there was a strong correlation between numbers of eggs in the stomachs and PCB and DDT concentrations in the fillets.

  8. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  9. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePlus

    ... partner – it's your best friend. Welcome. The Hepatitis Foundation International (HFI) is a 501 (c) 3 non- ... and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a caregiver, ...

  10. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  11. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  12. Hepatitis C in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Marinaki, Smaragdi; Boletis, John N; Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Delladetsima, Ioanna K

    2015-01-01

    Despite reduction of hepatitis C prevalence after recognition of the virus and testing of blood products, hemodialysis (HD) patients still comprise a high risk group. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in dialysis is not fully understood while the clinical outcome differs from that of the general population. HD patients show a milder liver disease with lower aminotransferase and viral levels depicted by milder histological features on liver biopsy. Furthermore, the “silent” clinical course is consistent with a slower disease progression and a lower frequency of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential explanations for the “beneficial” impact of uremia and hemodialysis on chronic HCV infection are impaired immunosurveillance leading to a less aggressive host response to the virus and intradialytic release of “hepatoprotective” cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α and hepatocyte growth factor. However, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a higher liver disease related cardiovascular and all-cause mortality of HD patients. Therapy is indicated in selected patients groups including younger patients with low comorbidity burden and especially renal transplant candidates, preferably after performance of a liver biopsy. According to current recommendations, choice of treatment is IFN or pegylated interferon with a reported sustained viral response at 30%-40% and a withdrawal rate ranging from 17% to 30%. New data regarding combination therapy with low doses of ribavirin which provide higher standard variable rates and good safety results, offer another therapeutic option. The new protease inhibitors may be the future for HCV infected HD patients, though data are still lacking. PMID:25848478

  13. Comparative effects of parenteral and oral administration of selected dithiocarbamates on body burdens and organ distribution of cadmium in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), N-methyl-N-dithiocarboxyglucamine (MDCG), and 4-carboxamidopiperidine-N-dithiocarboxylate (CAP-N-DTC) were compared at equimolar doses administered by the ip and po routes for effectiveness in mobilizing metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium (Cd) using 109Cd in mice. DDTC was highly effective by both routes in lowering hepatic, renal, and splenic Cd levels, but enhanced redistribution of Cd to testes and brain. While MDCG and CAP-N-DTC were much less active by the oral route, each effected a significant reduction of renal Cd levels, and MDCG reduced the testicular Cd burden. Neither analog lowered hepatic Cd levels impressively when given po.

  14. The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.

    PubMed

    Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, separating different types of liver disease is challenging. Cirrhosis is a disease of rich and poor alike; key public health risk factors such as alcohol consumption play an important role. Risk-reduction strategies such as controlling the price of alcohol are being widely discussed. Since these estimates used alcohol consumption as a covariate, they cannot be used to explore relationships between alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality. There is hope: coming generations of adults will have been vaccinated against hepatitis B, and this is envisaged to reduce the burden of fatal liver disease. But more complete civil registration globally is needed to fully understand the burden of liver disease.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/145/abstract. PMID:25286285

  15. Tumor Burden Analysis on Computed Tomography by Automated Liver and Tumor Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Linguraru, Marius George; Richbourg, William J.; Liu, Jianfei; Watt, Jeremy M.; Pamulapati, Vivek; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the automated computation of hepatic tumor burden from abdominal CT images of diseased populations with images with inconsistent enhancement. The automated segmentation of livers is addressed first. A novel three-dimensional (3D) affine invariant shape parameterization is employed to compare local shape across organs. By generating a regular sampling of the organ's surface, this parameterization can be effectively used to compare features of a set of closed 3D surfaces point-to-point, while avoiding common problems with the parameterization of concave surfaces. From an initial segmentation of the livers, the areas of atypical local shape are determined using training sets. A geodesic active contour corrects locally the segmentations of the livers in abnormal images. Graph cuts segment the hepatic tumors using shape and enhancement constraints. Liver segmentation errors are reduced significantly and all tumors are detected. Finally, support vector machines and feature selection are employed to reduce the number of false tumor detections. The tumor detection true position fraction of 100% is achieved at 2.3 false positives/case and the tumor burden is estimated with 0.9% error. Results from the test data demonstrate the method's robustness to analyze livers from difficult clinical cases to allow the temporal monitoring of patients with hepatic cancer. PMID:22893379

