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Sample records for egypt paleoimmunological investigation

  1. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  2. First Investigation of Geomagnetic Micropulsation, Pi 2, in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Mahrous, A.; Yasin, N.; Fathy, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    We present first investigation of Pi 2 pulsations observed from MAGnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) at Fayum and Aswan stations (FYM and ASW) in Egypt. MAGDAS is an important component of the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). We carried out our analysis through a visual inspection comparing our events with burst in AE index during the period from November 2008 to October 2009. We used two different methods: (i) Fourier transformations and (ii) Wavelet power spectrum. Pi 2 events of H component, at FYM and ASW, have the same waveform and the same frequency, and some times the same amplitude, but in some cases FYM has relatively higher amplitude than ASW

  3. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  4. Geological and geophysical investigation of Kamil crater, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Zeoli, Antonio; El Khrepy, Sami; Lethy, Ahmed; Hafez, Mahfooz; El Gabry, Mohamed; El Barkooky, Ahmed; Barakat, Aly; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Radwan, Ali M.; El Sharkawi, Mohamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Folco, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    We detail the Kamil crater (Egypt) structure and refine the impact scenario, based on the geological and geophysical data collected during our first expedition in February 2010. Kamil Crater is a model for terrestrial small-scale hypervelocity impact craters. It is an exceptionally well-preserved, simple crater with a diameter of 45 m, depth of 10 m, and rayed pattern of bright ejecta. It occurs in a simple geological context: flat, rocky desert surface, and target rocks comprising subhorizontally layered sandstones. The high depth-to-diameter ratio of the transient crater, its concave, yet asymmetric, bottom, and the fact that Kamil Crater is not part of a crater field confirm that it formed by the impact of a single iron mass (or a tight cluster of fragments) that fragmented upon hypervelocity impact with the ground. The circular crater shape and asymmetries in ejecta and shrapnel distributions coherently indicate a direction of incidence from the NW and an impact angle of approximately 30 to 45°. Newly identified asymmetries, including the off-center bottom of the transient crater floor downrange, maximum overturning of target rocks along the impact direction, and lower crater rim elevation downrange, may be diagnostic of oblique impacts in well-preserved craters. Geomagnetic data reveal no buried individual impactor masses >100 kg and suggest that the total mass of the buried shrapnel >100 g is approximately 1050-1700 kg. Based on this mass value plus that of shrapnel >10 g identified earlier on the surface during systematic search, the new estimate of the minimum projectile mass is approximately 5 t.

  5. Geophysical investigations of a geothermal anomaly at Wadi Ghadir, eastern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.; Basta, N. Z.; Melek, Y. S.

    1984-01-01

    During regional heat flow studies a geothermal anomaly was discovered approximately 2 km from the Red Sea coast at Wadi Ghadir, in the Red Sea Hills of Eastern Egypt. A temperature gradient of 55 C/km was measured in a 150 m drillhole at this location, indicating a heat flow of approximately 175 mw/sqm, approximately four times the regional background heat flow for Egypt. Gravity and magnetic data were collected along Wadi Ghadir, and combined with offshore gravity data, to investigate the source of the thermal anomaly. Magnetic anomalies in the profile do not coincide with the thermal anomaly, but were observed to correlate with outcrops of basic rocks. Other regional heat flow and gravity data indicate that the transition from continental to oceanic type lithosphere occurs close to the Red Sea margin, and that the regional thermal anomaly is possibly related to the formation of the Red Sea.

  6. Remote sensing and geochemical investigations of selected surface processes in Egypt and Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Mary Katherine

    This thesis consists of three studies of surface processes on Earth: 1. Age and isotopic constraints of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert of Egypt. North Africa has undergone drastic climatic change over the past several hundred thousand years. Timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium- series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Stable oxygen isotopes of the travertines were used in equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicating the Kurkur travertines have δ18O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters (~[- ]11/perthous). The ages of the of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during periods of enhanced northern summer insolation. 2. Identification of soil moisture as an environmental risk factor for filariasis in Egypt. Bancroftian filariasis is a deforming illness transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex. pipiens) and caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (WHO technical report 821; Neva and Brown, 1994). Environmental variables, such as humidity, play an important role in the transmission cycle of filariasis. Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to model the surface soil moisture conditions of the southern Nile Delta region of Egypt as a proxy for environmental humidity. Filariasis infection rates were found to be negligible for areas with low surface soil moisture availability (>20%). Variable infection rates were observed for regions with higher surface soil moisture content, possibly due to anthropogenic influences such as insect control and the use of anti- filarial drugs. 3. Monitoring of Pb aerosol fallout in the vicinity of the Glover smelter, Southeastern

  7. An investigation of selected chemical contaminants in commercial pet foods in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; El Sharkawy, Nabela I; Moustafa, Gihan G

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the levels of various contaminants in both wet and dry commercial pet foods in Egypt. A total of 20 local and imported pet food products (3 samples each) were screened for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for nitrate and nitrite levels by nitrate-nitrite spectrophotometry. Cat food, on average, had greater concentrations of the metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and tin than dog food. Of the investigated metals, only tin concentration exceeded the safe level compared with the standards of the National Research Council and the European Commission for the dog and cat. According to the guidelines of the Association of American Feed Control Officials for canned pet foods, the nitrate and nitrite contents of examined foods greatly exceeded the recommended level. No total aflatoxins were detected in the surveyed samples. None of the samples analyzed had levels above international limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for ochratoxin, and only 1 sample exceeded the level for aflatoxin B1. Of the 20 samples analyzed for zearalenone, 4 samples had higher levels than the FAO maximum tolerable levels. These results indicate that pet foods marketed in Egypt, especially cat foods, occasionally contain contaminants that could result in adverse effects in pets. PMID:26754825

  8. Investigations On Limestone Weathering Of El-Tuba Minaret El Mehalla, Egypt: A Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gohary; A, M.

    The weathering phenomena that have affected El-TUBA Minaret, one of the most important Islamic stone minarets in middle delta in Egypt; that has suffered from several factors of deterioration due to weathering phenomenon. The present investigations concern the weathering factors that may have affected the minaret via the following methods and techniques: a) Contact-free methods used to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of building materials before and after weathering effects such as SEM-EDX and XRD, b) Non-destructive methods to find out percentage of range of decay which has affected these materials as well as the deteriorating roles of the surrounding environment. This method has been used to make an anatomical scheme of these features especially to specific deteriorated parts by GIS and other digital imaging techniques. All results confirm that the degradation factors affecting the minaret building materials are essentially attributed to direct effects of weathering phenomena. These weathering phenomena arise from physical and chemical mechanisms which have lead to many deterioration forms on the following two scales: a) Macro scale of weathering phenomena (e.g. structural damages, crakes, loss of plumb and walls bulging), b) Micro scale of weathering phenomena (e.g. hydrated salts, bursting, flaking, coloration, scaling, skinning, exfoliation and soiling). Discussion on the management and rehabilitation of this monument is made, since it is one of the religious shrines in Egypt.

  9. Raman investigations of Upper Cretaceous phosphorite and black shale from Safaga District, Red Sea, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobotă, Valerian; Salama, Walid; Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Tarcea, Nicolae; Rösch, Petra; El Kammar, Ahmed; Morsy, Rania S.; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Upper Cretaceous Duwi phosphorite deposits and underlying Quseir Variegated Shale from Safaga district, Red Sea Range, Egypt, was investigated by dispersive and Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy. The only phosphorous containing mineral detected in the phosphorite deposits was carbonate fluorapatite. Often carbonate fluorapatite appears associated with calcium sulfate and seldom with calcium carbonate in the investigated samples. Iron is present in the form of goethite and pyrite in the phosphorite layer, while pyrite, marcasite and hematite were identified in the Quseir Shale samples. Also, a high amount of disordered carbon was detected in the black shale layers. The Raman results confirm the hypothesis that the formation of the phosphorites took place in a marine environment. During the formation of black shale, the redox conditions changed, with the pH reaching values of 4 or even lower. Diagenetic and weathering transformations had taken place in the phosphorite deposits, calcium sulfate and goethite being products of these types of processes.

  10. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat. PMID:22569842

  11. Raman investigations of Upper Cretaceous phosphorite and black shale from Safaga District, Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ciobotă, Valerian; Salama, Walid; Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Tarcea, Nicolae; Rösch, Petra; El Kammar, Ahmed; Morsy, Rania S; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-01-24

    The mineral composition of the Upper Cretaceous Duwi phosphorite deposits and underlying Quseir Variegated Shale from Safaga district, Red Sea Range, Egypt, was investigated by dispersive and Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy. The only phosphorous containing mineral detected in the phosphorite deposits was carbonate fluorapatite. Often carbonate fluorapatite appears associated with calcium sulfate and seldom with calcium carbonate in the investigated samples. Iron is present in the form of goethite and pyrite in the phosphorite layer, while pyrite, marcasite and hematite were identified in the Quseir Shale samples. Also, a high amount of disordered carbon was detected in the black shale layers. The Raman results confirm the hypothesis that the formation of the phosphorites took place in a marine environment. During the formation of black shale, the redox conditions changed, with the pH reaching values of 4 or even lower. Diagenetic and weathering transformations had taken place in the phosphorite deposits, calcium sulfate and goethite being products of these types of processes. PMID:24036306

  12. Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of the coastal shallow aquifers in El-Omayed area, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Atwia, M G; Masoud, A A

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring and assessment of the coastal aquifers are becoming a worldwide concern for the need of additional and sustainable water resources to satisfy demographic growth and economic development. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the El-Omayed area in the northwestern coast of Egypt. The aim of the study was to delineate different water-bearing formations, provide a general evaluation of groundwater quality, and identify the recharge sources in aquifers. Thirty-seven water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. Fifteen profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in the oolitic limestone aquifer to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The groundwater reserves in the El-Omayed area are mainly contained in sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. The aquifer of sand dune accumulations contains freshwater of low salinity (average total dissolved solids (TDS) = 974 mg/l). Groundwater of oolitic limestone aquifer is slightly brackish (average TDS = 1,486 mg/l). Groundwater of these aquifers can be used for irrigation under special management for salinity control, and regular leaching as indicated by electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, with increasing depth, calcareous loam, gypsum, oolitic limestone, and sandy limestone. Oolitic limestone constitutes the main aquifer and has a thickness of 12-32 m. PMID:23722640

  13. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  14. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  15. Remote sensing and geophysical investigations of Moghra Lake in the Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Abdelazeem, Maha

    2014-02-01

    The Western Desert covers two-thirds of the land area of Egypt and occupies one of the driest regions of the Sahara. Seven depressions within the desert - Siwa, Qattara, Fayum, Bahariya, Farafra, Dakhla, and Kharga - may represent parts of old drainage systems with deflation, extensive erosion, and possibly, some tectonic activity. Oases with freshwater exist in these depressions. Geological and geophysical investigations in the Qattara Depression indicate the presence of buried fluvial channels with southeast to northwest flow directions from the highland areas. The origin of these fluvial systems, as well as the origin of the depressions themselves, is still unresolved, and many ideas have been suggested. Moghra Lake at the northeastern tip of the Qattara basin may be a remnant of a larger paleolake, including the mouth of a paleo-river. We present here the results of our recent work in this area using ALOS PALSAR radar remote sensing data, which indicated the presence of buried channels that may have fed the larger Moghra paleolake. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data along 2D profiles were acquired; the migrated GPR sections identified a major paleochannel with numerous minor channels at its margins. GPR interpretations are verified by field observations, trenching, and stratigraphic information from outcrop data. Potential field analyses identify possible aquifers that are controlled by regional structures. Density contrasts within the sedimentary units, physical boundaries of uplifted basement blocks and depths to causative sources were also identified. This work contributes to the reconstruction of paleodrainage of this region and helps in understanding processes involved in the formation of the Qattara Depression.

  16. Remote Sensing and Shallow Geophysical Investigations on Moghra Lake in Northeastern Qattarra Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. D.; Fathy, M. S.; Azeem, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt encompasses two thirds of the land area of Egypt and constitutes one of the driest regions of the Sahara. This desert has seven depressions; Siwa, Qattara, Fayium, Bahariya, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga. These depressions may be the manifestation of old drainage basins with extensive erosion and possibly some tectonic activity. Several oases with freshwater can be found in these depressions. Geological and geophysical investigations in Qattara Depression indicate several buried fluvial channels with flow direction from highlands in southeast to northwest. Moghra Lake at the northeastern tip of Qatarra basin may be a small remnant of a larger paleo-lake including the mouth of a paleo-river. This study probed this area for presence of buried channels that may have fed the larger Moghra paleo-lake. We have used ALOS - PALSAR radar remote sensing data to identify the surface features in this region, such as channels, channel fills, and fractures. In addition, dual polarization PALSAR data (HV, HH) allowed analysis of the near surface geology and assisted in delineating areas of interest for GPR surveys. GPR data along 2D profiles were acquired using the GSSI SIR-3000 system with a 400 MHz antenna that provided images to approximately three meters in depth. All the GPS data were processed using RADAN 6.6 software. A conventional processing flow was used for data processing: The positional correction tool removed the air wave. A range-gain balanced the amplitudes and a final band-pass (50 kHz to 500 kHz) filter was applied to the data. Deconvolution was also applied for highlighting the finer details. In addition, spatial filters were used to attenuate continuous vertical noise. The migrated sections of GPR identified a major paleochannel distributary with two minor channels at the margins. The bedrock of the studied area consists of the Lower Miocene Moghra Formation (sandstone and shale intercalations). The area around the present lake is

  17. Spotlight: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second most populous country in Africa, with 65.5 million people living in a land area of 384,344 square miles as of mid-1998. There were 28 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 63 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.2% annually. The average Egyptian woman has 3.6 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 69 years for women. Egypt has major issues to address with regard to the management and use of its water resources, balancing the protection and use of rural lands, and expanding industry while protecting the air, water, and land. Much of Egypt's water is polluted and its soil damaged and depleted due to irrigation-related salinization. With Cairo and Alexandria already densely populated, the proportion of Egypt's population expected to live in urban areas should exceed 60% by 2025. Almost all of Egypt's population lives along the banks of the Nile and its delta, almost all of the country's agricultural production occurs on 5% of that land, and less than 1% of the land is protected. Population momentum will cause Egypt's population to grow a projected 51% by 2025 even though 47% of married women use some form of contraception. 51% of Egyptian adults are literate and tense relations with Israel influence Egypt's public expenditures and foreign assistance. PMID:12348893

  18. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region. PMID:26410824

  19. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, R.; Khashaba, A.; El-Hemaly, I. A.; Takla, E. M.; Abdel Aal, E.; Odah, H.

    2016-06-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  20. Investigation of geotechnical parameters from CSEM mapping and monitoring data at the oases Kharga and Baris of Sahara desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Attia, Magdy; Khalil, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mamdouh

    2016-04-01

    The site of investigation, oasis Kharga, is located at about 600 km south of Cairo, Egypt; Baris is about 90 km from Kharga also to south and towards more inside the desert. The work was aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at Baris and to estimate the water intake in the Oasis Kharga. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure of the Baris. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Here we can show the first results that we shall continue during some cycles of monitoring. The second part of our work was linked with mapping the massif structure inside the oasis City, where only using our device we could construct the geoelectrical sections for 5 profiles and show the real structure of the water volume and its complicated structure up to 200 meters depth recording the values of real not apparent resistivity. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We can conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation areas is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectrical heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1,2]. References 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability

  1. Comparative DNA profiling, phytochemical investigation, and biological evaluation of two Ficus species growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A.; Hetta, Mona H.; Yassin, Nemat Z.; Hassan, Hossam M.; El-Awdan, Sally A.; Afifi, Naglaa I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Background: A comparison between two Ficus species, cultivated in Egypt, was carried out in this study. Their DNA analysis revealed that they are not closely related. Materials and Methods: The pharmacopoeial constants of the leaves showed higher total ash and acid insoluble ash in F. lyrata than in F. platypoda. The other parameters were close in both species. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenes in their leaves and was detected in traces in their stems. Results: Saponification of n-hexane extract of the leaves yielded 46% and 74.8% for the unsaponifiable matters and 20% and 15% for the fatty acids for F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. n-Docosane (21.69%) and n-heptacosane (33.77%) were the major hydrocarbons in F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. b-Sitosterol was the main sterol, palmitic (22.07%) and carboceric (35.72%) acids were the major identified saturated fatty acids in both species, while linoleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid (18.66% and 16.7%) in both species, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that the two species were safe up to 2 g/kg. The antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and pyrogallol as the standard was more significant for F. platypoda (232.6 μg/ml) than for F. lyrata, (790.9 μg/ml). The oral antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats using alloxan revealed that the 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. platypoda was more active than that of the leaves of F. lyrata in decreasing the blood glucose level at 200 mg/kg/day (107.9 ± 5.817, 127.2 ± 4.359) and 400 mg/kg/day (64.11 ± 4.358, 127.7 ± 6.889), respectively, when compared with the diabetic control gliclazide (172.3 ± 2.089). Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that the two Ficus species have antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, in the order F. platypoda and then F. lyrata

  2. Geophysical, hydrological, and archaeological investigation in the East Bank area of Luxor-southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud Ali

    The rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater are causing accelerated deterioration of stone foundations of visible temples and monuments at Luxor, southern Egypt. Elevated groundwater is thought to cause a loss of cohesion and breakdown of the stone, while pressure developed within the stone upon salt crystallization and hydration may aid in the stone's disintegration. In addition to the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater, the expansion of urbanization and agriculture are jeopardizing buried monuments that have not been discovered and unearthed. The five main objectives were to: (1) characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units; (2) identify sources responsible for the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater; (3) evaluate geometry and water quality of the shallow aquifer; (4) map the upper limit of capillary water and variations in soil moisture and (5) map yet undiscovered, buried monuments in the vicinity of the Karnak Temples complex. These five objectives were achieved based on the interpretations and results of the integrated geophysical and hydrologic data. (1) The shallow subsurface (<100m) was characterized into seven geoelectric (geologic/hydrologic) units. The second unit (silty clay) is thicker (12--28m) underneath the area of the Karnak and Luxor Temples, which may be a paleo-meander of the River Nile. (2) The source of the rise in groundwater level was determined to be due to the flow of groundwater from the central cultivated land towards the area of the temples. The groundwater salinity increased towards the temples, in the direction of groundwater flow, and may account for the increase in groundwater salinity beneath the temples. (3) The Quaternary aquifer in the study area was found to have a thickness and water quality that makes it usable for anthropogenic purposes. (4) The upper limit of capillary water was determined to be at depths of 0.0--2m. Salt accumulation on the monuments' foundations

  3. Geochemistry and microprobe investigations of Abu Tartur REE-bearing phosphorite, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Gamal S.

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorites in Egypt occur in the Eastern Desert, the Nile Valley and the Western Desert at Abu Tartur area and present in Duwi Formation as a part of the Middle Eastern to North African phosphogenic province of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene age (Campanian-Maastrichtian). The Maghrabi-Liffiya phosphorite sector is considered as the most important phosphorite deposits in the Abu Tartur area due to its large reserve thickness and high-grade of lower phosphorite bed beside high content of REE. Back scattered electron (BSE) images show framboidal pyrite filling the pores of the phosphatic grains, suggesting diagenetic reducing conditions during phosphorites formation. Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) chemical mapping was conducted to examine the variation and distributions of selected elements (P, F, La, Fe, Yb, Si, Ce, W, Eu, S, Ca, Y and Er) within the shark teeth, coprolites and bone fragments. In the teeth W, S, Fe are concentrated along the axis of the teeth, the bone fragments show high concentration of W, Yb, Er and Eu, whereas coprolites are nearly homogenous in composition contains S, Er with some Si as micro-inclusions. Fluorapatite is considered as main phosphate mineral whereas pyrite occurs as pore-filling within the phosphatic grains and cement materials. Maghrabi-Liffiya samples show a wide range in the P 2O 5 content, between 19.8 wt.% and 29.8 wt.% with an average of 24.6 wt.% and shows low U content ranging from 15 ppm to 34 ppm with an average of 22 ppm. The total REE content in nine samples representing the Maghrabi-Liffiya ranges from 519 to 1139 ppm with an average of about 879 ppm. The calculation of LREE (La-Gd) show indeed a marked enrichment relative to the HREE (Tb-Lu) where LREE/HREE ratio attains 8.4 indicating a strong fractionation between the LREE and HREE. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the studied phosphorite samples show a negative Eu anomaly.

  4. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  5. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history. PMID:26954562

  6. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  7. Teaching a Standard-Based Communicative English Textbook Series to Secondary School Students in Egypt: Investigating Teachers' Practices and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Since any standards-based reform is made to bring about an improvement in students' learning, it requires changes in teachers' practices as well. This study examined how a standards-based communicative curricular reform in general secondary school English in Egypt has changed teachers' classroom practices, and the factors influencing such…

  8. Investigation and Management of a Rhizomucor Outbreak in a Pediatric Cancer Hospital in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Mahallawy, Hadir A; Khedr, Reham; Taha, Hala; Shalaby, Lobna; Mostafa, Ali

    2016-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of mucormycosis in a pediatric oncology hospital during December 2010 and the measures taken to stop it. The outbreak began with two consecutive cases of laboratory-documented mucormycosis infections within 1 week. Investigations to track the source were conducted immediately. Air plate cultures from machines and ducts supplying patients' rooms revealed the growth of Rhizomucor. Of five affected patients, all had acute leukemia and three were histopathologically proven. All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B after mucormycosis was diagnosed. Posaconazole was used as a secondary prophylaxis in one case. Three patients died. PMID:26206711

  9. Chemical and isotopic investigation of groundwater in Tahta region, Sohag-Egypt.

    PubMed

    Awad, M A; Nada, A A; Hamza, M S; Froehlich, K

    1995-09-01

    Chemical and isotopic investigations indicate that the recharge source for the groundwater in the Tahta district, adjacent to the Nile, is mainly from the Nile water seeping from irrigation channels. The water's chemical type is sodium bicarbonate, with values of oxygen-18 and deuterium close to that of Nile water. Another minor source of recharge to the far west of the Nile bank is palaeowater. This water's chemical type is sodium sulphate and sodium chloride. The change of water quality in some groundwater samples could be due to the extensive use of fertilizers to improve soil characteristics in new reclamation projects. In addition, these wells are slightly depleted in oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium. Recommendations for the periodic monitoring of groundwater quality for proper use are given. PMID:24194185

  10. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  11. Investigating the backscatter contrast anomaly in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the dunes along the Israel-Egypt border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Siegal, Zehava; Blumberg, Dan G.; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The dune field intersected by the Israel-Egypt borderline has attracted many remote sensing studies over the years because it exhibits unique optical phenomena in several domains, from the visual to the thermal infrared. These phenomena are the result of land-use policies implemented by the two countries, which have differing effects on the two ecosystems. This study explores the surface properties that affect radar backscatter, namely the surface roughness and dielectric properties, in order to determine the cause for the variation across the border. The backscatter contrast was demonstrated for SIR-C, the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor to capture this phenomenon, as well as ASAR imagery that coincides with complementary ground observations. These field observations along the border, together with an aerial image from the same year as the SIR-C acquisition were used to analyze differences in vegetation patterns that can affect the surface roughness. The dielectric permittivity of two kinds of topsoil (sand, biocrust) was measured in the field and in the laboratory. The results suggest that the vegetation structure and spatial distribution differ between the two sides of the border in a manner that is consistent with the radar observations. The dielectric permittivity of sand and biocrust was found to be similar, although they are not constant across the radar spectral region (50 MHz-20 GHz). These findings support the hypothesis that changes to the vegetation, as a consequence of the different land-use practices in Israel and Egypt, are the cause for the radar backscatter contrast across the border.

  12. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  13. Weathering behavior investigations and treatment of Kom Ombo temple sandstone, Egypt - Based on their sedimentological and petrogaphical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.

    2016-01-01

    The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.

  14. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies. PMID:25374070

  15. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  16. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to popularize…

  17. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  18. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  19. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

  20. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals. PMID:9230851

  1. Occupational health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ata, Gehad Ahmed Abo; Arnaout, Said N

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to evaluate current occupational health services (OHS) in Egypt. The authors begin with a background on the geography, population, and economy, and then briefly describe the labor force. They discuss the legislative aspects of OHS (including health insurance) and the environment; OHS training and education; and activities such as research, inspection, environmental monitoring, and management of occupational diseases. Occupational accidents and diseases, registered during 2000, are analyzed. Problems with OHS administration in Egypt are presented, along with relevant countermeasures. Various promotion and support measures for administrative policy are prioritized and discussed. PMID:12028958

  2. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  3. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  4. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  5. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  6. Language Treatment in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.; Garrison, Gary L.

