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Sample records for egg yolk antibody

  1. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  2. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  3. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  4. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  5. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  6. Anti-Echis carinatus venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk: isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy.

    PubMed

    Paul, K; Manjula, J; Deepa, E P; Selvanayagam, Z E; Ganesh, K A; Subba Rao, P V

    2007-12-01

    High titer antibodies (IgY) were raised in egg yolk of white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) by immunizing with the venom of Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper or carpet viper), an Indian venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae. The anti-snake venom antibodies (antivenom) were isolated from egg yolk by the water dilution method, enriched by 19% sodium sulfate precipitation and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. A single, electrophoretically pure IgY band of 180-200 kDa was obtained on SDS-PAGE. Immunoblot analysis revealed not only the specific binding of the antivenom but also dose-dependent blocking of antivenom by venom proteins. In neutralization studies, a preincubated mixture of both affinity-purified (50 mg/kg body weight) as well as partially purified (210 mg/kg body weight) anti-E. carinatus IgY with 2 LD(50) dose of E. carinatus venom (2 x 6.65 mg/kg body weight) gave 100% protection in mice when administered subcutaneously. PMID:17681579

  7. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37). PMID:25924641

  8. A novel isolation method for hen egg yolk antibody, "IgY".

    PubMed

    Hatta, H; Kim, M; Yamamoto, T

    1990-10-01

    A method for isolation of egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgG, a livetin protein, was investigated. Several natural gums (carrageenan and xanthan gum) were found to be effective for removal of yolk lipoprotein as a precipitate. The effect was pronounced with lambda-carrageenan and the lipid content in the supernatant after removal of the resulting precipitate was less than 0.4% of that of egg yolk. IgY remained in this supernatant, with a yield of 86%, and was isolated by chromatography on a column of DEAE-Sephacel followed by salting-out with sodium sulfate. IgY thus isolated was almost pure (98%) and the yield was 70 to 100 mg per egg. PMID:1368596

  9. Egg yolk IgY antibodies: A therapeutic intervention against group A rotavirus in calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2015-12-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is considered the major cause of diarrhea in intensively reared neonatal calves. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) are efficient in protecting neonatal calves from RVA diarrhea; however, the value of this intervention in calves once diarrhea has appeared is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the application of RVA-specific IgY as a passive treatment in those cases. The experimental groups were: G1=RVA-specific IgY treatment; G2=no Ab treatment; and G3=colostrum deprived+no Ab treatment. IgY treatment significantly reduced virus shedding, diarrhea duration and severity compared to G2 and G3 calves. However, it caused a partial suppression of systemic Ab responses to RVA that could be associated with less severe diarrhea. The oral treatment with IgY for 7days was associated with significantly higher antibody secreting cell responses in the calves compared with other groups of animals. PMID:26679788

  10. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Fernando Luiz; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Kanashiro, Milton Masahiko; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Brom-de-Luna, João Gato; de Almeida, Claudia Maria Costa; Azevedo Junior, Romildo Rocha; Lemos, Môsar; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2012-01-01

    Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal) with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC) and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50μL aliquots were incubated in 850μL BHI broth containing 50μL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37°C. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm). Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05) growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals. PMID:24031862

  11. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against recombinant VP8-S2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, K; Nassiri, M R; Tahmoorespur, M; Haghparast, A; Zibaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. VP8 subunit of rotavirus is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Studies showed that immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) from immunized hens has been identified to be a convenient source for specific antibodies for using in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostic to limit the infections. In this study, chimeric VP8-S2 gene was designed using by computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 gene was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a (+) vectors. Then, recombinant pET32a-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). The expressed protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Hens were immunized with the purified VP8-S2 protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. Activity and specificity of anti-VP8-S2 IgY were detected by dot-blotting, Western-blotting and indirect ELISA. We obtained anti-VP8-S2 IgY by immunizing hens with the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. The anti-VP8-S2 IgY was showed to bind specifically to the chimeric VP8-S2 protein by dot-blotting, Western-blotting analyses and indirect ELISA. The result of this study indicated that such construction can be useful to investigate as candidates for development of detection methods for simultaneous diagnosis of both infections. Specific IgY against the recombinant VP8-S2 could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus. PMID:27487500

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  14. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  15. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  17. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VN<4; ELISA IgY Ab titer<4] twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk

  18. Serum and egg yolk antibody detection in chickens infected with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveillance for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections has primarily relied on labor intensive collection and serological testing of serum, but for many poultry diseases, easier to collect yolk samples have replaced serum for surveillance testing. A time course LPAIV infection s...

  19. Use of powdered egg yolk vs fresh egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ovine semen.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M

    2004-12-01

    Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p <0.05), compared to cells in diluents containing powdered egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (<200 CFU/ml) in both diluents, and no bacterial growth was observed in either, when antibiotics were added. Therefore, powdered egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk. PMID:15598235

  20. Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

  1. Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

    2008-08-01

    Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel M.H.V. Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens. Immunological Communications 1980; 9:475-493.) and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography, which gave pure (180-200kDa) specific antibodies against venom. High titre of more than 1:10,000 antibodies were detected by ELISA at the 135th day of observation. The lethal toxicity and various pharmacological activities like hemorrhagic activity, phospholipase activity, edema and procoagulant activities of venom were carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods. The effectiveness of antivenom in neutralizing these effects was carried out involving pre-incubation type experiments. The median effective dose (ED50) for Russell's viper venom was 0.96mg/2LD50/18g mice and for Saw-scaled viper venom it was 1.28mg/2LD50/18g mice. One millilitre of specific antivenom was effective in neutralizing 0.110mg of Russell's viper and 0.137mg of Saw-scaled viper venoms respectively (PD50). Antivenom was effective in neutralization assays in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation. PMID:18550009

  2. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg...

  3. Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

    2008-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

  4. Triple-yolked eggs in domestic ducks: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2016-05-01

    Multiple-yolked avian eggs, and especially triple-yolked (TY) eggs, are rare. Over two years, 48,224 duck eggs (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were individually candled and seven (0.0145%) TY eggs were identified in a commercial breeding and incubation environment. When compared with double-yolked eggs (Salamon and Kent,2016) their mean weight, length, width and shape index did not differ, but their dimensions were greater than for single-yolked duck eggs. Yolk fertility in the TY eggs was low (33.33%), and this was attributed to smaller yolk size and early ovulation and/or follicle immaturity. By day 8 of incubation, fertile yolks were positioned next to the airspace. Egg 5 contained one fertile yolk, and the embryo developed to enter the airspace, was consuming all three yolks, but failed to hatch. PMID:26908889

  5. Eliciting antigen-specific egg-yolk IgY with naked DNA.

    PubMed

    Romito, M; Viljoen, G J; Du Plessis, D H

    2001-09-01

    Immunization with naked DNA was used to elicit chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY). Layer hens were inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein, the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus, and VP2 of African horse sickness virus. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by polyethylene glycol precipitation. Specific antibodies were present in the yolks of eggs from hens immunized with each of the three different plasmids. This approach to raising polyclonal antibodies obviates the need to produce and purify large quantities of proteins for immunization and can potentially yield large amounts of diagnostically or therapeutically useful reagents. PMID:11570510

  6. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  7. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. PMID:26592708

  8. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) modulate the intestinal mucosal immune response in a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ying; Wang, Xitao; Zhen, Yuhong; Thacker, Philip A; Wang, Lili; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Junjun; Zong, Ying; Wang, Ni; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the effects of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) on immune responses in the intestinal mucosal of mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Sixty, 28-day-old mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with streptomycin or sterile water for 2days followed by 1day without treatment. The control group was unchallenged whereas the mice in the other three groups were treated twice with 10(9)CFUmL(-1)S. typhimurium. For the next 3days, control mice continued to receive no treatment whereas the mice in the remaining three groups were orally administered with 20mgmL(-1) of specific IgY, 20mgmL(-1) of nonspecific IgY or PBS. S. typhimurium activated gut-associated lymphoid tissue, increasing the release of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the mucosa and increased the number of activated T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-γδ. Specific IgY attenuated the increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α and the decrease in IL-10. S. typhimurium induced mobilization of CD8(+) and CD8(+) TCRγδ T cells in the epithelium and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the lamina propria reflecting an inflammatory process that was attenuated by IgY. These results suggest that specific IgY modulates intestinal mucosal immune responses during a S. typhimurium infection. PMID:27214338

  9. Preparation of egg yolk antibodies against BoNT/B and their passive protection in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    You, Zherong; Yang, Hao; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jinglin

    2014-01-01

    Botulism in human is a devastating intoxication caused mainly by type A, B, and E botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The most effective treatment of botulism is injection of BoNT antiserum in the first 24 h. In this study, a recombinant C-terminal heavy chain of BoNT/B (BHc) was successfully expressed in E. coli. The soluble BHc was used as an antigen to immunize laying hens for yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) production. The purified IgY against BHc subunit, preincubated with the BoNT/B, was predominantly involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxicity. Furthermore, both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the IgY could protect mice from death caused by injection of toxin at a lethal dose. Our results therefore suggest that anti-BHc IgY directed to the Hc domain is effectively involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxin and may be considered as preventive and therapeutic intervention in the case of botulism. PMID:25424938

  10. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  11. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  12. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515886

  13. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks

    PubMed Central

    Rawn, D.F.K.; Sadler, A.; Quade, S.C.; Sun, W.-F.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Kosarac, I.; Hayward, S.; Ryan, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g−1 lipid (median = 3.03 ng g−1 lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ΣPBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ΣPBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g−1 lipid (median = 0.053 ng g−1 lipid). The α-isomer was the dominant contributor to ΣHBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ΣPBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ΣHBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study. PMID:21623506

  14. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to...

  15. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to...

  16. Hen egg yolk lipid fractions with antiatherogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Panagopoulou, Eleanna; Demopoulos, Constantinos; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-03-01

    Three different types of hen egg yolk, cage-free, organic and daily fresh, were tested for their antiatherogenic properties. Total lipids (TL) of all hen egg yolk samples were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer and further separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) by counter current distribution chromatography. TPL and TNL were further separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). TL, TPL, TNL and the obtained polar and neutral lipid fractions after TLC separation were tested to determine whether they induce platelet activation or inhibit platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet activation. All three hen egg yolk TL samples possessed strong inhibitory activity against PAF-induced platelet activation that was mainly attributed to TPL, especially to PL fraction 4. Cage-free hen egg yolk exhibited the most potent anti-PAF activity in all lipid classes (TL, TPL and TNL). Thus hen egg yolk contains PAF inhibitors that reinforce their nutritional value in terms of protection against cardiovascular diseases, since PAF is a crucial inflammatory phospholipid mediator that is implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis. PMID:23480708

  17. Does dietary vitamin E or C decrease egg yolk cholesterol?

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Maziar; Zaghari, Mojtaba

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period (10 days) to adjust egg production. Treatments were levels of vitamin E or C (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) supplementation to the basal diet for 4 weeks, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, and feed consumption were recorded during the study. Shell thickness, Haugh unit score, yolk color, yolk weight, yolk cholesterol, and blood parameters were measured at the end of experiment. There was no significant effect of dietary vitamin E or C on hen performance. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly by antioxidant vitamin supplementation (P < 0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol reduction did not have any negative effect on egg production rate. Antioxidants, especially vitamin C, increased serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05). Serum total cholesterol content did not change by vitamin supplementation but cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) increased (P < 0.05), as dietary vitamin E or C supplementation increased in diets. These results are in conflict with the previous hypothesis that antioxidants have a role in LDL-C removal from the blood or increasing HDL-C. Vitamin E was more effective than vitamin C in this case and if these results are confirmed by further studies, they may result to revision in researchers' point of view about antioxidant especially in human medicine. PMID:20127202

  18. Benefits and Limits of Egg Yolk vs. Serum Samples for Avian Influenza Virus Serosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2016-06-01

    Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine. Nucleocapsid protein-specific ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) against homologous as well as heterologous antigens were used. The eggs and sera were collected at 22, 30, 45, and 50 wk of age (i.e., 4, 12, 27, and 32 wk after the third and final immunization, respectively). Using ELISA, the number of positive egg yolk samples decreased over time after vaccination, from 97% to 47%, while the seropositivity rate of serum samples was 97%-100% during the whole investigation period. No antibody titers were detected in egg white. By HI, antibody titers in serum samples were higher than in egg yolk samples. Compared to the homologous H5N2 antigen, significantly lower HI titers were obtained by using a heterologous H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1.2. In addition, no HI titers were detected in egg yolk and/or serum samples tested against the antigen of an Egyptian H5N1 antigenic drift variant of clade 2.2.1.1. This study indicates that egg yolk may be used to monitor the postvaccination immune status of broiler breeder chickens and retrospective serosurveillance-by HI when a matching antigen is available as well as by ELISA-particularly for up to 12 wk postvaccination. PMID:27309294

  19. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology. PMID:24783946

  20. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and...

  1. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and...

  2. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675

  3. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  4. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  5. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  6. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  7. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  8. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... chapter. (a) Under the supervision of an Authorized Agent or State Inspector, the eggs which are used...

  9. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  10. Quail egg yolk: a novel cryoprotectant for the freeze preservation of Poitou jackass sperm.

    PubMed

    Trimeche, A; Anton, M; Renard, P; Gandemer, G; Tainturier, D

    1997-06-01

    For many years, attempts have been made to establish a sperm bank for the Poitou jackass population which is threatened with extinction. Unfortunately, no cryopreservation technique has ever been described for spermatozoa of this species. In an attempt to find a suitable technique, we studied the relative effectiveness of chicken egg yolk and quail egg yolk in preserving the motility and characteristics of movement of Poitou jackass spermatozoa during the freezing-thawing process. Semen was diluted to 60 x 10(6) sperm/ml in a preservation medium containing 4% (v/v) glycerol with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (v/v) of chicken or quail egg yolk. The chemical composition of these two eggs was compared. Effects were assessed using an automated analyzer which measured curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), and the velocity of the average path. Linearity was defined as VSL/VCL x 100. The amplitude of the lateral head displacement was also measured. It was found that after the freeze-thaw process, quail egg yolk improved the percentages of motile and progressively undulating spermatozoa and the movement characteristics compared with chicken egg yolk. The optimal concentration of quail egg yolk was 10%. The general composition of the two types of egg yolk were similar, but quail egg yolk contained significantly more phosphatidylcholine, less phosphatidylethanolamine, and a smaller ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids than chicken egg yolk. The improvement of motility for frozen-thawed Poitou jackass spermatozoa using frozen-thawed quail egg yolk compared to chicken egg yolk may be due to the differences in composition of the two yolks. PMID:9200823

  11. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  12. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  13. Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg-yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases--A review.

    PubMed

    Gadde, U; Rathinam, T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-12-01

    Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninvasively from egg yolks. The use of IgY offers several advantages in that it is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and reduces the numbers of animals required for antibody production. This paper reviews the use of IgY antibodies in the treatment and prevention of enteric pathogen infections in poultry. Brief descriptions of the production, structure, and properties of IgY are also presented. Some limitations of the technology and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26568433

  14. Yolk testosterone varies with sex in eggs of the lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Lovern, Matthew B; Wade, Juli

    2003-02-01

    In the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male-producing than female-producing eggs at oviposition, but the source and potential effects were not clear from previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which embryonic steroidogenesis is unlikely, it would strongly suggest that the difference in yolk T is maternally derived. We collected yolk samples from eggs shelling within the oviducts of anesthetized females, and then allowed these females to lay the eggs naturally. Eggs were incubated to hatching to determine sex morphologically, and yolk T concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. As is the case just after they are laid, yolk T is higher in male than female oviductal eggs. To our knowledge, this is the earliest sex difference reported for any yolk steroid. We suggest that maternally derived yolk T levels could influence sex by differentially affecting male- and female-inducing sperm, because fertilization occurs after yolk deposition and ovulation, while the egg is in the oviduct. Our results, together with those of an increasing number of studies, suggest that a relationship between hormones and vertebrate sex determination may be more widespread than generally appreciated. PMID:12541305

  15. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis and S. heidelberg strains into egg yolks during 36 hour ambient temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside yolks is uncommon in naturally contaminated eggs, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national...