  16. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  17. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  18. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  19. Hepatitis C: New challenges in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Filipec Kanizaj, Tajana; Kunac, Nino

    2015-01-01

    In an era of great achievements in liver transplantation, hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) remains an unsolved problem. As a leading indication for liver transplantation in Western countries, HCV poses a significant burden both before and after transplantation. Post-transplant disease recurrence occurs in nearly all patients with detectable pretransplant viremia, compromising the lifesaving significance of transplantation. Many factors involving the donor, recipient and virus have been evaluated throughout the literature, although few have been fully elucidated and implemented in actual clinical practice. Antiviral therapy has been recognized as a cornerstone of HCV infection control; however, experience and success are diminished following transplantation in a challenging cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis. Current therapeutic protocols surpass those used previously, both in sustained viral response and side-effect profile. In this article we review the most relevant and contemporary scientific evidence regarding hepatitis C infection and liver transplantation, with special attention dedicated to novel, more efficient and safer antiviral regimens. PMID:26019441

  20. Hepatitis C Infection in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; Rheem, Justin; Sundaram, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the elderly population is a global medical burden and healthcare utilization concern. The majority of patients with hepatitis C in the USA are "baby boomers," who were born between 1945 and 1965. Consistently worldwide, HCV infection in elderly population is overrepresented and poses public health concerns. These individuals have been infected now for over two decades and are presenting with advanced liver disease. Traditionally, the use of pegylated interferon-based therapy has been limited in the elderly because of its adverse effects. The sustained virologic responses have also tended to be lower in the elderly than in younger adults. The emergence of non-interferon-based therapy with direct acting antiviral agents has expanded the pool of patients eligible for treatment. These agents have been found to be effective, tolerable, and safe in the elderly population. PMID:26008618

  1. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    PubMed Central

    Lynsdale, Carly L.; Santos, Diogo J. Franco dos; Hayward, Adam D.; Mar, Khyne U.; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  2. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Lynsdale, Carly L; Santos, Diogo J Franco Dos; Hayward, Adam D; Mar, Khyne U; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am-2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  3. Emerging and historical brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Canada and Spain.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Paula; Alaee, Mehran; Jiménez, Begoña; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Marvin, Chris; MacInnis, Gordia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Champoux, Louise; Fernie, Kim

    2012-04-01

    Comparisons of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in the eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) recently collected (2003-2007), are made between Canada (N=12) and Spain (N=13). Overall, concentrations of sum (Σ) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; 16 di-deca-BDE congeners) exceeded Σhexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and were an order of magnitude higher than 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153)>hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCBDCO)>1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE)>decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE)>octabromotrimethylphenyllindane (OBIND)>hexabromobenzene (HBB)>bis(2-ethyl-1hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP). This is the first report of detectable HBCDCO and BEHTBP concentrations in biota, and the highest in ovo concentration of ∑HBCD (14,617 ng/glw; Montreal, Canada) to date. There were significantly greater egg concentrations of BB-153, ΣHBCD, and ΣPBDE including BDE-153, -99, -100 and -183, in Canadian than Spanish peregrines with a terrestrial diet. HBB, BTBPE, and OBIND were detected in eggs from both countries, but only Canadian peregrine eggs had detectable levels of HCDBCO (25%) and DBDPE (N=1). The in ovo PBDE congener profile was dominated by BDE-153>BDE-99>BDE-47>BDE-183>BDE-100>BDE-209, with the isomeric HBCD pattern being α-HBCD>γ-HBCD (β-HBCD undetected). The Canadian peregrine eggs had lower enantiomeric HBCD values consistent with their higher fractions of (-) α-HBCD, suggesting selective enantiomeric enrichment or that the (+) α-isomer is more readily metabolized and so deposited in the egg through maternal transfer. Continental differences in egg burdens of peregrines are discussed relative to BFR usage patterns and exposure of peregrines on their breeding grounds. PMID:21862134

  4. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  5. Treating hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-10-01

    (1) New treatments for hepatitis C are curing more people than before. (2) Baby boomers make up an estimated 75 percent of all cases of hepatitis C. (3) Medicare and some insurance plans cover screening for hepatitis C as a preventive service without a copayment. PMID:25514812

  6. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  7. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size ... Prevented? How Is It Treated? What Is It? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is a disease ...