    This is a collection of eight essays dealing with various aspects of language treatment in Egypt. The first essay attempts a tentative typology characterizing the role of the Arabic language as a unifying or divisive force within and among the countries in which it is spoken as a native language. This essay also makes some initial reflections on…

  7. [Medical education in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Barnard, H

    2002-06-15

    Modern medical training in Egypt was started by Antoine Clot Bey in 1837 and became part of the university programme in 1919. At present, it comprises six years of university education, followed by one year of internships and one year of compulsory employment with a state-owned hospital. There are now 13 medical faculties in Egypt, using three different curricula: traditional, Islamic and innovative. Their implementation is hampered by the large number of students (15,500 men and 7500 women), the low salaries and motivation of the instructors, the teaching in English rather than Arabic and the lack of recent study materials. It is therefore rather difficult to compare the effectiveness of the Egyptian system with that in the Netherlands. Due partly to the differences in language and culture, Dutch authorities are reluctant to recognise Egyptian medical diplomas. PMID:12092309

  8. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  9. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  10. Egypt at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1992-01-01

    Egypt is the location of the 1994 International Population and Development Conference. Conditions in Egypt due to expected population growth rates are anticipated as headed for "ecological breakdown." There is loss of prime agricultural land to urban expansion and difficulties in providing employment and vital services. The fertility decline to 4 children/family is still inadequate to meet resource needs; a 2-child family norm must be adopted because the country can barely meet the needs of 90 million people. Cairo is becoming a mega-city of squatter settlements and slums. Population densities approach 140,000/sq. kilometers. The family planning (FP) program receives top political support. The contraceptive prevalence rate has risen to just over 50%, a 10% increase since 1988. Egypt is the first Muslim country to surpass the 50% mark. Credit for this accomplishment is given to public information and education campaigns to reduce family size, expansion of maternal and child health services and FP, the cooperation of Muslim clerics, and better educated women. Nongovernmental organizations have played an active role in FP. The future challenge is to improve services and outreach and keep up with demand. Attitudes in rural areas have changed, so that desiring children to help with farm work is the exception. Progress on arresting environmental destruction has not been as successful. There are still poor irrigation practices. The breadbasket the Nile River sustained no longer exists; Egypt is a net importer of food. Water shortages and water quality limit productivity. 57.2 billion cu. meters out of 58.4 billion cu. meters of freshwater available from the Nile River are used primarily for irrigation of the 17.6 million hectares of agricultural land along the river and its delta. Salts have polluted the river from fertilizers and pesticides and municipal and industrial wastes. Industrial dumping is illegal, but continues. Treatment plants are inadequate and water pipes

  11. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  12. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed. PMID:20929113

  13. Paleocene stratigraphy in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    The Egyptian Paleocene is widely distributed with vertical and lateral facies changes geographically separated and subject to different tectonic and sedimentary regimes. Five coeval facies associations of the Paleocene outcrops are identified and named from south to north: Garra El-Arbain, Nile Valley, Farafra, Sinai, and Southern Galala. Ten Paleocene third-order depositional sequences (Ds Da1 to Ds Th9) are tentatively distinguished in Egypt. These are bounded at their base and top by ten sequence boundaries (Eg.Da-1, Eg.Da-2, Eg.Da-3, Eg.Da-4, Eg.Da-5, Eg.Da-6, Eg.Se-7, Eg.Th.-8, Eg.Th.-9, and Eg.Eo-10). The relative ages and correlation of the Paleocene depositional sequences are based on planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. Comparison of identified Paleocene sequences in and outside Egypt are referred to eustatic sea-level changes and partly to regional tectonics events, which have caused hiatuses of variable durations and different configurations of Paleocene sedimentary regimes from place to place.

  14. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  15. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  16. Environmental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A

    2003-08-01

    Egypt shares most of the environmental problems of developing countries. One of the most important health and environmental problems is air pollution resulting from using fuel, burning operations, and the increase of automobile exhaust in cities. Moreover, the deficiency of efficient sanitation services and water pollution caused by the breaking down of old and consumed water networks, as well as the various problems in construction, designing and maintenance of sewage system resulted in the appearance and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. There are several examples of exposure to chemical genotoxicants, and lifestyle exposures in the population, which create unique combinations of environmental risk factors for diseases such as cancer. Environmental factors may interact with infection and lead to enhancement of carcinogenicity processes. Currently, there is a growing interest in environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. The use of different biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing can contribute effectively to risk assessment. The Government of Egypt recognizes and deals seriously with these problems. The State Ministry of Environment has initiated new policies that include risk minimization, law enforcement, treatment of pollution at source, mitigation procedures and inter-sectorial collaboration. The Ministry of Health and Population recognized the link between economic development, environment and health. It elaborated a national environment health strategy in accordance with the format of the regional and global environmental health policy. This strategy identified priority areas, which requires further action to be taken and to be implemented. Environmental health was included as one of the four main objectives of the strategic Healthy Egyptians 2010 Initiative. Specific objectives and plans for the initiative are presented. PMID:12971689

  17. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  18. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  19. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  20. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  1. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  2. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  3. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  4. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city to about 90 m at the southern parts where it increases to the south and southeast directions. Generally the aquifer system in the area can be divided into Pleistocene and Pliocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifer is the shallower aquifer in the area and it consists almost of gravelly to clayey sand deposits. The Pliocene aquifer is the main aquifer where it is composed of sand to gravelly sand deposits. Depending on the results of the geoelectric prospecting represented by the true resistivity map, we can infer the quality of the groundwater. A brackish groundwater can be found at the northern and northeastern parts of the study area at shallow depths whereas relatively fresh water can be detected at the southern and southeastern parts around Wadi El Natrun city at deep depths. The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  5. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  6. Epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, R M; Eldin, N H Aly

    2005-07-01

    Asbestos has been recognized in Egypt since a long time as ancient Egyptians were using it in mummification. Mesothelioma in Egypt is mainly attributed to environmental origin with a high incidence of women and young adults affected. The incidence of mesothelioma is rising in Egypt. Epidemiological data for 635 malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients over 4 years in the third Millennium were collected from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and Abbassia Chest hospital. This number is more than four times the number diagnosed in the previous 11 years at NCI. A clinicopathological study was done for 100 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients and showed that asbestos exposure and SV40 positivity were evident in 67% and 60% of cases, respectively. The median survival was 14.3 months and the 1 and 2 year survival rates were 60% and 27%, respectively. Evaluation of p53 and pRb immunohistochemically showed that pRb alteration was related to poor survival. Other biological prognostic factors such as EGFR, HER-2, glutathione S transferase (GST) and MDR were evaluated in 50 cases. Overexpression of EGFR was correlated with lack of clinical benefit and poor survival. GST potentiated the effect of EGFR on survival. The use of EGFR inhibitors may have a role in the treatment of MM. Asbestos in Cairo is a silent killer and measures toward eliminating it entirely or at least strictly controlling human contact with this dangerous carcinogen have to be taken in order to combat the coming epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt. PMID:15950794

  7. Experience with NORPLANT in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, M M

    1993-04-01

    Experience with the contraceptive NORPLANT in Egypt dates back to early 1980 when the first multicentre trial was initiated. To date, more than 3000 women have received this contraceptive at the Assiut University Family Clinic alone. Analysis of the overall experience in this clinic has indicated a 5-year cumulative continuation rate of 51 and a pregnancy rate of 1.8 per 100 women. Clinical pharmacology studies pertaining to the safety of NORPLANT in our community have indicated no deleterious effect on the lipid profile, liver functions and blood coagulation system. Two studies conducted in Egypt have indicated that the initiation of NORPLANT use shortly after delivery does not have any unfavourable effect on lactational performance, or on physical or psychomotor development of the breast-fed infants. This is particularly important in Arab and Moslem cultures where prolonged breast-feeding is emphasized. A study utilizing focus-group discussion to assess users' attitudes to NORPLANT has indicated the need to improve the informational/educational package given in the service by emphasizing certain cultural considerations. On the whole, this first implant method has proven to be safe and acceptable in Egypt, where there is a special need for long-term methods for contraception, particularly as sterilization is not socially acceptable. PMID:8489755

  8. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  9. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  10. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  11. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  12. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  13. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  14. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt: an illustrated review.

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, M. A.; Ayman, M.; Ashour, S.; Hassanin, M. M.; Zeina, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    The detailed features of right sided endomyocardial fibrosis are described in 15 out of 10,000 consecutive patients who all had infection with Schistosoma mansoni and came from rural Egypt. Laboratory investigations, 12 lead electrocardiography, chest radiography, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Cardiac catheterisation and angiography were performed in eight. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricles of two patients and pericardial biopsy specimens from two. Pericardiocentesis was performed in all patients. All patients were infected with S mansoni and had schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and ascites. Eleven had splenomegaly. All patients had raised cervical venous pressure with prominent Y descent and atrial fibrillation. Eosinophilia was notably absent. Echocardiography showed apical fibrosis in the right ventricle, obliteration of the ventricle, and moderate to massive exudative pericardial effusion in all patients. Calcification and fibrosis extended into the right ventricular outflow tracts in two patients. Huge right atrial thrombi occurred in five patients. Tricuspid regurgitation (grades I-II) was detected in 11 patients by Doppler ultrasonography. Haemodynamic and angiographic data confirmed the pure right sided restrictive pathophysiology. Pericardial biopsy specimens showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates in two patients and a schistosomal granuloma in one. Endocardial biopsy specimens showed dense fibrosis with many fibroblasts. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt is unique in several aspects. It always affected only the right side of the heart. Calcification and fibrosis extended to the right ventricular outflow tract. Pericardial inflammatory reaction was present. The relation to schistosomiasis and the link to periportal hepatic fibrosis in these patients is intriguing. Images PMID:7727191

  15. Water resources management: case study of Sharkia governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Y. A.; Rashad, M.

    2012-06-01

    Ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt is currently implementing projects that expand new cultivated area, and accordingly the supplies of Nile River to the Nile Delta will be negatively affected. So, Enormous interest toward water resources management has been taken in the Egyptian water sector. Conveyance infrastructure and irrigation technology has been gradually improved to ensure efficient distribution and utilization of scarce water resources. The present study is focused on the optimum utilization of water resources in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Operational and planning distribution model is implemented on the selected case study (Sharkia governorate) to develop appropriate water plan. The gross revenue of all crops is correlated to surface water discharge, ground water discharge, surface water salinity, and ground water salinity. In addition, the effect of varying both surface and groundwater quantities and qualities on the gross revenue has been investigated. Moreover, the effect of limiting rice production on the gross revenue is allocated.

  16. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation. PMID:20651117

  17. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  18. Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  19. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  20. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  1. Petroleum potential of Western Desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.S.

    1984-09-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt, despite many discouragements, has major potential as a petroleum province. Approximately 150 exploratory wells have discovered nine commercial oil and gas fields, with flows of oil or gas recorded from an additional 21 wells. All discoveries have been in marine inner shelf sandstones and carbonates that range from Aptian to Turonian in age. Potential reservoir rocks are known in Paleozoic to Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Mature source rocks have been recognized in the Devonian and in Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata. Despite these favorable factors, in-place reserves of only 800 million bbl of oil and condensate, and up to 1185 bcf of natural gas have been found. Almost all exploration has been limited to the drilling of relatively small onshore structures and no giant fields have been found. New investigations utilizing a broad regional tectonic framework provide a means both of recognizing the more prospective provinces of the Western Desert and for understanding the structural evolution in terms of the timing of growth folding and growth faulting. Particular attention should be given to testing the lower part of the Cretaceous and Jurassic. The Paleozoic section also warrants further attention as demonstrated by a review of drilling results and by indications from gravity data. The new investigations indicate a considerable potential within the Western Desert for discovery of small to moderate-size accumulations of oil and gas. More exploration should test these features, which although high-risk leads, may contain giant fields.

  2. Byssinosis in the Cotton Industry of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Batawi, Mostafa A. El

    1962-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 ginneries representing the ginning industry in Egypt demonstrated the existence of byssinosis among 38·4% of the workers. Studies of two pressing plants and two card-rooms in Alexandria showed a prevalence of byssinosis of 52·6% and 26·6% respectively. The ages of those exposed and the duration of exposure were considered in relation to the prevalence of byssinosis, and it appears that a short duration of exposure in ginning may result in early manifestations of byssinosis at a relatively young age. The interruption of exposure due to seasonal activity in ginning and partially in pressing resulted in a higher proportion of workers with the early stages of the disease. This contrasted with results in carding where exposure is continuous, and a higher proportion of workers have later stages of the disease. This suggests a delay in the progress of the disease due to periodic interruption of exposure. The comparison between the prevalence of byssinosis and that of chronic bronchitis has shown that these diseases are not necessarily associated, although additional stress due to dust exposure in chronic bronchitis is not denied. PMID:13875361

  3. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the N...

  4. Arabic and English during Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt: Issues of Access and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentman, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…

  5. Comparison of health care financing in Egypt and Cuba: lessons for health reform in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gericke, C A

    2005-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule, which have embarked on economic liberalization since the 1990s. Cuba has achieved exemplary health status whereas health status in Egypt is lower than could be expected for its level of income. In this article, health care financing mechanisms in both countries are analysed on their effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, with the objective of identifying the determinants of success in the Cuban health system from which valuable lessons for current health reforms in Egypt may be derived. PMID:16761679

  6. Egypt's petrogas plans gas for Cairo homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    The first phase of Egypt's program to ultimately convert 640,000 LPG users to natural gas will cover four Cairo suburbs, supply about 160,000 customers, modify some 300,000 appliances, and switch two power plants to gas firing. The Abu el Gharadig field 155 miles west of the city will supply the gas via a new 38-mile transmission line. Most of the new distribution system will use polyethylene pipe. BGC's international Consultancy Service is helping Egypt's Petrogas plan and supervise the ambitious project.

  7. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  8. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  9. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  10. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  11. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  12. Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes. PMID:19046520

  13. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  14. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  15. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  16. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    PubMed

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia. PMID:12159260

  17. Stratigraphy of the Jurassic system in northern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, M.L.; Shaw, D.; Forbes, G.A.

    1988-08-01

    A regional synthesis is presented of the stratigraphy of Jurassic strata in Egypt north of 30/degree/N, based on the study of about 80 wells and outcrops from northeastern Egypt. Almost all fossil groups have been investigated for biostratigraphic control. Published work on ammonite faunas from Gebel el Maghara (north Sinai) is integrated with extensive original work on palynofloras (and, to a lesser extent, ostracod/foraminiferal faunas) recovered from marine rocks in the subsurface. The recovery of rich dinocyst assemblages enables the recognition of a ten-fold zonation scheme, largely within the Middle-Late Jurassic sedimentary package. The upper limit of this package is marked by the Cimmerian erosional event; strata younger than Oxfordian are rarely preserved. Only east of 30/degree/E is significant sedimentation known to have occurred immediately prior to the major early Bajocian transgressive event. Thereafter mean sea level rose steadily. The Lower Triassic-Lower Jurassic sedimentary package is poorly understood, largely the result of scanty and ambiguous stratigraphic evidence. However, regional correlations suggest that only very thin earliest Jurassic (Hettangian ) clastic deposition succeeded a sequence of Upper Triassic carbonates and evaporites (Wadi en Natrun Formation) in the north. Arising from these studies is a standard lithostratigraphical scheme. The upper sedimentary package, the Gebel el Maghara Group, comprises three formations (Masajid, Khatatba, and Inmar) and seven members; new units are defined and old units redefined.

  18. Modeling solute transport by DLA in soils of northeastern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97-0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach. PMID:25790463

  19. Modeling Solute Transport by DLA in Soils of Northeastern Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97–0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach. PMID:25790463

  20. [Comparative studies of climatic factors effecting the performance of cattle in different climatic zones of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Legel, S; Touny, S M

    1982-01-01

    In continuation of previous analogous studies on climatic factors influencing the performance of cattle in Northern Egypt (climate types III4a/IV: etesian climate of the Mediterranean type) the present investigation deals with the temperature and humidity for Southern Egypt (climate type III1; arid, subtropical desert climate) and classifies them according to the physiological tolerability ranges set up for cattle. In Northern Egypt (Maryut) 23.8% of the temperatures were beyond the optimum and physiologically still tolerable range (0 to 24 degrees C) and were thus in the intolerable range; 45.8% were within the optimum tolerability range. In Southern Egypt (El Menia) 46.7% were within the intolerable range and only 25.7% in the optimum range (5 to 18 degrees C). The relative humidity values had 21.9% within the optimum range and 63.9% in the intolerable range in the North; in the South 22.9% were within the optimum and 55.5% in the intolerable range. PMID:7171369

  1. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  2. [Our surgical heritage. Surgery in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Oelschlegel, F F; Luther, B; Arnst, C B

    1986-01-01

    In its 3,000 years History the surgery of the Old Egypt came on to an important development. Some of the antique instruments used in traumatology, the general surgery and in cosmetic-plastic operations, are in a scarcely modified manner employed for the same purposes in modern surgical interventions nowadays. The surgical diagnostics and therapy of that time is demonstrated by the surgical instruments stock being in the possession of the "Agyptisches Museum" of the "Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin". The surgery of Egypt transferred its leading part to the prosperous medical schools of Greece at the late period of the Old Egyptian empire (1085-332 B.C.). Its surgical diagnostics and therapy depending on an empirical rationalism, the applied instruments but also its ethical attitude towards the patients have been one of the dedisive bases influencing the development of the surgery in the antiquity. PMID:3532623

  3. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries. PMID:15067585

  4. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  5. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  7. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  8. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt. PMID:12435149

  9. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  10. Capital projects: Egypt case study. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberson, J.; Stallard, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report assesses the US Agency for International Development`s (A.I.D.`s) capital assistance program in Egypt in terms of both its commercial benefits for the United States and its developmental benefits for Egypt. In regard to the first aspect, the study found that few A.I.D.-funded projects or studies generated either participation by other donors or follow-on sales for U.S. companies. The report places much of the blame for this on U.S. firms` failure to take advantage of a clear opportunity to develop the Egyptian commercial market. Findings regarding the developmental benefits of the projects are mixed. (1) The projects helped support strong private sector growth in Egypt through the 1980`s. Nonetheless, their economic and financial rates of return were generally disappointing. (2) The projects were built to a high technical standard, but their sustainability is in doubt. (3) The pursuit of commercial advantage for U.S. firms did not distort the developmental goals of the projects. Overall, the report attributes the disappointing economic results of A.I.D.`s capital assistance program to a poor policy environment, which the reforms pursued in connection with the program did little to change.

  11. Influence of circulation indices upon winter temperature variability in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Trends of winter surface air temperature anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between temperature with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the temperature changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.

  12. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  13. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  14. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  15. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  16. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the... is needed to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission....

  17. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  18. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S... Business Development Mission to explore ports and infrastructure development opportunities in Egypt (Cairo... infrastructure development with 46 different projects valued at over $16 billion. The majority of these...

  19. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  20. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  1. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  2. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  3. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that the...

  4. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and Acheulian sites in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, B. J.; Mchugh, W. P.; Schaber, G. G.; Breed, C. S.; Haynes, C. V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Field investigations of aggraded paleovalleys, which were identified in southern Egypt using SIR, are discussed. Acheulian artifacts were found in authigenic carbonate deposites along the edges of the paleovalleys. Uranium series dating of 25 carbonate samples shows that widespread carbonate deposition in the area occurred about 45, 141, and 212 thousand years ago. Analysis of the carbonate suggests that the deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in the region.

  5. Experienced EFL Teachers' Professional Practical Knowledge, Reasoning and Classroom Decision Making in Egypt: Views from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the areas that constituted the professional practical knowledge of experienced English as a Foreign Language teachers in Egypt and how their knowledge informed their classroom practice. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 236 preparatory and secondary school teachers in 38 schools through…

  6. ADHD, autism and neuroradiological complications among phenylketonuric children in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Elserogy, Yasser; Abdel Rahman, Ahmed A; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman Abdullah; Mohamad, Ismail L; ElMelegy, Tarek T H; Bjørklund, Geir; El-Houfy, Amira A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological status in a cohort of children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria in Assiut, Upper Egypt. The study was implemented in seventy-eight phenylketonuria (PKU) children. Only 34 patients met the inclusion criteria. Investigated patients were evaluated according to detailed history, neurological examination, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, full scale Intelligence Quotient, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study concluded that the prognosis for early diagnosed children with PKU treated from the first weeks of life is generally good. However, they are at increased risk for neurological complications and behavioral problems. So, neonatal screening for PKU is highly recommended in Egypt, for early detection and management. In addition, neuropsychological and MRI assessments in PKU children should be done. PMID:25576444

  7. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  8. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  9. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Al Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghaly, Wafaa M A; Badry, Reda; Metwally, Nabil A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Rageh, Tarek A; El Hamed, Mohamed Abd; Kandil, Mahmoud R

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling disorder with considerable social effects and economic sequelae. It is one of the major causes of disability in young adults. Objectives This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of MS among the population of Al Quseir city. Methods This study is a part of door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders that was conducted in Al Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. The sample size was 33,285 persons. The youngest patient was 17 years old. The number of people at and above 17 years of age was 21,827. They were screened by three neurologists. Then, the positive cases were subjected to meticulous clinical evaluation by three staff members of Department of Neurology, Assiut University Hospital, Egypt. Essential investigations were done. Results A total of three cases of MS were diagnosed with an age-specific prevalence ≥17 years of 13.7/100,000. PMID:26834477

  10. Women in Egypt: new roles and realities.

    PubMed

    Lesch, A M; Sullivan, E L

    1986-01-01

    This is an extensive background presentation on the recent changes in Egyptian society, followed by results of a survey of attitudes toward family planning and the role of women. There have been remarkable social changes in Egypt recently, accompanied by rapid growth of the densely packed population. Virtually all of Egypt's 50 million people live on the banks of the Nile, 12 million of them in Cairo. Family planning has been government policy since 1981; the IUD and the pill are commonly used; but sterilization and abortion are illegal except for certain medical indications. Family subsidies and many public services have been eliminated, and even the lower classes are feeling the pinch of high cost of living, to the extent of desiring to balance their family size with their income. The survey was conducted by 35 students of the American University in Cairo, targeting middle and upper class adults, middle and upper class students, and lower class workers and domestics. The subjects were selected to be known to the interviewers to increase reliability of the data. This design created bias in the results, a preponderance of urban, student, single, childless and upper class subjects relative to the general population. The most common trend in the survey results was a conservatism among men, the lower class or less educated, or the rural lower classes. For example most women wanted 2 children, while those with traditional views valued male children and questioned the rights of women to be educated, to work outside the home, and to use contraception. The survey found that few people knew much about Egypt's Personal Status Law of 1979, which specifies women's rights regarding divorce, alimony, child support, and male polygamy. Women faced with divorce, however, rapidly learn their rights. This study revealed a consensus toward egalitarian values, along with distinct discord between the classes and sexes, and conflict between modern development and traditional roles for

  11. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  12. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  14. First MAGDAS installation at Fayum in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrous, A.; Ghamry, E.; Elhawary, R.; Fathy, I.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-09-01

    We have installed the first MAGDAS magnetometer at Fayum in Egypt. The ambient temperature in the initial sensor house varied more than ±4 °C in one day (24 h period). This variation made the magnetic data useless. To correct this problem, (1) a new sensor house was re-constructed which reduced the diurnal variation to less than ±1 °C, and (2) the "Uozumi Temperature Correction Method" was introduced. As a result, good data is now arriving in real time at a central facility in Japan.

  15. First Results from MAGDAS Station in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrous, Ayman; Yumoto, K.; El-Gamry, Essam; Yassin, Nabil

    We present here the testing and first results from MAGnetic Data Acquisition Systems (MAG- DAS). The station is located in a magnetic-clean area in Fayum (Mag. Lat. = 22.91, Mag. Lon. = 103.06) in order to monitor the geomagnetic field over central Egypt. The magnetic field digital data is obtained at the sampling rate of 1/16 seconds. The ambient magnetic field, expressed by horizontal (H), declination (D), and vertical (Z) components, are digitized by using the field-canceling coils for the dynamic range of ±64,000nT/16 bit to estimate the total magnetic field by adding the three components.

  16. Photovoltaics: alternative energy opportunities in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, C.R.

    1987-10-01

    Government subsidies for electricity have discouraged the growth of an alternative energy market, but economic problems and high utility bills are changing the market as the demand for electricity expands. Although the past five-year plan only called for five percent of Egypt's energy to come from renewable sources, the development of solar power plants, wind power, and resource recovery could raise that to seven percent. Planners are looking to joint ventures and technology transfers to get the stagnant alternative energy industry moving. 2 figures.

  17. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari. PMID:19830954

  18. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. PMID:27066713

  19. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations. PMID:19396207

  20. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

  1. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  2. Geological heritage of the Bahariya and Farafra oases, the central Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyusnina, Ekaterina E.; Sallam, Emad S.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological and cultural heritage of Egypt is world-known, but its geological heritage is yet to be revealed. Investigations in the central Western Desert of Egypt permitted finding a lot of unique features that can be assigned to this heritage. In the Bahariya Oasis, 10 geological heritage types are established, namely stratigraphical, paleontological, sedimentary, igneous, mineralogical, economical, paleogeographical, geomorphological, hydrological and hydrogeological, and pedological types. In the Farafra Oasis and vicinities, only geomorphological and hydrological and hydrogeological types are found. On the area between these oases, sedimentary, mineralogical, paleogeographical, and geomorphological features are established. Chalk and nummulitic limestones, invertebrate and dinosaur localities, paleoreefs and paleokarst, iron ore deposit, and peculiar landforms occur on the study territory. Taken together, these features constitute a highly diverse geological heritage that can be judged global (even if the rank of individual objects is often relatively low). This heritage is well suitable for the purpose of geotourism; for instance, thematic excursions explaining the geological evolution during the last 100 Ma are possible. Participants of such excursions can also see different facies. A geopark in the central Western Desert of Egypt would facilitate geoconservation and geotourism activities.

  3. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from Egypt, 2010.