  16. Maternal plasma and egg yolk testosterone concentrations during embryonic development in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Lovern, M B; Wade, J

    2001-11-01

    Sex steroids of presumably maternal origin have been found in avian, crocodilian, and chelonian egg yolks, and they can affect offspring morphology and behavior. The present study reports testosterone (T) levels to which embryos are potentially exposed in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination. We documented plasma and yolk T concentrations in adult females, in their developing follicles and eggs, and in freshly oviposited and incubating eggs. Plasma T was higher in reproductively active than in reproductively inactive females. Within reproductively active females, those with a single, large yolking follicle had higher plasma T than those that had one or more shelling, oviductal eggs. Individual females contributed different amounts of T to their yolks, but within females, more mature follicles or eggs consistently had higher yolk T concentrations than did less mature follicles or eggs. Similar to previous research, yolk T concentrations at oviposition were higher in male eggs than in female eggs. However, T levels during incubation did not differ by embryo sex, but rather increased in both male and female eggs. These results suggest that T plays a role in the reproductive physiology of females and potentially in the phenotypic development of their offspring. Furthermore, whereas the yolk T increase observed during follicular maturation is clearly a maternal influence, it remains unclear whether that observed during egg development (i.e., postfertilization) results from a lack of T uptake by the embryo as yolk is absorbed, from embryonic production of T that diffuses into the yolk, or from some combination of these processes. Because lizard embryos are comparatively well developed at oviposition, the assumption that yolk steroids are strictly of maternal origin may require modification, and the possibility that embryos are modulating their own steroid environment needs to be explored. PMID:11703087

  17. Production, Characterization and Applications for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Polyclonal Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Flávia B.; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G.; Mota, Caroline M.; Faria, Matheus S.; Filho, Hercílio H. Silva; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Conclusions/Significance Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii. PMID:22808150

  18. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  19. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  20. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  1. An ELISA for quantifying quail IgY and characterizing maternal IgY transfer to egg yolk in several quail strains.

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsushi; Kakiuchi, Misako; Hamano, Takahito; Kobayashi, Misato; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2016-07-01

    In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA. Blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations were determined in six quail strains (one inbred strain, L; four closed population strains, AWE, DB, PS, WE; one commercial strain, Commercial). The birds were also injected with digoxigenin-labeled quail IgY-Fc, and its uptakes into laid eggs were compared. The strain difference in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations was at most 2.5-fold, between PS and AWE. The rank order of IgY concentrations was AWE, Commercial, DB, L≥WE≥PS. A significant positive correlation (|R|=0.786) between individual blood IgY and egg yolk IgY and the concentrated egg yolk IgY (1.5-2-fold) against blood IgY was observed. Interestingly, there was a significant inverse correlation (|R|=0.452) between injected IgY-Fc uptakes and the blood IgY concentration, implying competition of the injected IgY-Fc and blood IgY in the process of IgY uptake into egg yolks. In conclusion, we successfully determined blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in various quail strains by a quail IgY-specific ELISA. The concentrated egg yolk IgY against the blood IgY and the inverse relationship of exogenous IgY-Fc uptake against the blood IgY supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in avian maturing oocytes. PMID:27269788

  2. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens’ performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  3. Cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju; Ahn, Dong Uk; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and thus has a strong metal-binding ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin in vitro. Using the 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of phosvitin was evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins, including the cervix (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), stomach (AGS), lung (A549 and SK-MES-1), liver (HepG2), and larynx (Hep-2). The growth of all cancer cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by phosvitin. Among the cancer cell lines tested, MCF-7 and SK-MES-1 were the least sensitive and HeLa, AGS, and HepG2 were the most sensitive to phosvitin. The 50% inhibition of cell viability values of phosvitin were 5.38, 11.57, 4.78, 6.98, 11.82, 3.93, and 9.97 mg/mL for HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, A549, SK-MES-1, HepG2, and Hep-2, respectively. The protective effects of phosvitin against DNA damage in human leukocytes indicated that phosvitin showed protective effects against the oxidative stress-induced DNA damages in human leukocytes. These results suggested that phosvitin has a high potential to be used as an anticancer agent for humans. PMID:24902700

  4. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Baidoo, S K; Marquardt, R R; Yang, X

    2003-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection and resulting scours is a major problem for young pigs, especially when purified plant proteins are fed rather than spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). The effect of supplementing a pea protein isolate (PPI)-based diet with egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from laying hens immunized with ETEC K88 antigen on piglet performance, incidence of scours, and gut histology was studied in a 14-d trial. Ninety-six 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give six replicate pens per treatment. The treatments were PPI without EYA (PPI-EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI+EYA), SDPP without EYA (SDPP-EYA), SDPP with EYA (SDPP+EYA), or a combination of PPI and SDPP (PPI+SDPP). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake. Blood from all pigs was taken on d 0, 7, and 14 for determining plasma urea N (PUN). On d 7, pigs were orally challenged with 6 mL of 10(10) cfu/ mL ETEC K88. Piglets were weighed on d 7 and 14. On d 7, 8, and 14, four pigs per treatment were sacrificed to study the histology of the small intestine. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Fecal swabs from 10 pigs per treatment were taken for a PCR test to detect K88 E. coli. Feed efficiency over the 14-d period was not affected (P > 0.78) by dietary treatment. Mean ADFI on an as-fed basis was lower (P < 0.002) in piglets fed PPI-EYA (64.3 g/d) compared with PPI+EYA (94.8 g/d) or SDPP (102 g/d) during wk 1. Piglets fed PPI-EYA tend to have a lower (P < 0.026) overall ADG (84 g/d) than those fed PPI+EYA (123 g/d) or SDPP (127 g/d) (P < 0.006)-based diets. Although scours was evident in all groups of pigs 6 h after the challenge, most of the piglets fed EYA- or SDPP-containing diets recovered 10 to 72 h postchallenge, whereas those fed PPI-EYA continued to have severe diarrhea, resulting in 33% mortality. The PCR results showed that a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of piglets

  5. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody, zinc oxide, fumaric acid, or antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Marquardt, R R

    2003-07-01

    The effect of feeding diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or pea protein-isolate (PPI) supplemented with either egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (K88 and F18) antigens, ZnO, fumaric acid (FA), or carbadox (AB) on pig performance, incidence of scours, and gut morphology was studied in a 14-d experiment. Ninety 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give five pens per treatment with three pigs per pen. The diets were SDPP without EYA (SDPP - EYA), PPI without EYA (PPI - EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI + EYA), PPI with ZnO (PPI + ZnO), PPI with FA (PPI + FA), or PPI with AB (PPI + AB). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels, with AB, EYA, FA, and ZnO at 0.25, 0.5, 2.0, and 0.4% of the diet, respectively. Pigs were weighed and bled on d 0, 7, and 14 to determine plasma urea N (PUN). Pigs were orally challenged with a 6-mL dose of 10(10) cfu/mL ETEC (K88) on d 7. On d 14, three pigs per treatment were killed to obtain sections of the small intestine for histological measurements. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Incidence of scours and scour scores were monitored and fecal swabs were taken before and after ETEC challenge for PCR test to detect ETEC (K88). Feeding SDPP or supplementing PPI-based diets with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB did not affect (P > 0.05) ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), or gain:feed throughout the study. However, pigs fed PPI - EYA tended to have lower (P = 0.08) ADFI during wk 2 (137.9 g/d) and lower (P < 0.10) ADG from d 0 to 14 (100.1 g/d) than those fed the SDPP - EYA (156.6 g/d), PPI + EYA (151.2 g/d), PPI + ZnO (158.9 g/ d), PPI + FA (155.4 g/d), and PPI + AB (152.6 g/d) diets. Although scours was evident in all pigs 8 h after the ETEC challenge, it lasted only 3 to 5 d in pigs fed SDPP or PPI supplemented with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB. Pigs fed PPI - EYA continued to have severe diarrhea

  6. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  7. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  8. Determination of yolk contamination in liquid egg white using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cluff, K; Konda Naganathan, G; Jonnalagada, D; Mortensen, I; Wehling, R; Subbiah, J

    2016-07-01

    Purified egg white is an important ingredient in a number of baked and confectionary foods because of its foaming properties. However, yolk contamination in amounts as low as 0.01% can impede the foaming ability of egg white. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that yolk contamination in egg white could be detected based on its molecular optical properties. Yolk contaminated egg white samples (n = 115) with contamination levels ranging from 0% to 0.25% (on weight basis) were prepared. The samples were excited with a 785 nm laser and Raman spectra from 250 to 3,200 cm(-1) were recorded. The Raman spectra were baseline corrected using an optimized piecewise cubic interpolation on each spectrum and then normalized with a standard normal variate transformation. Samples were randomly divided into calibration (n = 77) and validation (n = 38) data sets. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict yolk contamination levels, based on the Raman spectral fingerprint. Raman spectral peaks, in the spectral region of 1,080 and 1,666 cm(-1), had the largest influence on detecting yolk contamination in egg white. The PLSR model was able to correctly predict yolk contamination levels with an R(2) = 0.90 in the validation data set. These results demonstrate the capability of Raman spectroscopy for detection of yolk contamination at very low levels in egg white and present a strong case for development of an on-line system to be deployed in egg processing plants. PMID:27118861

  9. Studies on the effect of supplementing boar semen cryopreservation media with different avian egg yolk types on in vitro post-thaw sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, R; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G

    2006-02-01

    Fertility after insemination of cryopreserved boar semen is currently below that of fresh semen. In an attempt to improve the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm, semen was frozen using an adapted Westendorf method in which the chicken egg yolk was replaced by either duck or quail egg yolk. The different composition of the yolk types, particularly the amount of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, were thought to potentially afford a greater level of protection to sperm against damage during freezing and thawing. Sperm frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk displayed higher motility immediately after thawing, but there was no difference in the motility of sperm frozen with different types of egg yolk 3 or 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C. Sperm frozen in media containing chicken or duck egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes immediately after thawing than sperm frozen in medium containing quail egg yolk, but 6 h after thawing and maintenance at 37 degrees C the sperm that had been frozen in medium containing chicken egg yolk had a higher proportion of intact acrosomes than the sperm frozen in media containing duck or quail egg yolk. Analysis of the composition of the different yolk types showed that the basic components of the yolks were similar, but the ratios of fatty acids and phospholipid classes differed. Duck egg yolk had more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than chicken egg yolk, which had more MUFA than quail egg yolk. Duck egg yolk contained more phosphotidylinositol (PI) than chicken or quail egg yolks and quail egg yolk contained more phosphotidylserine than either chicken or duck egg yolks. The differences in post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of boar sperm when frozen in media containing the different types of egg yolk may be due to the variation in composition. PMID:16420332

  10. Cryopreservation of bull semen: Evolution from egg yolk based to soybean based extenders.

    PubMed

    Layek, S S; Mohanty, T K; Kumaresan, A; Parks, J E

    2016-09-01

    Since the inception of bovine semen cryopreservation, egg yolk and milk based extenders have been used to protect sperm from the detrimental effects of cooling and freezing. In recent years, demand for alternatives to conventional commercial extenders has arisen as the risk of introducing exotic diseases through transporting egg yolk based products has been recognized. Egg yolk can also interfere with sperm evaluation and the presence of particulate material in the extender may reduce fertility. Soybeans contain lecithin, a phospholipid fraction that can substitute for high molecular weight lipoprotein and phospholipids from egg yolk and prevent or ameliorate damage to the sperm plasma membrane that occurs during extension, cooling, and cryopreservation. Soy lecithin based extenders have been evaluated for processing and freezing bovine semen, although extender from soybean milk has not been studied as extensively. Commercially available soy lecithin based extenders are used increasingly but remain under scrutiny and are not universally accepted. With these observations in mind, this review is intended to examine effects of conventional cryopreservation procedures, methods of assessment, and potential for developing soybean extract as an acceptable alternative to traditional egg yolk and milk based extenders for bull sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27509873

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  12. In Vitro Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through Yolk Membranes of Eggs from Six Genetically Distinct Commercial Lines of Laying Hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication...

  13. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  14. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits. PMID:22499885

  15. Temperature-induced variation in yolk androgen and thyroid hormone levels in avian eggs.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Groothuis, Ton G G; Schaper, Sonja V; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-09-01

    Global warming has substantially changed the environment, but the mechanisms to cope with these changes in animals, including the role of maternal effects, are poorly understood. Maternal effects via hormones deposited in eggs, have important environment-dependent effects on offspring development and fitness: thus females are expected to adjust these hormones to the environment, such as the ambient temperature. Longer-term temperature variation could function as a cue, predicting chick rearing conditions to which yolk hormone levels are adjusted, while short-term temperature variation during egg formation may causally affect hormone transfer to eggs. We studied the effects of ambient temperature on yolk androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) and thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) in great tits (Parus major) using data from unmanipulated clutches from a wild population and from aviary birds (ad libitum food) exposed to different experimental temperature treatments during five years. Both in the wild and in captivity, longer-term pre-laying ambient temperature was not associated with clutch mean yolk hormone levels, while the way androstenedione and thyroxine levels varied across the laying sequence did associate with pre-laying temperature in the wild. Yolk testosterone levels were positively correlated with short-term temperature (during yolk formation) changes within clutches in both wild and captivity. We also report, for the first time in a wild bird, that yolk thyroxine levels correlated with a key environmental factor: thyroxine levels were negatively correlated with ambient temperature during egg formation. Thus, yolk hormone levels, especially testosterone, seem to be causally affected by ambient temperature. These short-term effects might reflect physiological changes in females with changes in ambient temperature. The adaptive value of the variation with ambient temperatures pre-laying or during egg formation should be studied with

  16. Egg Yolk Factor of Staphylococcus aureus II. Characterization of the Lipase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D. B.; Wilson, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    Shah, D. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. B. Wilson. Egg yolk factor of Staphylococcus aureus. II. Characterization of the lipase activity. J. Bacteriol. 89:949–953. 1965.—The staphylococcal egg yolk factor was characterized as a lipase. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 7.8, but the optimal pH of stability was 7. Substrate specificity data showed that the relative rate of hydrolysis was lowest with triacetin as substrate, was maximal with tributyrin, and decreased as the chain length of the acyl moieties increased. The enzyme showed an absolute requirement for a fatty acid acceptor like calcium, when the acyl moiety of triglyceride was water-insoluble. Magnesium, strontium, and barium functioned equally well as fatty acid acceptors. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze coconut oil, peanut oil, olive oil, and egg yolk oil. PMID:14276120

  17. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality. PMID:21161787

  18. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  19. Penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the yolk membrane in eggs from six genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infected laying hens can deposit Salmonella enteritidis inside developing eggs and thereby transmit disease to humans. Although deposition of S. enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in the albumen or on the yolk (vitelline) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs, migration across...

  20. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercial liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to develop a general model of inactivation of salmonellae in commercial liquid egg yolk for temperatures ranging from 58 to 66 deg C by studying the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in liquid egg yolk. Heat-resistant salmonellae (three serovars of Enteritidis [two of p...

  1. In Vitro Penetration of Egg Yolks by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg Strains During 36-hour Ambient Temperature Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Salmonella deposition inside egg yolks is uncommon, migration through the vitelline membrane into the nutrient-rich yolk contents could enable rapid bacterial multiplication. Egg refrigeration restricts both penetration and growth, but a recently proposed national S. enteritidis control pro...