  8. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  9. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  10. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  11. Easing the Burden of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoGrasso, Marc F.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents suggestions for improving the effectiveness of external reporting while minimizing burden. Recommendations include repurposing existing internal reports to address the needs of external reports.

  12. The Burden of Diabetes in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Elgart, Jorge F.; Gagliardino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the economic burden of diabetes in Argentina by age, gender and region for the year 2005, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods: DALYs were estimated by the sum of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD). Results: In the population studied (20 to 85 years), the burden of diabetes without complications was 1.3 million DALYs, 85% of which were caused by disabilities. Whereas mortality rates (YLL) increased as a function of age, YLD showed the opposite relationship. Women had higher burden of disease values, represented by 51 and 61% of YLL and YLD, respectively, independently of age. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that disabilities are a key component of diabetes burden; its regular and systematic estimation would allow to design effective prevention strategies, to assess the impact of their implementation and to optimize resource allocation based on objective evidence. PMID:25948443

  13. Effect of various sources and levels of iodine, as well as the kind of diet, on the performance of young laying hens, iodine accumulation in eggs, egg characteristics, and morphotic and biochemical indices in blood.

    PubMed

    Słupczyńska, M; Jamroz, D; Orda, J; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2014-10-01

    Young hens were fed over a period of 150 d with 2 kinds of diets including corn and soybean meal or corn, soybean, and rapeseed meal. Diets were enriched with potassium iodide (KI) or potassium iodate (KIO3) as an I source in amounts equal to 1, 3, or 5 mg of supplemented I/kg of feed. The hen performance, egg quality, hematological and morphotic indices in blood, hepatic enzyme activity, lipid indices in blood serum as well as I accumulation in wet egg content were determined. Introduction of 00-variety rapeseed meal into the diet improved the laying rate and feed conversion (P < 0.05); however, better egg weight was noted by feeding the hens with a diet without rapeseed meal. Use of KI as an I source enhanced the egg weight. The increased I level in the diet had an equivocal influence on egg weight, improved the feed conversion per 1 kg of eggs, and decreased the proportion of damaged eggs. The use of corn, soybean, and rapeseed meal in hen diets significantly improved yolk color; similar results were noted after an increase in I levels in the diets after 3 mo of feeding. Hematological indices of hen blood demonstrated significantly higher red blood cells numbers and hemoglobin concentrations with the use of KI. The use of a diet containing rapeseed meal led to an enhancement of hepatic enzyme activity, especially of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.007). Lipid metabolism indices were not influenced by the kind of diet or the I source or level. The accumulation of I in wet egg content was negatively influenced by the use of a diet containing rapeseed meal (P = 0.000). The application of KI as an I source enhanced (P = 0.003) the accretion of I in eggs after 5 mo of treatment. Enhanced I supply significantly increased accumulation of I in eggs (P = 0.000) after 3 and 5 mo of the experiment from 260 and 310 to 1,011 and 1,256 µg/kg of wet egg content, respectively. PMID:25071224

  14. Relative financial burden of health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin J; Powell, M Paige; Probst, Janice C

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-pocket health expenditures potentially have a large impact on patients, particularly those with low incomes, leading to reduced utilization of health services and even bankruptcy. This analysis examines the burden of out-of-pocket spending, relative to total income, across several demographic groups. Rural residents had a higher relative burden than urban residents, as did women and Whites. Important policy implications are discussed. PMID:20391250

  15. Hatching the Cleidoic Egg: The Role of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V.H.; Darras, Veerle M.

    2013-01-01

    A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (THs) (often in concert with glucocorticoids) play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterized by peak values of THs. THs are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early post-hatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, THs may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, THs do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from TH-dependent precocial hatching. PMID:23755041