    PubMed

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Passerini Tosi, Cristiana; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  4. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini

    2010-01-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  5. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  6. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  7. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

  8. The road to recovery: Egypt's healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Haley, Donald Robert; Bég, Sama A

    2012-01-01

    As many industrial and third-world countries recover from the severe economic crisis of a global recession, they continue to struggle with its negative effect on their healthcare systems. Healthcare reform has become a leading policy agenda item for most countries. This is especially true for countries in the developing world who are struggling to allocate very limited resources to meet the growing health needs of their residents and the expectations of global health. In the late 1990s, the Egyptian government, in conjunction with the United States Agency for International Development, initiated a Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) to completely reform the way healthcare was financed, organized and delivered with the intent to extend healthcare coverage to all of its citizens. Although some successes have resulted from the HSRP, Egypt's new government leaders will need to be informed on policies that may more effectively improve the health of the Egyptian population. PMID:21638310

  9. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate. PMID:19424250

  10. Egypt: urban growth encroaches on farmland.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    In 1980 Egypt's population was 42 million, with 9 million, or 21%, residing in metropolitan Cairo. Throughout the country the urban population makes up about 44% of the total population; in the 2 largest cities, Cairo and Alexandria, public utilities and basic services are becoming more and more ineffective. The problem is complicated by the fact that the urban population is concentrated along the Nile valley, which is the most fertile, cultivated, and well watered area of the country. An estimated 20,000 acres of farmland are lost each year to urban spread, while the government spends an average $2 million yearly to subsidize food imports. The Egyptian government is not only aiming at reducing natural growth through the provision of free family planning services, but it is encouraging rural development and trying to raise the standard of living for farmers. A strategy to redistribute the population into smaller cities or on land suitable for reclamation is also being planned. PMID:12311455

  11. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  12. The Cretaceous glauconitic sandstones of Abu Tartur, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestitschek, Brigitte; Gier, Susanne; Essa, Mahmoud; Kurzweil, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The Abu Tartur mine is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, 50 km west of El Kharga City. Geologically, the Abu Tartur plateau is built by a sequence of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) phosphorites, black shales and glauconitic sandstones. The phosphate deposits are of great economic importance and have been mined since their discovery in 1967. Outcrop sections were measured, sampled, sedimentologically characterized and described. One specific glaucony layer was investigated mineralogically and chemically in detail and compared to a subsurface sample from the mine. Two depositional regimes can be interpreted based on sedimentary architecture and structures: 1) a deeper-water hemipelagic environment, where phosphorites and organic carbon-rich shales were deposited and 2) a shallower, prograding higher energy shelf environment with glauconies. From a sequence stratigraphic perspective 1) was deposited during the transgressive systems tract and the early highstand while 2) was deposited during the remaining highstand and a lowstand prograding wedge (Glenn & Arthur, 1990). Petrographic and SEM investigations show that the glaucony grains are of authochtonous origin. XRF, EMPA and thin-section analyses show that the glaucony grains from the outcrop differ significantly in their chemical composition, morphology and color from the grains of the mine sample. The fresh glauconies are enriched in Fe2O3 and K2O compared to the surface samples. XRD analyses of the clay fraction of the six outcrop samples and the mine sample show that the grains consist of illite(glauconite)/smectite mixed-layers, with more illite layers (80 %) in the mine sample. The charge distribution diagram muscovite-pyrophyllite-celadonite shows a clear trend from smectitic glaucony to illitic glaucony, the mine sample plots exactly in the field for glauconites. All these features indicate that the surface samples are strongly altered by weathering and that glauconite progressively

  13. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious...

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed. PMID:26878626

  15. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity. PMID:16237604

  16. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of women in…

  17. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  18. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt, I. Afforestation strategies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the ...

  19. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, Ahmad N; el-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2002-04-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola species, is a disease of herbivorous animals. It has a worldwide distribution in a large variety of grass-grazing animals as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, horses and rabbits. In Egypt, donkeys and camels as well, are hosts for F. gigantica. Fascioliasis may occasionally affect man. Human infection causes serious hepatic pathological sequences that add to the already known threats to the liver of the Egyptian population. Two clinical stages are recognized in human fascioliasis. An acute stage coincides with the larval migration and worm maturation in the hepatic tissue, and a chronic stage coincides with the persistence of Fasciola worms in the bile ducts. Human infection with fascioliasis was very sporadic until the last three decades where clinical cases and outbreaks were reported. The estimated the number of people currently having fascioliasis to be 360,000 in Bolivia, 20,000 in Ecuador, 830,000 in Egypt, 10,000 in Islamic Republic of Iran, 742,000 in Peru, and 37,000 in Yemen. The total estimated number of people infected is 2.4 million in 61 countries and that the number at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world. Human fascioliasis has to be differentially diagnosed from some diseases as acute hepatitis, infection with other liver flukes as schistosomiasis, visceral toxocariasis, biliary tract diseases and hepatic amoebiasis. The parasitological diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool, duodenal contents or bile, also by the recovery of adult worm during surgical exploration, after treatment or at autopsy. However, the eggs may be present in very small number at irregular intervals, hence difficult to be found. Besides, the eggs may be transiently present in stool after ingestion of raw or undercooked liver from infected animals. The direct methods of diagnosing the egg are usually unsatisfactory. The symptoms may be present for several weeks before eggs are recovered in stool. Thus, the serologic

  20. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  1. Solar energy distribution over Egypt using cloudiness from Meteosat photos

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam Shaltout, M.A.; Hassen, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    In Egypt, there are 10 ground stations for measuring the global solar radiation, and five stations for measuring the diffuse solar radiation. Every day at noon, the Meteorological Authority in Cairo receives three photographs of cloudiness over Egypt from the Meteosat satellite, one in the visible, and two in the infra-red bands (10.5-12.5 {mu}m) and (5.7-7.1 {mu}m). The monthly average cloudiness for 24 sites over Egypt are measured and calculated from Meteosat observations during the period 1985-1986. Correlation analysis between the cloudiness observed by Meteosat and global solar radiation measured from the ground stations is carried out. It is found that, the correlation coefficients are about 0.90 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regressions. Also, the correlation coefficients for the cloudiness with the diffuse solar radiation are about 0.80 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regression. Models and empirical relations for estimating the global and diffuse solar radiation from Meteosat cloudiness data over Egypt are deduced and tested. Seasonal maps for the global and diffuse radiation over Egypt are carried out.

  2. Reading Sources and Academic Freedom as Determinants of Trends in English Language Teacher Research in Egypt: An Interview-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to investigating the experiences of teacher researchers while undertaking their studies. In an attempt to explore what accounts for the stereotyped and imitative trends in the studies conducted by English language teachers in Egypt, the present study has explored how they select research topics and the factors…

  3. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Magdy G.

    2013-01-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  4. A review of cryptosporidiosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Fouad G; Adib, Ibrahim; Riddle, Mark S; Schlett, Carey D

    2008-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic zoonosis, while typically a short-term infection, has a global distribution and can cause severe illness in children and other vulnerable populations. In order to inform local and regional public health personnel and providers, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) epidemiology in Egypt to establish what is known, identify critical knowledge gaps, and develop a basis for future directions in mitigating the burden associated with this illness among Egyptians and similar countries. A total of 61 published studies between 1985 & 2006 were reviewed. Nineteen studies examined immunocompetent individuals with diarrhea presenting to inpatient or outpatient clinics with a Cp prevalence ranging from 0% - 47% (median 9%, IQR 3-15%). Identified risk factors, at risk populations, ecology, environmental findings, as well as a quality assessment of the published literature are discussed. The building blocks are in place to design studies aimed at defining the disease, societal burden and evaluating public health interventions aimed at disrupting water and zoonotic transmission modalities using the most current molecular techniques. Cp diarrhea is but one of the many causes of diarrhea among Egyptians, but efforts to control this disease should also serve well to mitigate a number of infectious causes of diarrhea and given the track record of previous work hopping to see advances in the near future. PMID:19143117

  5. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  6. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  7. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries. PMID:26650735

  8. Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt. PMID:23377629

  9. Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F

    2013-01-01

    Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt. PMID:23768221

  10. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. PMID:26396214

  11. Behavior of the Sq Diurnal Magnetic Variation over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Mahrous, A.; El-Hawary, R.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The diurnal variation of the solar quiet (Sq) in the geomagnetic north-south component (H) and geomagnetic eastwest component (D), along the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) stations in Egypt during year 2009 have been studied. MAGDAS was successfully installed at two stations in Egypt Fayum (FYM) and Aswan (ASW). Several forms of Abnormal Quiet Days (AQDs) have been found in both of Sq (H) and Sq (D). These AQDs of Sq (H) are expected to be related to counter or reversed electrojet while AQDs of Sq (D) is presumably due to the currents of the (2, 3) mode.

  12. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  13. Chemical and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen leaves (Sapotaceae) cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.; Shazly, Amani H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen is an evergreen tree, native to the tropical Americas and introduced to Egypt as a fruiting tree in 2002. No previous study was reported on the plant cultivated in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In this study, the leaves of the plant cultivated in Egypt were subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The lipoidal matter was analyzed by GLC. Five compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of the alcoholic extract of the leaves by chromatographic fractionation on silica gel and sephadex, the structures of these compounds were identified using IR, UV, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The LD50 of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves was determined and their antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities were tested by enzymatic colorimetric methods using specific kits. Results: Unsaturated fatty acids represent 32.32 % of the total fatty acids, oleic acid (13.95%), linoleidic acid (10.18 %) and linoleic acid (5.96 %) were the major ones. The isolated compounds were identified as lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, apigenin-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside and caffeic acid. This is the first report about isolation of these compounds from Manilkara zapota except myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, which was previously isolated from the plant growing abroad. The LD50 recorded 80 g/Kg b. wt. for both the tested extracts, so they could be considered to be safe. They exhibited antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The observed biological activities were attributed to the different chemical constituents present in the plant mainly its phenolic constituents. PMID:22518080

  14. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  15. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes. PMID:27271178

  16. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

  17. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  18. Groundwater sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; El Alfy, Z.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. Scallop-shaped escarpment edges and stubby-looking channels that cut into the plateau units are suggestive of slumping of limestones by ground-water sapping at the limestone-shale interfaces, removal of slump blocks by weathering and fluvial erosion, and consequent scarp retreat. Spring-derived tufa deposits found near the limestone escarpments provide additional evidence for possible ground-water sapping during previous wet periods. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. The {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years, as northeastern Africa became hyperarid. The model thus provides a promising predictive tool for studying long

  19. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

  20. Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Doha; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the levels of multi pesticide residues in the highly consumed types of Nile fish in Egypt: tilapia and cat fish. A total of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 50 African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were collected from two areas in Assiut city, where most industries are situated and where agricultural activities and raising of farm animals are the main activities. In the first area, Elwasta, there is an electrical power station, and the second area, Mankbad, there is a cement factory. Fish samples were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Average pesticide residue concentrations±SE in muscle of tilapia and catfish (n = 10 pooled samples with five fish each) were determined. The results indicated the presence of different types of organophosphorous (OPs), organochlorine (OC), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and trifluralin pesticides in Elwasta and Mankbad in varying degrees. Diazenon was the only OP pesticide which exceeded the permissible limit in both investigated areas with the two types of fish. On the other hand, OCs, PCBs, HCB and trifluralin pesticide residue levels have not exceeded the maximum allowable concentration limit. In general, a higher pesticide residue level was obtained in Mankbad than Elwasta. In addition, higher values are realized for the detected pesticide residues in cat fish than tilapia. The results of the study have shown the extensive and recent use of these types of pesticides in the present time in Egypt. PMID:23911921

  1. Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of Medemia argun, a Food and Medicinal Plant of Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usama A; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Medemia argun is a mysterious and little known monotypic fan palm from the Nubian Desert Oases of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Its fruits have been found in the tombs from the 5th Dynasty (ca. 2500 BC) to Roman times (6-7th century AD), including the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun. In ancient Egypt, the fruits of this palm were widely distributed and were highly valued, as confirmed by their frequent occurrence in offerings in the tombs. In order to elucidate the chemical composition of the phenolic fraction, phytochemical investigation of the BuOH extract of fruits was carried out to afford eight compounds (1-8), among which was the new 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylacetophenone 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). With the aim to investigate if the high shelf life of M argun fruits could be related to the occurrence of antioxidant principles that were able to prevent oxidative reactions, the evaluation was carried out of the in vitro antioxidant activity by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay of the extract and isolated compounds. PMID:27169174

  2. Earthquake vulnerability and risk modeling for the area of Greater Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, S.; Abdel-Rahman, K.; El-Hady, S.; El-Ela Mohamed, A.; Stempniewski, L.; Liesch, T.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    Egypt is a country of low-to-moderate earthquake hazard. However, the earthquake risk potential (in terms of both probable economic and human losses) is rather high. Population of Egypt (according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics - CAPMAS) is about 80 million. At the same time the distribution of the population in the country is far from uniform. In particular, the area of Greater Cairo attracts migrants from the whole country and the metropolitan area faces the problem of unplanned urbanization. Due to the high density of population and vulnerability of the existing building stock the potential for earthquake damage and loss in the area is a problem of great concern. The area under study covers 43 administrative districts of Greater Cairo (including the City of Cairo, El-Giza and Shubra El-Kheima), where field investigations were conducted aiming at identifying representative building types and assessing their seismic vulnerability. On the base of collected information, combining the findings of the field investigations in different districts with available statistical data about the distribution of buildings in the districts, we constructed vulnerability composition models (in terms of the vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale, EMS-98) for all the considered districts of Greater Cairo. The vulnerability models are applicable for analysis of potential damage and losses in case of occurring damaging earthquakes in the region, including zonation of the seismic risk in the area, generation of probable earthquake scenarios and rapid damage and loss assessment for the purposes of emergency management.

  3. Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, Abdelfattah; Elhaig, Mahmoud; Höche, Jennifer; Gaede, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Therefore, reliable diagnosis should confirm the aetiology of the infection and then reduce spread of the diseases in the affected areas. Clinical samples were investigated by virus isolation, PCR and real-time PCR assays. Furthermore, PCR-products of SPPV and ORFV isolates were sequenced and alignment to reference isolates was performed for phylogenetic analyses. The laboratory diagnosis showed that real-time PCR assay was more accurate and sensitive than conventional PCR and virus isolation. In phylogenetic analysis of the A29L gene genetic differences between SPPV field strains were not observed and the strains showed 100% homology with two SPPV isolates from Kazakhstan and one isolate from Turkey. The ORFV field strains are in the P55 gene genetically distinct from another and from other published isolates from Egypt 2006 and 2009. PMID:27529993

  4. Present Situation of GPS Observations and Seismicity in and around Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    2016-07-01

    Egypt has suffered from a numerous of destructive earthquakes such as Aswan earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks. Studies of crustal movements in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. The first program for monitoring the crustal deformation has been started in Aswan area during the winter of 1983. Since the year of 1994 till now (currently 24 CORS stations), the geodetic observations by means of Space Technique (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out to Estimate the plate motions at stations located at different plates. From the previous results, we could find there are some correlations between the computed surface deformation and the earthquake occurrences in Local and regional scales. In the regional scales, the Hellenic arc is the region which shows very well this correlation. While in the Local scales, there are some

  5. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  6. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  7. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  8. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  9. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  10. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that... cameras, infrared and radiological detectors, vessel tracking MIS, biometric scanners, personnel...

  11. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  12. Locating the sciences in eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jane H

    2010-12-01

    In the last years of the eighteenth century, Egypt famously witnessed the practice of European sciences as embodied in the members of Bonaparte's Commission des sciences et des arts and the newly founded Institut d'Egypte. Less well known are the activities of local eighteenth-century Cairene religious scholars and military elites who were both patrons and practitioners of scientific expertise and producers of hundreds upon hundreds of manuscripts. Through the writings of the French naturalist Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and those of the Cairene scholar and chronicler Abd al-Rahmān al-Jabartī (1753-1825), I explore Egypt as a site for the practice of the sciences in the late eighteenth century, the palatial urban houses which the French made home to the Institut d'Egypte and their role before the French invasion, and the conception of the relationship between the sciences and social politics that each man sought. Ultimately, I argue that Geoffroy's struggle to create scientific neutrality in the midst of intensely tumultuous political realities came to a surprising head with his fixation on Paris as the site for the practice of natural history, while al-Jabartī's embrace of this entanglement of knowledge and power led to a vision of scientific expertise that was specifically located in his Cairene society, but which--as Geoffroy himself demonstrated--could be readily adapted almost anywhere. PMID:21553627

  13. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  14. The USAID/Government of Egypt's Schistosomiasis Research Project (SRP).

    PubMed

    El Khoby, T; Galal, N; Fenwick, A

    1998-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is the major public health problem in rural Egypt, with almost six million Egyptians infected as at mid-1996. In 1983, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in rural Egypt was greater than 50%, but a ten-year campaign of diagnosis and treatment has reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Parallel to this campaign, the government of the USA has funded a research project to examine all aspects of schistosomiasis with a view to improving the control strategy. As outlined here by Taha El Khoby, Nabil Galal and Alan Fenwick, after almost ten years, the project's achievements include: assisting WHO in its attempts to develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, developing a suspension formulation of praziquantel suitable for young children, and establishing a unit to monitor reports of resistance to praziquantel. In addition, a large epidemiological study has established the extent of the problem in Egypt. Slow-release formulation of niclosamide, health education material for use on TV, dipstick diagnostic tests, and evaluation of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool have also been achieved. As the project closes, Egypt is left with an effective strategy for the control of schistosomiasis and several back-up tools for use in the event of development of resistance to praziquantel. The Ministry of Health and Population has the basis of a Geographical Information System (GIS) unit and the country has a trained and equipped scientific community capable of biomedical research, and almost 100 scientific papers published on their work. PMID:17040713

  15. Fusulinid marble from Wadi Heimur area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abd-Elmohsen A.

    The discovery of Fusulina in the graphitic marble of Wadi Heimur area, located east of Lake Nasser has verified the Carboniferous age previously given by Ahmed and Mahmoud (1984) and Ahmed (1987) for the foraminiferal marble bands of the folded eugeosynclinal sequence outcropping in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  16. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  17. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11 items). The packet also includes readings on…

  18. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  19. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  20. Joint venture: Jacques Giordano Industries, France and REEFCO, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, J. ); Saleh, M.I. )

    1992-03-01

    Joint venture arrangements can provide mutually advantageous links between developed and developing countries. Jacques Giordano, President of Jacques Giordano Industries and Mohamed Ibrahim Saleh of REEFCO, Egypt describe their successful partnership which brings quality solar water heaters to the Egyptian market. The topics include technology transfer, manufacturing, marketing, legal aspects, financing, and government policy.

  1. Student Expectations and Graduate Market Performance in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Sanyal, Bikas

    1982-01-01

    Student expectations and actual labor market performance of a sample of Egypt's university graduates in 1978 are compared. It was found that economic rewards followed supply and demand, especially with regard to specialization. Expected or actual unemployment after graduation was found to be of short duration. (MSE)

  2. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  3. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  4. Employment Planning in Egypt: An Insurance Policy for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Bent; Radwan, Samir

    1982-01-01

    To help the unemployment problems of Egypt, the authors recommend the restructuring of agriculture; orientation of investment to foreign-exchange earning export industries; the phasing out of employment guarantees in the public sector combined with educational and training reforms; and contingency employment programs, concentrated on the…

  5. Using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for Hazard Estimation in Some Active Regions in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    2016-07-01

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GNSS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  6. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  7. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  8. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage research,…

  9. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  10. Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate--Virginia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie R; Wallace, Ryan M; Gruszynski, Karen; Freeman, Marilyn Bibbs; Campbell, Colin; Semple, Shereen; Innes, Kristin; Slavinski, Sally; Palumbo, Gabriel; Bair-Brake, Heather; Orciari, Lillian; Condori, Rene E; Langer, Adam; Carroll, Darin S; Murphy, Julia

    2015-12-18

    Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment. On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC's current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies. PMID:26678293

  11. Habitats and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt I. Deltaic Mediterranean coastal habitat.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Omar, G

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims at investigating the vegetation-soil relationships in the Deltaic Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. The Deltaic coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt can be distinguished into five habitat types, namely: sand dunes, salt marshes, sand sheets, sandy fertile lands and lake shorelines (Manzala, Burullus and Idku). These habitats are categorized into four vegetation groups namely, group A dominated by Rumex pictus, group B codominated by Pancratium maritimum-Cyperus capitatus-Lolium perenne, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Atriplex portulacoides-Typha domingensis and group D codominated by Echinochloa stagnina-Typha domingensis-Phragmites australis. One hundred and thirty plant species are recorded in this coast and belonging to 38 families. Out of the recorded species, about 41.54% are annuals, 2.31% biennials and 56.15% perennials. The percentages of the life-form indicated that, therophytes attained the highest representation (43.85%). The floristic analysis revealed that, 55.38% of the recorded species are Mediterranean elements. The ecological amplitudes of the leading species along the gradient of edaphic factors are discussed. PMID:19260330

  12. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women's attitudes towards FGM. Results: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation. Conclusions: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice - through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs - may play an important role in modifying women's attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. PMID:21483197

  13. Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

    2012-10-01

    Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa. PMID:22360997

  14. Earthquakes focal mechanism and stress field pattern in the northeastern part of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Hassoup, A.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Othman, Adel A. A.; Hamed, Diaa-Eldin M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Egypt is characterized by moderate size seismicity where earthquakes are distributed within several active regions. In the present study, we investigated the source mechanism of earthquakes using the digital waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) during the period from 2004 to 2008. The focal mechanisms are constructed with high reliability based on the polarity of the first motion of P-wave. These solutions are used to examine the mode of tectonic deformation and the present-day stress field pattern affecting on different tectonic provinces in the northern part of Egypt. The results demonstrate mainly a normal faulting mechanism with minor strike slip component generally trending parallel to the northern Red Sea, the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez and Cairo-Alexandria trend. The inversion technique scheme is used also in the present study for determining the regional stress field parameters for earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the grid search method of Gephart and Forsyth (1984). The Results of the stress tensor using focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes show a prevailed tension stress field in N52°E, N41°E and N52°E for the northern Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba zone respectively.

  15. Signatures of the low-latitude Pi 2 pulsations in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, Essam; Mahrous, A.; Fathy, A.; Salama, N.; Yumoto, K.

    2012-06-01

    To study the activities and the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, several types of measurements are made with different kinds of instruments both on earth and in space. Ground based data represent the properties of the solar wind, the Earth’s magnetic field and currents in the magnetosphere. Many of the activities occurring in the magnetosphere are a result of changes in the solar wind. It has been known since the 1860s that the Earth’s magnetic field is fluctuating and during that times the fluctuations are periodical. In this study, a special type of magnetic pulsations in the Earth’s magnetic field called Pi 2 (from MAGDAS stations in Egypt) is investigated and analyzed statistically. We carried out our analysis through two different methods: (i) Fourier transformations and (ii) wavelet power spectrum. The result shows that the Pi 2 observed in the main phase of the geomagnetic storm have larger frequency than those observed in the recovery phase. These results excluded the field line resonance and the plasmapause surface as a possible generation mechanism, and suggest the cavity resonance as a possible generation mechanism of the Pi 2 pulsations at low latitude stations in Egypt.

  16. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24761735

  17. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed. PMID:26976895

  18. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  19. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Schetnan, R.; Hasan, A.; Mohamed, Y.T.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)

  20. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  1. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations. PMID:11193011

  2. Middle miocene trachypatagus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea),from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. S. M.

    Two species of T rachypatagus, an echinoid restricted to the Mediterranean region: T. tuberculatus (Wright) and T. nehalae n. sp., are described from the Marmarica Limestone Formation (Langhian-Serravalhan) of Mediterranean Seacoast of Egypt. A third species of the same genus is considered to be new, but left in open nomenclature on account of the paucity of material. Stratigraphy of the studied sections, paleogeographic distribution and the habitat of the genus are discussed.

  3. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  4. Lower Eocene carbonate facies of Egypt: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The northern Arabo-Nubian craton witnessed a major Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine transgression that culminated in the deposition of widespread shelf-sea carbonates during Early Eocene (Ypresian) time. Outer shelf facies characterize exposures in central Egypt (Assiut, Luxor, Kharga), and are composed primarily of rhythmically interbedded chalk and micritic limestone with minor intercalated marine hardgrounds. To the south (Kurkur-Dungul), these fine-grained lithologies give way to inner shelf foraminiferal wackestones and grainstones, typical Tethyan Nummulitic facies. Missing in southern Egypt is the restricted dolomitic evaporitic facies predicted by the Irwin model and observed in the lower Eocene of the Sirte basin to the west and the Arabian Platform to the east. Comparing the areal distribution of these lower Eocene carbonates to coeval facies developed across the remained of northern Africa and Arabia reveals the presence of a broad marine embayment which extended through central and eastern Egypt into northern Sudan during Ypresian time. The widespread subsidence that resulted in the development of this features may have been an effect of regional crustal attenuation preceding the rifting of the Red Sea. Concomitant with this regional subsidence were localized uplift and extensional block faulting in the vicinity of the incipient Red Sea rift (the Safaga-Quseir coastal plain). Here, lower Eocene carbonate facies are indicative of shallow water platforms developed on horst blocks, and deeper water, turbidite-fed basins in intervening grabens.

  5. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers. PMID:12290451

  6. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  7. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-06-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  8. Estimating the Soil Instability from CSEM Monitoring Data at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga, ,, Prof.; Atya, Magdy, ,, Prof.; Khachay, Oleg; El Sayed, El Said A. El Sayed1 A.