  2. Molecular and immunological analysis of hen's egg yolk allergens with a focus on YGP42 (Gal d 6).

    PubMed

    De Silva, Chamika; Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2016-03-01

    Allergy to hen's (Gallus domesticus) egg white is one of the most common forms of food allergy. Allergy to hen's yolk also exists however, to a lesser extent when compared to egg white allergy. Two minor allergens from the hen's egg yolk known as α-livetin (Gal d 5) and YGP42 (Gal d 6) were discovered recently. In this study, we investigated whether sensitization to egg white is associated with reactivity to egg yolk as well. Sera obtained from 25 patients with allergy to egg white were tested for specific IgE binding for egg yolk proteins through western immunoblotting. 36% of patients were found with true IgE-sensitization against egg yolk proteins. It was found that most of the IgE reactive yolk proteins were fragments of major precursor proteins of hen; vitellogenin-1 (VTG-1), vitellogenin-2 (VTG-2) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). The egg yolk allergen Gal d 6 is the C-terminal part of VTG-1 and was found to be allergenic in significant percentage of egg white allergy patients. These results highlight the significance of Gal d 6 as an important allergen of egg yolk. Therefore, the secondary aim of this study involved developing a recombinant version of YGP42 in an Escherichia coli expression system. Recombinant Gal d 6 (rGal d6) was expressed as a fusion peptide with a 6 × His tag and purified using metal chelating resin. The inhibition ELISA results showed that rYGP42 was IgE reactive and was able to inhibit IgE binding to crude egg yolk (CEY) by up to 30%. Traditionally, it was thought that allergy to egg yolk occurred independently from sensitization to egg white. This study underlies the importance of concomitant sensitization to egg yolk proteins in patients allergic to egg white. Evidence reported in this study strongly suggests that egg yolk has potentially undiscovered allergens and therefore warrants further investigation. Furthermore, IgE reactive Gal d 6 presented in this study has the potential to be used in diagnosis and immunotherapy to treat egg

  3. Evaluation of two novel biochemicals on plasma and egg yolk lipid composition and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Freed, M; Watkins, B A; Srebnik, M; Kieft, K A; Newton, R S

    1993-03-01

    PD132301-2, an inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26), and 1-stearylboronic acid (SBA), a fatty acid analogue, were orally administered to White Leghorn hens in separate experiments to evaluate their effects on layer performance and plasma and egg yolk lipids. Five 60-wk-old hens each were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .0121, .0363, or .1089% PD132301-2. In a second experiment, 12 37-wk-old hens each were fed either a basal layer ration, or the basal diet supplemented with .20 or .40% SBA. The duration of the experiments were 21 and 16 days, respectively. Neither compound significantly affected hen-day production, egg weight, yolk weight, BW gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, or egg yolk cholesterol content. PD132301-2 had no effect on yolk fatty acid profiles, and C22:6n3 was the only fatty acid altered by SBA. Although 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been successful in reducing egg cholesterol, ACAT inhibitors and fatty acid analogues apparently hold little promise in this regard. The results of the present work also support the concept that, in order to pharmacologically alter the cholesterol content of eggs, direct inhibition of key enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is necessary. PMID:8464792

  4. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  5. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL...

  6. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL...

  7. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  8. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Jan, M. H.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%). PMID:27397983

  9. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. PMID:25214556

  10. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on Egg Yolk Membranes and Penetration into Yolk Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. However, a proposed national S. Enteritidis control program would allow unrefrigerated am...

  11. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Pan, Yu; Yan, Jianye; Huang, Dan; Li, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good therapeutic effect on the model of acute eczema in mice. The alcohol extraction method is the preferable method according to a comprehensive evaluation of each index of seven kinds of methods to extract the egg yolk oil. PMID:26797592

  12. Mouse gallbladder emptying by egg yolk: a possible new rapid method for antispasmodic activity evaluation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, B; Toson, G

    1982-05-01

    Gallbladder emptying was induced in female albino mice by single oral administrations of 30% lyophylized egg yolk suspension. Mice were killed 15 min later, their gallbladders removed and then weighed. Gallbladder emptying was assessed by comparing weights from control and egg yolk administered mice. The ability of the antispasmodic drugs atropine, N-butylscopolamine, papaverine, trimebutine, dicyclomine, and rociverine to delay gallbladder emptying was determined by administering them either intraperitoneally or orally 7.5 or 15 min prior to egg yolk. PMID:7109644

  13. Low density lipoproteins extracted from hen egg yolk by an easy method: cryoprotective effect on frozen-thawed bull semen.

    PubMed

    Moussa, M; Marinet, V; Trimeche, A; Tainturier, D; Anton, M

    2002-04-01

    Hen egg yolk is widely used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders in order to protect the spermatozoa against cold shock. The protective action of yolk is largely presumed to be due to low density lipoproteins (LDL). In recent years, arguments concerning the presence of cryoprotective antagonists in egg yolk, have reinforced interest in the use of only the LDL extracted from egg yolk in the extenders. However, current methods of LDL purification do not support the use of LDL in commercial extenders because they offer a poor recovery rate. Consequently, we have developed an easy method to extract LDL from egg yolk. Several concentrations of purified LDL (between 2.5 and 20%, w/v) were tested in freezing extenders for bull semen, and compared with commercial extenders. Our extraction method reached 97% purity and about 67% yield, and is easily reproducible on an industrial scale. Analysis of sperm motility showed that the motility and characteristics of spermatozoa movement were improved with LDL in the extender, as compared to a commercial extender containing egg yolk. The optimum LDL concentration in the extender was 8%. In conclusion, we propose that an extender containing LDL extracted from egg yolk could be used as cryoprotective media with a better efficiency than present commercial extenders. PMID:12035979

  14. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  15. Preparation of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against lipopolysaccharide using gel chromatography from the yolks of eggs laid by immunized hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siyuan; Zhang, Yaping

    2010-10-01

    The objective is to prevent and treat injuries caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram negative bacteria in animals and humans, we produced antibodies against LPS from egg yolk. LPS from E. coli (O111:B4) mixed with Freund's Adjuvant was used as the immunogen to immunize Roman hens. Immunized eggs were collected, and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified using a water solution, salt precipitation and gel chromatography. The molecular weight and purity were determined by SDS-PAGE, the antibody titer by noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody activity against LPS by the mortality of mice intraperitoneally injected with LPS or LPS-IgY solutions. IgY against LPS showed two protein bands at 68 and 26 kDa on the gel; the antibody titer was almost 1:25,600. After incubation with LPS, IgY decreased the mortality of mice challenged with LPS. This study provided an efficient way to produce high-titer egg yolk antibodies, which could attenuate lethal effects of LPS, by immunizing hens. Furthermore, the LPS antibody was purified well using a water solution, salting-out and gel chromatography. PMID:20798981

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

  17. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:25656210

  18. Effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation at twelve weeks of age on egg yolk composition in commercial egg laying hens.

    PubMed

    Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Branton, S L; Maurice, D V; Gerard, P D

    2003-04-01

    In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the contents of egg yolks from commercial Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of 8 (trial 1) or 16 (trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass biological isolation units. Birds in half of the total units served as sham-inoculated controls, and those in the other half were inoculated with FMG at 12 wk of age. Eggs were collected and yolks were harvested at various times during the prepeak, peak, and postpeak periods of both trials for constituent analysis. Yolk constituents analyzed in these trials included moisture, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and fatty acids. In both trials, total yolk lipid at 22 wk of age was significantly decreased in birds inoculated with FMG. In trial 1, yolk cholesterol at 28 wk was significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds. Yolk linoleic acid in trial 1 and yolk stearic and arachidonic acids in trial 2 were significantly increased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. In trial 2, yolk myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid percentages were significantly decreased in FMG-inoculated birds compared to FMG-free birds. These data suggest that alterations in egg production in commercial layers in response to an FMG infection at 12 wk of age are associated with changes in yolk composition. PMID:12710476

  19. Enumeration of fecal Clostridium perfringens spores in egg yolk-free tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Hilsheimer, R; Griffith, D W

    1974-03-01

    The Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens, tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC), and egg yolk-free TSC agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate fecal spores of Clostridium perfringens. When these spores comprised at least 20% of the total anaerobe spores, equally accurate counts were obtained in the three media. With lower ratios of C. perfringens spores, the most accurate counts were obtained in egg yolk-free TSC agar. The median C. perfringens spore count of 60 normal fecal specimens was log 3.4/g. A nonmotile, sulfite- and nitrate-reducing Clostridium, not identifiable with any known clostridial species, was isolated from 14 out of 60 fecal specimans. It was not differentiated from C. perfringens in the nitrite motility test, but could be distinguished by its inability to liquefy gelatin. PMID:4363369

  20. Enumeration of Fecal Clostridium perfringens Spores in Egg Yolk-Free Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Agar

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, A. H. W.; Hilsheimer, R.; Griffith, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens, tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC), and egg yolk-free TSC agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate fecal spores of Clostridium perfringens. When these spores comprised at least 20% of the total anaerobe spores, equally accurate counts were obtained in the three media. With lower ratios of C. perfringens spores, the most accurate counts were obtained in egg yolk-free TSC agar. The median C. perfringens spore count of 60 normal fecal specimens was log 3.4/g. A nonmotile, sulfite- and nitrate-reducing Clostridium, not identifiable with any known clostridial species, was isolated from 14 out of 60 fecal specimans. It was not differentiated from C. perfringens in the nitrite motility test, but could be distinguished by its inability to liquefy gelatin. PMID:4363369

  1. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Başaran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples. PMID:25997244

  2. Effect of fructooligosaccharides and antibiotics on laying performance of chickens and cholesterol content of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, L; Li, K; Hao, K; Xu, C

    2007-04-01

    1. Nine hundred and sixty 25-week-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 216 layers in each group. Layers in group one were fed a control diet, group 2 received the control diet plus 20 mg/kg zinc bacitracin and 4 mg/kg colistinsulfate, and the remaining three groups received control diet plus 2000, or 4000, or 6000 mg/kg fructooligosaccharide (FOS). 2. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption and feed conversion of layers when 2000 mg/kg FOS was added to the diets. 3. The results also showed some additional improvements in the group supplemented with 2000 mg/kg FOS, including increases in egg shell thickness, yolk colour and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration. 4. However, larger (excessive) doses of FOS did not improve the performance of layers. PMID:17453810

  3. The prevention and treatment effects of egg yolk high density lipoprotein on the formation of atherosclerosis plaque in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Shima; Parsaei, Heidar; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Yazdi, Abbas Tabatabaei; Hadjzadeh, Mosa-Al-Reza; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar; Malayeri, Sina Omid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Atherosclerosis is the main leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential preventive effect of egg yolk HDL on the atherosclerosis plaque formation. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: A; normal diet, B; hyper-cholesterolemic diet, C; hypercholesterolemic + 400 mg/kg egg yolk HDL D; hypercholesterolemic +100 mg/kg egg yolk HDL and E; 200 mg/kg egg yolk HDL. At the end of the experiment, the lipid profiles were measured by spectrophotometric method. The histological sections of thoracic aorta also were taken and analyzed under light microscope. Results: At the end of the 2nd and the 4th weeks, there was a significant increase of cholesterol level in groups B, C, and D compared to group A (P<0.05). Following HDL treatment, triglyceride (TG) levels increased significantly versus group A and also the TG level decreased significantly in group C, D, and E versus group B (P<0.01). Egg yolk HDL significantly increased HDL-C in groups C, D, and E (P<0.01) compared to groups A and B (P<0.05). The surface area of the atherosclerotic plaque was increased significantly in group B versus group A (P<0.001). Egg yolk HDL consumption reduced the plaque size significantly (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that treatment with egg yolk HDL increased serum HDL-C and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in rabbits. Thus, egg yolk HDL may be considered as an anti-atherosclerotic treatment for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26019796

  4. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    PubMed Central

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

  5. Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

  6. Motility and fertility of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using soybean lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate whether soy lecithin can be used as an alternative cryoprotectant to establish a procedure that does not require the use of egg yolk to cryopreserve rabbit strains. Semen from Japanese White rabbits was frozen with HEPES extender containing 20% egg yolk (EYH), 0.5% (Lec-0.5), 1.5% (Lec-1.5), 2.5% (Lec-2.5), or 3.5% (Lec-3.5; wt/vol) lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%), and the motility of thawed sperm was analyzed. The sperm motility in the Lec-1.5 group was significantly higher than that in the Lec-2.5 and 3.5 groups and equivalent to the EYH group. From 17 rounds of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in the EYH and Lec-1.5 groups, 12 rabbits in both groups were pregnant (70.6%) and delivered offspring. The litter size was 3.3 in the EYH group and 5.1 in the Lec-1.5 group. These results indicate that soy lecithin can be used as a substitute for egg yolk as a cryoprotectant on the basis of motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed rabbit sperm and that 1.5% lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%) in the semen extender was the optimum concentration for rabbit sperm cryopreservation. PMID:26208436

  7. Maternally Derived Egg Hormones, Antibodies and Antimicrobial Proteins: Common and Different Pathways of Maternal Effects in Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  8. Quantitative ¹H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about δ = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at δ = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at δ = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers. PMID:25860435

  9. Egg yolk proteins suppress azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and cell proliferation in the colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Asano, Takayuki; Takenoshita, Shingo; Nozawa, Yuuya; Arihara, Keizo; Itoh, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Dietary proteins can influence colonic carcinogenesis; some proteins have a promotional effect, whereas others exhibit a preventive effect. Dietary egg yolk proteins have been reported to suppress the expression of colon tumors in rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of consumption egg yolk proteins on cell proliferation in a rat model of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. We hypothesize, based on the literature of egg yolk protein actions, that they protect against colon tumor development. Therefore, male F344 rats were fed a purified AIN-93G diet containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% egg yolk proteins for 5 weeks. After 1 week on the experimental diet, the rats were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of saline or AOM for 2 weeks to induce aberrant crypt foci. Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine 1 hour before being euthanized for examination of DNA synthesis in the colonic mucosa. The contents of the cecum were analyzed for the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In the AOM-injected rats, the yolk protein diet suppressed aberrant crypt foci formation and reduced the proliferative 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeling index in the proximal colon when compared with the control diet. A significant increase in cecal SCFAs was observed in the rats that were fed egg yolk proteins. These results indicate that dietary egg yolk proteins have a preventive effect on AOM-induced large bowel carcinogenesis in rats; it exerts this effect by altering cell proliferation through SCFA production. This study suggests that the consumption of egg yolk proteins might be protective against colon carcinogenesis. PMID:19185779

  10. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  12. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. PMID:25982397

  13. Newly Deposited Maternal Hormones can be Detected in the Yolks of Oviductal Eggs in the Green Anole Lizard

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, RACHEL E.; WADE, JULI

    2011-01-01

    Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 μCi 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 μCi of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition. PMID:20336789

  14. Quality characteristics of dehydrated egg yolk paneer and changes during storage.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Deepthi P; Das, Rashmi M; Kumar Modi, Vinod

    2012-08-01

    A shelf stable, convenience product egg yolk paneer (EYP) was developed by incorporation of optimized quantities of binders, salt, natural antioxidants and egg yolk. Dehydrated EYP was packed in metalised polyester pouches, stored at ambient temperature (27 ± 2 °C) for 6 months and sampled periodically for quality evaluation. The protein and fat content of dehydrated EYP was 26.2 ± 1.75% and 36.1 ± 2.46, respectively. The shelf stability of the product was achieved by keeping a moisture content (5.6 ± 0.50%) and water activity (0.43 ± 0.05) low. An excellent rehydration capacity (64.8 ± 5.39%) was observed in the EYP, whereas, the rehydration ratio of the product was 1:2.7. Changes in Free Fatty Acids, Thiobarbituric acid, textural profile analysis and Hunter colour units (L, a and b) during storage did not affect the quality characteristics of the product. About 38% loss in carotenoid content was recorded during storage of the product. Staphylococcus aureus, E coli, Salmonella and Shigella, however, were not detected in any sample throughout the storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that rehydrated yolk paneer had excellent texture and was very close to fresh ones (before drying) during storage for 6 months. PMID:23904656

  15. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  16. The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%). A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%). No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

  17. Effect of plant sterol-enriched diets on plasma and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhao, H L; Thiessen, S; House, J D; Jones, P J H

    2010-02-01

    Egg exists as a major dietary source of cholesterol in Western diets. In North America, laying hen diets are usually devoid of cholesterol when diets are formulated to exclude animal-based products. Hence, laying hens meet their physiological cholesterol requirement through de novo synthesis. Plant sterols exert a cholesterol-lowering effect in humans by interfering with intestinal sterol absorption. However, it is unknown whether plant sterol supplementation could be effective in reducing intestinal reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in laying hens, thus modulating whole body cholesterol in favor of lower plasma and yolk cholesterol content. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% plant sterols on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, as well as plasma, liver, and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. After 8 wk of plant sterol intervention (first 2 wk were acclimatization), feed intake, BW, egg weight, egg yolk weight, egg production, Haugh units, liver mass, plasma, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations did not differ as a function of plant sterol supplementation. Egg cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) fluctuated during the 6-wk experimental period. At wk 6, a minor reduction in egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg per g of yolk, P<0.05, vs. control) was observed in hens fed 1 and 2% cholesterol-enriched diets, respectively. However, such result failed to affect total egg cholesterol content. No statistical difference was observed across treatments over 6 wk. Neither cholesterol absorption rates nor synthesis differed as a function of treatment. Results suggested that overall cholesterol content in egg yolk was not affected by feeding hens plant sterol-enriched diets over 6 wk. PMID:20075279

  18. Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is presently not sufficient data nor is there a suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating pasteurization guidelines, in part because of the different Salmonella stra...