  16. Egg arrangement in avian clutches covaries with the rejection of foreign eggs.

    PubMed

    Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms. PMID:23443406

  17. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  18. Share of Afghanistan populace in hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection's pool: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sanaullah; Attaullah, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. Awareness program and research capacity in the field of hepatitis are very limited in Afghanistan. Number of vulnerabilities and patterns of risk behaviors signal the need to take action now. Thirty one studies dating from October 2003 to 2011 were included, consisting the data of 132,981 individuals for HBV and 132,500 individuals for HCV. Percentage prevalence was 1.9% for HBV and 1.1% for HCV in all available Afghanistan population. Most at risk population to hepatitis include injecting drug users who share needles and female sex workers, while truck drivers, prisoners and homosexual men needs attention, as their statistical figure are missing. Data suggests that high incidence of intravenous drug use, sexual activities, unsafe blood transfusion procedures and mobility are major risk factors for hepatitis transmission. This review is based on analysis of the limited available data in Afghanistan. Although there are many underlying vulnerability factors, it appears that Afghanistan remains at an early epidemic phase. Further research is required to determine the seroprevalence and prevalent genotype(s) of HBV and HCV in all provinces in Afghanistan. This article provides some key insights into the potential and likely future transmission dynamics of hepatitis which will serve as a guide in the identification of priority areas in term of high risk groups and risk behaviours in the country and will assist to develop urgent strategic plans to combat the future burden of hepatitis in Afghanistan. PMID:21569317

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Schistosoma mansoni Egg Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Califf, Lindsay L.; Xu, Tao; Hernandez, Hector J.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Yates, John R.; Williams, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a largely neglected, global health problem. The morbid pathology of the disease stems from the host's inflammatory response to parasite eggs trapped in host tissues. Long term host/parasite survival is dependent upon the successful modulation of the acute pathological response, which is induced by egg antigens. In this study, using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology, we identified the Schistosoma mansoni egg secretome consisting of 188 proteins. Notably we identified proteins involved in redox balance, molecular chaperoning and protein folding, development and signaling, scavenging and metabolic pathways, immune response modulation, and 32 novel, previously uncharacterized schistosome proteins. We localized a subset of previously-characterized schistosome proteins identified in egg secretions in this study, to the surface of live S. mansoni eggs using the circumoval precipitin reaction. The identification of proteins actively secreted by live schistosome eggs provides important new information for understanding immune modulation and the pathology of schistosomiasis. PMID:17644200

  20. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. PMID:26506379

  1. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  2. Hepatitis: protecting BMETs & CEs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis is the primary occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Not until the 1970s were hepatitis viruses isolated and identified as types A and B. In the late 1970s, hepatitis D was discovered as a major cause of fulminant hepatitis. Soon, it was evident that another type was also at work. Because testing was only available for types A and B, the new category was referred to as non-A, non-B. In the 1980s, scientists identified two more viruses from this non-A, non-B group, namely hepatitis E and hepatitis C. These five types of hepatitis have different modes of transmission. The fecal-to-oral route is the mode of transmission for hepatitis types A and E. But, types B and D are bloodborne pathogens. With the advent of a safe vaccine for hepatitis B, this category is declining. To date, hepatitis C appears to have multiple routes of transmission, with half the cases being posttransfusion. In the United States, 85,000 people per year develop chronic hepatitis C, which ultimately leads to severe liver damage. This paper addresses each of the five viruses that have been grouped by routes of transmission, prevention techniques for BMETs and CEs, and statistics of reported cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) over the last 20 years. PMID:10139739

  3. Effect of plant sterol-enriched diets on plasma and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhao, H L; Thiessen, S; House, J D; Jones, P J H

    2010-02-01

    Egg exists as a major dietary source of cholesterol in Western diets. In North America, laying hen diets are usually devoid of cholesterol when diets are formulated to exclude animal-based products. Hence, laying hens meet their physiological cholesterol requirement through de novo synthesis. Plant sterols exert a cholesterol-lowering effect in humans by interfering with intestinal sterol absorption. However, it is unknown whether plant sterol supplementation could be effective in reducing intestinal reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in laying hens, thus modulating whole body cholesterol in favor of lower plasma and yolk cholesterol content. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% plant sterols on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, as well as plasma, liver, and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. After 8 wk of plant sterol intervention (first 2 wk were acclimatization), feed intake, BW, egg weight, egg yolk weight, egg production, Haugh units, liver mass, plasma, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations did not differ as a function of plant sterol supplementation. Egg cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) fluctuated during the 6-wk experimental period. At wk 6, a minor reduction in egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg per g of yolk, P<0.05, vs. control) was observed in hens fed 1 and 2% cholesterol-enriched diets, respectively. However, such result failed to affect total egg cholesterol content. No statistical difference was observed across treatments over 6 wk. Neither cholesterol absorption rates nor synthesis differed as a function of treatment. Results suggested that overall cholesterol content in egg yolk was not affected by feeding hens plant sterol-enriched diets over 6 wk. PMID:20075279

  4. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  5. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs.