    2014-05-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at 'Quarter 27' in 15th May City. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  9. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  10. Salesclerks, sexual danger, and national identity in Egypt, 1920s-1950s.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Nancy Y

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates change and continuity in anxieties about shopping during the first half of the twentieth century in Egypt to argue that department stores and their salesclerks became critical sites for enacting and challenging new notions of sexuality and citizenship. Retail innovations, such as commission pay, display, free entry, and large commercial staffs, became understood as sexual and moral problems because department stores blurred the boundaries between classes and were public spaces where unrelated men and women could mix. These concerns about sexuality in the 1920s were recycled and amplified in the late 1940s and early 1950s when salesclerks again came under scrutiny during debates over citizenship and ethnicity. I argue that the particular way this latter debate was barnacled by the concerns of the 1920s helped to delineate the broader society's reaction to the challenges of defining Egyptian nationality. PMID:22145182

  11. EFFICACY OF THREE INSECTICIDES ON RAT FLEA (XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS) INFESTING RODENTS IN GIZA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Micheal William; Abd El-Halim, Azza S; Soliman, Mohamed Ismail

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of insecticides in public health and agriculture sectors is the main reason for development of resistance in fleas associated in domestic rodents. The present work was planned to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of Lambda-cyhalothrin, Chlorpyrifos and Fenitrothion against rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) infesting rodent species in Giza Governorate, Egypt. The lethal concentration Lc₅₀ and Lc₉₀ of population percent were obtained from the established regression log concentrate-response lines. Data indicated that the values of lethal concentration (Lc₅₀) were 0.293, 1.725 & 2.328% for Lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and Fenitrothion, respectively. The values of lethal concentration (Lc₉₀) were 0.467, 2.839 & 5.197% for Lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and Fenitrothion, respectively. PMID:27363049

  12. Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sahar R; Abdel Azim, Enas K; Fawzy, Irene A; Kamal, Nashwa N; El Sherbini, Amr M

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband's education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment. PMID:21827472

  13. New marine ostracod species from the Middle Eocene of west-central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsi, Abdel-Mohsen M.; Hewaidy, Abdel-Galil A.; Samir, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    The study of two Eocene sections exposed at Wadi Nukhul and Wadi Tayiba in west-central Sinai, Egypt for ostracods yielded diverse fauna. Investigation of the recorded taxa revealed findings of eight new marine ostracod species, one belonging to the family Krithidae, Parakrithe tayibaensis n. sp., three to the family Cytheruridae, Cytheropteron bicostsatum n. sp., Cytheropteron nukhulensis n. sp. and Cytheropteron speijeri n. sp., three to the family Trachyleberididae: Digmocythere centroreticulata n. sp. in subfamily Brachycytherinae and Buntonia bassiounii n. sp. and Buntonia posteroacuta n. sp. in subfamily Buntoniinae, and one, Xestoleberis posterotruncata n. sp., to the family Xestoleberididae. The newly erected species have been described and compared with nearest known and probably related taxa. Their records in the studied sections are stratigraphically confined to the Middle Eocene (Lutetian-Bartonian) interval.

  14. Learning about Barriers to Care for People Living with HIV in Egypt: A Qualitative Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ihab; Lohiniva, Anna Leena; Kandeel, Amr; Benkirane, Manal; Atta, Hossam; Saleh, Hanan; El Sayed, Nasr; Talaat, Maha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles health care workers face in providing care for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Based on these findings, health authorities can design interventions to support health care workers in providing better medical care for PLWHA. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians and nurses in one 300-bed tertiary care public hospital in Giza, Egypt. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Five main themes were identified (1) fear of infection; (2) disbelief in effectiveness of infection control measures to protect against HIV; (3) misconceptions regarding medical care for PLWHA; (4) fear of secondary stigma; and (5) moral judgments toward PLWHA and negative connotations related to HIV. Interventions targeting health care workers should be multidimensional, including knowledge and skills building as well as value and attitude change. Reducing stigma among health care workers will improve access to care for PLWHA. PMID:23792709

  15. Ionospheric Tomography Network of Egypt: A New Receiver Network in Support of the International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, T. W.; Gaussiran, T. L.; York, J. A.; Munton, D. M.; Slack, C. M.; Mahrous, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 is an international scientific program designed to coordinate observations of the heliosphere, the region of space from the solar surface through the solar wind and various planetary magnetospheres to the planetary upper atmospheres. A particular emphasis is given to the development of long-term international collaborations that will study the external drivers to the space environment and climate. The Ionospheric Tomography Network of Egypt (ITNE) is one such collaboration. It is a new chain of ionospheric tomography receivers that will be deployed to investigate the equatorial regions of the Earth’s ionosphere. The distribution of plasma density within 20° of the magnetic equator is highly sensitive to forcing from the solar wind through a process known as the equatorial fountain. ITNE will provide new observations of the density structures associated with the equatorial fountain.

  16. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff. PMID:26450863

  17. Patient satisfaction with primary health care services in two districts in Lower and Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, M; Zaki, B; Rady, M; Anwer, W; Sallam, I

    2003-05-01

    This study compares patient satisfaction with primary health care services and identifies factors associated with patient satisfaction in two health districts in Egypt where a project for upgrading primary health care services had been running for three years. An exit interview was conducted for 1108 patients using a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that most clients using primary health care services were females. Patient satisfaction was high for accessibility, waiting area conditions and performance of doctors and nurses. The main complaints centred on the availability of prescribed drugs and laboratory investigations. Additionally, level of privacy in the consultation room was described as unsatisfactory by 33% of patients. There was no association between overall patient satisfaction and age, gender, education level or type of service received. PMID:15751936

  18. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and acheulian sites in southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; McHugh, W.P.; Schaber, G.G.; Haynes, C.V., Jr.; Breed, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Field investigations in southern Egypt have yielded Acheulian artifacts in situ in authigenic carbonate deposits (CaCO3-cemented alluvium) along the edges of nowaggraded paleovalleys (Wadi Arid and Wadi Safsaf). Uranium-series dating of 25 carbonate samples from various localities as far apart as 70 kilometers indicates that widespread carbonate deposition occurred about 45, 141 and 212 ka (thousand years ago). Most of the carbonate appears to have been precipitated from groundwater, which suggests that these three episodes of deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in this now hyperarid region. Carbonate cements from sediments containing Acheulian artifacts provide a minimum age of 212 ka for early occupation of the paleovalleys.

  19. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and acheulian sites in southern egypt.

    PubMed

    Szabo, B J; McHugh, W P; Schaber, G G; Haynes, C V; Breed, C S

    1989-02-24

    Field investigations in southern Egypt have yielded Acheulian artifacts in situ in authigenic carbonate deposits (CaCO(3)-cemented alluvium) along the edges of nowaggraded paleovalleys (Wadi Arid and Wadi Safsaf). Uranium-series dating of 25 carbonate samples from various localities as far apart as 70 kilometers indicates that widespread carbonate deposition occurred about 45, 141 and 212 ka (thousand years ago). Most of the carbonate appears to have been precipitated from groundwater, which suggests that these three episodes of deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in this now hyperarid region. Carbonate cements from sediments containing Acheulian artifacts provide a minimum age of 212 ka for early occupation of the paleovalleys. PMID:17734809

  20. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found. PMID:24861103

  1. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  2. Morphologic characteristics and migration rate assessment of barchan dunes in the Southeastern Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, M. A.; Refaat, A. A.; Abdel Wahed, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores the morphologic characteristics of aeolian dune sand in the southeastern part of Western Desert of Egypt. It aims to assess the movement of barchan dunes and evaluate their environmental influence on the Toshka Project. Morphometric investigation of barchan dunes in the Toshka area revealed that most barchans have high length/width (a/c) ratios (fat to pudgy), while one-fifth of the studied barchans have lower a/c ratios and so appear normal in their morphologic forms. Statistical analysis of the main parameters of barchan dunes in Toshka and other desert regions in the Kharga (Egypt), Kuwait, Southern Morocco, California and Southern Peru demonstrates that barchans of the Toshka area are distinctive in their appearance. They are characterized by distinct aspect with higher values of length and width and greater growth in height. The high-energy wind environment in addition to the large amount of drifting sand are principal factors responsible for the unique shape of Toshka barchans. The migration rate of barchan dunes in four chosen test locations, within the central and western Toshka area, ranges from about 3 to 10.82 m/year. The calculated average migration rate of these dunes is about 6 m/year in a SSW direction. Sand encroachment is more extensive in the central and western parts of the investigated Toshka area. Risk evaluation of sand dune movements in the southeastern part of the Western Desert points to medium to high sand encroachment risk values. These may represent serious hazards to the newly-established Toshka Project, threatening roads, as well as cultivated lands in the area.

  3. Community-Based Education in Egypt: Is It Achieving Its Stated Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsten, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Egypt promises "education for all". Primary attendance and completion have increased substantially. Still, many children remain out of school. There remain questions about the quality of education. Since the early 1990s, community-based education (CBE) has been part of Egypt's educational programme. Community-based education is meant to…

  4. English Language Teaching in Egypt. At the Crossroads of Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monem, Doaa Abdul; El-Sokkary, Wael; Haddaway, Carol; Bickel, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English language teaching in Egypt, where students are required to study English beginning in the fourth grade. Describes the educational requirements of Egyptians pursuing careers as English teachers, inservice training opportunities, overseas training programs, and future directions of English teaching in Egypt.(Author/VWL)

  5. Occurence of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants in Northern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes in Egypt is very important for agricultural production. A nematode survey was conducted in northern Egypt to identify the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants. A total of 240...

  6. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  7. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David

    This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…

  8. A Comparison between Rural Education in Egypt and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith

    1990-01-01

    Compares Egypt and United States rural school systems. Countries share financial limitations, low salaries, and teacher turnover. Discusses Egypt's national curriculum, high student dropout rate, administrative problems, and possible solutions. Concludes that countries' rural education problems are similar but differ as to cause. (TES)

  9. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... evaluation document to determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt... neutralize peach fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly in oranges and tangerines. We are making the pest list... fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due...

  10. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse st...

  11. Continuing Threat of Influenza (H5N1) Virus Circulation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kutkat, Mohamed A.; Kandeil, Ahmed M.; Mostafa, Ahmed; Ducatez, Mariette F.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Nasraa, Mohamed H.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    Reservoirs for the continuing influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt are ill-defined. Through active surveillance, we detected highly pathogenic influenza subtype H5 viruses in all poultry sectors; incidence was 5%. No other subtypes were found. Continued circulation of influenza (H5N1) viruses in various regions and poultry sectors perpetuates human exposure in Egypt. PMID:22172626

  12. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  13. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  14. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  15. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such...

  16. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive...

  17. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction....

  18. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  19. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the... Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination shall...

  20. Genetic Aspects of Gold Mineralization at Some Occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Monsef, M.; Slobodník, M.; Salem, I. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Eastern Desert of Egypt is well known as a gold-mining area since ancient times, there're more than 95 gold deposits and occurrences spread the whole area covered by the basement rocks of Precambrian age. The basement rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt constitute the Nubian Shield that has formed a continuous part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield before the opening of Red Sea (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Commonly, the system of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Eastern Desert is clearly structural controlled related to brittle-ductile shear zones that mostly developed during late deformational stages of the evolution history for basement rocks in the Eastern Desert. This running study principally aims to contribute the mineral resource potential of the gold deposits in Egypt, so particularly Fatira, Gidami and Atalla occurrences have been involved into a comprehensive study based on field, structural, mineralogical, geochemical and genetic investigations. It is intended to better understanding for the characteristics, distribution controls, conditions and age of mineralization in relation to the age of the hosting rocks intrusion to find if there're genetic links between the gold mineralization and the evolution of the host intrusive complex. Several authors suggested that the gold mineralization was related to the intrusion of the (postorogenic) Younger granites. Other authors interpret these deposits as products of hydrothermal activity induced either by metamorphism or cooling effects of early Paleozoic magmatism or as combined metamorphic/magmatic episodes. The prime focus will be directed to the ore itself and the associated hydrothermal alteration zones based on detailed maps and well-distributed samples network and geochemical anomalies distribution. The laboratory studies included microscopic examination (reflecting and transmitting microscopy) to allow for determination of the hosting rocks types and mineralogical changes related to the gold mineralization

  1. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  2. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  3. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    We were part of an international reconnaissance team that investigated the Dahsur earthquake. This article summarizes our findings and points out how even a relatively moderate sized earthquake can cause widespread damage and a large number of casualities. 

  4. First detection of an ignored parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in different animal hosts in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ashmawy, Karam I; Dweir, Amira W

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. The present study investigated the prevalence of E. cuniculi in different animal hosts from different provinces of Egypt (Alexandria, Behera, and Assuit) using serological (IFAT and ELISA) and molecular (PCR) assays. A total of 324 serum and 274 urine samples were collected from seven different species of animals (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, rabbit, dog, and rat). The results of serological examination confirmed the occurrence of antibodies against E. cuniculi in 38.9 % (126 out of 324) of the examined animals. The significant (P < 0.01) highest positivity was observed in goats (67 %) followed by buffaloes, rabbits, dogs, rat, and cattle (46.42, 41, 40, 36.2, and 28.1 %, respectively), while the least was recorded in sheep (9 %). Behera province showed the highest (P < 0.01) infection rate (40.68 %) followed by Alexandria and Assuit (39.2 and 22.73 %, respectively). The infection rate was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in females (45.34 %) than that in males (30.47 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. The highest infection rate (64.66 %) was recorded in the age group 1-5 years and the least was recorded in the age group <1 year (34.85 %).On the other hand, only five positive out of 274 urine samples (1.82 %) were detected by PCR. Our study provides a wide database on prevalence and epidemiology of an ignored parasite (E. cuniculi) for the first time in Egypt. PMID:25547075

  5. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries. PMID:21324705

  6. Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere. Methods We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways—socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women’s empowerment—for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are taken into account. Results Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women’s empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother’s education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women’s education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence. Conclusions Women’s empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls’ circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women’s educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls’ FGC risk a generation later. PMID:24090097

  7. Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1995-01-01

    This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

  8. Diagenesis and porosity evolution of upper Cretaceous dolomites, northern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Holail, H.M.; Lohmann, K.C.

    1988-08-01

    Porosity patterns in the Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate sequence of northern Egypt record a complex history of diagenesis in marine, hypersaline, and meteoric waters. Depositional facies and fabrics suggest an overall upward-shallowing sequence which, in turn, is bounded above by a major pre-middle Eocene unconformity. Associated with this unconformity, subaerial exposure resulted in a regional influx of meteoric waters. In this context, analysis of the paragenetic relationships and geochemical character of diagenetic phases has allowed for unique determination of the timing and environments of porosity evolution within this sequence.

  9. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  10. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Aswan High Dam, 2.5 miles across and 364 feet high, (24.0N, 33.0E) completed in 1971, was constructed to supply cheap hydroelectric power to both Egypt and Sudan by impounding, controling and regulating the flood waters of the Nile River in Lake Nasser, the world's second largest artifical lake. The lake extends over 500 miles in length, covers an area of some 2,000 square miles and is as much as 350 feet deep at the face of the dam.

  11. Late Bronze Age glass production at Qantir-Piramesses, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rehren, Thilo; Pusch, Edgar B

    2005-06-17

    It has been uncertain whether the glass produced during the Late Bronze Age (LBA) originated in Egypt or Mesopotamia. Here we present evidence for the production of glass from its raw materials in the eastern Nile Delta during the LBA. Glass was made in workshops that were separate from where the production of objects took place. The initial melting of the raw materials to semi-finished glass was done at temperatures of 900 degrees to 950 degrees C, followed by coloration and ingot production at 1000 degrees to 1100 degrees C. PMID:15961663

  12. Water pipe (Sisha) smoking in cafes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Israel, Ebenezer; El-Setouhy, Maged; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Aoun, El Saeed Ali; Mikhail, Nabiel; Mohamed, Mostafa K

    2003-12-01

    Shisha café patrons in Cairo, Egypt were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding smoking and health. The median age of initiation of Shisha smoking is 20 years. Shisha smokers know about the hazards of smoking and believe that Shisha smoking is less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Over half the Shisha smokers have tried to quit in the past year. The younger adults who smoke Shisha also tend to smoke more often with friends, smoke cigarettes in addition to Shisha and prefer fruit flavored tobacco as compared to tobacco mixed with molasses favored by Shisha smokers who are older. Heavy Shisha smoking was not related to age. PMID:15119471

  13. Detection of crustal strains in Egypt using GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    DETECTION OF CRUSTAL STRAINS IN EGYPT USING GPS NETWORKS S.M. Mahmoud National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. Fax: 202 554 80 20 Email: salahm55@yahoo.com Abstract. Studies of crustal deformation in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. Several publications were published and presented in local and international meetings. On November 14, 1981 an earthquake with magnitude 5.6 occurred at kalabsha fault, 70-Km southwest of Aswan City. This earthquake is considered as an important event as it is located not far from the Aswan High Dam. Therefore, the first program for monitoring crustal deformation has been started in Kalabsha area during the winter of 1983 with the cooperation between the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) and the Aswan &High Dam Authority. A local network of 18 terrestrial geodetic points was established at kalabsha area in 1983 in order to monitor the horizontal and vertical crustal movements along Kalabsha fault. The initial measurements were carried out in December 1984. These measurements were repeated twice a year till December 1994.An other terrestrial network were established at seiyal fault, 15 km to the north of kalabsha fault. The initial measurements of seiyal network were carried out in March 1989 and repeated twice a year till August 1992. Analysis of the terrestrial horizontal measurements from both networks for the epoch from December 1984 till December 1994 indicated significant deformations varying from 3x10-6 to 7x10-6. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Space Techniques which known as Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the Terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. Data adjustment and analysis of the reapted GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which helps in more understanding the geodynamics of

  14. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  15. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of Wadi El-Tarfa ground waters, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N. C.; Abdel Hady, Y.; El Anbeawy, M.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the use of the renewable ground water resources of the Eastern Desert to develop sustainable agriculture in Upper Egypt, an alternative that could alleviate some of Egypt's dependence on water from the Nile River. Ground water from shallow aquifers in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, near the intersection of Wadi El-Tarfa and the Nile River, was analyzed for chemical compositions, stable isotope ratios, and tritium activities. The ground water has a range in total dissolved solids of 300 to 5000 mg/L. Values of {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O range from -10 to +34 %o and -2 to +5.2 %o, respectively, and defines a line having a slope of 5.7 that intersects the meteoric water line at about {delta}D = -15% on a plot of 8D versus {delta}{sup 18}O. These findings indicate that the water might have been derived by a combination of evaporation of and salt addition to regional precipitation. Only one sample could have been derived directly by evaporation and transpiration of modern Nile River water. Salinization of the ground water could have occurred through dissolution of marine aerosol dry fallout, carbonate minerals, gypsum, and other trace evaporitic minerals at and near the ground surface. Tritium activities ranged from 0.04 to 12.9 TU (tritium unite), indicating that all but one of the samples were derived at least partly from precipitation that occurred within the last 45 years. These data indicate that Nubian Aquifer paleowater is not a significant component of the shallow aquifers of this portion of the Eastern Desert. The most likely source of this ground water is sporadic flash flood events yielding locally voluminous recharge that accumulates in coarse sediments and fractured rock beneath alluvial channels. The magnitude of this renewable ground water resource and its potential for supporting sustainable agriculture require further investigation.

  16. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP. PMID:23884906

  17. [Paramphostomid infestation in equids in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Hasslinger, M A; el-Seify, M A

    1996-01-01

    The investigation of 156 donkeys in the area of the veterinary faculty of the Tanta University in Kafr el-Sheikh showed that 49 animals (31.41%) were infected with trematodes, 34 donkeys (21.80%) served as hosts for Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, 22 (14.10%) were infected with Fasciola gigantica und 7 (4.49%) with both trematodes. 6 of 40 examined horses (15.0%) showed monoinfections with G. aegyptiacus only. Because of the fragmentary knowledge on these paramphistomides of equids, some aspects concerning the morphology, pathology and clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, occurrence, host specificity as well as therapy are discussed on the basis of the results from the central Nil delta. From now on further investigations are concentrated on the regional occurrence, frequency of infection of various hosts, seasonal changes of the excretion of eggs and chemotherapeutical possibilities. PMID:8765538

  18. Consanguinity and increased risk for schizophrenia in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Hader; Fathi, Warda; Klei, Lambertus; Wood, Joel; Chowdari, Kodavali; Watson, Annie; Eissa, Ahmed; Elassy, Mai; Ali, Ibtihal; Salah, Hala; Yassin, Amal; Tobar, Salwa; El-Boraie, Hala; Gaafar, Hanan; Ibrahim, Nahed E.; Kandil, Kareem; El-Bahaei, Wafaa; El-Boraie, Osama; Alatrouny, Mohamed; El-Chennawi, Farha; Devlin, Bernie; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Consanguinity has been suggested as a risk factor for psychsoses in some Middle Eastern countries, but adequate control data are unavailable. Our recent studies in Egypt have shown elevated parental consanguinity rates among patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1), compared with controls. We have now extended our analyses to Schizophrenia (SZ) in the same population. Methods A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura University Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt (SZ, n = 75; controls, n = 126, and their available parents). The prevalence of consanguinity was estimated from family history data (‘self report’), followed by DNA analysis using short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs, n = 63) (‘DNA-based’ rates). Results Self reported consanguinity was significantly elevated among the patients (SZ: 46.6%, controls: 19.8%, OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.88, 6.64; p = 0.000058, 1 d.f.). These differences were confirmed using DNA based estimates for coefficients of inbreeding (inbreeding coefficients as means ± standard error, cases: 0.058 ± 0.007, controls: 0.022 ± 0.003). Conclusions Consanguinity rates are signifcantly elevated among Egyptian SZ patients in the Nile delta region. The associations are similar to those observed with BP1 in our earlier study. If replicated, the substantial risk associated with consanguinity raises public health concerns. They may also pave the way for gene mapping studies. PMID:20435442

  19. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  20. Late Cretaceous multicolored shales and phosphatic sedimentary rocks in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.R.; Garrison, R.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Cretaceous transitional fluvial to marine variegated shale (upper Nubia Formation) and the fully marine Duwi (phosphate) Formation occur as thin, widespread, shallow-marine deposits in an east-west-trending belt spanning the lower-middle latitudes of Egypt. On a larger scale, the phosphoritic rocks in Egypt represent but a small portion of a laterally extensive Middle Eastern-North African phosphogenic province of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary age that accounts for accumulation of minable marine phosphate in excess of 70 billion tons. Phosphorites, porcelanites/cherts, organic carbon-rich shales, glauconitic sandstones, and bioclastic and fine-grained carbonate rocks variously reflect major hemipelagic and shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. Biosiliceous hemipelagic deposits, now diagenetically altered to procelanite and chert, reflect low energy depositional conditions that were periodically interrupted by high energy, possibly storm-induced currents and/or down-slope redeposition. Both dark shales and porcelanites locally contain abundant organic matter and are commonly finely laminated. Porcelanites and black shales are phosphatic, containing phosphatic grains identical, morphologically and chemically, to those found in associated phosphorites, and are probably the source from which the phosphorites were derived. The organic carbon-rich shales of the Duwi Formation appear to be quite laterally extensive and may, depending on thermal maturity, represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks in other portions of the region (e.g., Western Desert, Gulf of Suez), where they are more deeply buried.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  2. Schistosomiasis in Egypt: A never-ending story?

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Soliman, Rasha H

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis has plagued the Egyptian population since the antiquity. The disease is still a public health problem in Egypt, despite the tendency of being overlooked. In the first part of this review, the past and current trends of schistosomiasis in Egypt are reviewed, including history, epidemiology, morbidity, therapy, and control of the disease. Most of these aspects are more or less relevant to other schistosome-endemic regions all over the world. As only one drug is currently available for individual treatment and preventive mass chemotherapy, the quest for complementary measures is urgently warranted. Indeed, one promising approach is the discovery of a vaccine. Herein, we point out the efforts of the Egyptian scientists to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine against schistosomiasis - a step forward in the battle of elimination of Schistosoma infection. Based on the candidate vaccine antigens, four types of vaccine formulations are discussed: purified antigen vaccines, DNA constructs, attenuated cercariae, and excretory-secretory antigen vaccines. Finally, this review provides insights into this ancient seemingly long-lasting parasitic disease. PMID:25959770

  3. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources. PMID:19927898

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  5. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754614

  6. Infant feeding and weaning practices in Roman Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dupras, T L; Schwarcz, H P; Fairgrieve, S I

    2001-07-01

    Current knowledge of infant feeding and weaning practices during the Roman period in Egypt is limited to scanty documentary and iconographic evidence. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis provides another avenue to explore this question. A sample of 49 infant and juvenile human skeletal remains from the Kellis 2 cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, was used to determine patterns of infant feeding and weaning. delta(15)N values indicate that supplementary foods were introduced at around 6 months of age, and that weaning was complete by 3 years of age. By 6 months of age, delta(13)C values become increasingly enriched over adult values, and reach peak enrichment at approximately 1.5 years of age. Beyond this age, delta(13)C gradually declines to approach adult values. This enrichment in infant delta(13)C values is indicative of consumption of (13)C-enriched supplementary foods. Based on isotopic study of faunal and botanical remains from the ancient village of Kellis, we conclude that at approximately 6 months of age, infants were fed milk of goat and/or cow. PMID:11424072

  7. Present groundwater status in Egypt and the environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Hussein; Nour, S.

    1990-11-01

    This article is an attempt to give a brief review on the status of groundwater studies in Egypt, their results, and the present plans for groundwater development that are usually based on the hydrogeological characteristics of the groundwater resources as well as on the environmental control of the discharge area. In terms of groundwater hydrology, Egypt can be divided into the following groundwater provinces: (1) the Western Desert, (2) the Eastern Desert, (3) the Nile Valley including the delta, (4) the Sinai Peninsula, (5) the Northern Coastal Zone, and (6) Wadi El-Natrun. The studies of volume and nature of groundwater and the environmental impact studies that were carried out in each of these provinces differed according to the importance given to development of projects in areas of interest and to the availability of funds. Recent studies and the surveys conducted for groundwater hydrological research by local and international organizations are described separately for each province. Special reference is made to groundwater hydro-geological setting, groundwater resources evaluation, and present and future utilization. The New Valley is the largest Egyptian irrigated agricultural development project that is solely dependent on groundwater resources. An outline showing its nature, objective, and size is included as an example of groundwater development.