  19. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance. PMID:25010164

  1. Influence of pasteurization, spray- and freeze-drying, and storage on the carotenoid content in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Seuss-Baum, Ingrid; Schlich, Elmar

    2010-02-10

    A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(APCI)MS] method was developed to identify and quantify the carotenoids present in fresh, pasteurized, and freeze- and spray-dried egg yolk in two independent batches. The egg yolk powders in each batch were stored in the dark for 6 months at -18 or 20 degrees C. Carotenoids were isolated by solvent extraction without saponification and analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column coupled to a photodiode array and mass detector. The most abundant carotenoids were all-E-canthaxanthin, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, 9-Z-canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester. Pasteurization of the egg yolk caused no critical changes in the carotenoid content. On the contrary, drying to a dry matter of 98-99% led to higher carotenoid contents, induced by a denaturation of binding proteins, and a destabilization of the cell matrix. After the 6 months of storage, the contents of all main carotenoids in the egg yolk powder were significantly lower. The synthetic carotenoids canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester showed a higher retention rate, and the greatest losses occurred within the first 8 weeks. Statistical tests (ANOVA, P < 0.05) also proved that after 26 weeks, the egg yolk powders stored at -18 degrees C showed only a slightly higher retention of carotenoids when compared to the powders stored at 20 degrees C. PMID:20070090

  2. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    PubMed

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome. PMID:24654557

  3. [Laser Raman and infrared spectrum analysis of low-density lipoproteins purified from hen egg yolk].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-jun; Sun, Run-guang; Wang, Xiao-mei; Chang, Yi-guang

    2010-11-01

    During the experiment, diversified proteins were separated from hen egg yolk by ammonium sulphate rapid fractionation, and pure LDL was obtained after filtrating through Sephadex G-200 chromatography. After the qualitative detection of SDS-PAGE, the authors discovered that LDL consists of five major apoprotein. The Raman and infrared spectrum showed CH2 asymmetric stretching and symmetric stretching mode. However, the authors found C==O stretching vibrations of protein peptide bonds and N+ (CH3)3 asymmetric stretching vibration from the choline group in phospholipids. Laser Raman and infrared spectrum analysis of LDL provided useful information for studying their structure. PMID:21284171

  4. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials. PMID:22276647

  5. [Agglutination of hen egg-yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against Salmonella enterica, serovar enteritidis].

    PubMed

    Terzolo, H R; Sandoval, V E; Caffer, M I; Terragno, R; Alcain, A

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of 6 laying hens were used to produce IgY. In the vaccinated group (V), hens were injected by intramuscular route with two doses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis bacterin at 20-day interval. In the control group (T) hens remained unvaccinated. Four IgY extractions were performed on the egg production of both groups. The first two extractions were carried out using the yolks obtained from the eggs produced during the 4th and 5th post-vaccination week (extracts 1V and 1T) and the other two using the ones from the 6th, 7th and 8th week (2V and 2T). Starting from the extracts 1V and 1T other products were obtained by freezing-thawing (1V-A and 1T-A) and simple (1V-B and 1T-B) or double (1V-C and 1T-C) flow capillary dialysis concentration. All these products were compared using an ELISA test specific for the detection of chicken antibodies against flagellar antigens of S. Enteritidis. In this test, V extracts were positive whereas T extracts were negative. The extract 1V was more positive than the extract 2V. The extract 1V-C was the most positive and was therefore selected to be used as an antiserum in the agglutination tests. This extract contained 1.9 g/dl of total proteins, 0.028 g/dl of triglycerides and 0.012 g/dl of cholesterol and showed an electrophoretic pattern characteristic of IgY. The 1T-C extract was used as a negative control in the agglutination tests. Slide somatic and tube flagellar agglutination tests were simultaneously carried out using both IgY extracts and a standard rabbit anti-Salmonella (IgG) sera. Overall 367 strains from the Enterobacteriaceae family were tested together with two other strains belonging to the Vibrionaceae family. The 1V-C extract specifically agglutinated S. Enteritidis strains in the same way as the rabbit sera. This extract also agglutinated other Salmonella strains antigenically related to S. Enteritidis. Salmonella which did not share somatic or flagellar antigens with S. Enteritidis, other

  6. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    PubMed

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. PMID:25744821

  7. Delivery of recombinant vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 gD and Babesia bovis MSA-2c to mice using liposomes derived from egg yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Anabel E; Zamorano, Patricia; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Torrá, Florencia; Ferreri, Lucas; Dominguez, Mariana; Florin-Christensen, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    Liposomes prepared from total egg yolk lipid extracts were used to deliver experimental DNA vaccines to mice consisting of pCI-neo plasmids encoding bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) gD or Babesia bovis MSA-2c. A significantly higher proportion of mice in the B. bovis MSA-2c group, but not those in the BoHV-1 gD group, developed detectable immunoglobulin G responses when vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA in comparison with mice vaccinated with naked DNA. In both groups, antibody titres were similar between mice vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA and naked DNA. PMID:23183017

  8. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples. PMID:27082726

  9. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  10. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  11. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  12. Comparison of sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium and tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk for recovering Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Orth, D S

    1977-04-01

    The overall recoveries of spores and of actively growing, heat-stressed, coldshocked, and frozen cells of five strains of Clostridium perfringens were significantly greater (95% confidence limits) on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk than on sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium. PMID:194535

  13. Comparison of Sulfite-Polymyxin-Sulfadiazine Medium and Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Medium Without Egg Yolk for Recovering Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The overall recoveries of spores and of actively growing, heat-stressed, coldshocked, and frozen cells of five strains of Clostridium perfringens were significantly greater (95% confidence limits) on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk than on sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium. PMID:194535

  14. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  15. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  16. EFFECTS OF F-STRAIN MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INOCULATION AT TWELVE WEEKS OF AGE ON EGG YOLK COMPOSITION IN COMMERCIAL EGG LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two trials, the effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) on the content of egg yolks from commercial Single Combed White Leghorn laying hens were investigated over a production cycle. Ten hens were assigned to each of eight (Trial 1) or sixteen (Trial 2) negative pressure fiberglass bi...

  17. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid. PMID:12828207

  18. Effects of different polysaccharides on the formation of egg yolk LDL complex nanogels for nutrient delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingyong; Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-11-20

    Five polysaccharides, pectin, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gum arabic, carrageenan and alginate, were studied to form complex nanogels with egg yolk low density lipoprotein (LDL). All nanogels were smaller than 85nm with high negative zeta potential, while LDL/carrageenan and LDL/alginate nanogels exhibited more heterogeneous size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectrum suggested that hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were involved to form nanogels. Overall, significant expansion of nanogels was observed after encapsulation of curcumin, being studied as a model lipophilic nutrient. Fluorescence spectra evidenced that LDL provided non-polar microenvironment for curcumin and polysaccharides played an important role in the encapsulation process. All nanogels showed sustained release of curcumin under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Furthermore, nanoscale, smooth and spherical ultrafine dry powders of nanogels were obtained by innovative nano spray drying technology. Our study indicated that LDL/polysaccharides may serve as potential oral delivery systems for lipophilic nutrients. PMID:27561504

  19. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  20. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  1. Release of ecdysteroid-phosphates from egg yolk granules and their dephosphorylation during early embryonic development in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryouichi; Yamahama, Yumi; Sonobe, Haruyuki

    2005-02-01

    Newly laid eggs of many insect species store maternal ecdysteroids as physiologically inactive phosphoric esters. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, we previously reported the presence of a specific enzyme, called ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of ecdysteroid-phosphates to increase the amount of free ecdysteroids during early embryonic development. In this study, we demonstrated that (1) EPPase is found in the cytosol of yolk cells, (2) ecdysteroid-phosphates are localized in yolk granules, being bound to the yolk protein vitellin (Vn), and (3) Vn-bound ecdysteroid-phosphates are scarcely hydrolyzed by EPPase, although free ecdysteroid-phosphates are completely hydrolyzed by EPPase. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which ecdysteroid-phosphates dissociate from the Vn-ecdysteroid-phosphate complex, and indicated that the acidification of yolk granules causes the dissociation of ecdysteroid-phosphates from the Vn-ecdysteroid-phosphate complex and thereby ecdysteroid-phosphates are released from yolk granules into the cytosol. Indeed, the presence of vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase in the membrane fraction of yolk granules was also verified by Western blot analysis. Our experiments revealed that Vn functions as a reservoir of maternal ovarian ecdysteroid-phosphates as well as a nutritional source during embryonic development. This is the first report showing the biochemical mechanism by which maternal Vn-bound ecdysteroid-phosphates function during early embryonic development. PMID:15738639

  2. Growth in Egg Yolk Enhances Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Human Colitis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Matthew R; Wijetunge, Dona Saumya S; Bailey, Megan L; Gongati, Sudharsan R; Goodfield, Laura L; Hewage, Eranda Mangala K Kurundu; Kennett, Mary J; Fedorchuk, Christine; Ivanov, Yury V; Linder, Jessica E; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common causes of bacterial food-borne illnesses in the world. Despite the SE's ability to colonize and infect a wide-range of host, the most common source of infection continues to be the consumption of contaminated shell eggs and egg-based products. To date, the role of the source of SE infection has not been studied as it relates to SE pathogenesis and resulting disease. Using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of human colitis, this study examined the virulence of SE grown in egg yolk and Luria Bertani (LB) broth, and mouse feces collected from mice experimentally infected with SEE1 (SEE1 passed through mice). Primary observations revealed that the mice infected with SE grown in egg yolk displayed greater illness and disease markers than those infected with SE passed through mice or grown in LB broth. Furthermore, the SE grown in egg yolk achieved higher rates of colonization in the mouse intestines and extra-intestinal organs of infected mice than the SE from LB broth or mouse feces. Our results here indicate that the source of SE infection may contribute to the overall pathogenesis of SE in a second host. These results also suggest that reservoir-pathogen dynamics may be critical for SE's ability to establish colonization and priming for virulence potential. PMID:26939126

  3. Growth in Egg Yolk Enhances Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Human Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Matthew R.; Wijetunge, Dona Saumya S.; Bailey, Megan L.; Gongati, Sudharsan R.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Hewage, Eranda Mangala K. Kurundu; Kennett, Mary J.; Fedorchuk, Christine; Ivanov, Yury V.; Linder, Jessica E.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common causes of bacterial food-borne illnesses in the world. Despite the SE’s ability to colonize and infect a wide-range of host, the most common source of infection continues to be the consumption of contaminated shell eggs and egg-based products. To date, the role of the source of SE infection has not been studied as it relates to SE pathogenesis and resulting disease. Using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of human colitis, this study examined the virulence of SE grown in egg yolk and Luria Bertani (LB) broth, and mouse feces collected from mice experimentally infected with SEE1 (SEE1 passed through mice). Primary observations revealed that the mice infected with SE grown in egg yolk displayed greater illness and disease markers than those infected with SE passed through mice or grown in LB broth. Furthermore, the SE grown in egg yolk achieved higher rates of colonization in the mouse intestines and extra-intestinal organs of infected mice than the SE from LB broth or mouse feces. Our results here indicate that the source of SE infection may contribute to the overall pathogenesis of SE in a second host. These results also suggest that reservoir-pathogen dynamics may be critical for SE’s ability to establish colonization and priming for virulence potential. PMID:26939126

  4. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples. PMID:26513166

  5. Modeling the thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10 percent salted liquid egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Bailey, Rebecca R; Bauer, Nathan E

    2011-06-01

    There is no suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pasteurization guidelines. This is because, in part, of the variations in Salmonella strains and the changes in the processing of liquid egg products over the past 40 years. The objectives of the present study were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics and to create a general thermal inactivation kinetics model that can be used for estimating log reductions of salmonellae in 10% salted liquid egg yolk for temperatures between 62.2 and 69°C. This model can be used by processors to help ensure adequate pasteurization. This was accomplished by studying the inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg, inoculated into commercially processed 10% salted liquid egg yolk. The survival curves were convex, with asymptotic D-values. From these curves, a general model was developed to predict log reductions for given times at specified temperatures. For example, at a temperature of 67.3°C (153.1°F) for 3.5 min, our model predicts a 5-log reduction would be obtained, whereas with the current USDA minimum required pasteurization regimen (63.33°C [146°F] for 3.5 min), our model predicts that a reduction of only 2.7 log would be obtained. The results of this study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe, pasteurized egg yolk products, and for satisfying USDA pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance. PMID:21669063

  6. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro V.; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-01-01

    Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae – the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease – and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin. PMID:26230630

  7. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro V; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-07-01

    Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin. PMID:26230630

  8. Development of microbeads of chicken yolk antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A for colonic-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumin; Xing, Pingping; Guo, Guiping; Liu, Hong; Lin, Donghai; Dong, Chuangchuang; Li, Min; Feng, Dongxiao

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased in Western world in the past 10 years, similar infection rates are also reported in developing countries such as China. Current antibiotics treatments have recurrence rates between 15% and 30%. IgY antibodies against toxin A of C. difficile could protect animal models from the challenge of lethal dose of C. difficile spores. However, IgY is sensitive to the low pH environment of the stomach and proteinases in the intestine. The objective of this study was to prepare colonic-specific delivery system of toxin A antigen-specific IgY to block the recognition of toxin A to the colon mucosa cells. Egg-laying hens were immunized with purified C. difficile toxin A C-terminal domain for 3 times, then egg IgY against the recombinant ToxA-C protein was purified from immunized egg yolk and frozen dried. IgY-loaded microbeads were prepared using mini fluid bed system; the loading efficiency was 21%. The pH and temperature stabilities of the microbeads were assayed. The IgY-loaded microbeads coated with 35% Eudragit S100 had colonic-specific IgY release specificity both in vitro and in vivo, the colonic-specific release of biological active IgY was 87.5% in the rat. Our study provides a new option for the biological treatment C. difficile infection. PMID:25799315

  9. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  10. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  11. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  12. β-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases β-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-β-cryptoxanthin, high-β-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-β-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased β-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-β-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-β-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-β-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted. PMID:22252357

  13. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  14. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. PMID:26946310

  15. Feeding laying hens a bioavailable soy sterol mixture fails to enrich their eggs with phytosterols or elicit egg yolk compositional changes.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R G; Lorenz, E S

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Elevated levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), and particularly plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), are primary contributing factors to CHD. Dietary plant sterols (phytosterols) have been shown to significantly reduce plasma TC and LDLC in humans, primarily through inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, and are potentially effective agents for reduction of CHD risk. Although a variety of phytosterol-containing foods are currently available, phytosterol-enriched eggs, which represent a potential value-added product, are conspicuously absent from the marketplace. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to enrich shell eggs with phytosterols; and 2) to determine if feeding phytosterols to hens elicits egg compositional changes, particularly that of yolk cholesterol content. Sixteen 32-wk-old White Leghorn hens were fed a corn-soy-based layer diet without (n = 8) or with (n = 8) 1 g of supplemental soy sterols/100 g of diet for 28 d.. Hen performance was determined on an individual basis, and 1 egg/hen per week was collected, processed, and analyzed for yolk cholesterol, CP, crude fat (CF), and phytosterol content. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of supplemental dietary phytosterols on 28-d weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, plasma TC, hen-day egg production, egg weights, egg component weights, and yolk cholesterol, CP, and CF contents. Small amounts of campesterol were present in most of the eggs (average of 0.29 and 1.02 mg/yolk for control vs. soy sterol-fed hens, respectively; P < or = 0.05), whereas only 3 of the 80 analyzed eggs contained trace amounts of beta-sitosterol and none contained any detectable stigmasterol. It was concluded that phytosterols are either poorly absorbed from the chicken intestine or, if they are absorbed, they are efficiently secreted back into the intestinal lumen, most likely via as yet uncharacterized