    PubMed

    Vejzagić, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene; Roepstorff, Allan; Bruun, Johan Musaeus; Kapel, Christian M O

    2015-07-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large intestine of the infected and uninfected Göttingen minipig. Mechanical stimulation with glass beads presented a simple and reproducible method for egg hatching. However, incubation of eggs with mucosal scrapings from the ileum, caecum, and colon for 24 h at 38 °C significantly increased hatching. PMID:26008635

  6. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  7. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice. PMID:26239334

  8. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  9. Egg freezing: a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy?

    PubMed

    Harwood, Karey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the relatively new technology of freezing human eggs and examines whether egg freezing, specifically when it is used by healthy women as 'insurance' against age-related infertility, is a legitimate exercise of reproductive autonomy. Although egg freezing has the potential to expand women's reproductive options and thus may represent a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy, I argue that without adequate information about likely outcomes and risks, women may be choosing to freeze their eggs in a commercially exploitative context, thus undermining rather than expanding reproductive autonomy. PMID:18945249

  10. Ectopic Schistosoma mansoni Eggs Inside a Lipoma.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Petroianu, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic schistosomiasis is uncommon and tends to occur when the parasite's eggs or adult forms are located far from their normal site. This report presents the first described case of ectopic Schistosoma mansoni eggs inside a subcutaneous lipoma far from the tissues of this worm's life cycle and with no connection to either portal veins or any other vascular system. These eggs were found inside giant cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. In conclusion, in humans, ectopic S. mansoni eggs can be found far from the tissues of the described life cycle of this worm, with no connection to portal veins or other blood vessels used for their migration. PMID:26598562

  11. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Elblag area].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, W

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in Elbl4g was studied. Out of 72 soil samples collected in public places of the city 13.9% were positive and the mean egg density was 3.75/100g soil. The city backyards were much more contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs (18.0%) than the playgrounds (4.5%). In sandpits examined the eggs were not found. Almost 80% of Toxocara spp. eggs recovered were infective. T. cati eggs were more frequent than T. canis eggs. Additionally in examined samples two eggs of Ancylostoma caninum and one egg of Ascaris lumbricoides were recognized. PMID:16888965

  12. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. PMID:25577613

  13. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  14. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  15. Caregiver burden among nocturnal home hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Narayanan, Ranjit; Chan, Christopher T

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested improvements in quality of life (QOL) in patients on quotidian dialysis compared with conventional hemodialysis. Few studies have focused on the burden and QOL in caregivers of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHD). We aim to assess the caregivers' burden, QOL, and depressive symptoms and to compare these parameters with their patients' counterparts. Cross-sectional surveys were sent to 61 prevalent NHD patients and their caregivers. Surveys assessed demographics, general self-perceived health using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the presence of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. Subjective burden on caregivers was assessed by the Caregiver Burden scale and was compared with perceived burden by the patients. Thirty-six patients and 31 caregivers completed the survey. The majority of caregivers were female (66%), spouse (81%) with no comorbid illness (72%). Their mean age was 51 ± 11 years. Patients were mostly male (64%) with a median ESRD vintage of 60 months (interquartile range [IQR], 18-136 months) and a mean age of 52 ± 10 years. Compared to caregivers, patients had lower perceived physical health score but had similar mental health score. Depression criteria were present in 47% of patients and 25% of caregivers. Total global burden perceived by either caregivers or patients is relatively low. Although there is a relatively low global burden perceived by caregivers and patients undergoing NHD, a significant proportion of both groups fulfilled criteria for depression. Further innovative approaches are needed to support caregivers and patients performing NHD to reduce the intrusion of caring for a chronic illness and the risk of developing depression. PMID:22304491

  16. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  17. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  19. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  20. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  1. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  2. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  3. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  4. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  5. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  6. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition...

  7. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  11. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  13. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  14. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  16. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  17. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition...

  18. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or...

  2. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition...

  3. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  4. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition...

  5. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  6. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  7. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  8. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  9. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  10. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection...

  11. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  12. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  13. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  14. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  15. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  16. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  18. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary,...

  19. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  20. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...