  8. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  9. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  10. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence. PMID:25523075

  11. Energy project: petroleum and natural gas in Egypt; Linear-programming analysis of the use of natural gas in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    Natural gas use in Egypt, although still in its infancy, has risen rapidly during the past few years and even larger increases are expected. The extent to which natural gas usage can improve Egypt's foreign-exchange position by allowing greater exports of oil is herein examined. A linear-programming model is used to identify shadow prices for natural gas production and transportation costs and for the world market costs of other fuels. The model thus determines the minimum foreign exchange costs needed to operate the Egyptian natural gas industry and other Egyptian sectors that have the option of using natural gas (the fertilizer, electric power generation, Helwan iron and steel, cement, and residential and commercial sectors). Only existing production facilities are considered. Results show that the most important application for natural gas is in the manufacture of cement; use in iron and steel production is indicated when electricity demand is low or coal prices are high. A 17-item bibliography (1972-1982) is appended.

  12. Identification of a novel Assemblage B subgenotype and a zoonotic Assemblage C in human isolates of Giardia intestinalis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, R H; Fuentes, I; Rubio, J M

    2011-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis (G. intestinalis) is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoan infecting human. Molecular techniques are of great value in studying the taxonomy, the zoonotic potential of animal isolates and the correlation between the genetic variability of the parasite and the range of clinical symptoms observed in humans. The present work aims at genotyping G. intestinalis isolates from Egypt using molecular techniques. PCR targeting the β-giardin locus, RFLP and sequencing were applied to 12 microscopically positive and 3 microscopically negative samples (which were positive by real time PCR targeting SSUr DNA). Two other loci, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene PCR and RFLP were also applied to all study isolates. The most frequent genotype was Assemblage B (13 out of 15), while Assemblage A and C were present in one sample each. This is the first report on zoonotic transmission of Assemblage C (dog genotype) to human in Egypt. Sequencing of the Assemblage B isolates revealed new subgenotypes with consistent mutations at specific positions, some of which were not characterized previously. The results shed light on the possibility that G. intestinalis can infect humans through a zoonotic route and open the door to wider investigations using different genetic loci to genotype Giardia isolates. PMID:21989040

  13. Geophysical and seismo-tectonic evolution in Dahshure area, SW Cairo-Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Abdel Aziz, Khiry; Mohamed, Abuela; Elbuieb, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The study of seismic hazard assessment around greater Cairo-Egypt is very important due to condense population (more than 20 million) in that area. Although, Egypt is characterized by low seismic activity. The seismotectonic zones and high activity are occurred along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Northern Red Sea triple junction point, Aswan, Dahshur, and Cairo-Suez District . In this study, earthquake catalogue (up to 2015) of all seismo-tectonic zones in Egypt and its surroundings are used. Beside the seismicity analysis, gravity and magnetic maps of Dahshur area are analyses for tracing active subsurface faults that are responsible of earthquakes activity. The surface geology and subsurface faults are used to evaluate the tectonic framework in the area under study. Also, The seismicity maps, focal depths and seismic hazards values are calculated. Keyword: Seismo-tectonic, seismic hazards assessment, potential fields, Greater Cairo-Egypt

  14. Third-party reproductive assistance around the Mediterranean: comparing Sunni Egypt, Catholic Italy and multisectarian Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale; Serour, Gamal I

    2010-12-01

    The article examines religious and legal restrictions on third-party reproductive assistance in three Mediterranean countries: Sunni Egypt, Catholic Italy and multisectarian Lebanon. In Egypt, assisted reproduction treatments are permitted, but third parties are banned, as in the rest of the Sunni Islamic world. Italy became similar to Egypt with a 2004 law ending third-party reproductive assistance. In multisectarian Lebanon, however, the Sunni/Catholic ban on third-party reproductive assistance has been lifted, because of Shia rulings emanating from Iran. Today, third-party reproductive assistance is provided in Lebanon to both Muslims and Christians, unlike in neighbouring Egypt and Italy. Such comparisons point to the need for understanding the complex interactions between law, religion, local moralities and reproductive practices for global bioethics. PMID:21050814

  15. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text]. PMID:26131735

  16. TWO ACUTE HUMAN POISONING CASES RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO DIAZINON TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two spraymen working in public health occupations in Alexandria, Egypt, experienced acute toxicity resulting from exposure to diazinon. Symptomatology was similar to that previously reported for exposure to parathion or other organophosphorus insecticides. Plasma and red blood ce...

  17. The economic potential of El-Gedida glauconite deposits, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habaak, Galal; Askalany, Mohamed; Faraghaly, Mohamed; Abdel-Hakeem, Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    The mining work at El-Gedida iron mine, El-Bahariya Oasis, in the Western Desert of Egypt extracts commercial iron ore deposits without attention paid to the large glauconite deposits overlying these iron ore deposits. For this reason, the present paper aims at evaluating and attracting the attention to these glauconite deposits as alternative potassium fertilizers. The study was achieved by investigating mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of the green deposits. Mineralogical and physical properties involved the determination of glauconite pellets content in different grain size fractions relative to impurities and the analysis of the percentage of clay matrix and grain size distribution. Different pre-treatment strategies and methods including comminution, sieving, magnetic separation, and X-ray diffraction were used for investigating those mineralogical and physical properties. On the other hand, chemical analyses included potassium content, heavy metal concentrations, and pH and salinity measurements. The major elements and trace elements were measured using ICP-OES and the pH was measured using a pH conductometer. Moreover, this study investigated the nature of grain boundaries and the effect of sieving on glauconite beneficiation. Results of this study suggest that El-Gedida glauconite deposits are mineralogically, physically and chemically suitable for exploitation and can be beneficiated for use as an alternative potassium fertilizer.

  18. The results of the Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey in rural Egypt, 1980.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, A M; Helmy Haa; El-khorazaty, M N; Way, A A

    1982-01-01

    A field sample survey was conducted in rural Egypt at the end of 1980 to collect current information about levels of contraceptive knowledge; to provide data on fertility levels, desired family size, and the affecting factors; to detect the rural inhabitants' knowledge of the availability and accessibility of family planning services; and to offer the base data needed for evaluation of the Population and Development Project (PDP) in some of the villages in which the PDP functioned. The sampling plan was based on the selection of a self-weighted sample representing all currently or ever married women between the ages of 15-60 living in rural Egypt. A total of 5049 households from the selected households were actually contacted, and 5313 eligible women were successfully interviewed. About 83% of the sample married before age 18. The mean preferred age of marriage was 17.4 years among the respondents, slightly higher than the mean age (16.6) at which these women actually married. Women in Lower Egypt preferred to delay marriage longer than women in Upper Egypt. The average number of live births among ever married women between the ages of 15-45 years in all of rural Egypt was 7.4; the average number of live births among ever married women in the entire sample was 4.6. The average number of surviving children was 3.3. Women in rural areas showed a tendency towards limiting family size. About 45% of the women desired more sons than daughters. 91% of the sample had knowledge of at least 1 contraceptive method. Oral contraception (OC) was the most familiar method in rural Egypt, followed by the IUD. About 79% of all ever married women approved of contraceptive use. 71% of all ever married women in rural Egypt were able to mention at least 1 source of modern contraceptive methods. About 35% were currently or had ever used contraception. 24% of the respondents used OC. Women who used prolonged breastfeeding to stop childbearing amounted to 11%. In Lower Egypt the percentage

  19. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the

  20. Measurement of radioactivity levels in soil in the Nile Delta and middle Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahiem, N M; Abd el Ghani, A H; Shawky, S M; Ashraf, E M; Farouk, M A

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in surface soil across the Nile Delta, the north coast of Egypt, and Middle Egypt have been measured using a hyperpure germanium spectrometer. The concentrations obtained for 40K, the 232Th series, and the 226Ra series are expressed in Bq kg-1 of dry weight, and the exposure rates are expressed in nGy h-1 of wet weight. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in soil are expressed in Bq m-2. PMID:8491618

  1. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Egypt. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  2. Identification of Shigella flexneri Subserotype 1c in Rural Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Atef; El-Ghorab, Nemat; Lane, Edward M.; Elyazeed, Remon Abu; Carlin, Nils I. A.; Mitry, Mary M.; Kay, Bradford A.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Peruski, Leonard F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of diarrhea in rural, northern Egypt, 60 Shigella flexneri strains were identified, of which 10 could not be definitively serotyped. Serological analysis with commercial reagents suggested that they were serotype 1, but the strains failed to react with subserotype 1a- or 1b-specific antibodies. All 10 strains reacted with MASF 1c, a monoclonal antibody specific for a provisional S. flexneri subserotype, 1c, first identified in Bangladesh and not previously detected outside of that region. Our results show that S. flexneri subserotype 1c is not unique to Bangladesh and that the inability to detect it may reflect both the limited use of suitable screening methods and the rarity of this subserotype. PMID:9986881

  3. Short-run energy-economy interactions in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Choucri, N.; Lahiri, S.

    1983-07-01

    Much of the recent upsurge in the Egyptian economy has been provided by the strong, well-managed petroleum sector. Two obstacles to the continuation of these increased earnings are the highly subsidized domestic price of oil, which encourages domestic consumption, and the prevailing uncertainty as to reserve generation and the future production possibilities of oil. This report analyzes the effects of oil price increases, using a short-run ten-sector macro-economic model with explicit treatment of oil extraction, oil refining, and a sector consisting of electricity and natural gas. The macro-economic implications of domestic petroleum pricing strategies in Egypt are extremely important; an overall energy/economy strategy is required in which adjusting domestic prices toward international prices is only one element.

  4. Spectroscopic analyses of soil samples outside Nile Delta of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Osman, Osama; Ezzat, Hend; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2016-11-01

    Soil in Egypt, especially around Delta is exposed to various pollutants which are affecting adversely soil fertility and stability. Humic Acids (HA) as a main part of soil organic matter (SOM) represent the heart of the interaction process of inorganic pollutants with soil. Consequently, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) were used to characterize soil, sediment and extracted HA. Resulting data confirmed that the HA was responsible for transporting inorganic pollutants from surface to subsurface reaching the ground water, which may represent a high risk on public health. The transport process is coming as carboxyl in surface soil changed into metal carboxylate then transferred into the carboxyl in bottom soil. PMID:27294554

  5. Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046

  6. A survey of oral health, Qalyub Project, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Wheatcroft, M. G.; Klimt, C. R.

    1959-01-01

    This report presents the results of an oral health survey of 4324 individuals in three villages near Cairo, Egypt. The results show that the incidence of dental decay (expressed as the number of carious teeth per individual) in this group of Egyptians was lower than that reported for the over-all population of the USA, and that the prevalence of periodontal disease in the group studied was about three times as high as that reported in the USA. There was a statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of asymptomatic enlargement of the parotid glands and the occurrence of angular cheilosis in the same individuals. Other forms of oral disease were observed infrequently. Water samples from the survey area were assayed for fluorides and were shown to contain fluoride levels below that considered to give protection against dental caries. PMID:13638795

  7. Preliminary analysis of Shuttle multispectral radiometer data for southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Kingston, M. J.; Goetz, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 microns in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra.

  8. Preliminary analysis of shuttle multispectral radiometer data for Southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Kingston, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 ??m in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the space shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra. ?? 1983.

  9. Evaluation of mobile metals in sediments of Burullus Lagoon, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mona; El-Gharabawy, Suzan

    2016-08-15

    The Burullus Lagoon north Nile Delta of Egypt is a UNESCO-protected area. Recently it has become a sediment sink which led to shrinking in its area and depth accompanying with increasing contaminant levels. In this study we attempt to explore the spatial distribution and their mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb) based on 21surface sediment samples recovered from Burullus lagoon basin and nine drains. The risk assessment code of the studied heavy metals can be arranged as Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni for all the samples collected from the lagoon basin and nine different drains. The heavy metals tend to accumulate in fine sediments and human activities promote the accumulation of contaminated sediments in water courses. PMID:27216045

  10. Egypt's Popular Uprising and the Stakes of Medical Neutrality.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F; Bayoumi, Soha

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the recent political uprisings in the Arab region, physicians and other healthcare workers have found themselves in the crossfire. This paper focuses on Egypt's doctors, paying special attention to how many have both appealed to and practiced medical neutrality as its own potent and contested political stance, particularly since the period of military rule following Mubarak's removal from power. Our paper draws on interviews with physicians who served as volunteers in the field hospitals in the days of unrest and violence, and with others who played a major role in documenting protesters' injuries, police brutality, and other forms of state violence against unarmed citizens. Based on interviews with doctors who belong to organizations such as "Tahrir Doctors" and "Doctors Without Rights," our paper reveals how these doctors' commitment to professional ethics put them at odds with the orders of military personnel, rendering their appeal to "medical neutrality" a weighty political act in and of itself. PMID:26303314

  11. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  12. Female Genital Cutting and Hepatitis C Spread in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A recent analysis of Egypt's first nationally representative survey of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection found female genital cutting (FGC) to be an independent risk factor for HCV infection for women in urban areas. We use the same dataset to extend this analysis. In an ecological analysis, we find a strong association between FGC and HCV prevalence (Pearson R2—74%;  P < 0.0001). HCV prevalence is significantly higher if FGC is performed by a non-Doctor (15.4%) than a Doctor (4.2%; P < 0.001), and the calculated population attributable fraction of FGC for prevalent HCV seropositivity is high in women (79.8%).

  13. Appropriateness of hospital admissions in general hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Tehewy, M; Shehad, E; Al Gaafary, M; Al-Houssiny, M; Nabih, D; Salem, B

    2009-01-01

    We measured the rate of inappropriate admissions, and associated factors, in 3 general hospitals in Egypt. A total of 1191 admissions were reviewed using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for adult patients and the Pediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol for paediatric patients. Inappropriate admissions were 66.3% and 78.9% of admissions in the surgery departments of 2 hospitals compared with 1.9% in the 3rd hospital that followed a specific admission protocol for elective surgery. The paediatrics department had the lowest rates of inappropriate admissions in all hospitals (0%, 1.0% and 1.9%). On logistic regression analysis, the route of admission was the only factor significantly associated with inappropriate admissions in the departments of surgery, obstetrics/gynaecology and internal medicine. PMID:20214126

  14. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  15. Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Nadia A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Rubio, Jose M

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease. PMID:25913089

  16. Correlates of unintended pregnancy in Beheira governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Moubarak, I I; Gaffar, Y A; Atta, H Y

    2002-01-01

    This study looked at the frequency and determinants of unplanned births among women in Beheira governorate, Egypt, and the effects on antenatal and postnatal care sought by the mother for herself and her child. Unintended births comprised 23.6%; 13.8% were unwanted and 9.8% were mistimed. Contraceptive failure accounted for 28.8% of unintended pregnancies; 47.1% of women who reported unintended pregnancy were not using [corrected] contraception. Age, education and parity were predictors of unwanted pregnancy. Contraceptive use and maternal employment status predicted mistimed pregnancy. Unintended pregnancy was a barrier to antenatal care, but not to child care. Our findings suggest that family planning programmes should help women of reproductive age achieve spacing and fertility limits. PMID:15603034

  17. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

    2008-01-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  18. An epizootic of equine influenza in Upper Egypt in 2000.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, I H A; Hussein, M

    2004-12-01

    This study describes an epizootic of respiratory tract disease caused by influenza virus infection in a large population of equines in Luxor and Aswan, Upper Egypt, during the winter of 2000. The epizootic started in January and the infection rate reached its peak in February before gradually decreasing until the end of April, 2000. Horses, donkeys and mules of all ages and both sexes were affected. Free movement of the infected equines and direct contact between the animals at markets facilitated the rapid spread of the disease. The cause of the epizootic was established by use of serological testing and the identification of the influenza virus in nasal secretions. Egg inoculation and the haemagglutination test were used to detect the influenza virus. Both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel precipitation tests were performed to identify the isolated influenza virus using reference antisera against A/Equi-1 (H7N7) and A/Equi-2 (H3N8). Antibodies against the equine influenza virus were demonstrated in 416 (95.6%) out of 435 collected sera using the HI test. High rectal temperature, inappetence, conjunctivitis, redness of nasal mucosa, a serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge and a harsh dry cough were the most common clinical manifestations. Stress factors, such as using equines for heavy transportation and drawing, precipitated the onset of the disease, intensified the clinical syndrome, delayed recovery and facilitated secondary bacterial infection. The present study suggested that the absence of a vaccination programme against equine influenza was one of the principal causes of the spread of infection during this outbreak. In conclusion, the implementation of a national equine influenza vaccination programme, using an effective updated vaccine, is essential in Egypt. PMID:15861887

  19. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity: a report from upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To detect the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit in upper Egypt and to describe the obstacles faced during implementing the screening protocol for the first time. METHODS Consecutive infants were enrolled at birth and screened for ROP. We used the UK ROP guideline (May 2008) for infant selection, follow up and treatment. Repeat examinations were performed until retinal vascularisation was complete. RESULTS Fifty-two infants were enrolled: 24 males and 28 females. Mean gestational age was 31.3wk (±2.8 SD) and mean birth weight was 1234.6 g (±221.1 SD). Incidence of ROP was 36.5% (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4a were 9.6%, 9.6%, 15.4% and 1.9% respectively), no stages 4b or 5 were found in this series. Six infants (11.5%) died during screening without ROP, 25 infants (48.1%) were discharged from screening with retinal vascularisation reaching zone III, 5 infants (9.6%) were treated with indirect diode with or without additional cryotherapy and 16 infants (30.8%) were lost to follow up. In this series gestational age rather than birth weight was found significantly correlated and predictive (P<0.05) with ROP stages. CONCLUSION ROP in a single site in Upper Egypt appears to have comparable incidence to other areas worldwide. The main screening obstacle was missing cases due to the absence of a national ROP screening protocol. PMID:26949647

  20. Staphylococci in cattle and buffaloes with mastitis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ashker, Maged; Gwida, Mayada; Tomaso, Herbert; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; El-Gohary, Fatma; Hotzel, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the first detailed insight into the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in one modern dairy farm (Gamasa) and several household cows and buffaloes in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Eight hundred seventy-two quarter milk samples of 218 dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis were investigated. Bacteria were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and staphylococci were further characterized by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microarray analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 5.6% of all collected samples, whereas methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 24.5% of all identified S. aureus (12/49). Six clonal complexes (CC) of S. aureus were detected. Staphylococcus aureus CC398 (ST291/813)-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was identified frequently in the Gamasa farm in addition to a few CC5-MRSA-V isolates. However, a small number of different isolates of S. aureus were found in household cattle and buffaloes harboring different CC. The presence of these genotypes of S. aureus in milk might indicate a public health hazard, because all of these CC have previously been isolated from human patients. Thus, a recommendation was given to the owner of the dairy farm to review the hygiene regimen on the farm. In perspective, further investigation regarding S. aureus screening of all lactating cows and personnel on the farm is warranted. PMID:26364099

  1. Impacts of soil sealing on potential agriculture in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Elsayed Said; Belal, Abdelaziz; Shalaby, Adel

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights the impacts of soil sealing on the agricultural soils in Nile Delta using remote sensing and GIS. The current work focuses on two aims. The first aim is to evaluate soil productivity lost to urban sprawl, which is a significant cause of soil sealing in Nile Delta. The second aim is to evaluate the Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LU LC) from 2001 to 2013 in El-Gharbia governorate as a case study. Three temporal data sets of images from two different sensors: Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with 30 m resolution acquired in 2001 and Landsat 8 acquired in 2013 with 30 m resolution, and Egypt sat acquired in 2010 with 7.8 m resolution, consequently were used. Four different supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Distance, Neural Networks (NN); and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to monitor the changes of LULC in the investigated area. The results showed that the agricultural soils of the investigated area are characterized by high soil productivity depending on its chemical and physical properties. During 2010-2013, soil sealing took place on 1397 ha from the study area which characterized by soil productivity classes ranging between I and II. It is expected that the urban sprawl will be increased to 12.4% by 2020 from the study area, which means that additional 3400 ha of productive soils will be lost from agriculture. However, population growth is the most significant factor effecting urban sprawl in Nile Delta.

  2. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ashmawy, Karam I; Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ghashir, Mohamed Bn

    2014-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. among slaughtered water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at Alexandria province, Egypt. Three hundred blood samples were collected from slaughtered buffaloes (5-7 years old). Two techniques were used to evaluate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). It was revealed that 203 (67.6 %) and 191 (63.6 %) of the tested serum samples were seropositive to Sarcocystis spp. by ELISA and IHA, respectively. The results of sensitivity and specificity of IHA relative to ELISA were 94 and 100 %, respectively. For molecular characterization of inter- and intra-species genetic polymorphism within Egyptian isolates of Sarcocystis spp. of water buffaloes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) were performed on four macroscopic isolates. The isolates represented two different geographical regions of Egypt, Alexandria and Assuit provinces. Alexandria isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) and Assuit isolates (large and small-sized cyst of the same host) were used. The 18S rDNA of the macroscopic cysts were characterized, in tandem, by four restriction endonucleases, RsaI, MboI, SspI and DraI. RsaI and MboI enzymes did not show any restriction sites for all isolates, leaving the amplified fragments without cutting. SspI showed two fragments in Alexandria and Assuit small-sized isolates cut by the enzyme at 600-700-bp fragments, while Alexandria and Assuit large-sized cysts amplicons were not digested by this enzyme. The fourth enzyme, DraI, cut the PCR product of Alexandria large-sized cysts into two fragments (420-780 bp), while Assuit large-sized amplicon was not cut. It could be concluded that there was a far distance between the two local isolates (small and large sized), but there were no differences between the large-sized isolates. PMID

  4. Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Magaly; Gaber, Ahmed; Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Zaghloul, El-Sayed; Arafat, Sayed M.; AbuBakr, Mostafa

    2013-10-01

    A desert plain in Egypt is being investigated to develop new techniques of multisensor data integration for groundwater exploration. A combination of multispectral, thermal and microwave data (ASTER and PALSAR) and supported by ground measurements (GPR, field spectroradiometry and magnetometry) were used to investigate surface sediment characteristics of the El-Gallaba Plain area, NW of Aswan. This desert plain once hosted an ancestral river system long before the Nile even existed. Nowadays the fluvial deposits are largely covered by Aeolian and gravelly sands and thus only detectible with radar and thermal images. Results show two broad strips of thermal cooling anomalies arranged in a linear fashion and diagonally crossing the alluvial basin. Spectral signatures collected along the linear land surface temperature (LST) anomalies show generally higher reflectance values (higher albedo) than the surrounding sediments. Both, the cooler LST and higher albedo, suggest that the surface sediments within the anomaly strips have lower emissivity values (low heat storage capacity). Furthermore, the homogeneity of these sediments was measured with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 250 and 100 MHz shielded antenna. The 12 GPR profiles across the LST anomalies confirmed that the near-surface sediments (up to 10 m depth) consist of thin horizontal layers of sandstone with very low gravel content. They show very different textural and compositional characteristics with respect to the surrounding areas suggesting a different depositional environment. Thus 12 magnetic profiles with 1.5 km average length were acquired across the LST anomalies to investigate deep seated structures. The results confirmed the existence of graben-like structures with a maximum depth to the basement of 150 m and shallower depths toward the edges of the LST anomalies. Consequently, these structurally controlled basins could be promising areas for ground water accumulation and exploration in the El

  5. Epidemiology, ecology and gene pool of influenza A virus in Egypt: Will Egypt be the epicentre of the next influenza pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, EM; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Outside Asia, Egypt is considered to be an influenza H5N1 epicentre and presents a far greater pandemic risk than other countries. The long-term endemicity of H5N1 and the recent emergence of H9N2 in poultry call attention to the need for unravelling the epidemiology, ecology and highly diverse gene pool of influenza A virus (IAV) in Egypt which is the aim of this review. Isolation of a considerable number of IAV subtypes from several avian and mammalian hosts was described. Co-infections of poultry with H5N1 and H9N2 and subclinical infections of pigs and humans with H1N1 and H5N1 may raise the potential for the reassortment of these viruses. Moreover, the adjustment of IAV genomes, particularly H5N1, to optimize their evolution toward efficient transmission in human is progressing in Egypt. Understanding the present situation of influenza viruses in Egypt will help in the control of the disease and can potentially prevent a possible pandemic. PMID:25635701

  6. Radioactivity of sand, groundwater and wild plants in northeast Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Khaled A; Seddeek, Mostafa K; Nijim, Abdelkareem; Sharshar, Taher; Badran, Hussein M

    2011-12-01

    The radioactivity levels are poorly studied in non-coastal arid regions. For this reason, 38 locations covering an area of about 350 km(2) in northeast Sinai, Egypt, were investigated by γ-ray spectroscopy. Moderately significant correlations among (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra isotopes and low significant correlations between the concentrations of (238)U-series and (232)Th in sand were obtained. No evidence of correlation was found between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH, grain size, total organic matter content, bicarbonate or calcium carbonate concentrations of the sand samples. The mean values of soil-to-plant transfer factor were 0.15, 0.18, 1.52 and 0.74 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. The range of concentrations of (226)Ra,( 232)Th, and (40)K in water samples collected from five wells were<0.4-0.16,<0.4-0.13, and<0.15-1.62 Bq l(-1), respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground surface for the sand samples was 19.4 nGy h(-1). The Ra(eq) activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) criterion limit for building materials. PMID:22092101

  7. Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Mowafi, Ahmed; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2015-01-01

    The shallow-water siliciclastics and carbonates of the Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt represent an epiric ramp. The facies are characterized by stacked high-frequency cycles with restricted ramp to shoal margin sequences. Based on an extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, six lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis was carried out by integrating lithostratigraphic marker beds, facies relationships, stratigraphic cycles, and biostratigraphy. The investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. S1, is interpreted to correspond to the Late Burdigalian stage (18-16.38 My), S2 corresponds to the Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian stage (16.38-14.78 My), and S3 represents the Late Langhain-Early Serravallian stage (14.78-13.66 My). Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles.