  16. A simple and efficient method for preparing partially purified phosvitin from egg yolk using ethanol and salts.

    PubMed

    Ko, K Y; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Lee, E J; Ahn, D U

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new protocol that could be used for large-scale separation of phosvitin from egg yolk using ethanol and salts. Yolk granules, which contain phosvitin, were precipitated after diluting egg yolk with 9 volumes of distilled water. The pH of the yolk solution was adjusted to pH 4.0 to 8.0 using 6 N HCl or NaOH, and then yolk granules containing phosvitin was separated by centrifugation at 3,220 × g for 30 min. Lipids and phospholipids were removed from the insoluble yolk granules using 85% ethanol. The optimal volumes and concentration of ethanol in removing lipids from the precipitants were determined. After centrifugation, the lipid-free precipitants were homogenized with 9 volumes of ammonium sulfate [(NH(4))(2)SO(4)] or NaCl to extract phosvitin. The optimal pH and concentration of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or NaCl for the highest recovery rate and purity for phosvitin in final solution were determined. At pH 6.0, all the phosvitin in diluted egg yolk solution was precipitated. Among the (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and NaCl conditions tested, 10% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or 10% NaCl at pH 4.0 yielded the greatest phosvitin extraction from the lipid-free precipitants. The recovery rates of phosvitin using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and NaCl were 72 and 97%, respectively, and their purity was approximately 85%. Salt was removed from the extract using ultrafiltration. The salt-free phosvitin solution was concentrated using ultrafiltration, the impurities were removed by centrifugation, and the resulting solution was freeze-dried. The partially purified phosvitin was suitable for human use because ethanol was the only solvent used to remove lipids, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or NaCl was used to extract phosvitin, and ultrafiltration was used to remove salt and concentrate the extract. The developed method was simple and suitable for a large-scale preparation of partially purified phosvitin. PMID:21489960

  17. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  18. Efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yu-Hong; Jin, Li-Ji; Li, Xiao-Yu; Guo, Jie; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Fang, Rui; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen lactating cows with clinical mastitis and 18 lactating cows with experimental mastitis (1 quarter per cow) were randomly assigned to three treatments: IgY (20mg/ml) infusion, penicillin (100mg/ml) infusion and no infusion. Treatments for clinical mastitis and experimental mastitis were performed by a 6-day course of intramammary infusion with a dosage of 10ml at an interval of 12h. Milk samples were collected at morning milking time for testing color, clot, somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacterial count. For most of the cows treated with IgY and penicillin, the milk color and clot recovered to normal form during the therapy course. The milk SCCs and bacterial counts of treated cows decreased compared to those of untreated cows (p<0.05). The cure rates by IgY for experimental and clinical mastitis were 83.3% and 50%, respectively, and those by penicillin were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. These results showed the potential of specific IgY to be an alternative therapy for mastitis caused by S. aureus. PMID:18774241

  19. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  20. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  1. Isolation, purification and characterization of the egg-yolk proteins from the oocytes of the indian freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Sehgal, N; Rani, K V; Aggarwal, N

    2013-06-01

    In oviparous organisms, yolk accumulation in the oocytes is critical and indispensable for the development of the newly hatched young ones. In fish and many other oviparous vertebrates, the major constituents of the egg-yolk are synthesized as a precursor in the liver. The precursor is transported to the oocyte for uptake and cleaved into major yolk proteins lipovitellin, phosvitin and beta'-components. The eggs of Channa punctatus are pelagic, have large oil globule and exceptionally high lipid content. Lipovitellin was isolated by single step gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose 6B. Purified native lipovitellin showed immunological reactivity with vitellogenin antiserum. Phosvitin isolated by phenol extraction method could not be visualized with routine protein staining methods, whereas incorporation of trivalent ions in the coomassie brilliant blue stained phosvitin. It was characterized by in vivo labeling of egg-yolk proteins with 32P. The molecular mass of murrel phosvitin was less than 14,000 kDa. PMID:23926689

  2. Comparison of different glycerol and egg yolk concentrations added to tris-based extender for the collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen freezing.

    PubMed

    Alves, H M; Oliveira, I R S; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Souza, A L P; Moreira, M A P; de Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate various concentrations of egg yolk (5, 10, or 20%) in combination with different concentrations of glycerol (3% or 6%) added to a Tris-based extender on the post-thaw characteristics of sperm obtained from Tayassu tajacu. For this purpose, semen from 10 sexually male mature collared peccaries was collected by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigour, viability, morphology and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were initially extended in Tris-fructose plus egg yolk (5%, 10% or 20%). After cooling, the semen was added to Tris-egg yolk plus glycerol (6% or 12%), resulting in a final concentration of 3% or 6% glycerol of the extender. Straws were frozen using liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The frozen-thawed semen was evaluated as reported for fresh semen. After thawing, a significant decrease was verified for sperm motility and vigour, for all the samples in comparison with fresh semen. However, no differences were evidenced among treatments for any sperm characteristics evaluated (p > 0.05), except for the combination between 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, which provided the worst preservation of functional membrane integrity (p < 0.05). The interactions between higher concentrations of egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%) and also between lower concentrations of the same substances (5% egg yolk and 3% glycerol) added to the Tris-based extender negatively affected the preservation of the normal sperm morphology after thawing (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of Tris-based extender added to 10% or 20% egg yolk plus 3% glycerol is recommended for effective sperm cryopreservation in collared peccaries. PMID:23057784

  3. Cryopreservation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) semen using soybean-, liposome-, and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jamie L; Shipley, Clifford F; Katich, Ashley Seder; Po, Eleonora; Ellerbrock, Robyn E; Lima, Fabio S; Canisso, Igor F

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the use of soybean-based (Andromed), liposome-based (Optixcell), and egg yolk-based (Ovine Red, Triladyl, and Biladyl) extenders for cryopreservation of white-tailed deer semen. In experiment 1, ejaculates obtained from six bucks were aliquoted into the following extenders: Andromed, Ovine Red, Triladyl, and Biladyl (containing 4%, 6%, or 8% of glycerol). In experiment 2, ejaculates obtained from eight bucks were divided amongst Andromed, Ovine Red, and Optixcell extenders. Total and progressive sperm motility were assessed for each sample before and after cryopreservation using a computer-automated semen analyzer. In experiment 2, flow cytometry was used for post-thaw assessment of sperm viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI), and chromatin stability (acridine orange). In experiment 1, both Andromed and Ovine Red extenders exhibited higher post-thaw total motility than Biladyl containing 4% or 6% of glycerol (p<0.05). Andromed also produced higher progressive motility than all other extenders (p<0.01) before and after cryopreservation with no differences amongst the other extenders (p≥0.11). In experiment 2, there were no differences in total and progressive motility between Andromed, Ovine Red, or Optixcell extenders (p≥0.39). Additionally, there were no differences in sperm viability (p=0.18), acrosome integrity in viable sperm (p≥0.10), or DNA fragmentation index (p=0.15). These results demonstrated that soybean (Andromed) and liposome-based (Optixcell) extenders are equally as effective at cryopreserving white-tailed semen as egg yolk-based Ovine Red extender, but are superior to egg yolk-based Biladyl or Triladyl extenders. PMID:27287191

  4. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  5. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. PMID:26957627

  6. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives. PMID:26847677

  7. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best. PMID:18540201

  8. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Commercially-Processed Liquid Egg Yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 regulates egg products through the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) by mandating minimum thermal pasteurization requirements for specified egg products. These standards were based on data for the inactivation of Salmonella in liquid egg products...

  9. Enumeration of food-borne Clostridium perfringens in egg yolk-free tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Hilsheimer, R

    1974-03-01

    The SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine), EY (egg yolk)-free TSC, and OPSP (oleandomycin-polymyxin-sulfadiazine perfringens) agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate Clostridium perfringens in naturally contaminated foods. Complete recoveries of C. perfringens were obtained in each of the four media, but only the TSC and EY-free TSC agars were sufficiently selective to ensure subsequent confirmatory tests without interference from facultative anaerobes. Because of some disadvantages associated with the use of egg yolk, EY-free TSC agar is recommended for enumeration of C. perfringens in foods. Several conditions for convenient shipment of foods and C. perfringens isolates with minimum loss of viability have been tested. The highest viable counts were preserved when foods were mixed 1:1 (wt/vol) with 20% glycerol and kept in a container with dry ice. Isolated C. perfringens strains remained viable for at least 2 weeks at ambient temperatures on blood agar slopes with a 2% agar overlay in screw-cap culture tubes. PMID:4363368

  10. Enumeration of Food-Borne Clostridium perfringens in Egg Yolk-Free Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Agar

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, A. H. W.; Hilsheimer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine), EY (egg yolk)-free TSC, and OPSP (oleandomycin-polymyxin-sulfadiazine perfringens) agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate Clostridium perfringens in naturally contaminated foods. Complete recoveries of C. perfringens were obtained in each of the four media, but only the TSC and EY-free TSC agars were sufficiently selective to ensure subsequent confirmatory tests without interference from facultative anaerobes. Because of some disadvantages associated with the use of egg yolk, EY-free TSC agar is recommended for enumeration of C. perfringens in foods. Several conditions for convenient shipment of foods and C. perfringens isolates with minimum loss of viability have been tested. The highest viable counts were preserved when foods were mixed 1:1 (wt/vol) with 20% glycerol and kept in a container with dry ice. Isolated C. perfringens strains remained viable for at least 2 weeks at ambient temperatures on blood agar slopes with a 2% agar overlay in screw-cap culture tubes. PMID:4363368

  11. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:21161786

  12. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. PMID:20070582

  13. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary. PMID:26679163

  14. Novel Use of Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine Egg Yolk Agar for Isolation of Clostridium perfringens during an Outbreak of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in a Neonatal Unit▿

    PubMed Central

    Kotsanas, Despina; Carson, Jolene A.; Awad, Milena M.; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Stuart, Rhonda L.; Korman, Tony M.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is a serious disease of neonates. Our study describes the novel use of selective tryptose sulfite cycloserine with egg yolk agar (TSC-EYA) during a nursery outbreak. This medium provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate presumptive identification of C. perfringens. PMID:20826643

  15. Novel use of tryptose sulfite cycloserine egg yolk agar for isolation of Clostridium perfringens during an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Kotsanas, Despina; Carson, Jolene A; Awad, Milena M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I; Jenkin, Grant A; Stuart, Rhonda L; Korman, Tony M

    2010-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is a serious disease of neonates. Our study describes the novel use of selective tryptose sulfite cycloserine with egg yolk agar (TSC-EYA) during a nursery outbreak. This medium provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate presumptive identification of C. perfringens. PMID:20826643

  16. Correlation between Herrold’s egg yolk medium culture results and quantitative real-time PCR for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in pooled fecal and environmental slurry samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) testing for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal samples is a rapid alternative to culture on Herrold’s egg yolk medium (HEYM), the traditional ante-mortem reference test for MAP. Although the sensitivity and specificity of these two tests ...

  17. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components. PMID:26304341

  18. The influence of dietary pectin on the cholesterol content of egg-yolk and muscle and on various haematological indices in laying-hens.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, S; Mason, V C

    1977-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to see if a commerical poultry diet, supplemented with 0, 2, 4 or 6% pectin would influence the cholesterol content of egg-yolk and muscle, the total lipid, cholesterol and protein contents of blood serum, and the erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin content of whole blood, in laying hens. The cholesterol content of the egg-yolk and muscle from birds given pectin was not significantly different from that of control hens. However, the birds which received the pectin weighed somewhat less than the controls at the end of the experiment, and produced fewer eggs, despite the same intake of digestible energy. Pectin treatment also resulted in higher erythrocyte counts, higher packed cell volumes and higher haemoglobin contents in the blood. The variation in the cholesterol content of egg-yolk was significantly lower within layers than between layers. This suggests that it should be possible to select for hens which produce eggs of lower cholesterol content, provided that other aspects of egg-production are not thereby negatively influenced. PMID:834544

  19. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    PubMed

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P < 0.05) yolk malondialdehyde. The highest (P<0.01) glutathione peroxidase activity was observed for hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) antibody response. The present findings indicate that dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet could improve performance parameters and egg oxidative stability in laying hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources. PMID:25653003

  20. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged. PMID:26944968

  1. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P < 0.05) sperm motility and kinetic rating (48 ± 6.1% and 2.8 ± 0.2, respectively) after thawing than Tris extender (30.4 ± 5.7% and 2.4 ± 0.2). However, there were no differences (P > 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries. PMID:22538005

  2. Egg yolks inhibit activation of NF-κB and expression of its target genes in adipocytes after partial delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiwen; Riedl, Ken M.; Cole, Rachel M.; Lehman, Christopher; Xu, Lu; Alder, Hansjuerg; Belury, Martha A.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    How composition of egg yolk (EY) influences NF-κB, a key transcription pathway in inflammation, remains unclear. We performed partial delipidation of EY that removed 20–30% of cholesterol and triglycerides. The resulting polar and non-polar fractions were termed EY-P and EY-NP. NF-κB activation in response to EY from different suppliers and their fractions was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a NF-κB response element reporter assay and by analyzing expression of 248 inflammatory genes. Although EY-P and EY contained similar level of vitamins, carotenoids, and fatty acids, only delipidated EY-P fraction suppressed NF-κB via down-regulation of toll like receptor-2 and up-regulation of inhibitory toll interacting protein (Tollip) and lymphocyte antigen 96 (Ly96). Our data suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of lutein and retinol were blunted by non-polar lipids in EY likely via crosstalk between SREBP and NF-κB pathways in adipocytes. Thus, moderate delipidation may improve their beneficial properties of regular eggs. PMID:25620076

  3. Feeding laying hens seal blubber oil: effects on egg yolk incorporation, stereospecific distribution of omega-3 fatty acids, and sensory aspects.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, M; Hulan, H W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Böhm, J; Iben, C

    2004-03-01

    Seventy-two 26-wk-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly assigned to 36 cages (2 per cage) in a 3-orthogonal 4 x 4 latin square, with the fourth row suppressed, to assess the effect of feeding refined seal blubber oil (SBO, containing 22.2% omega-3 fatty acids) on the fatty acid composition and position in the egg yolk lipids. The experiment was conducted over a period of 9 wk. Eggs were collected and numbered, and the weights were recorded for each week and cage. Eggs collected at wk 5 and 9 were used for total lipid, lipid class, fatty acid, and positional analyses. Sensory evaluation was carried out on eggs collected at wk 6 and 7. Feeding SBO at 1.25% led to an increase (P < 0.0001) in the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFA) and a concomitant decrease (P < 0.0001) in arachidonic acid (ARA) in the egg yolk lipids. Yet this amount of SBO in the diet had no effect (P > 0.1) on the sensory attributes of the egg and on production parameters such as egg weight, number of eggs laid, and feed intake (P > 0.05). When feeding SBO in amounts higher than 1.25% proportionately, a plateau effect of the LCn3PUFA content of the eggs was observed. This appears to be because the PUFA content in the sn-2 position of the phospholipids cannot exceed a certain amount. When this amount is reached, the LCn3PUFA will be increasingly stored in triglycerides. The results presented here clearly indicate how eggs can be produced with optimized composition of LCn3PUFA without affecting (P > 0.1) the sensory properties of the eggs. The procedures elaborated herein provide directly applicable consequences for the food industry. PMID:15049501

  4. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-09-11

    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio. PMID:23947616

  5. alpha-Crystallin protein cognates in eggs of the moth, Plodia interpunctella: possible chaperones for the follicular epithelium yolk protein.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Broza, R; Hemphill, M; Perera, O P

    1998-03-01

    alpha-Crystallin protein cognates were found in germ cells of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Shirk and Zimowska, 1997). A cDNA clone of 674 bp with a single open reading frame was isolated for a 25,000 molecular weight polypeptide member of this family, alpha CP25, and a single transcript of approximately 700 bp was found in the ovary of vitellogenic females. Both the DNA sequence and predicted amino acid sequence showed considerable homology with the embryonic lethal gene, l(2)efl, in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to the sequence for l(2)efl, the predicted amino acid sequence for acp25 also showed significant sequence similarly with the alpha-crystallin A chain polypeptides from the lenses of vertebrae eyes. An N-terminal hydrophobic aggregation site and a C-terminal protective binding site common to alpha-crystallin proteins were present in the predicted acp25 and l(2)efl amino acid sequences, while only the C-terminal protective binding site was present in the small heat shock protein sequences from D. melanogaster. This evidence suggests that although the alpha-crystallin protein cognates in P. interpunctella evolved from a gene common with small heat shock protein genes, the amino acid sequence has converged on a structure similar to that of alpha-crystallin proteins. Native immunoblot analysis showed that the alpha-crystallin proteins formed high molecular weight complexes with the follicular epithelium yolk protein (FEYP) but not vitellin in yolk. An electroblot binding assay was used to show that the germ-cell alpha-crystallins of P. interpunctella bind specifically with the FEYP and that the binding was reversible in the presence of ATP or low pH. This evidence in conjunction with the evidence that the alpha-crystallins and FEYP form a stable complex that co-purifies from native egg proteins suggests that the alpha-cystallin cognates function as chaperones for the follicular epithelium yolk proteins in the embryos of P. interpunctella