  8. Perched groundwater at the northwestern coast of Egypt: a case study of the Fuka Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2012-03-01

    Perched groundwater resources on the northwestern coast of Egypt have thus far been little studied. However, if replenished by rainwater, they can provide a considerable amount of renewable water, i.e., for sustainable irrigation. These resources are limited, show different salinity contents and are endangered by overuse, pollution and by the sea level rising in the context of global warming. This paper presents new climatic data, geomorphologic, geologic, geochemical and hydrological researches in combination with remote sensing and GIS applications from Fuka Basin. Fuka constitutes a special synclinal basin where the interbedded limestone and clays have been folded into gentle synclinal structures. Fractured Middle Miocene limestone represents the bearing formation for the perched groundwater. According to the hydrogeochemical analysis and the PHREEQC model, the aquifer is recharged during the winter season by rainwater from the surrounding tableland and the chemical evolution of the perched water is attributed to water-rock interaction and mixing of fresh water with sea water. The salinity of the perched water ranges from 2,126 to 2,644 mg/L whereas for the deep groundwater it reaches 9,800 mg/L. The study explores origin and potential of the perched groundwater of Fuka Basin and gives recommendations for a future sustainable use and further investigations.

  9. Shelf architectures of an isolated Late Cretaceous carbonate platform margin, Galala Mountains (Eastern Desert, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-12-01

    An asymmetrical carbonate platform margin to basin transect has been investigated in the Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian succession of the Galala Mountains, northern Egypt. Identification of systems tracts and their lateral correlation was possible in slope sections only, whereas the monotonous chalk-marl alternations of the basinal sections could not be subdivided with respect to sequence stratigraphic terminology. The platform asymmetry is expressed by varying large-scale depositional architectures exhibiting a rimmed platform with a sigmoidal slope curvature in south-easterly dip-sections and a ramp with a linear slope curvature in south-westerly dip-sections. The rimmed platform is subdivided into a gentle upper slope and a steep lower slope. The platform formed as a result of the initial topography that was controlled by the tectonic uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba Syrian Arc structure. The calculated angles of the steep lower slope of the rimmed part range from 5 to 8°, whereas the ramp part has an angle of less than 0.1°.

  10. Risky road-use behaviour among students at the University of Benha, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, S D; El-Gendy, M F; Dawah, A Y; Eldesouky, R S; El-Raof, M S Abd

    2015-02-01

    Road traffic injuries constitute 45% of deaths due to injury in Egypt. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify and investigate risky behaviours regarding road use among university students in Benha. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 953 students. Of the respondents 19.3% reported not complying with pedestrian road traffic safety rules, while among drivers, 39.4% had no driving licence, 44.5% did not use a seat-belt and 63.5% exceeded the legal speed limits. In binary logistic regression analysis, substance use (OR 18.3; 95% CI: 9.10-23.3) and having peers with similar behaviours (OR 2.53; 96% CI: 1.15-5.55) were significant predictors of not following road traffic safety rules as a pedestrian. Exceeding the legal traffic speed limits as a driver was significantly associated with male sex (OR 5.13; 95% CI: 1.98-13.3), peer pressure (OR 8.70; 95% CI: 3.90-17.1) and substance use (OR 3.30; 95% CI: 1.58-13.7). Unsafe road-use behaviours that may cause unintentional injuries are prevalent among University of Benha students. Health education sessions and training courses for students on appropriate road behaviours may be warranted. PMID:25876823

  11. Abu Zenima synthetic zeolite for removing iron and manganese from Assiut governorate groundwater, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrag, Abd El Hay Ali; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Mohamed, Atef Mohamed Gad; Saleem, Saleem Sayed; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater in Upper Egypt especially in Assiut Governorate is considered the second source of fresh water and used for drinking, agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, it is characterized by high concentrations of iron and manganese ions. The study aimed at synthesizing zeolite-4A from kaolinite for removing the excess iron and manganese ions from Assiut Governorate groundwater wells. Therefor, the kaolinite was hydrothermally treated through the metakaolinization and zeolitization processes to produce crystalline zeolite-4A. The chemical composition of crystalline zeolite-4A and its morphology were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then the column experiments were conducted to study the performance of crystalline salt-4A as ion exchange and investigate their operating parameters and regeneration conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict adsorption capacity and the time required for 50 % breakthrough curves. The effects of initial concentrations of 600 and 1000 mg L-1 for Fe2+ and Mn2+, feed flow rate of 10-30 ml/min, and height range of 0.4-1.5 cm on the breakthrough behavior of the adsorption system were determined. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized zeolite-A4 can remove iron and manganese ions from groundwater to the permissible limit according to the standards drinking water law.

  12. Prevalence and site preferences of heterophyid metacercariae in Tilapia zilli from Ismalia fresh water canal, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M M; Soliman, M F M

    2010-09-01

    Factors affecting prevalence and site preferences of heterophyid metacercariae (MC) were investigated in this study. A total of 173 specimens of a freshwater fish, Tilapia zilli were collected during autumn 2008, winter 2009 and summer 2009, from Ismailia fresh water canal, Egypt. Results showed that the total prevalence of heterophyid MC was 95.37%. The heterophyid MC consisted of Haplorchis yokogawi (47.4%), Pygidiopsis genata (21.4%), and Phagicola ascolonga (93.64%). H. yokogawi MC was detected in striated muscles, P. ascolonga in liver and kidney while, P. genata was detected in muscles, liver and kidney. The aggregation indices showed that all MC were aggregated and the P. genata was the most highly aggregated followed by H. yokogawi and then P. ascolonga. Responses of the heterophyid MC to host sex, weight and season greatly varied according to species of MC. Different responses of interaction for heterophyid MC intensity were found by GLIM analysis and this variation dependant on the type of infection (single or mixed infections). Factors affecting site preference of heterophid MC infection were discussed and further studies in other locations are required to examine the factors affecting site preference. PMID:21073146

  13. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shawish, Reyad R.; Al-Humam, Naser A.

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  14. Fifteen years of kidney biopsies in children: a single center in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Ashraf; Eid, Riham; Sarhan, Amr; Hammad, Ayman; El-Refaey, Ahmed Mahmoud; El-Mougy, Atef; Zedan, Mohammed Magdy; ElHusseini, Fatma; El-Rahman, Ashraf Abd

    2014-11-01

    This study retrospectively investigates the indications and results of renal biopsy in children to determine the patterns of childhood kidney disease in a single tertiary children's hospital in Egypt. We included all the patients who underwent ultrasound-guided renal biopsy from 1998 to 2012. All the kidney biopsies were studied under light microscopy, while immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were performed when indicated. A total of 1246 renal biopsies were performed over 15 years, on 1096 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of biopsy was 9.2±3.7 years. The main indication for a biopsy was the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (n=354, 28.4%), followed by the atypical nephrotic syndrome (n=250, 20.1%), and renal abnormalities in the systemic diseases (n=228, 18.3 %). In the 1226 pathologically diagnosed specimens, primary glomerulonephritis was the most common finding (n=826, 67.4%), followed by secondary glomerulonephritis (n=238, 19.4%). The most common causes of primary glomerulonephritis were Minimal Change Disease (MCD) (n=267, 21.8%), diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (n=188, 15. 3%), and focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (n=164, 13.3%). Lupus nephritis (n=209, 17%) was the most common cause of secondary glomerulonephritis. We conclude that the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was the most frequent indication for biopsy and minimal change disease was the most common histopathological finding in our population. PMID:25394460

  15. Indoor environmental corrosion of Ag-based alloys in the Egyptian Museum (Cairo, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; de Caro, T.; Mezzi, A.; Faraldi, F.; Caschera, D.; Giuliani, C.; Di Carlo, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the indoor environmental corrosion of Ag-based alloys after long-term exposure in a showcase of an exhibition room and in the open atmosphere at the Egyptian Museum of Cairo (Egypt). In order to simulate the corrosion processes that occur at the surface of archaeological artefacts, Ag-based alloys with chemical composition, metallurgical features and micro-chemical structure similar to those of ancient alloys have been purposely produced as sacrificial reference samples. Our findings show that corrosion phenomena on alloy surface are mainly caused by environmental sulphur and chlorine containing species that react in different ways depending on the exhibition conditions and on the alloy composition. This approach allows to identify the degradation agents and mechanisms that really take place at the surface of objects similar to ancient artefacts without the necessity of sampling them. Moreover, it is possible to get useful indications for the safe storage or exhibition of silver archaeological artefacts, their cleaning and conservation.

  16. Enteropathogens associated with diarrhea among military personnel during Operation Bright Star 96, in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Oyofo, B A; Peruski, L F; Ismail, T F; el-Etr, S H; Churilla, A M; Wasfy, M O; Petruccelli, B P; Gabriel, M E

    1997-06-01

    This study investigated the microbial causes of diarrheal disease among U.S. troops deployed near Alexandria, Egypt, during October 1995. Bacterial causes associated with 19 cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), 42% (21% heat-stable, 11% heat-labile, and 11% heat-stable/ heat-labile producers); enteropathogenic E. coli (5.3%); and enteroadherent E. coli (42%). Four cases of diarrhea were associated with enteroaggregative E. coli based on probe analysis for enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin 1. Protozoan causes included; Entamoeba histolytica (11%), E. hartmanni (5%), E. nana (5%), Blastocystis hominis (5%), Chilomastix mesnili (11%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5%), Entamoeba coli (5%), and Cryptosporidium (5%). Shigella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Salmonella were not detected. Of the eight ETEC cases, one was colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I only, one was both CFA/I and CFA/III, three were CFA/II, two were CFA/IV, and two were CFA-negative. Antibiograms of the ETEC and enteroadherent E. coli strains showed that all isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole. PMID:9183160

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of solar lake (Sinai, Egypt).

    PubMed

    Teske, A; Ramsing, N B; Habicht, K; Fukui, M; Küver, J; Jørgensen, B B; Cohen, Y

    1998-08-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10(6) and 10(7) cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml-1 and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2, 200 nmol ml-1 day-1, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10(4) to 10(6) cells ml-1. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO2 from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO2 demand of the mat. PMID:9687455

  18. Prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea in Egypt: results of a double blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raedsch, R; Walter-Sack, I; Galle, P R; Kommerell, B

    1991-11-26

    Diarrhea represents the most frequent health problem of Western tourists visiting subtropical and tropical areas. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been suggested by some authors but may not be generally advisable because of adverse drug effects. In the present study we investigated the prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. During a 16-day cruise in Egypt, 77 tourists were assigned to either placebo or prophylactic doses of tannalbuminate (500 mg) and ethacridin-lactate (50 mg), 1 tbl. b.i.d., in a randomized double-blind fashion. The number of bowel movements, consistency of stools, and clinical symptoms like nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever were monitored daily. In the placebo group (n = 43) 35 tourists developed diarrhea (81.4%), whereas in the verum group (n = 34) only 18 tourists (52.9%) had diarrhea (p less than 0.0125). In the travelers receiving verum and developing diarrhea the clinical symptoms were less pronounced than in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that the events of traveler's diarrhea may be reduced; moreover, symptoms are attenuated by medical prophylaxis with tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. PMID:1812314

  19. Bacterial and fungal keratitis in Upper Egypt: In vitro screening of enzymes, toxins and antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Gharamah, Abdullah A; Moharram, Ahmed M; Ismail, Mady A; AL-Hussaini, Ashraf K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work was conducted to study the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates from keratitis cases in Upper Egypt to produce enzymes, toxins, and to test the isolated fungal species sensitivity to some therapeutic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients clinically diagnosed to have microbial keratitis were investigated. From these cases, 37 bacterial isolates and 25 fungal isolates were screened for their ability to produce extra-cellular enzymes in solid media. In addition, the ability of fungal isolates to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to 4 antifungal agents were tested. Results: Protease, lipase, hemolysins, urease, phosphatase, and catalase were detected respectively in 48.65%, 37.84%, 59.46%, 43.24%, 67.57%, and 100% out of 37 bacterial isolates tested. Out of 25 fungal isolates tested during the present study, 80% were positive for protease, 84% for lipase and urease, 28% for blood hemolysis, and 100% for phosphatase and catalase enzymes. Thirteen fungal isolates were able to produce detectable amounts of 7 mycotoxins in culture medium (aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2), sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, diacetoxyscirpenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and trichodermin). Among the antifungal agents tested in this study, terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. Conclusion: In conclusion, the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and toxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues, which, in turn, lead to vision loss. PMID:24008795

  20. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shawish, Reyad R; Al-Humam, Naser A

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  1. Palynostratigraphy of Jurrasic to Lower Cretaceous sequences from the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. I. A.; Aboul Ela, N. M.; Kholeif, S. E.

    2001-02-01

    Well-preserved miospore assemblages are described from three deep exploration wells in the northern part of the Eastern Desert, Egypt. The composite succession in the three boreholes investigated comprises eight formations assigned to the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the subsurface of the studied area is unconformable. A stratigraphical break of varying magnitude exists in the three wells. Miospore analysis of the studied wells yielded about 186 miospore species belonging to 80 genera. Among these, 116 pteridophytic spore species are related to 53 genera, 39 gymnosperm pollen species to 15 genera and 31 angiosperm pollen species to 12 genera. Accordingly, six miospore biozones are recognised, three in the Jurassic and three in the Lower Cretaceous. In ascending stratigraphical order, these are: Classopollis/Circulina-Deltoidospora spp. Assemblage Zone (?Toarcian-Aalenian); Verrucosisporites spp.- Converrucosisporites spp.- Trilobosporites spp. Assemblage Zone (Early Bajocian-Callovian); Cicatricosisporites spp.- Contignisporites spp. Assemblage Zone (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian); Stellatopollis spp.-? Schrankipollis spp. Assemblage Zone (Barremian); Afropollis operculatus-Brenneripollis-Tricolpites spp. Assemblage Zone (Aptian); and Crybelosporites pannuceus-Afropollis jardinus-Tricolporopollenites Assemblage Zone (Early Albian). These biozones are compared with other contemporaneous microfloral assemblages from the Northern Gondwanan Realm.

  2. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdy, Torab

    2016-04-01

    Dahab was a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula at the mid-western coast of Gulf of Aqaba approx. 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City and it means "gold" in Arabic language. But in the past 20 years ago it becomes one of the most tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotiteaplite-granite, mica-aplitegranite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite, alaskite, and diorite. Based on correlation with similar igneous in the most southern part of Sinai and the Red Sea area. Wadi Dahab composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of the fragments of its rocks, mixed with fragments of coral reef and fluvial deposits of Wadi Dahab. The morphology of Dahab coastline is characterized by hooked marine spit, which composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine current from wadi Dahab mouth, this spit encloses shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will evaluate it into saline marsh. This paper dealing with the evolution of Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene in addition to the recent time for last 100 years, and it impacts of the future management of the coast area. The coastline mapping during the period of study depends upon GIS technique for data were collected during field measuring by using total station, aerial photo and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating. Suggested geomorphological evolution of Dahab area during the Holocene depending upon geomorphic investigation of the sedimentological process into 6 stages.

  3. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE STATUS OF WOMEN AND INCREASED USE OF MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES IN RURAL EGYPT

    PubMed Central

    CHIANG, CHIFA; HASSAN ELSHAIR, INASS HELMY; KAWAGUCHI, LEO; MONEIM FOUAD, NAWAL ABDEL; ABDOU, NAGAH MAHMOUD; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; BANNA, SANEYA RIZK EL; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research investigated the association between the household status of women and their use of maternal health services in rural Egypt. Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire to 201 married women were carried out in a village, posing questions about their health service utilization and their household socio-economic status. The association between service utilization and other variables was statistically analysed. Older ages at first marriage and higher education levels showed significant positive associations with the three outcome variables—regular antenatal care (ANC), deliveries attended by skilled health professionals, and deliveries at heath facilities—of the use of maternal health services. Women who had not experienced physical assaults by husbands and had knowledge of community activities were more likely to receive ANC regularly; however, there were no significant association with the other two outcome variables. Participation in household decision-making and availability of assistance with household chores had no significant linkage to the use of maternal health services. Marriages to husbands with secondary or higher levels of education and residence in extended families were significantly associated with greater maternal health service usage. Our results suggest that the improved status of women in the household and moral support from family members contributes to an increase in the use of maternal health services. PMID:23092096

  4. Consanguinity Associated With Increased Risk for Bipolar I Disorder in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Hader; Klei, Lambertus; Wood, Joel; Talkowski, Michael; Chowdari, Kodavali; Fathi, Warda; Eissa, Ahmed; Yassin, Amal; Salah, Hala; Tobar, Salwa; El-Boraie, Hala; Gaafar, Hanan; Elassy, Mai; Ibrahim, Nahed E.; El-Bahaei, Wafaa; Elsayed, Mohamed; Shahda, Mohamed; Sheshtawy, Eman El; El-Boraie, Osama; El-Chennawi, Farha; Devlin, Bernie; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to contrast rates of consanguinity among patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1) and controls in a population with customary consanguineous marriages (i.e., marriage between related individuals). Consanguinity increases risk for numerous monogenic and polygenic diseases. Whether the risk for BP1 increases with consanguinity has not been investigated systematically. Two independent studies were conducted in Egypt: (1) Case–control study 93 patients with BP1, 90 screened adult control individuals, and available parents. The inbreeding coefficient/consanguinity rate was estimated in two ways: using 64 DNA polymorphisms (“DNA-based” rate); and from family history data (“self report”); (2) Epidemiological survey: total of 1,584 individuals were screened, from whom self-reported consanguinity data were obtained for identified BP1 cases (n=35) and 150 randomly selected, unaffected control individuals. DNA-based consanguinity rates showed significant case–control control differences (P=0.0039). Self-reported consanguinity rates were also elevated among BP1 patients in both samples (Study #1 OR=2.66, 95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.34, 5.29; Study #2: OR=4.64, 95% CI: 2.01, 10.34). In conclusion, two independent, systematic studies indicate increased consanguinity among Egyptian BP1 patients in the Nile delta region. Self-reported estimates of consanguinity are bolstered by DNA-based estimates, and both show significant case–control differences for BP1. PMID:19152378

  5. Compendium of Curriculum Projects for 1991 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Ancient and Modern Egypt and Israel, June 20-22, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    These curriculum projects were produced by teachers who traveled to Egypt and Israel as part of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The materials developed by the educators were: Activities and Bibliography of Resources to Promote Student Involvement in a Class Study of Egypt and Egyptian Culture (Edith Baxter); Egypt at the Crossroads of…

  6. Liver functions in silica-exposed workers in Egypt: possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors

    PubMed Central

    Zawilla, Nermin; Taha, Fatma; Ibrahim, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brick manufacturing constitutes an important industrial sector in Egypt with considerable exposure to silica. Objectives: We aimed for evaluating hepatic functions in silica-exposed workers in the clay brick industry, and the possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors. Methods: A case–control study, 87 workers as exposed and 45 as control subjects. Questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations: liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9, immunoglobulins G and E, and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody. Results: In the exposed workers, mean levels of liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and IgG and IgE were significantly higher. In the silicotic subgroup the mean level of GGT was almost twice the level in the non-silicotic subjects. Logistic regression showed that abnormal GGT and ALT were associated with production workers. Conclusion: Workers in the clay brick industry showed evidence of liver disease that could be related to matrix remodeling. PMID:24999850

  7. The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosol on Climate in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Zakey, A.; Steiner, A. L.; Shokr, M. E.; El-Raey, M.; Ahmed, Y.; Al-Hadidi, A.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols are indicators of air quality as they reduce visibility and adversely affect public health. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the radiation extinction due to interaction of radiation with aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Using this optical measure of atmospheric aerosols we explore the seasonal and annual patterns of aerosols from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources over Egypt. Here, we use an integrated environment-climate-aerosol model in conjunction with inversion technique to identify the aerosol particle size distribution over different locations in Egypt. The online-integrated Environment-Climate-Aerosol model (EnvClimA), which is based on the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (ICTP-RegCM), is used to study the emission of different aerosols and their impact on climate parameters for a long-term base line simulation run over Egypt and North Africa. The global emission inventory is downscaled and remapping them over Egypt using local factors such as population, traffic and industrial activities to identify the sources of anthropogenic and biogenic emission from local emission over Egypt. The results indicated that the dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are dust emissions that frequently occur during the transitional seasons (Spring and Autumn). From the local observation we identify the number of dust and sand storm occurrences over Egypt. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is used to identify the optical characterizations of different types of aerosols over Egypt. Modeled aerosol optical depth and MISR observed (at 555 nm) are compared from March 2000 through November 2013. The results identify that the MISR AOD captures the maximum peaks of AOD in March/April that coincide with the Khamasin dust storms. However, peaks in May are either due to photochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities. Note: This presentation is for a Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER

  8. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  9. Space Radar Image of Giza Egypt - with enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the area west of the Nile River near Cairo, Egypt. The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to this day. The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image. The modern development in the desert on the left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an area of factories and residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken on April 19, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C

  10. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most

  11. Studies onBacillus thuringiensis H-14 strains isolated in Egypt-III. Selection of media for δ-endotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, A; Carlberg, G; El-Tayeb, O M

    1990-09-01

    Several medium ingredients locally available in Egypt were investigated for their ability to support δ-endotoxin production by two mosquito-toxic strains ofBacillus thuringiensis H-14 usingCulex pipiens for the bioassay of δ-endotoxin. Soya beans, black-eyed beans, common peas and lentils supported good production of toxin whereas peanuts, fodder yeast, cheese whey and corn steep liquor gave only low amounts of toxin. Molasses as the sole carbon source at 2 and 3% (w/v) with soya (or Proflo) as the sole nitrogen source at 3% gave the best yields of toxin for strain M1 and S128 respectively. PMID:24430072

  12. Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in southwestern Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Sultan, M.; Environmental Research

    2002-05-10

    A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5x10{sup 6} acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

  13. Implementation of Web-Based Education in Egypt through Cloud Computing Technologies and Its Effect on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Seoud, M. Samir Abou; El-Sofany, Hosam F.; Taj-Eddin, Islam A. T. F.; Nosseir, Ann; El-Khouly, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The information technology educational programs at most universities in Egypt face many obstacles that can be overcome using technology enhanced learning. An open source Moodle eLearning platform has been implemented at many public and private universities in Egypt, as an aid to deliver e-content and to provide the institution with various…

  14. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  15. Children of the Nile: The Community Schools Project in Upper Egypt. Education for All: Making It Work. Innovation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    In 1992, UNICEF signed an agreement with the government of Egypt to develop and coordinate a community schools project in the deprived villages of rural upper Egypt. Four pilot sites were selected in the governorate of Assiut based on minimum numbers of out-of-school children, lack of a school nearby, and the eagerness of the community to…

  16. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur pour...

  17. Important Results From Shallow Seismic Observations at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.

    2011-12-01

    A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds

  18. Surveillance of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Cattle Farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sascha D.; Ahmed, Marwa F. E.; El-Adawy, Hosny; Hotzel, Helmut; Engelmann, Ines; Weiß, Daniel; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    method, 66 of the 118 isolates (55%) could be genotypically assigned to O-types. Conclusion: This study is considered to be a first report of the high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy farms in Egypt. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates with different underlying resistance mechanisms are common in investigated dairy cattle farms in Egypt. The global rise of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria is a big concern, and demands intensified surveillance. PMID:27458435

  19. Geochemical modeling of evaporation process in Lake Qarun, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Wahed, Mahmoud S. M.; Mohamed, Essam A.; El-Sayed, Mohamed I.; M'nif, Adel; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-09-01

    Lake Qarun is an inland closed saline lake. It lies within the Fayoum Depression in the Western Desert of Egypt. Evaporation modeling has been carried out using PHREEQC to simulate the geochemical evolution of surface drainage waters inflow towards lake water. In the case of Lake Qarun, it is the first attempt to carry out such kind of modeling. Performance of this model helped to address the different sources of dissolved major ions to Lake Qarun and to identify the mechanisms control the lake's water chemistry. The model demonstrated that evaporation-crystallization process is the main mechanism controlling the evolution of lake water chemistry where major ions Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42- have been built up in the lake by evaporation while Ca2+ and HCO3- are depleted by calcite precipitation. Moreover, the simulated model reproduced the real data observed in Lake Qarun except in the case of SO42- which is in real more enriched in the lake than the model output. The additional source of SO42- is reported to be from groundwater. The models result agreed well with the modified evolutionary Hardie and Eugster's scheme (1970) in which the final major composition of Lake Qarun water is Na-Mg-SO4-Cl type. In future, the monitoring of Lake Qarun chemistry with detection of any other sources of elements and/or local reactions inside the lake can be detected by performing the simulated evaporation model reported by the present study.

  20. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohie El Din M.; Moussa, Ahmed M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025. PMID:27222745

  1. Natural infestation of Pimeliaphilus joshuae on scorpion species from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the acarine parasite, Pimeliaphilus joshuae (Prostigmata: Pterygosomatidae) on various scorpion species from Egypt to determine its prevalence, abundance and intensity in relation to host species, size and sex. A total of 95 Leiurus quinquestriatus, 98 Androctonus australis, 40 A. amoreuxi, 30 Scorpio maurus palmatus and 46 Orthochirus scrobicuosus were examined during August 2009. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae varied significantly in relation to host species, host size and sex. In L. quinquestriatus, A. australis, and A. amoreuxi, the prevalence was 76.8, 13.3, and 50.0%, whereas the mean abundance was 47.6, 6.7 and 14.3%, respectively. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae were both positively correlated with host size in L. quinquestriatus and A. australis. We conclude that P. joshuae is found in a wide range of scorpion species exhibiting a low degree of host specificity. Controlled laboratory infection experiments are required to explain why S. m. palmatus and O. scrobicuosus are not susceptible to infestation by P. joshuae. PMID:21465333

  2. Family planning and maternal health care in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-mouelhy, M T

    1990-01-01

    The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075

  3. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  4. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  5. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  6. Fracture types detected in eastern Mediterranean reservoirs (Turkey and Egypt)

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R.; Taha, M.

    1988-08-01

    Most of Turkey's reservoirs are in the fractured Cretaceous Mardin Formation; however, new possibilities in fractured Paleozoic sandstones are being sought. The dominant fractures are fold related and are found on the northern flanks of the asymmetrical anticlines. The strike of these fractures is perpendicular to bedding planes and parallel to dip. There are fewer tear-fault-related and crestal-position fractures, but these may have a greater vertical extent. Fractures are present in all the producing areas of Egypt except the Nile delta. Basement fractures associated with shear zones in the southern Gulf of Suez have become an important exploration target. Fracture orientations are related to the major shear orientations except where later folding and faulting have caused structural rotation. The development of Zeit Bay field has shown that fractured basement rock can constitute a significant reservoir. The fracture reservoirs in northern Sinai and the Western Desert are in Cretaceous and Jurassic limestones and/or dolomitic limestones. The major shear fractures are parallel to the northwest-north-northwest compressive stresses that formed the reservoir structures; however, local fold- and fault-related fractures are also present.

  7. Returns on lifetime investments in children in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Yount, Kathryn M; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Parental expectations about the companionship and assistance they will receive in later life from their children are key considerations in family formation decisions. We explore patterns of parents' investment and the support and contact they receive from adult children in Egypt, where fertility is falling and sources of support at all life stages are in flux. Using data from a survey of older adults in Ismailia governorate, we consider parents' past investments in childbearing, child survival, and children's education and marriage, as well as recent assistance to adult children via housing, care for grandchildren, gifts, and money. The returns from children considered include economic assistance, instrumental support, and visits. Most parental investments are associated with frequent visits from children. The assistance children provide to parents is gendered: sons tend to provide economic transfers, whereas daughters tend to provide instrumental help. A greater number of surviving children is most strongly associated with parents' receipt of multiple types of later-life returns. Investments in children's education and marriage are not associated with assistance, but recent assistance to children-especially economic transfers and provision of housing-is associated with receiving instrumental assistance from adult children. PMID:23132635

  8. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohie El Din M; Moussa, Ahmed M A

    2016-05-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025. PMID:27222745

  9. Ground-water sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; Alfy, Z.E.

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. This {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years. 65 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Collapse of an ecological network in Ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Pires, Mathias M.; Rudolf, Lars; Koch, Paul L.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Gross, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here, we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6,000-y span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this dataset enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided with abrupt aridification events and the attendant collapses of some complex societies. We also show that the roles of species in a community can change over time and that persistence is predicted by measures of species sensitivity, a function of local dynamic stability. To our knowledge, our study is the first high-resolution analysis of the ecological impacts of environmental change on predator–prey networks over millennial timescales and sheds light on the historical events that have shaped modern animal communities. PMID:25201967

  11. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. PMID:26973037

  12. Evaluation of seismic hazard at the northwestern part of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzelarab, M.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; El-Hadidy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the northwestern Egypt using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach. The Probabilistic approach was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. The doubly-truncated exponential model was adopted for calculations of the recurrence parameters. Ground-motion prediction equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 0.2° × 0.2° covering the study area, seismic hazard curves for every node were calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to six spectral periods (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 s) for return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years. The unified hazard spectra of two selected rock sites at Alexandria and Mersa Matruh Cities were provided. Finally, the hazard curves were de-aggregated to determine the sources that contribute most of hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the mentioned selected sites.

  13. First known lenses originating in Egypt about 4600 years ago!

    PubMed

    Enoch, J

    2000-04-01

    The first lenses (ca. Vth Dynasties of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. These lenses are found in The Louvre Museum in Paris and the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. They were components of extraordinary eye constructs in statues which had unique qualities. Namely, the "eyes" appear to follow the viewer as he/she rotates about these statues in any direction. This effect can be photographed and reproduced 2620-2400 B.C., 4620-4400 Before Present=B.P.) appeared mainly during the IVth and optically. This effect has been modeled here. The lenses were ground from high quality (!) rock crystal (a form of quartz, n approximately 1.46). Each had a convex and highly polished front "corneal" surface. Thus, in a sense, these were multifocal lenses. The iris aperture may or may not have been open to a substantial posterior "vitreous" cavity formed largely by curved copper plates which extended forward to create the lid structures of these eyes. Were these a form of schematic eyes? Could such fine quality and complex (sophisticated) lenses be the first lenses? Clearly, the observer was intended to look at these eyes and follow their apparent movements. The total structure of these eyes indicated an advanced understanding of ocular anatomy and a surprising knowledge of optics. There are many questions. PMID:11624467

  14. Management of industrial solid wastes in Alexandria, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.; Gallup, J.D.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first phase of the EPA project, which encompasses surveys of residues from industrial sources in Alexandria. Studies to date indicate that wastes from various industries can be recovered economically. Wastes such as tin cans, glass, wastepaper, and food residues from processing of fruits, starch, and beer are examples of reusable industrial wastes in Egypt. The results of experimental studies for reuse of residues from oil refining, starch and yeast processing, and steel pickling are presented. Spent clay from edible oil refining is currently discarded, causing both handling and disposal problems. This clay contains as much as 40% oil; 90% can be recovered by extraction. The recovered oil can be successfully used in soap production, and the spent clay can be reused in oil bleaching. Other examples include starch and yeast wastes, which can be used for animal feed, and spent pickling liquor, which can be used as a coagulant aid for treating paper mill wastewater. A centralized system for collecting and treating hazardous residues is proposed to permit economical recovery of valuable materials.

  15. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  16. Evidence for paleotsunami deposits at Kefret Saber and El Alamein, Mediterranean coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hichem; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami deposits and dragged large boulders are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The targeted zones located west of Alexandria are selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber (immediately west of Marsah Matrouh town) and near El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. Five trenches and six cores dug in Kefret Saber and 1 trench in Alamein revealed an almost identical 5 to 10-cm-thick white sand unit with highly reworked fossil-rich and shells at about 20 to 40-cm-depth, intercalated in light brown laminated sandy and sandy-clay deposits. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the white sand unit lead us to correlate with the 24 June 1870 major earthquake (M 7.5 - 8.0?) that generated a tsunami with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our progress study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and their propagation over the east Mediterranean regions.

  17. The management and design of economic development projects: A case study of World Bank electricity projects in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    El Sabaa, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the efficiency of World Bank projects in Egypt. The study seeks improvements in the methods of evaluating public sector projects in Egypt. To approaches are employed: (1) project identification to optimally allocate Egypt's and World Bank's resources; (2) project appraisal to assess the economic viability and efficiency of investments. The electricity sector is compared with the agriculture sector as a means of employing project identification for priority ordering of investment for development in Egypt. The key criteria for evaluation are the impacts of developments of each sector upon Egypt's national objectives and needs. These include employment opportunities, growth, alleviation of poverty, cross comparison of per capita consumption in each sector, economic rate of return, national security, balance of payments and foreign debt. The allocation of scarce investments would have been more efficient in agriculture than in electricity in meeting Egypt's national objectives and needs. World Bank lending programs in Egypt reveal a priority ordering of electricity over agriculture and rural development. World Bank development projects in Egypt have not been optimally identified, and its programs have not followed an efficient allocation of World Bank's and Egypt's resources. The key parameters in evaluating economic viability and efficiency of development projects are: (1) the discount rate (the opportunity cost of public funds); (2) the exchange rate; and (3) the cost of major inputs, as approximated by shadow prices of labor, water, electricity, and transportation for development projects. Alternative approaches to estimating the opportunity cost of public funds are made. The parameters in evaluating the efficiency of projects have not been accurately estimated in the appraisal stage of the World Bank projects in Egypt, resulting in false or misleading information concerning the economic viability and efficiency of the projects.

  18. Preliminary Molecular Characterizations of Sarcoptes scaibiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) from Farm Animals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Wahab, Taher Abd El; Metwaly, Abd El Naby; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt. PMID:24728386

  19. The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Gerard; Franse, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    This commentary describes a visit to the Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting project in Cairo. FGM/C is a very serious problem in Egypt and other countries in the North of Africa. Among girls between the age of 15-17, 77% have been cut, with very serious health consequences. In Egypt, there is a comprehensive strategy led by very enthusiastic employees of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood with support of UNICEF. At a national level a broad coalition is being built that tries to mobilise the legal, medical and media communities to overcome the practice of FGM/C and realising adequate laws that criminalise FGM/C.At a local level two community projects were started in 160 villages in Upper and Lower Egypt for raising community awareness and dialogue on FGM/C. That is the only way to create a growing social movement that can collectively abandon the practice of FGM/C. PMID:19276335

  20. Preliminary molecular characterizations of Sarcoptes scaibiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) from farm animals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; El Wahab, Taher Abd; Metwaly, Abd El Naby; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt. PMID:24728386

  1. Multiprocess evolution of landforms in the Kharga Region, Egypt: Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, C. S.; Mccauley, J. F.; Grolier, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand better the polygenetic evolution of landforms on the martian surface, field studies were conducted in and around the Kharga Depression, Egypt. The Kharga region, on the eastern edge of Egypt's Western Desert, was subject to erosion under mostly hyperarid climatic conditions, punctuated by brief pluvial episodes of lesser aridity, since early Pleistocene time. The region contains numerous landforms analogous to features on the martian surface: yardangs carved in layered surficial deposits and in bedrock, invasive dune trains, wind-modified channels and interfluves, and depressions bounded by steep scarps. Like many of the topographic depresions on Mars, the Kharga Depression was invaded by crescentic dunes. In Egypt, stratigraphic relations between dunes, yardangs, mass-wasting debris, and wind-eroded flash-flood deposits record shifts in the relative effectiveness of wind, water, and mass-wasting processes as a function of climate change.

  2. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dee, Michael; Wengrow, David; Shortland, Andrew; Stevenson, Alice; Brock, Fiona; Girdland Flink, Linus; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Egyptian state was formed prior to the existence of verifiable historical records. Conventional dates for its formation are based on the relative ordering of artefacts. This approach is no longer considered sufficient for cogent historical analysis. Here, we produce an absolute chronology for Early Egypt by combining radiocarbon and archaeological evidence within a Bayesian paradigm. Our data cover the full trajectory of Egyptian state formation and indicate that the process occurred more rapidly than previously thought. We provide a timeline for the First Dynasty of Egypt of generational-scale resolution that concurs with prevailing archaeological analysis and produce a chronometric date for the foundation of Egypt that distinguishes between historical estimates. PMID:24204188

  3. Palynology of Albian-Cenomanian strata in Mersa Matruh well, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Ismail Z.

    Plant microfossils have been recovered from the Albian and lower Cenomanian strata encountered in Mersa Matruh well No. 1, drilled in the northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt. The microflora includes 56 miospore species belonging to 35 genera; most of them are derived from pteridophyte, gymnosperm and angiosperm vegetations. Differences in miospore assemblages of the Albian and Lower Cenomanian are described. Correlation with coeval palynofloral assemblages in West Africa and South and North America reveals that the Mersa Matruh area, Egypt belongs to the mid-Cretaceous African-South American phytogeoprovince.

  4. Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

    2013-04-01

    The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea

  5. Responding to the challenges of breast cancer in egypt and other arab countries.

    PubMed

    El Saghir, Nagi S

    2008-12-01

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt. In addition to breast cancer, WHOP included screening for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. WHOP investigators are to be congratulated for this extraordinary ambitious project and all the efforts put into it. They were well prepared in regards to having a multi-disciplinary working team and they included in their project programs for training of clerks, data managers, radiographers, nurses, radiologists and other physicians who deal with diagnosis and management of breast cancer. They also included engineers and arranged for mobile units to reach women who could not otherwise reach them. WHOP investigators are to be commended also for performing a field plan demonstration project and testing it and for measuring citizens' response before finalizing their plans and starting the project1. They set a great example for other people working in the field. Breast cancer is the most

  6. Reconstructing infant weaning histories at Roman period Kellis, Egypt using stable isotope analysis of dentition.

    PubMed

    Dupras, Tosha L; Tocheri, Matthew W

    2007-09-01

    Studies of infant feeding and weaning patterns in past populations that rely on a cross-sectional approach must make the assumption that no infant mortality bias exists. Previous investigations of infant weaning patterns at the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, relied on cross-sectional isotope data. In this study, we re-examine this weaning pattern, using a simulated longitudinal approach, which does not require any assumptions regarding potential infant mortality biases. This involves examining the dental isotopic signatures of individuals who survived the weaning process. Stable isotope signatures from juveniles and adults (102 individuals, 297 teeth) were examined to reconstruct the weaning history of those that survived the weaning process. Both deciduous and permanent teeth were sampled. Homogenized enamel and dentin samples were isolated from each tooth and analyzed for delta(13)C(ap) and delta(18)O(ap) from the enamel and delta(15)N(coll) and delta(13)C(coll) from dentin collagen. We investigate differences between in utero versus postbirth, preweaning versus postweaning, and juvenile versus adult stable isotope values as reflected in the dentition. A random permutation procedure was used to test for statistically significant differences in stable isotope values between tooth types. Statistically significant differences were observed in all stable isotopes between permanent and deciduous teeth, and between early and later forming permanent teeth in delta(13)C(ap) and delta(15)N(coll) isotopes. These results indicate dietary change between in utero and postbirth, and changes occurring during the weaning period. These results provide a more comprehensive picture of infant weaning practices at Kellis and provide further support that complete weaning occurred by 3 years of age. PMID:17568441

  7. Participation and hours of work of married females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A

    1991-12-01

    The study provides estimates of female labor force participation and hours of work in Cairo, Egypt, from a sample of 3882 married females in 1984. The determinants of labor force participation are examined. The urban participation rate was 31% in 1984 compared to total labor force participation of 9% in 1976. Hours of work were estimated with ordinary least squares techniques and were based on the theories of Ben-Porath, Gronau, and Heckman. Determinants of labor force participation include weekly earnings, income, unemployment, age, schooling, and fertility measures. Educational status and age explain 10% of the variance in earnings; however the full set of explanatory variables explain 40-50% of the variation in hours of work function for all females. An increase in the level of schooling increased the probability of labor force participation by 47-48%. Women with higher levels of education had an average work week longer by 6.2-6.9 hours. Unemployment of a household member decreased the probability of participation. Level of household income was statistically significant and positive for participation and hours of work. The probability of participation was decreased by the presence of children under the age of 5 years in the household. The presence of a child 6-11 years old decreased the number of hours of work by 2 hours and an additional child aged 6-11 years decreased an hour of work by 0.2%. An increased weekly wage rate of L.E.10 led to a 2-hour per week work increase. The relationship of hours of work and wages is considered strongly inelastic. PMID:12288770

  8. Estimation of attenuation characteristics of Aswan reservoir region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Singh, Birinder; Mohamed, H.

    2016-01-01

    The attenuation characteristics of Aswan reservoir region in Egypt was estimated using microearthquakes records. Frequency-dependent attenuation characteristic of S wave was estimated using coda normalization method. The evaluated quality factor ( Q s ) shows strong frequency dependence with its value increasing with increasing frequency. For Aswan region, the average frequency-dependent relation is given by Q s = (34.2 ± 2.9)f(1.023 ± 0.107). The low values of Q s lie within those observed for seismically active regions of the world, although the study area is seismically moderately active and known to be a region where reservoir-induced seismicity occurs. The low value of Q s would mean that the medium is highly heterogeneous. Separation of intrinsic and scattering Q was carried out using estimated Q s values and values of coda Q ( Q c ) estimated earlier by other workers from the same data set. It is observed from this that S and coda wave attenuation is primarily controlled by intrinsic attenuation at 1-Hz frequency. At higher frequencies, intrinsic and scattering attenuations contribute almost equally as seismic albedo at 1-Hz frequency is 0.04, and at higher frequencies, it varies between 0.34 and 0.55. Extinction length varies between 16.4 and 23.6 km. The frequency-dependent relationship for scattering Q ( Q sc ) and intrinsic Q ( Q i ) are Q sc = (699.3 ± 334.5) f (0.13 ± 0.06) and Q i = (52.9 ± 5.6) f (1.09 ± 0.03).

  9. Virtual telepathology in Egypt, applications of WSI in Cairo University.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Telepathology, the practice of pathology at a long distance, has advanced continuously since 1986. Today, fourth-generation telepathology systems, so-called virtual slide telepathology systems, are being used for education applications. Both conventional and innovative surgical pathology diagnostic services are being designed and implemented as well. We have a successful experience in Egypt in applying the static & dynamic techniques in a pilot project between the Italian Hospital in Cairo (NPO) and the Civico Hospital in Palermo This project began in 2003 and continued till now. In 2004, centers in Venice, London and Pittsburgh participated actively in our project. During the past seven years we consulted on many problematic pathological cases with these different specialized pathological centers in Italy, UK & USA. In addition to the highly specialized scientific value of consulting on the cases and exchanging knowledge, we saved a lot of time and money and succeeded in providing our patients with a better medical service. In view of this success we have already established a new Digital Telepathology unit (DTU) in the pathology department, Cairo University, using the latest technique of telepathology which is Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) since one year. This unit is considered the first Digital pathology unit in all the universities of the whole Middle East. During the passed year we created a digital pathology library for the under graduate students using the WSI technique and changed the teaching method of the histopathology slides to be completely digital. We are building another digital pathology library (for post graduate candidates) which will be available to all pathology candidates in Egyptian universities & universities in the surrounding Arabic countries. We are also creating a digital pathology network between pathology centers in the Middle East for exchanging knowledge & telepathology. PMID:21489180

  10. Female genital mutilation: the road to success in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A

    1993-01-01

    An aggressive national educational campaign has been influential in reducing the incidence of female genital mutilation in Egypt. The Cairo Family Planning Association (CFPA), with long experience in addressing taboo social issues, has been in the forefront of this movement. In 1979, the CFPA commissioned a survey that revealed a female circumcision rate of at least 80% of rural and urban Egyptian women. Survey findings were discussed at a seminar entitled Bodily Mutilation of Young Females; emerging from this seminar was a communication program targeted at those directly involved in the perpetuation of this damaging custom including nurses, midwives, doctors, and parents. In 1992, 228 nurses, 51 doctors, 284 social workers, 197 television personnel, 228 radio broadcasters, 228 public health officials, and 261 nursery supervisors received intensive training on this topic. Also reached with education on female circumcision were 1845 university students, 600 nursing students, and 200 youth camp members. In 1992, the Female Circumcision Project of the CFPA became an autonomous organization, the Egyptian Society for the Prevention of Traditional Practices Harmful to Women and Children. Program evaluation has revealed a positive association between female education and the rejection of female circumcision. Only 35% of Egyptian girls with more than a secondary school education are circumcised, compared to 89% of those with a primary education. Discouraging, however, has been an unintended effect of a Ministry of Health decree confirming the procedure to partial excision of restricting its performance to doctors--an increase in both the number of clandestine procedures done under unhygienic conditions by traditional practitioners and in the proportion of Egyptian doctors participating in this lucrative business from 15% in 1986 to 20% in 1991. PMID:12345372

  11. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  12. Adverse Health Problems Among Municipality Workers in Alexandria (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.; Eassa, Safaa M.; Lotfi, Sameh E.; El Masry, Sanaa A.; Shatat, Hanan Z.; Kotkat, Amira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Results: Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Conclusions: Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety. PMID:24932385

  13. Using GNSS for Tropospheric Wet Delay Estimation in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Ashraf; Aboualy, D. Nadia; Sharaf, Mohamed; Zahra, Hassan; Darag, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The tropospheric delay is a serious error source for positioning using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Since the scientific applications of GNSS positioning such as crustal deformation studies and earthquakes prediction require high accuracy in positioning, analysis of tropospheric delay is necessary to improve GNSS positioning accuracy In this study data of ground based GNSS receivers are used to evaluate effect of the tropospheric delay in position determination accuracy. These data are also used to study the tropospheric delay characteristics. The GNSS data are for the year 2013, taken from 8 station from Egypt Permanent GNSS Network (EPGN) and 13 IGS stations. The GNSS data were processed using advanced GNSS software called Bernese V 5.0 (Dach et al., 2007). The data processing was performed by three different ways; using a tropospheric model, making estimation for the tropospheric zenith wet delay (ZWD) and ignoring the Troposphere totally. Different processing methods are used to illustrate how troposphere affect the coordinates accuracy. The ZWD daily, temporal and spatial variations are also studied here. The results show that the RMS of the coordinates is better in case of making estimation for the troposphere ZWD and bad in case of ignoring the troposphere. Also there is a correlation between the troposphere and the height component. The troposphere ZWD values have daily, temporal and spatial variation. Depending on time in the day, day in the year, geographic location of the station and how near it to water. The ZWD values also go upward from the start to the end of the year, also it shows good correlation with the water vapor content in the troposphere.

  14. Widanelfarasia, a diminutive placental from the late Eocene of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower dentition of Widanelfarasia (new genus), a diminutive late Eocene placental from the Fayum Depression in Egypt, is described. Widanelfarasia exhibits a complex of features associated with incipient zalambdodonty and at least three unequivocal apomorphies [loss of P1, an enlarged I2 (relative to I3), and a basal cusp on I2], which provide weak support for its placement as a possible sister taxon of either a tenrecid–chrysochlorid clade or of solenodontids. The former hypothesis gains additional support from biogeographical evidence, but both scenarios are currently tenuous as Widanelfarasia is clearly not truly zalambdodont. Phylogenetic hypotheses positing affinities with tenrecids alone or chrysochlorids alone must invoke either convergent acquisition of zalambdodonty in these taxa or autapomorphic reversal in Widanelfarasia. Given these considerations, a relationship with more generalized taxa from the Laurasian Paleogene (e.g., geolabidids, nyctitheriids, leptictids) cannot yet be ruled out. Comparisons with other Paleogene Afro-Arabian forms are generally inconclusive. A relationship with the earlier Eocene Chambilestes from Tunisia—currently represented by a single specimen preserving P4–M3—seems possible based on the geometry and predicted occlusal relationships of these teeth, but cannot be confidently determined until these two taxa come to be represented by common diagnostic elements. Todralestes (late Paleocene, Morocco) exhibits general phenetic similarities to Widanelfarasia, but it is not yet known whether this taxon shares any of Widanelfarasia's unequivocal dental apomorphies. Pending the recovery of more informative material, we tentatively refer Widanelfarasia to Placentalia incertae sedis. Truly zalambdodont placentals remain conspicuously absent from the Paleogene of Afro-Arabia. PMID:10694573

  15. Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection among immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    ABU-AKKADA, Somaia Saif; EL KERDANY, Eman Dorry Hussein; MADY, Rasha Fadly; DIAB, Radwa Galal; KHEDR, Gehan Abd Elatti; ASHMAWY, Karam Imam; LOTFY, Wael Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide range of homoeothermic animals, including man. Complications due to this microsporidian have been reported only in immunocompromised patients. Reports on E. cuniculi in immunocompetent humans are lacking, most probably, because it is not linked to any clinical manifestations in such hosts. The present work was carried out with the aim of studying, for the first time in Egypt, the prevalence of E. cuniculi infection of urinary tract among non-HIV immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals. It tested also the influence of some factors on the risk of infection. Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected from 88 persons (44 non-HIV immunocompromised patients and 44 subjects as immunocompetent control group). IFAT serological assay and Weber’s green modified trichrome stain (MTS) urine smears were carried out. Molecular study by PCR was also performed to detect DNA of E. cuniculi in urine samples. A full history sheet was fulfilled for each subject to test the suspected risk factors. Results: The IFAT examination confirmed the presence of antibodies against E. cuniculi in 44.3% of the human subjects. The seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was significantly higher in the immunocompromised patients compared with the immunocompetent individuals (77.3% versus 11.4%). Compared with IFAT (the gold standard), the sensitivity and specificity of Weber’s green MTS smears were 69.23% and 89.80%. By using PCR, no positive cases were detected among human subjects. Conclusion: A high prevalence of E. cuniculi infection in the studied individuals was noted. Although infection was found in some immunocompetent individuals, the immune status of the host remains the corner stone for occurrence of the infection. PMID:26811722

  16. Prevalence of Microscopic Colitis in Patients with Chronic Diarrhea in Egypt: A Single-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Gado, Ahmed S.; Ebeid, Basel A.; El Hindawi, Ali A.; Akl, Maha M.; Axon, Anthony T.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Microscopic colitis (MC) is diagnosed when a patient with chronic watery non-bloody diarrhea (CWND) has an endoscopically normal colon, but colonic biopsies show unique inflammatory changes characteristic of lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. MC is a disorder of unknown etiology. Studies comparing the prevalence of the disease in developing countries as compared to developed countries may shed more light on the possibility of a post-infectious etiology. Most data on the incidence and prevalence of MC are from developed countries where it accounts for 4-13% of cases of CWND. There are only a few reports from developing countries. Two studies from Peru and Tunis, with high prevalence of infectious gastroenteritis, revealed MC in 40% and 29.3% of cases of CWND, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MC in patients presenting with CWND in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients with CWND of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no macroscopic abnormalities between January 2000 and January 2010 were assessed retrospectively. Results: The histological appearance of MC was identified in 22 (50%) patients. Twelve (55%) patients were male and 10 (45%) female. Mean age was 40 years (range: 20-65 years). Twenty (91%) of MC cases had lymphocytic colitis and 2 (9%) had collagenous colitis. Conclusions: The prevalence of MC in Egyptian patients with CWND is high when compared to that in developed countries. MC mainly affects young and middle-aged patients and it is more commonly of the lymphocytic type. PMID:22064335

  17. A 6000-year geochemical record of human activities from Alexandria (Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, Alain J.; Flaux, Clément; Marriner, Nick; Poirier, André; Rigaud, Sylvain; Morhange, Christophe; Empereur, Jean-Yves

    2013-12-01

    Recent multidisciplinary investigations of sediment cores from the ancient marine bay of Alexandria (Egypt) have documented local human activities during the Iron Age (circa 900-1000 B.C.) prior to Alexander the Great's arrival in 331 B.C. (Goiran, 2001; Véron et al., 2006; Stanley et al., 2007, 2010), corroborating the existence of the so-called "Rakhotis" as evoked in previous archaeological literature (Jondet, 1916; Weill, 1919; Chauveau, 1999; Baines, 2003). Lead (Pb) Isotopic Analyses (LIA) from Alexandria Bay indicate a possible anthropogenic imprint as early as circa 2300-2650 (±200) B.C. and, to a lesser extent, 3500-3800 (±170) B.C. (Véron et al., 2006). Here we demonstrate that LIA in sediments from the nearby Maryut Lagoon display isotopic anomalies resulting from the release of contaminant Pb into the Lagoon during the Egyptian Early dynastic (at 2897 ± 187 B.C) and Predynastic (at 3520 ± 145 B.C.) periods that corroborate geochemical data from Alexandria Bay. Pb concentrations in Maryut sediments show enrichments that mirror isotopic findings. The absence of contaminant Pb imprints within the sediments from the nearby Nile Canopic branch confirms that isotopic anomalies found in Alexandria Bay and Maryut Lagoon sediments are local and do not originate from long-distance transport of contaminant Pb associated with Nile suspended material and/or wind-derived aerosols. LIA in Alexandria sediment cores correspond to commonly mined Pb and Cu (copper) ores from Turkey (Black Sea region), Cyprus, Crete and the Oman Gulf. LIA substantiate the use of copper-based relics in the Alexandria region during the Pre and Early dynastic periods, and provide insights into metal trading within the Eastern Mediterranean during the Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age transition, 6000 years ago.