  6. Ulcer disease prophylaxis in koi carp by bath immersion with chicken egg yolk containing anti-Aeromonas salmonicida IgY.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hongjian; He, Haiwen; Sato, Atsushi; Hatta, Hajime; Nakao, Miki; Somamoto, Tomonori

    2015-04-01

    Ulcer disease, caused by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, is a serious concern in ornamental koi carp, because it induces skin ulceration, disfiguring ornamental fish and causing economic loses. The present study aimed to establish a novel prophylaxis with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin, IgY, against ulcer disease and to assess its feasibility in the ornamental fish industry. Addition of egg yolk powder containing anti-A. salmonicida IgY to rearing water provided significant protection against an A. salmonicida bath infection, whereas administration of non-specific IgY did not. Consecutive immersion of fish into rearing water containing specific IgY completely prevented ulcer disease resulting from cohabitation infection, indicating that this prophylaxis could prevent infection from such type of contact. Thus, passive immunization induced by immersing fish into aquarium water containing specific IgY is a prospective prophylaxis against diseases caused by pathogens that invade the skin and gills. PMID:25687817

  7. Lactose-egg yolk diluent supplemented with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine affect acrosome morphology and motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y J; Im, G S; Park, C S

    2002-12-16

    These experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and to obtain additional information about the effect of orvus es paste (OEP) and egg yolk concentration in the freezing of boar sperm in the maxi-straw. The highest post-thaw acrosomes of normal apical ridge (NAR) and motility were obtained with 0.025 or 0.05% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine concentration in the first diluent. However, there were no effects of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine among the diluents with or without N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at the second dilution. The N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in the first and second diluents was added at room temperatures (20-23 degrees C) and 5 degrees C, respectively. It is suggested that the temperature of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine addition is important for the effect of boar sperm protection during freezing and thawing. When the 0.05% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine was supplemented in the first diluent, the optimum final OEP content was 0.5%. The optimum content of egg yolk in the diluent with 0.05% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine concentration was 20% and egg yolk was one of the main cryoprotective agents. In conclusion, we found out that the diluent with 0.025 or 0.05% soluble N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in the first diluent, 0.5% final orvus es paste concentration and 20% egg yolk concentration significantly enhanced NAR acrosomes and motility of boar sperm after freezing and thawing. PMID:12417120

  8. Development a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening carotenoids in eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Liao, Feng; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with broad-specificity against several carotenoid analogs with equal or similar efficacy was prepared. The obtained mAb C11, with the IgG1 isotype, showed cross-reactivity (CR) with canthaxanthin (100%), β-ionone acid (140.4%), β-carotene (92.9%), capsanthin (90.1%), β-apo-8'-carotenal (92.7%), and xanthophyll (95.8%). Using the mAb C11, a highly sensitive and inexpensive indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed with a simple sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous detection of these carotenoid compounds in eggs. The limit of detection of the various carotenoids ranged from 1.31mgkg(-1) to 1.48mgkg(-1). Recoveries from egg yolks spiked with the above carotenoids ranged from 91.8% to 113.3%, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of less than 14.8%. These results suggest that the developed ic-ELISA is a sensitive, specific, accurate, and inexpensive method that is suitable for the screening of carotenoid residues in routine monitoring. PMID:26920278

  9. Exploring the relationship between protein secondary structures, temperature-dependent viscosities, and technological treatments in egg yolk and LDL by FTIR and rheology.

    PubMed

    Blume, K; Dietrich, K; Lilienthal, S; Ternes, W; Drotleff, A M

    2015-04-15

    Egg yolk and its main component, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were consecutively pasteurised, optimally freeze-dried, and dispersed in various NaCl solutions (0-10%). Heat-induced changes in the protein secondary structures which accompanied viscosity-increasing aggregation processes were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the intensities of intermolecular β-sheets (1622 cm(-1)) and results were compared with the temperature-dependent viscosities. Considerable changes in secondary structures observed after reconstitution of freeze-dried LDL had no detectable effect on the characteristic heat-induced viscosity curves but suggest that LDL plays a particular role in the unwanted gel formation of egg yolk after conventional freezing. For all egg yolk samples and all NaCl-containing LDL samples, the sigmoidal changes in the absorbance units vs. temperature curves corresponded with the first increase in heat-induced viscosity. Both analytical methods showed that the presence of ionic strength caused a shift in curve progressions towards higher temperatures, indicating increased thermal stability. PMID:25466063

  10. Chicken egg yolk anti-asialoGM1 immunoglobulin (IgY): an inexpensive glycohistochemical probe for localization of T-antigen in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sriram, V; Jebaraj, C E; Yogeeswaran, G

    1999-07-01

    A egg yolk polyclonal IgY has been prepared by immunization of white leghorn chickens with small unilamellar liposomal asialoGM1. The newly prepared anti-asialoGM1 IgY has been characterized to be specific toward the terminal carbohydrate moiety of asialoGM1, and has no cross reactivity to its sialylated counterpart (ganglioside, GM1) as evidenced by immunochromatographic studies. General glycohistochemical methods along with antigen specific lectin and immunohistochemical staining using anti-asialoGM1 IgY were used to study the expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (T-) disaccharide antigen in human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues. The expression of T-antigen in colon cancer tissue was detected by two T-disaccharide specific probes, chicken anti-T-yolk antibody (IgY) and Artocarpus integrifolia lectin (AIL) and was found to be more pronounced in both the secreted mucin as well as the cytoplasmic mucin deposits. These immunochemical detection methods for T-antigen showed a weaker correlation with other glycostaining methods using, alcian-blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) and high iron diamine (HID). However, a general enzymatic staining for galactose and galactosamine containing glycoconjugates, by galactose oxidase-Schiff method, showed a good correlation with T-antigen detection. While the T-beta specific anti-asialoGM1 could localize T-antigen in 11 of 13 (84%) human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue sections tested, the T-alpha specific AIL could localize the T-antigen in only 6 of the tissues (46%). These observations confirm previously reported findings, of the prevalence of T-beta conformation in colon cancer, that binds significantly more with the anti-asialoGM1 IgY than with the T-alpha specific AIL. Hence, both anti-T IgY and the AIL immunohistochemical probes may have useful diagnostic value because of the ease of preparation and cost effectiveness, but the T-beta specific anti-asialoGM1 probe (IgY) would have a better prognostic value in colon

  11. Significant sensitivity improvements by matrix optimization: a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric study of lipids from hen egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Teuber, Kristin; Schiller, Jürgen; Fuchs, Beate; Karas, Michael; Jaskolla, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Due to its sensitivity, the tolerance of impurities and the simplicity of performance, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is increasingly used to analyze lipids from biological sources. Although its detailed role is not understood so far, the applied matrix has a pronounced effect on the achievable spectrum quality and particularly how sensitive the individual lipid classes are detectable. Different matrix compounds were recently established in the lipid field including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), para-nitroaniline (PNA), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), and 2-(2-aminoethylamino)-5-nitropyridine (AAN). It is the aim of this paper to compare the properties of these matrices with the newly synthesized matrix, alpha-cyano-2,4-difluorocinnamic acid (Di-FCCA). An organic extract from hen egg yolk was used as a simple and easily available test system. It will be shown that Di-FCCA is the matrix of choice to detect lipids in the positive-ion mode due to an achievable sensitivity gain of more than one order of magnitude compared to alternative matrices. In contrast, Di-FCCA is not suitable for negative-ion detection of phospholipids. Here, 9-AA is unequivocally the matrix of choice. PMID:20420816

  12. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 μM TE·g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 μM TE·g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  13. Nervous system development in cephalopods: How egg yolk-richness modifies the topology of the mediolateral patterning system.

    PubMed

    Buresi, A; Andouche, A; Navet, S; Bassaglia, Y; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, L; Baratte, S

    2016-07-01

    Cephalopods possess the most complex centralized nervous system among molluscs and the molecular determinants of its development have only begun to be explored. To better understand how evolved their brain and body axes, we studied Sepia officinalis embryos and investigated the expression patterns of neural regionalization genes involved in the mediolateral patterning of the neuroectoderm in model species. SoxB1 expression reveals that the embryonic neuroectoderm is made of several distinct territories that constitute a large part of the animal pole disc. Concentric nkx2.1, pax6/gsx, and pax3/7/msx/pax2/5/8 positive domains subdivide this neuroectoderm. Looking from dorsal to ventral sides, the sequence of these expressions is reminiscent of the mediolateral subdivision in model species, which provides good evidence for "mediolateral patterning" conservation in cephalopods. A specific feature of cephalopod development, however, includes an unconventional orientation to this mediolateral sequence: median markers (like nkx2.1) are unexpectedly expressed at the periphery of the cuttlefish embryo and lateral markers (like Pax3/7) are expressed centrally. As the egg is rich with yolk, the lips of the blastopore (that classically organizes the neural midline) remain unclosed at the lateral side of the animal pole until late stages of organogenesis, therefore reversing the whole embryo topology. These findings confirm - by means of molecular tools - the location of both ventral and dorsal poles in cephalopod embryos. PMID:27151209

  14. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  15. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  16. Oral administration of specific yolk antibodies (IgY) may prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis: a phase I feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kollberg, Hans; Carlander, David; Olesen, Hanne; Wejåker, Per-Erik; Johannesson, Marie; Larsson, Anders

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections ultimately occur in virtually all patients. It is impossible to eradicate PA when a patient has been chronically colonized. Immunotherapy with specific egg-yolk antibodies (IgY) may be an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of PA infections. We wanted to determine if treatment with specific IgY can prolong the period between the first and the second PA colonization? And long-term, can the treatment diminish the number of positive PA cultures and postpone the onset of chronic colonization? CF patients gargled daily with an IgY-antibody preparation, purified from eggs of hens immunized with PA bacteria. They were compared to a group of patients who did not gargle with the preparation. Both groups had their first colonization with PA eradicated by antibiotics. The basic treatment was essentially the same in both groups. In the initial study, the period between the first and second colonization with PA was significantly prolonged for the treated vs. the control group (Kaplan-Meier P = 0.015, Breslow test). In the prolonged study, the treated group had only 2.5 sputum cultures positive for PA per 100 months of observation, and none of these patients became chronically colonized with PA. No adverse events were reported. In the control group, 13.7 cultures per 100 months of observation were positive for PA, and 5 (24%) patients became chronically colonized with PA. This feasibility study shows that antipseudomonal IgY has the potential to effectively prevent PA colonization without any severe adverse effects. A phase III study should be initiated. PMID:12746939

  17. Egg yolk and glycerol requirements for freezing boar spermatozoa treated with methyl β-cyclodextrin or cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Eva; Tomás, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Martínez, Emilio A; Vázquez, Juan M; Mocé, Eva

    2014-04-24

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 10(6) sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P <0.05), even in semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P <0.05). Thus, CLC-treated sperm showed a higher tolerance to high glycerol concentrations (5%) in terms of sperm viability (59.19% ± 3) than non-treated sperm (45.58% ± 3; P<0.05). Therefore, it could be necessary to modify the freezing extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality. PMID:24492655

  18. Egg Yolk and Glycerol Requirements for Freezing Boar Spermatozoa Treated with Methyl β-Cyclodextrin or Cholesterol-loaded Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    BLANCH, Eva; TOMÁS, Cristina; HERNÁNDEZ, Marta; ROCA, Jordi; MARTÍNEZ, Emilio A.; VÁZQUEZ, Juan M.; MOCÉ, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 106 sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P <0.05), even in semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P <0.05). Thus, CLC-treated sperm showed a higher tolerance to high glycerol concentrations (5%) in terms of sperm viability (59.19% ± 3) than non-treated sperm (45.58% ± 3; P<0.05). Therefore, it could be necessary to modify the freezing extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality. PMID:24492655

  19. The impact of model peptides on structural and dynamic properties of egg yolk lecithin liposomes - experimental and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Man, Dariusz; Engel, Grzegorz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Ptak, Tomasz; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2015-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1) H-NMR, voltage and resistance experiments were performed to explore structural and dynamic changes of Egg Yolk Lecithin (EYL) bilayer upon addition of model peptides. Two of them are phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives, Ac-Phe-NHMe (1) and Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2), and the third one, Ac-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 (3), is a derivative of (Z)-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine. The ESR results revealed that all compounds reduced the fluidity of liposome's membrane, and the highest activity was observed for compound 2 with N-methylated C-terminal amide bond (Ac-Phe-NMe2 ). This compound, being the most hydrophobic, penetrates easily through biological membranes. This was also observed in voltage and resistance studies. (1) H-NMR studies provided a sound evidence on H-bond interactions between the studied diamides and lecithin polar head. The most significant changes in H-atom chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times T1 were observed for compound 1. Our experimental studies were supported by theoretical calculations. Complexes EYLAc-Phe-NMe2 and EYLAc-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 , stabilized by NH⋅⋅⋅O or/and CH⋅⋅⋅O H-bonds were created and optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of theory in vacuo and in H2 O environment. According to our molecular-modeling studies, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with studied diamides is the negatively charged O-atom in phosphate group which acts as H-atom acceptor. Moreover, the highest binding energy to hydrocarbon chains were observed in the case of Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2). PMID:26172322

  20. Hempseed Products Fed to Hens Effectively Increased n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Total Lipids, Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid of Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    Hempseed products represent potential alternative feed ingredients for poultry. However, their usage is not currently approved due to a lack of data to support their safety and efficacy. In this regard, the current study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary concentration of hempseed (HS) products and duration of their feeding to hens on the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of egg yolk lipids. In the current study, 48 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design, and provided one of six diets (wheat-barley-soybean-based) containing either HS (10, 20 and 30 %), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 and 9.0 %) or no hempseed product (control) over 12 weeks. Increasing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake via increasing dietary hempseed product inclusion, significantly (p < 0.0001) increased the n-3 PUFA contents of yolk total lipid. The values of ALA increased by 12-fold (152 ± 3.56 and 156 ± 2.42 mg/yolk) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by twofold to threefold (41.3 ± 1.57 and 43.6 ± 1.61 mg/yolk) over the control, for the highest levels of HS and HO inclusion, respectively. Increasing levels of hemp products in laying hen diets proved effective in manipulating the fatty acid profile of the total lipid, triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) fractions of yolks, enhancing the n-3 fatty acids and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio. The latter benefit was achieved within 4 weeks of feeding hens either HS- or HO-containing diets. PMID:26515300

  1. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Sudan dyes in chilli powder, ketchup and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Anfossi, Laura; Baggiani, Claudio; Giovannoli, Cristina; Giraudi, Gianfranco

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at developing sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the banned Sudan dyes using polyclonal antibodies. Three different formats were developed and characterized in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity. A competitive indirect ELISA was developed, which showed an IC(50) of 3.8 microg l(-1). Two competitive direct ELISAs were also developed, in which the antibody was added before or simultaneously with the other reagents; the first showed an IC(50) of 8.3 microg l(-1) and the latter showed an IC(50) of 4.9 microg l(-1). Nevertheless, considering dilution of extracts which is needed to offset matrix interference, the limits of detection of the three formats were substantially the same (10 microg kg(-1)). The antibodies in all three test formats were able to recognize Sudan I and partially Sudan II, III and IV; no cross-reactivity was observed with the five edible dyes. Twenty food samples, including chilli powder, paprika, ketchup, and egg, were extracted by a simple sample preparation and very limited dilution. Extracts were analyzed by the developed competitive direct ELISA with the simultaneous addition of reagents. A good correlation was observed (y = 1.19 x-10.0, r(2) = 0.991, n = 20) when the data was compared with that obtained through a conventional HPLC method. PMID:19680953

  2. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of sphingomyelin species from calf brain, ox liver, egg yolk, and krill oil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2012-01-11

    In this study, molecular species of sphingomyelin (SM) in egg yolk, calf brain, ox liver, and krill oil were investigated. Classes of phospholipids (PLs) were purified, identified, and quantified by normal phase semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). For SM molecular species identification, pure SM collected through a flow splitter was loaded to HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)), with 100% methanol containing 5 mM ammonium formate as mobile phase. In addition to classes of PLs, the used approach allowed the determination of profiles of SM species in egg yolk, ox liver, and calf brain, whereas krill oil turned out not to contain any SM. It also allowed the separation and identification of SM subclasses, as well as tentative identification of species with the same molecular mass, including isomers. The results showed that egg yolk contained the highest proportion of (d18:1-16:0)SM (94.1%). The major SM molecular species in ox liver were (d18:1-16:0)SM (25.5%), (d18:1-23:0)SM (19.7%), (d18:1-24:0)SM (13.2%), and (d18:1-22:0)SM (12.5%). Calf brain SM was rich in species such as (d18:1-18:0)SM (40.7%), (d18:1-24:1)SM (17.1%), and (d18:1-20:0)SM (10.8%). PMID:22148474

  3. Increasing Levels of Dietary Hempseed Products Leads to Differential Responses in the Fatty Acid Profiles of Egg Yolk, Liver and Plasma of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficiency with which dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted by hens into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for egg deposition is not clearly understood. In this study, dietary ALA levels were increased via the inclusion of hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in hen diets, with the goal of assessing the effects on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of total lipids and lipid classes in yolk, liver and plasma. Forty-eight hens were individually caged and fed one of six diets containing either HS:10, 20 or 30, HO:4.5 or 9.0 (%, diet) or a control (containing corn oil), providing a range (0.1-1.28 %, diet) of ALA. Fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids and lipid classes, including phosphatidyl choline (PtdCho) and ethanolamine (PtdEtn) in yolk, plasma and liver were then determined. Levels of n-3 FAs in both total lipids and lipid classes increased in all tissues. ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased linearly, while docosapentaenoic acid and DHA increased quadratically. The FA profiles of yolk closely reflected levels in both plasma and liver. While ALA was highly concentrated in the triacylglycerol, it was low but equally distributed between PtdCho and PtdEtn in all tissues; however, the net accumulation was lower (P < 0.0001) in liver compared to yolk and plasma. Levels of EPA and ALA in yolk-PtdEtn were linearly (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.93) associated, and reflected those in liver-PtdEtn (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.90). In the liver, a strong inverse correlation (P < 0.0001; r = -0.94) between PL-DHA and ALA-to-EPA ratio in PtdEtn supports theories of low substrate availability, possibly limiting the conversion of ALA into DHA for egg enrichment. PMID:27052441

  4. An antisperm monoclonal antibody inhibits sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but not homologous eggs.

    PubMed

    Primakoff, P; Hyatt, H

    1986-09-01

    The zona-free hamster egg penetration assay (HEPA) was evaluated as a test for identifying fertilization-blocking antibodies. A monoclonal antibody, AH-20, that binds to the surface of guinea pig sperm was used to test antibody inhibition of sperm-egg fusion. AH-20 strongly inhibited guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but had no effect on guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free guinea pig eggs. No inhibition by AH-20 was found in the homologous fusion assay over a wide range of sperm concentration, fertilization rate, and fertilization index. The results suggest that although guinea pig sperm can fuse with both hamster and guinea pig eggs, some aspect of the fusion mechanism is different in the two cases. The findings also indicate that HEPA, which is frequently used to assess the fertility potential of human sperm, can identify as blockers of sperm-egg fusion antibodies that have no effect on homologous sperm-egg fusion. PMID:3527769

  5. IgY stability in eggs stored at room temperature or at +4°C.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, E; Stålberg, J; Larsson, A

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of immunoglobulin-Y (IgY) in stored eggs from immunised hens. 2. Eggs from individual hens were randomised and stored for up to one month at room temperature, or for up to 6 months at +4°C. IgY was extracted from the egg yolks and the antibody activities were tested by ELISA. 3. There was no significant reduction in antibody titres with egg storage under these conditions. 4. Egg yolks of immunised chickens provide an inexpensive source of large amounts of polyclonal antibodies for use in immunotherapy and immunoassays. By collecting eggs from different immunised hens and pooling their yolks, it should be possible to reduce batch-to-batch variation. PMID:22404803

  6. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  7. Freeze-dried egg yolk based extenders containing various antioxidants improve post-thawing quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Gokce, Elif; Toker, M Berk; Onder, N Tekin; Ustuner, Burcu; Uzabacı, Ender; Gul, Zulfiye; Cavus, Seda

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants-supplemented freeze-dried egg yolk based extenders for the post-thawing quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa. Pooled semen were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in control and antoxidant supplemented freeze-dried extenders (methionine, cysteamine and butylated hydroxytoluene). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Membrane lipid peroxidation status was also analyzed using the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. In the study, antioxidant supplemented freeze-dried egg yolk based extenders have beneficial effect on goat sperm parameters. In addition, we achieved a higher quality in post thawed goat semen even after 6 h incubation when the extender was supplemented by 5 mM BHT or cysteamine. PMID:27018219

  8. Electrochemical immunosensor based on ensemble of nanoelectrodes for immunoglobulin IgY detection: application to identify hen's egg yolk in tempera paintings.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Fabio; Oliveri, Paolo; Ugo, Paolo

    2014-02-15

    A nanostructured electrochemical biosensor for detecting proteins of interest in work of art, in particular in tempera paintings, is presented. To determine egg yolk we focus here on the determination of immunoglobulin IgY. The transducers are nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), prepared via membrane templated electroless deposition of gold. Because of their geometrical and diffusion characteristics, NEEs are characterized by significantly low detection limits, moreover they display the capability of capturing proteins by interaction with the polycarbonate membrane of the NEE. At first, the proteic component of the paint is extracted by ultrasonication in an aqueous buffer, then IgY is captured by incubation on the NEE. The immunoglobulin is detected by treatment with anti-IgY labeled with horse radish peroxidase (Anti-IgY-HRP). The binding of the Anti-IgY-HRP is detected by recording the electrocatalytic signal caused by addition of H2O2 and methylene blue. The sensor detection capabilities are tested by analyzing both paint models, prepared in the lab, and real samples, from paintings of the XVIII-XX century. Multivariate exploratory analysis is applied to classify the voltammetric patterns, confirming the capability to differentiate egg-yolk tempera from other kind of tempera binders as well as from acrylic or oil paints. PMID:24096186

  9. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on post-thaw sperm characteristics. It was observed that post-thaw sperm characteristics were significantly compromised in semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival. PMID:24988847

  10. Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects. PMID:25142046

  11. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols and impact of α-tocopherol on tocotrienol transfer to egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Hannah; Wang, Tong; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei; Prusa, Kenneth

    2015-03-11

    Hens can efficiently transfer nutrients from their feed to the eggs. Tocotrienols (T3s) have various health benefits including lowering cholesterol. Annatto is the only known source of T3s without the presence of α-tocopherol; hence it can be used to study T3 transfer without the interference of α-tocopherol. In this study, hens were fed diets for 7 weeks containing annatto at 100, 500, or 2000 ppm (by weight) and also 2000 ppm annatto with 200, 600, or 1000 ppm of added α-tocopherol to study the effect of α-tocopherol on transfer of T3s. No significant differences were found in egg production or properties. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in transfer efficiencies of tocopherol and T3s to the yolks. α-Tocopherol was transferred more efficiently (21.19-49.17%) than γ-T3 (0.50-0.96%) or δ-T3 (0.74-0.93%). Addition of 1000 ppm of α-tocopherol decreased the amount of γ-T3 but did not impact the transfer of δ-T3 to the egg. These feeding treatments did not impact the cholesterol content of the eggs. PMID:25688649

  12. Continuing multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis strains in egg yolk during refrigeration at 7.2° C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to the consumption of contaminated eggs has led to widespread implementation of risk reduction programs for commercial egg production. Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent bacterial multiplication to dangerously hig...

  13. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. These maternal antibodies, depending on the pathogen, can provide early protection from some diseases, but it may also interfere with the vaccination re...

  15. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...

  16. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  17. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk Ig Y antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is economically the most important parasitic disease of the poultry industry and is caused by intestinal infection with Eimeria spp. An alternative control strategy potentially applicable to intestinal diseases such as avian coccidiosis involves passive immunization using hyperimm...

  18. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    PubMed

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (P<0.05) general motility, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and malondialdehyde of sperm at 0.5mM/ml for BX and at 1-1.5mM/ml of BHT for TY and CE when compared with the control. However, greater concentrations of 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml of BHT had a detrimental (P<0.05) effect compared with the control with all extenders evaluated. In conclusion, BHT supplementation at lesser concentrations (0.5-1.5mM/ml) could improve frozen-thawed bull sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress produced during the freezing-thawing procedures in either lecithin or egg-yolk based extenders. PMID:26515370

  19. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  20. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially-acquired liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Current liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on command and control prescribed time/temperature combinations for specified egg products. Requirements are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570. These standards were based on data for the ...

  1. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is a widely acknowledged practice for reducing the risk of egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers. A recently published federal regulation for S. Enteritidis control requires eggs to be refrigerated within 36 after they are la...

  2. In Vivo Monitoring of the Growth of Fertilized Eggs of Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes) by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Imaging-A Marked Change in the Relative Content of Weakly Hydrogen-Bonded Water in Egg Yolk Just before Hatching.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Mika; Yasui, Yui; Puangchit, Paralee; Kawasaki, Shoya; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops further our previous study of in vivo monitoring at the molecular level of the embryonic development in Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and NIR imaging. NIR spectra were measured nondestructively for three major parts of fertilized medaka eggs (the embryonic body, oil droplets, and egg yolk) from the first day after fertilization to the day just before hatching (JBH). Changes in the contents of chemical components such as proteins, water, and lipids were monitored in situ during embryonic development. A marked change in the relative content of weakly hydrogen-bonded water was observed in the egg yolk JBH. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out using the NIR spectra data of the egg yolk and embryo on the fifth day after fertilization. The PCA clearly separates the egg yolk data from the embryo body parts. Principal component PC1 and PC2 loading plots suggest that the hydrogen bonding structure of water in the egg yolk is considerably different to those of the other parts and the fraction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water in the egg yolk is smaller than that in the embryonic body. NIR images developed from the intensities of peaks of second derivative spectra owing to water and proteins show their different distribution patterns. Images of the ratio of strongly and weakly hydrogen-bonded water confirmed that oil droplets and embryonic body parts have higher and lower ratios, respectively, of strongly hydrogen-bonded water than do the other parts. The images developed from the intensity of the peaks at 4864 and 4616 cm(-1) related to the proteins indicated that the egg yolk contains a higher concentration of protein than do the other parts. The peaks at 5756 and 4530 cm(-1) caused by the protein secondary structures of α-helix and β-sheet showed the configuration of the egg cell membrane. The present study might lead to new understanding at the molecular level regarding the growth of

  3. Maternal Antibody Transmission in Relation to Mother Fluctuating Asymmetry in a Long-Lived Colonial Seabird: The Yellow-Legged Gull Larus michahellis

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Abdessalem; Selmi, Slaheddine; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Chokri, Mohamed Ali; Arnal, Audrey; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Boulinier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Female birds transfer antibodies to their offspring via the egg yolk, thus possibly providing passive immunity against infectious diseases to which hatchlings may be exposed, thereby affecting their fitness. It is nonetheless unclear whether the amount of maternal antibodies transmitted into egg yolks varies with female quality and egg laying order. In this paper, we investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against type A influenza viruses (anti-AIV antibodies) by a long-lived colonial seabird, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), in relation to fluctuating asymmetry in females, i.e. the random deviation from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetric morphological and anatomical traits. In particular, we tested whether females with greater asymmetry transmitted fewer antibodies to their eggs, and whether within-clutch variation in yolk antibodies varied according to the maternal level of fluctuating asymmetry. We found that asymmetric females were in worse physical condition, produced fewer antibodies, and transmitted lower amounts of antibodies to their eggs. We also found that, within a given clutch, yolk antibody level decreased with egg laying order, but this laying order effect was more pronounced in clutches laid by the more asymmetric females. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that maternal quality interacts with egg laying order in determining the amount of maternal antibodies transmitted to the yolks. They also highlight the usefulness of fluctuating asymmetry as a sensitive indicator of female quality and immunocompetence in birds. PMID:22590497

  4. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bacitracin on layer performance of chickens and cholesterol content of plasma and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, S Y; Hashlamoun, E A; Robinson, R K

    1996-05-01

    1. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus alone or in combination with zinc bacitracin on the performance of laying hens was monitored over a period of 4 months. 2. Lactobacillus acidophilus improved egg production, food conversion and reduced the cholesterol concentration in the eggs, but zinc bacitracin had no effect when administered alone. 3. In combination, bacitracin had an adverse effect on the otherwise beneficial activity of the culture. PMID:8773843

  5. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (−196°C) of buffalo semen

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, D.V.; Dhami, A. J.; Hadiya, K. K.; Patel, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare commercially available soybean milk-based extenders, viz. Bioxcell® and Optixcell® (IMV, France) with standard Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender for cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected twice a week in artificial vagina from six sexually mature, 4-6 years old, healthy breeding bulls of Surti buffalo breed. In all 48 qualifying ejaculates (8 per bull) having initial motility >70% were split into three equal aliquots and were diluted (at 34°C keeping 100×106 sperm ml−1) in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders. The French mini straws filled from each aliquot were gradually cooled to 4-5°C, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h and frozen in liquid nitrogen 2 vapor using programmable biofreezer. Just before freezing (post-equilibration) and 24 h after frozen storage, the samples were evaluated for various sperm quality parameters using standard protocols. Frozen semen straws were thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The post-thaw incubation survival (37°C for 1 h) was assessed through motility rating at 0, 30 and 60 min of incubation. Results: The mean percentages of prefreeze sperms in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders in terms of progressive motility (69.48±0.37, 68.02±0.49, 70.94±0.38), viability (79.21±0.39, 77.38±0.48, 81.58±0.38), total abnormalities (7.90±0.14, 8.60±0.16, 7.08±0.15), intact acrosome (89.54± 0.18, 88.58±0.22, 90.52±0.21) and hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) reactivity (67.96±0.32, 65.65±0.42, 70.23±0.37) varied significantly (p<0.05) between extenders. Similar pattern of significant (p<0.05) variations between these extenders for post-thaw sperm progressive motility (47.71±0.79, 44.38±0.85, 49.90±0.90), viability (57.19±0.79, 53.85±0.84, 59.67±0.91), total abnormalities (12.33±0.17, 12.75±0.21, 11.27±0.18), intact acrosome (76.83±0.23, 75.90± 0.27, 78.50±0.25) and HOS reactivity (45.02±0.84, 42.31±0.82, 47.81±0.90) was

  6. Canine-chilled sperm: study of a semen extender made with low-density lipoproteins from hen egg yolk supplemented with glutamine.

    PubMed

    Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Le Guillou, J; Garand, A; Anton, M; Schmitt, E; Desherces, S; Delhomme, G; Langlois, M-L; Destrumelle, S; Vera-Munoz, O; Barrière, P; Tainturier, D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of 6% low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and 20 mm glutamine in comparison with other extenders used for the refrigeration of canine semen: Tris egg yolk (EY) 20% and 6% LDL. The percentages of mobile spermatozoa after 4 days storage in a domestic refrigerator at +4 °C were 53.1%, 44.2% and 52.2% for the 6% LDL + 20 mm glutamine, 20% EY and 6% LDL extenders respectively for 100% of the dogs. After 7 days of storage, these percentages fell to 37.8%, 26.4% and 33.6% in the same extenders for 50% of the dogs. In vitro fertility tests were performed with all of the extenders following the mobility results. These tests were conducted on the day of sampling (D0), and 48 and 96 h after sampling. The results of the hypo-osmotic swelling test were 82.6%, 81.2% and 85.7% on D0, 75.2%, 74.1% and 78.5% on D2, and 70.8%, 71% and 76.1% on D4 for the 6% LDL + 20 mm glutamine, 20% EY and 6% LDL extenders, respectively. For the FITC/pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) test, the results were 81.5%, 70.2% and 84.8% on D0, 78.9%, 62.3% and 84.2% on D2, and 72.7%, 59.6% and 73.7% on D4 for the 6% LDL + 20 mm glutamine, 20% EY and 6% LDL extenders, respectively. The acridine orange test was positive; in nearly 100% of cases, none of the spermatozoa had been denatured on D0, D2 and D4. The 6% LDL + 20 mm glutamine and the 6% LDL extenders are capable of preserving spermatozoa that have been stored in a domestic refrigerator at +4°C for at least 4 days. This means that the spermatozoa retain good cytoplasmic membrane integrity, had not capacitated and contained intact DNA in comparison with spermatozoa preserved in the egg yolk extender. The duration of storage is a very important consideration when faced with the problem of sending semen over ever-greater distances. PMID:22747962

  7. Thermal inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially-acquired liquid whole egg and 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments, which take into account ch...

  8. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  9. Effect of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) seminal plasma on the post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based or egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Burcu; Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Nur, Zekariya; Gokce, Elif; Sonat, Fusun Ak; Gul, Zulfiye; Duman, Muhammed; Ceniz, Cafer; Uslu, Aydın; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Soylu, M Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of rainbow trout seminal plasma (RTSP) (0.1%, 1% and 10%) in extenders containing either egg yolk or lecithin for use in Awassi ram semen cryopreservation. Pooled sperm were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in egg yolk or lecithin extender containing no RTSP, 0.1%, 1% or 10% RTSP (v/v). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity [hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Hoechst 33258] and defective acrosomes [FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC)] at the following five time points: after dilution with extender A; after equilibration; and post-thaw at 0h, 3h and 5h. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined only after thawing. Freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and post-thaw incubation at 0h, 3h and 5h) negatively affected the motility (P<0.001) and acrosome integrity (P<0.001). Additionally, freezing and thawing negatively affected the plasma membrane integrity, as determined by the HOST and Hoechst 33258 (P<0.001). The extender group affected the motility (P<0.001) and the HOST results (P<0.001). Levels of MDA in the egg yolk extender with 1% RTSP group were significantly lower than in the lecithin control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the egg yolk extender groups that were supplemented with 10% and 1% RTSP provided greater cryoprotective effects for semen survivability during 5h incubation than the other extender groups. PMID:26685096

  10. The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers.

    PubMed

    Jha, Anupma; Watkins, Simon C; Traub, Linton M

    2012-05-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called "eat-me" signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6-null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered. PMID:22398720

  11. Effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin injected into the yolks of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs prior to incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, D.C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Meadows, J.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Kelly, M.E.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Bursian, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs were injected with either 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] 126; 70-698 ?g/kg egg) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1.3-11.7 ?g/kg egg) prior to incubation. These compounds were injected into the yolks of cormorant eggs collected from incomplete clutches at isolated colonies on Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada. Eggs were incubated for approximately 26 to 28 d. After hatching the brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were dissected and weighed. Torsos were preserved in formalin for examination of the gonads. Median lethal doses (LD50s) calculated from mortality data at hatching were 177 and 4.0 ?g/kg egg for PCB 126 and TCDD, respectively. No significant differences were found in the incidence of developmental abnormalities in any of the treatment groups. Bursa weights were significantly less in the greatest (11.7 ?g/kg egg) TCDD group compared to the vehicle control group. Spleen weights were significantly less in the 349 ?g PCB 126/kg egg and the 5.4 and 11.7 ?g TCDD/kg egg groups when compared to the vehicle control group. No histological alterations of the gonads were found. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in all PCB 126 and TCDD dose groups was significantly greater compared to the control activity. The toxic equivalency factor for PCB 126 was 0.02

  12. Organo-modified layered double hydroxide-catalyzed Fenton-like ultra-weak chemiluminescence for specific sensing of vitamin B₁₂ in egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Rong, Wanqi; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    In general, the chemiluminescence (CL) sensing of vitamin B12 is achieved by determining Co(II) liberated from acidified vitamin B12 by a luminol system. However, the luminol system for sensing vitamin B12 has poor selectivity due to serious interference from other metal ions. In this study, as a novel CL amplifier of the Co(II)+H2O2+OH(-) ultra-weak CL reaction (Fenton-like system), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been applied to the specific determination of vitamin B12 by liberating Co(II). The CL intensity increased with increasing the concentration of vitamin B12 in a wide range from 1.0 ng mL(-1) to 5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.57 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine vitamin B12 in egg yolk with simple procedures, shorter time and higher selectivity. Recoveries from spiked real samples were 96-103%. The results of the proposed method for sensing vitamin B12 in real samples were agreed with those obtained by the standard inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the CL sensing of vitamin B12 with high selectivity in the absence of luminol. PMID:25127574

  13. Binding interaction of differently charged fluorescent probes with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the effect of β-cyclodextrin on the lipid-probe complexes: A fluorometric investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Barnali; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of cationic phenosafranin (PSF), anionic 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and non-ionic nile red (NR) have been studied with the zwitterionic phospholipid, egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC). The study reveals discernible binding interactions of the three fluorescent probes with the EYPC lipid vesicle. Once the binding of the probes with the lipid is established, the effect of cyclic oligosaccharide, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), on these lipid bound probes has been investigated. Different fluorometric techniques suggest that addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes leads to the release of the probes from the lipid medium through the formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes. A competitive binding of the probes between β-cyclodextrin and the lipid is ascribed to be responsible for the effect. This provides an easy avenue for the removal of the probe molecules from the lipid environment. Extension of this work with drug molecules in cell membranes is expected to give rise to a strategy for the removal of adsorbed drugs from the cell membranes by the use of non-toxic β-cyclodextrin.

  14. Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing

    PubMed Central

    Dawra, Vasundhara; Yadav, Brijesh; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE) based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control), TE + glutamine (8 mM) (T1) and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM) (T2). At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples), progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed. Results: Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05) effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw. Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality. PMID:27047193

  15. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  16. Estrogen-responsive genes encoding egg yolk proteins vitellogenin and apolipoprotein II in chicken are differentially regulated by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Ratna, Warren N; Bhatt, Vrushank D; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Bin Ariff, Ammar; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Ratna, Haran N

    2016-02-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins, apolipoprotein II (apo-II) and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo-II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo-II messenger RNA (mRNA) is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA-stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo-II, VG, and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin, and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver was stimulated by estrogen and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo-II and VG from the aforementioned treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays, and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo-II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo-II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the aforementioned genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  17. Analytical spectroscopic investigation of wavelength and pulse duration effects on laser-induced changes of egg-yolk-based tempera paints.

    PubMed

    Oujja, Mohamed; Pouli, Paraskevi; Domingo, Concepción; Fotakis, Costas; Castillejo, Marta

    2010-05-01

    The application of laser cleaning methodologies to light-sensitive substrates such as those encountered in artistic paintings is an extremely delicate issue. The cleaning of paintings and polychromes is an irreversibly invasive intervention; therefore, prior to the implementation of laser cleaning methodologies, a thorough characterization of the interaction between laser pulses and painting components is required. In this work, the modifications induced by irradiation with pulses of 150 picoseconds (at 1064 and 213 nm) and 15 nanoseconds (at 213 nm) on unvarnished aged model egg-yolk-based paints were examined following a spectroanalytical approach. Laser-induced chemical changes on samples of unpigmented and widely used artist's pigment temperas were investigated by spectrofluorimetry and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, while color changes were quantified by colorimetry. Noticeable modifications of the Raman and fluorescence bands attributed to pigments are absent except for vermillion, for which the pigment bands tend to disappear upon irradiation at 1064 nm. Interestingly, no discoloration was observed on most of the pigments upon irradiation at 213 nm (150 ps), including the light-sensitive vermillion, while no indications of carbonization or charring of the paint layers, which could give rise to amorphous carbon bands, were obtained at any of the irradiation conditions explored. Comparison of the results using the two different pulse durations and wavelengths illustrates the participation of mechanisms of diverse origin according to the chemical composition of the pigment and highlights the importance of the optimization of the laser parameters, specifically fluence, pulse duration, and wavelength, in conservation treatments of paintings. PMID:20482972

  18. Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEY) extender developed for freezing dog semen is a good option to cryopreserve bovine epididymal sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Soares, L; Ferreira, P; Rocha, A

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis-epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze-thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed(®) or a Tris-egg yolk (TEY)-based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin-nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post-thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p < 0.01) percentage of progressive motile and live sperm, than those extended in AndroMed(®) . Blastocyst rate after IVF differed only (p < 0.05) between the reference group (IVF performed with frozen semen with known in vitro fertility) and Group A extended in AndroMed(®) . We conclude that when cryopreservation facilities are distant from the collection site, bovine epididymal sperm can be shipped chilled overnight either within the epididymal tail or after dilution without deleterious effect on post-thaw sperm quality. TEY extender was more suitable for cold storage and freezing bovine epididymal sperm, than the commercial

  19. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-12-23

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

  20. Effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) injected into the yolks of chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs prior to incubation.

    PubMed

    Powell, D C; Aulerich, R J; Meadows, J C; Tillitt, D E; Giesy, J P; Stromberg, K L; Bursian, S J

    1996-10-01

    The yolks of White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected prior to incubation with either 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 12.8 microg/kg egg or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.64 microg/kg egg. Chicks were subjected to necropsy within 24 h of hatching. The brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were removed and weighed. Assessment of the rate of hatching indicated an LD50+/-S.E. of 2.3+/-0.19 microg/kg egg (7. 1+/-0.58 nmol/kg egg) for PCB 126 and 0.15 +/- 0.012 microg/kg egg (0.47 +/- 0.037 nmol/kg egg) for TCDD. No significant differences in the incidence of developmental abnormalities (structural defects and edema) were observed in TCDD-exposed embryos, while PCB 126 caused significantly more developmental abnormalities at 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 microg/kg egg than the vehicle control. PCB 126 caused lower hatchling weights and greater relative brain, heart, and liver weights when compared to the vehicle control group at a dose of 3.2 microg/kg egg which is greater than the LD50. TCDD at 0.08 microg/kg egg caused relative bursa weights to be less than those of the vehicle control. A toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 0.07 was determined for PCB 126 in relation to TCDD based on overt lethality. PMID:8854835

  1. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  2. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs. PMID:22334746

  3. Development of a low resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic technique for the study of matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed hen egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Au, Carmen; Wang, Tong; Acevedo, Nuria C

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted in developing a low resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic technique to study matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed gelled yolk. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence was used to measure spin-spin relaxation times of proton pools representing major yolk constituents. A component identification test distinguished 3-4 pools. The least mobile pool was assigned to proteins, protein-lipid and protein-water interactions, and the most mobile to unbound water. The remaining pools were assigned to lipids, lipid-protein and lipid-water interactions. A stability test indicated that yolk had varied matrix mobility within the same sample across five days of refrigeration storage. A reproducibility test demonstrated high repeatability of fresh yolk measurements, but significant differences (p<0.05) were found within gelled yolk samples. This research determined that (1)H NMR spectroscopy, a non-destructive technique, can identify yolk components and detect changes in the matrix. PMID:26988489

  4. Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-α expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Methods Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41–43 days and randomly assigned to WD + AF feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n = 8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n = 8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n = 6) for 41–43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31–33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. Results WD + AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-α mRNA (-2.8-fold, p < 0.01). Serum and liver TAC was lower in WD + AF versus WD and CTL rats (p < 0.05), likely due to exogenous antioxidant ingredients provided through AF as evidenced by a tendency for mitochondrial SOD2 mRNA to increase in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.07). Liver fat deposition nor liver protein carbonyl content differed between WD + AF versus WD rats, although liver protein carbonyls tended to be lower in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.08). RNA-seq revealed that 19 liver mRNAs differed between WD + AF versus WD when both groups were compared with CTL rats (+/- 1.5-fold, p < 0.01). Bioinformatics suggest that AF prevented WD-induced alterations in select genes related to the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates in favor of select genes related to lipid transport and metabolism. Finally, serum clinical

  5. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis R; Theuer, Richard C; Castañeda, Yolanda S; Wheaton, Dianna H; Bosworth, Rain G; O'Connor, Anna R; Morale, Sarah E; Wiedemann, Lindsey E; Birch, Eileen E

    2004-09-01

    Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical trial format to evaluate the effect of supplemental DHA in solid foods on visual development of breast-fed infants with the primary outcome, sweep visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity, as an index for maturation of the retina and visual cortex. At 6 mo of age, breast-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 jar (113 g)/d of baby food containing egg yolk enriched with DHA (115 mg DHA/100 g food; n = 25) or control baby food (0 mg DHA; n = 26). Gravimetric measures were used to estimate the supplemental DHA intake which was 83 mg DHA/d in the supplemented group and 0 mg/d in controls. Although many infants in both groups continued to breast-feed for a mean of 9 mo, RBC DHA levels decreased significantly between 6 and 12 mo (from 3.8 to 3.0 g/100 g total fatty acids) in control infants, whereas RBC DHA levels increased by 34% from 4.1 to 5.5 g/100 g by 12 mo in supplemented infants. VEP acuity at 6 mo was 0.49 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) and improved to 0.29 logMAR by 12 mo in controls. In DHA-supplemented infants, VEP acuity was 0.48 logMAR at 6 mo and matured to 0.14 logMAR at 12 mo (1.5 lines on the eye chart better than controls). At 12 mo, the difference corresponded to 1.5 lines on the eye chart. RBC DHA levels and VEP acuity at 12 mo were correlated (r = -0.50; P = 0.0002), supporting the need of an adequate dietary supply of DHA throughout 1 y of life for neural development. PMID:15333721

  6. Concentration of organochlorine in egg yolk and reproductive success of Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1758) at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keithmaleesatti, S; Thirakhupt, K; Pradatsudarasar, A; Varanusupakul, P; Kitana, N; Robson, M

    2007-09-01

    Contaminant analyses in animal eggs have illustrated the benefit of wildlife as indicators of xenobiotic contamination in natural habitats. In 2002, concentrations of 16 organochlorine insecticides were measured in egg yolk and the reproductive success of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, was studied in a population at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area Bang Pahan District, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand. Only 4,4'-dichloro diphenylethane (4,4'-DDE) was detected in the yolk of all samples (n=12) at the concentrations ranging from 33.4 to 116.0 ng/gwetwt. Mean eggshell thickness (n=24) was 0.261+/-0.005 mm. Relationships between the concentrations of 4,4'-DDE and eggshell thickness as well as the reproductive success at all stages were not found (P>0.05). Rather, major factors potentially influencing the decline of reproductive success observed during the field study may include strong wind, predators, intraspecific and interspecific competitions. PMID:17081607

  7. Increased Macular Pigment Optical Density and Visual Acuity following Consumption of a Buttermilk Drink Containing Lutein-Enriched Egg Yolks: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Made, Sanne M.; Kelly, Elton R.; Kijlstra, Aize; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study the effect of 1-year daily consumption of a dairy drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolks on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function parameters in elderly subjects with ocular drusen and/or retinal pigment abnormalities. Methods. One hundred and one subjects were recruited to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. Statistical analyses were performed with 46 subjects in the lutein group and 43 in the control group. MPOD, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR), and dark adaptation were measured at the start of the study, after 6 months and after 12 months. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results. In the lutein group, plasma lutein concentrations increased significantly from 205 ng/mL at baseline to 399 ng/mL after twelve months of intervention. MPOD increased significantly from 0.45 to 0.52 and BCVA improved significantly from −0.04 to −0.09 LogMar. Differences in rod dark adaptation rate between both groups were not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of a dairy drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolks for one year improves visual acuity, MPOD, and plasma lutein concentration in elderly subjects with drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities. PMID:27064326

  8. Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

  9. Eggshell Spottiness Reflects Maternally Transferred Antibodies in Blue Tits

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Grégoire, Arnaud; Staszewski, Vincent; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Boulinier, Thierry; Doutrelant, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices). We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks. As yolk antibody

  10. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    PubMed

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Grégoire, Arnaud; Staszewski, Vincent; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Boulinier, Thierry; Doutrelant, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices). We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks. As yolk antibody