  18. Soil seed bank in different habitats of the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Nasr H.

    2012-01-01

    The floristic composition and species diversity of the germinable soil seed bank were studied in three different habitats (desert salinized land, desert wadi, and reclaimed land) in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Moreover, the degree of similarity between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation was determined. The seed bank was studied in 40 stands representing the three habitats. Ten soil samples (each 25 × 20 cm and 5 cm depth) were randomly taken per stand. The seed bank was investigated by the seedling emergence method. Some 61 species belonging to 21 families and 54 genera were identified in the germinable seed bank. The recorded species include 43 annuals and 18 perennials. Ordination of stands by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicates that the stands of the three habitats are markedly distinguishable and show a clear pattern of segregation on the ordination planes. This indicates variations in the species composition among habitats. The results also demonstrate significant associations between the floristic composition of the seed bank and edaphic factors such as CaCO3, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture. The reclaimed land has the highest values of species richness, Shannon-index of diversity and the density of the germinable seed bank followed by the habitats of desert wadi and desert salinized land. Motyka’s similarity index between the seed bank and the above-ground vegetation is significantly higher in reclaimed land (75.1%) compared to desert wadi (38.4%) and desert salinized land (36.5%). PMID:23961181

  19. Age and isotopic constraints on pleistocene pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Crombie, M. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Sturchio, N. C.; El Alfy, Z.; Abu Zeid, K.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    North Africa has undergone drastic climatic changes over the past several hundred thousand years. The timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium-series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The youngest and best dated travertines (70-160 ka) are found in Wadi Kurkur and include spring and lacustrine units exposed as 2 to 3 m high terraces. Travertines having an age of approximately 191-220 ka are exposed by differential erosion as linear mounds produced by spring systems over fracture zones in ancient wadis. The oldest travertines, having ages >260 ka, are extensive, cap limestone units above the oasis, and were deposited in paludal and lacustrine environments. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured for the wadi travertines ({delta}{sup 18}O values ranging from 16.7 to 19.1{per_thousand} SMOW) and for spring mound travertines (18.5-20.5{per_thousand}). Equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicate that the Kurkur travertines were deposited from waters having {delta}{sup 18}O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters ({approx} -11{per_thousand}). The ages of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Rainfall producing these groundwaters (and travertines) was significantly fractionated during atmospheric transport, in contrast to modern meteoric waters (-2.09{per_thousand}), implying a distant source for the pluvial waters. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch insolation cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during interglacial time periods.

  20. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Hanan M; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  1. Seasonal variation and enrichment of metals in sediments of Rosetta branch, Nile River, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Mostafa; Elhaddad, Engy

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated heavy metal pollution in sediments of the Rosetta branch of the River Nile of Egypt to quantify the toxic distribution potential of metals into the surrounding environment. Sediment samples were collected at 9 sites during in four seasons. Organic matter and total metal concentrations were determined using loss on ignition and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, respectively. Principal component analysis has been applied to evaluate the metal sources and the relationships between metals in sediments. Metal concentrations showed the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in sediments were above the average background value of metals in shale. Pb and Cd showed higher enrichment during all seasons at stations N3/N4, Zn at stations N1 to N4, and Cu at stations N6/N8. The variations in heavy metal total concentration and organic matter are due to different input sources, physico-chemical conditions, and adsorption/precipitation/redox conditions in sediments. Mean values of Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) for Fe, Mn, and Cu were below 0 which were classified as unpolluted during spring, summer, and autumn, except Cu increased from unpolluted to moderately polluted during winter. Igeo values for Cd, Pb, and Zn increased from unpolluted-moderately polluted to highly-very highly polluted during autumn and winter. Pollution Load Index was recorded in highest values during winter, especially at Fuwwah/Basioun and in lowest values during summer at after the Edfina Barrage/before Kafer El-Zayat due to industrial/human activities. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contributed to the metal accumulations in sediments, and industrial, agricultural, and municipal sewage effluents discharged from non-point sources may be the main anthropogenic sources for metals in the Rosetta branch. PMID:27194230

  2. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected. PMID:27044415

  3. Occurrence of classes I and II integrons in Enterobacteriaceae collected from Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mai M.; Amer, Fatma A.; Allam, Ayman A.; El-Sokkary, Rehab H.; Gheith, Tarek; Arafa, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrons are genetic units characterized by the ability to capture and incorporate gene cassettes, thus can contribute to the emergence and transfer of antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the presence and distribution of class I and class II integrons and the characteristics of the gene cassettes they carry in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from nosocomial infections at Zagzig University Hospital in Egypt, (2) to determine their impact on resistance, and (3) to identify risk factors for the existence of integrons. Relevant samples and full clinical history were collected from 118 inpatients. Samples were processed; isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. Integrons were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized into class I or II by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Integron-positive isolates were subjected to another PCR to detect gene cassette, followed by gene cassette sequencing. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recognized, 41 of them (53.9%) were integron-positive; 39 strains carried class I and 2 strains carried class II integrons. Integrons had gene cassettes encoding different combinations and types of resistance determinants. Interestingly, blaOXA129 gene was found and ereA gene was carried on class I integrons. The same determinants were carried within isolates of the same species as well as isolates of different species. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). No risk factors were associated for integron carriage. We conclude that integrons carrying gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance are significantly present among Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infection in our hospital. Risk factors for acquisition remain to be identified. PMID:26157425

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  5. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic controls on Quaternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidson, R.; Becker, R.; Shanabrook, A.; Luo, W.; Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N.; Lotfy, Z.; Mahmood, A.M.; El Alfy, Z.

    1994-06-10

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, Egypt was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from stereophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a {approximately}10-km-wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with coralline limestone deposits. Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coastline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parameterized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quaternary to negligible values at present. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., {approximately} 300 to 400 kyr) are likely to have survived erosion and deposition associated with fluvial processes. 33 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Reduced Fertility and Fecundity among Patients with Bipolar I Disorder and Schizophrenia in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Hader; Kandil, Kareem; Wood, Joel; Fathi, Warda; Elassy, Mai; Ibrahim, Ibtihal; Salah, Hala; Yassin, Amal; Elsayed, Hanan; Tobar, Salwa; El-Boraie, Hala; Eissa, Ahmed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Nahed E.; El-Bahaei, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproduction among patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1) or schizophrenia (SZ) in Egypt. Methods BP1 patients (n=113) were compared with community based, demographically balanced controls (n=124) and SZ patients (n=79, DSM-IV). All participants were evaluated using structured interviews and corroborative data were obtained from relatives. Standard indices of procreation were included in multivariate analyses that incorporated key demographic variables. Results Control individuals were significantly more likely to have children than BP1 or SZ patients (controls 46.8%, BP1 15.9%, SZ 17.7%), but the BP1-SZ differences were non-significant. The average number of children for BP1 patients (0.37±0.9) and SZ patients (0.38±0.9) was significantly lower than for controls (1.04±1.48) (BP1 vs controls, p<0.001; SZ vs controls, p<0.001). The frequency of marriages among BP1 patients was nominally higher than the SZ group, but was significantly lower than controls (BP1: 31.9% SZ: 27.8% control: 57.3%). Even among married individuals, BP1 (but not SZ) patients were childless more often than controls (p=0.001). The marital fertility, i.e., the average number of children among patients with conjugal relationships for controls (1.8±1.57) was significantly higher than BP1 patients (1.14±1.31, p=0.02), but not significantly different from SZ patients (1.36±1.32, p=0.2). Conclusion Selected reproductive measures are significantly and substantially reduced among Egyptian BP1 patients. The reproductive indices are similar among BP1 and SZ patients, suggesting a role for general illness related variables. Regardless of the cause/s, the impairment constitutes important, under-investigated disability. PMID:21994508

  7. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in human patients in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El Kader, Nour M; Blanco, María-Alejandra; Ali-Tammam, Marwa; Abd El Ghaffar, Abd El Rahman B; Osman, Ahmed; El Sheikh, Nabila; Rubio, José Miguel; de Fuentes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in developing and industrialized nations. Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the main agents of cryptosporidiosis in humans. In Egypt, very little is known about genetic structure of Cryptosporidium spp. Therefore, this study was designed to examine samples from sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in Egyptians in order to identify the species involved in infection as well as the transmission dynamics and distribution of the parasite in the Great Cairo area. A total of 391 human faecal samples were collected, between May 2008 and March 2009, from ten public hospitals in Great Cairo. Initial screening by immunochromatographic detection kit "the Stick Crypto-Giardia; Operon" showed 23 possible positive cases. Twenty of them were confirmed by microscopic examination. PCR was performed by amplification of the oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene where 18 out of 23 samples were positive, one not detected by microscopy. Cryptosporidium genotyping was performed by RFLP analysis of PCR products of the diagnosis PCR. Only 15 samples rendered a digestion pattern. The genotyping distribution was nine cases showing C. hominis genotype, three showing C. parvum genotype and three showing mixed infection by C. hominis and C. parvum. The data showed an elevated prevalence of C. hominis (80.0%), the most anthroponotic species, suggesting a human-human transmission. Furthermore, the presence of up to 40% of samples infected with C. parvum shows that further investigations are required to determine the subgenotypes of C. parvum to clarify the mode of transmission in order to improve the control measures. PMID:21607688

  9. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  10. Fostering Movements or Silencing Voices: School Principals in Egypt and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Tyson E. J.; Knaus, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of educational leadership in promoting and/or challenging racism as an intentional outcome of schooling. We focus on Egypt and South Africa, two countries uniquely framed as both deeply divided by race, religion, and/or class and as models of resistance and conscious activism. We draw upon experiences working as,…

  11. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a nematode survey in 2012-2013 in EL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of citrus trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) exhibiting poor growth and low yield. The morphology of females esta...

  12. Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent-child dyads…

  13. Survey of natural enemies of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with new location and world records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On a global scale, there is an extensive number of species of whiteflies which feed on an extensive number of host plants. Whiteflies are known to be attacked by diverse natural enemies. A survey was done to access the natural enemies of whiteflies in Egypt. Materials and Methods: New data on the...

  14. Science, Technology and Society in Contemporary Egypt: Background Information for Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1989

    Egypt is having a very difficult time supplying enough food to meet the demands of its swelling population. This complex problem is analyzed and discussed from a variety of perspectives. Factors such as foreign aid, family planning, agriculture, demographics, and religious and social culture are examined, as well as more specific issues such as…

  15. Resources, Family Organization, and Domestic Violence against Married Women in Minya, Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    I evaluate the influence of household wealth, women's socioeconomic dependence, status inconsistency, and family organization on physical abuse in the prior year and attitudes about wife abuse and divorce among 2,522 married women in Minya, Egypt. Household wealth is negatively associated with physical abuse. Women who are dependent on marriage…

  16. Genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates from stray dogs from Giza, Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 51 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examin...

  17. Lord Shall Be Taught to Egypt: The Girls' Boarding School in Babelluk (1892-1923)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurdogan, Arzu M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the educational policy of the Church Missionary Society in Egypt in the above-mentioned period in an attempt to understand the mission's social impact in the light of, and in spite of, its lack of converts. It examines the Mission's goals for evangelizing among Muslim girls and the influence of the CMS on the development of…

  18. "The Soul of a Nation": Abdallah Nadim and Educational Reform in Egypt (1845-1896).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Examines major influences on the life of Abdallah Nadim, a 19th century Egyptian social reformer who experimented throughout his life with educating the nation. Reviews his life history, discussing the educational terrain of 1890s Egypt with a focus on girls' education, and noting specific articles authored by Nadim on Muslim youth and European…

  19. Spousal Disagreement in the Reporting of Physical Violence against Wives in Southern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a probability sample of 943 married women and men in Assiut and Souhag, Egypt, we explored spousal reports of lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) against wives and the determinants of spousal disagreement overall and by type. More than one third of wives and about one third of husbands reported wife "beating" since…

  20. Perceptions of Geography Students in the USA and Egypt on Global Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Edrees Sultan; Gandy, S. Kay

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the perceptions of Egyptian and US students on global issues. The authors developed a survey of global issues and administered it to sample of 321 Geography students in the USA and Egypt. The survey tapped five issues: global citizenship, cultural diversity, global conflicts, nuclear arms race, and global warming. The…

  1. Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

  2. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt indicating progressive adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first diagnosed in poultry in Egypt in 2006, and since then the disease became enzootic in poultry throughout the country affecting the poultry industry and village poultry as well as infecting humans. Vaccination has been used ...

  3. Students' Evaluations and Perceptions of Learning within Business Schools in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrous, Abeer A.; Kortam, Wael

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the criteria which students use to evaluate teaching effectiveness. Using structural equation modeling with a sample of business students from Egypt, the findings indicate that the above criteria comprise six factors: organization of the course, fairness of grading, workload difficulty, student-instructor…

  4. Discovery of diurnal resting sites of phlebotomine sand flies in a village in southern Egypt.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are serious pests of humans in Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. These flies are persistent biters and can transmit diseases such as Leishmaniasis. Because they are considered to be weak fliers, it is suspected that daytime resting sites are close to their nighttime...

  5. The Evaluation of the Treatment of Egypt in American Primary and Secondary School Literature. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziadeh, Farhat J.; Allen, Calvin H.

    In this study of the treatment of Egypt in elementary and secondary school literature, the content of 109 textbooks and 180 supplementary works is analyzed and evaluated and recommendations for specific corrections and additions are presented. The purpose is to alert the authors of educational materials and teachers about the imperfections in…

  6. Increased virulence in ducks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time. These changes in virulence have been reported with viruses from countries with high population of domestic ducks. Since 2006, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in Egypt have been occurring in po...

  7. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  8. Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, United Arab Republic (Egypt), Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 19 hours and 42 minutes.

  9. Lake Nasser on Nile River in Egypt as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Lake Nasser on the Nile River in southeastern United Arab Republic (Egypt) as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 10th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 130 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 14 hours and 56 minutes. Lake Nasser was created by the contruction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile.

  10. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  11. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Business Schools. A Comparative Study of Higher Education Systems in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou- Warda, Sherein H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between the four main kinds of business schools in Egypt (private; internationally affiliated; public with local programs; and public with international programs) in terms of perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Design/Methodology/Approach: Data were gathered 212 with a…

  12. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gara, Chloe; Lusk, Diane

    This study analyzes human resources for kindergarten in Egypt, focusing on the provision of kindergarten programs as part of the public education system and as part of the private sector. The report is organized in 10 parts. Following an executive summary and introductory remarks, the report provides an inventory of public and private kindergarten…

  13. The Indicating Factors of Oral Reading Fluency of Monolingual and Bilingual Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined oral reading fluency (ORF) of bilingual and monolingual students. The author selected a sample of 510 (258 males and 252 females) native Arabic-speaking sixth-graders (62 bilinguals and 448 monolinguals) in Egypt. The purposes were; (a) to examine oral reading rate, oral reading accuracy, prosody, and oral reading comprehension…

  14. Update of fasciolosis-transmitting snails in Egypt (review and comment).

    PubMed

    Dar, Y D; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2005-08-01

    Several snail species may contribute in transmission of fasciolosis in Egypt. These molluscs show a variable sensibility to natural infections with Fasciola species. Radix natalensis is considered to be the essential intermediate host for F. gigantica based on field and experimental studies. Cercarial production from R. natalensis experimentally infected with F. gigantica is affected by the species of definitive host from which the eggs are obtained, as well as the different laboratory conditions. Another lymnaeid, Galba truncatula, may play a role in transmitting this parasite in Egypt, as it was found naturally infected with F. gigantica. Latter snail species, originated from France, was susceptible to experimental infections with Egyptian miracidia of F. gigantica and it had a cercarial production close to that of local R. natalensis. Two other snails, Pseudosuccinea columella and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were naturally found harboring larvae of Fasciola sp. At the level of intermediate hosts of F. gigantica, the conditions are thus favorable in Egypt to transmit fasciolosis which could also be caused by another fasciolid, F. hepatica, as the existance of this fluke was confirmed in Egypt. PMID:16083061

  15. Egypt in Transition: Responding to Social and Political Changes in Executive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Egypt witnessed an unexpected uprising on 25 January 2011. People took to the streets demanding their rights to freedom, equity and a better economy, and in only 18 days managed to oust President Mubarak, who had held power for 30 years. The transition period is still ongoing with an unfolding of events creating turbulence in the political, social…

  16. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  17. Reforming Educational Governance and Management in Egypt: National and International Actors and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark; Megahed, Nagwa; Elmeski, Mohammed; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    This historical case study examines the rhetoric, action, and outcomes of educational policy reforms in Egypt during the first quarter-century of the presidency of Mohamed Hosni Mubarak. The findings are based on an extensive review of Egyptian government, international organization, and project documents as well as interviews with key…

  18. Citizenship Education in Post-Revolutionary Egypt: Examining the Curriculum of a Civic Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waly, Salma G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how civic organizations in Egypt after the revolution prepare students to be active citizens with a solid understanding of what their roles and duties are in an emergent democratic system. Through examining the curriculum of the summer school of one of the civic organizations in Cairo, I first look at the…

  19. Seeking the Educational Cure: Egypt and European Education, 1805-1920s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Hoda A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the development of European-style education in Egypt during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Egyptian reformers and governments, in their desire to create relevant and effective educational institutions, began looking to Europe for inspiration. The resulting institutions utilized modern methods while preserving…

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Isolated from a Dromedary Camel in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Mahmoud M.; El Shesheny, Rabeh; Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    We generated the near-full genome sequence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a collected nasal sample of dromedary camel in Egypt. The newly characterized Egyptian strain has high similarity to the previously characterized Egyptian virus and both of viruses fell into a cluster distinct from other MERS-CoVs. PMID:27125484

  1. ESD as a Means to Strengthen the Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Boshra B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present results of and lessons learnt from implementing education for sustainable development (ESD) in marginal drylands, based on experiences from the TEMPUS IV project, Education for Sustainable Development beyond the Campus (EDUCAMP), in Egypt and the multinational project, Sustainable Development of Marginal…

  2. The World of Naguib Mahfouz. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Ken

    This resource packet was created to allow teachers to easily select from some of the short works of Naguib Mahfouz, probably Egypt's most famous and prolific writer, that will familiarize students with the author and his world. The packet first gives an overview of the life and work of Mahfouz, citing seven sources for further information. The…

  3. Gymnastics of the Mind: Greek Education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribiore, Raffaella

    2005-01-01

    This book is at once a thorough study of the educational system for the Greeks of Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, and a window to the vast panorama of educational practices in the Greco-Roman world. It describes how people learned, taught, and practiced literate skills, how schools functioned, and what the curriculum comprised. Raffaella Cribiore…

  4. Diglossic Needs of Illiterate Adult Women in Egypt: A Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachan, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the "rarity" and "unavailability" of academic publications on literacy/illiteracy in the Arab world, this study attempts to determine the linguistic needs of illiterate adult women in Egypt in the context of informal adult basic education. The purpose of this study is to understand illiterate adult women's daily linguistic needs in…

  5. Genetic diversity of Toxoplama gondii isolates from cats from Egypt reveals new genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 115 viable T. gondii isolates from tissues of cats from Egypt were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  6. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  7. Changes in the epidemiology of plague in Egypt, 1899-1951

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Abdel Gawad

    1955-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the epidemiology of plague in Egypt from its reintroduction in that country in 1899 until 1951. Dealing first with the period 1899-1945, before the introduction of DDT, he notes that plague was first reported in the ports and then spread rapidly inland; in contrast with previous epidemics, the prevalence was greater in Upper than in Lower Egypt. By 1937 the whole of Lower Egypt had become free of the disease, which, however, persisted in endemo-epidemic form in Upper Egypt until 1941. The reasons for the slighter severity of this third plague pandemic in Egypt compared with the previous history of the disease there are discussed, particularly in connexion with the role played by rodents. Details of the number of rats captured and of flea indices are given for the years from 1937 onwards. In 1941 a scheme was introduced for the control of rats in river and canal craft in order to prevent the spread of plague inland from the ports. The details of this scheme are given, and the significant fact is noted that no case of plague was reported inland from 1941 to 1945 despite an outbreak during that time in the Suez Canal Zone. Turning to the period 1946-51, after the introduction of DDT, the author discusses the Alexandria epidemic of 1946-47, giving rat and flea counts and describing the control methods adopted, which included the use of poison baits and DDT. Dusting both persons and rat burrows with DDT has clearly resulted in a sharp decrease in flea indices, and the periodical use of DDT and Gammexane in port areas since 1950 has been shown to yield good results. PMID:13260881

  8. Estimation of hepatitis C virus infections resulting from vertical transmission in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Awad, Susanne F; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2015-01-01

    Despite having the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in the world, the ongoing level of HCV incidence in Egypt and its drivers are poorly understood. Whereas HCV mother-to-child infection is a well-established transmission route, there are no estimates of HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission for any country, including Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the absolute number of new HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission in Egypt. We developed a conceptual framework of HCV vertical transmission, expressed in terms of a mathematical model and based on maternal HCV antibody and viremia. The mathematical model estimated the number of HCV vertical infections nationally and for six subnational areas. Applying two vertical transmission risk estimates to the 2008 Egyptian birth cohort, we estimated that between 3,080 and 5,167 HCV infections resulted from vertical transmission among children born in 2008. HCV vertical transmission may account for half of incident cases in the <5-year age group. Disproportionately higher proportions of vertical infections were estimated in Lower Rural and Upper Rural subnational areas. This geographical clustering was a result of higher-area-level HCV prevalence among women and higher fertility rates. Conclusion: Vertical transmission is one of the primary HCV infection routes among children <5 years in Egypt. The absolute number of vertical transmissions and the young age at infection highlight a public health concern. These findings also emphasize the need to quantify the relative contributions of other transmission routes to HCV incidence in Egypt. (Hepatology 2015;61:834–842) PMID:25366418

  9. The Mediterranean Coastal Dunes in Egypt: An Endangered Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanouny, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    The Mediterranean coast in Egypt extends almost 900 km, the major part of which is bordered by sand dunes of different natures and types. Along the coastline between Alexandria and El-Alamein, a distance of some 100 km, the sand dunes represent a particular landscape with special characteristics and features, and consequently plants with particular attributes. In this area, the belt of sand dunes has developed immediately south of the shore and these dunes may rise up to 10 m in height and extend about 0·5-1·5 km inland from the shore. These dunes are famous as a habitat for the fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivation depending on the irregular rainfall. They also represent a landing station and a cross-road for birds such as quail migrating from Europe in the north. In the past, summer resort areas were confined to limited areas with few people, these same areas support the growth of some important plant species, for example, sand binders, medicinal and range plants. For more than two decades, there has been considerable socio-economic change and an open-door policy in the economy of the country has been adopted. One of the consequences of this change is that a great part of the coastal dune belt west of Alexandria till El-Alamein, has been subjected to destruction, due to the continuous construction of summer resort villages. These were built at a distance of about 100 m of the shoreline, extending 400-600 m inland and a breadth of 400 m or more along the shoreline. The area already covered by the dunes is now almost occupied by new buildings, gardens and other infrastructure. The consequences of these human activities are numerous and include impacts on the soil, water resources, the flora and the fauna, migrating birds, trends of the indigenous people, and the cultural environment. The present paper gives a concise environmental setting of the dune belt before the advent of the new activities, and the socio-economic and political attitudes which threaten the dunes

  10. Proctolaelaps species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Melicharidae) from Egypt, with description of a new species and complementary descriptions of other five species.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a taxonomic appraisal of the melicharids from Egypt, based on specimens previously collected by different authors and on specimens newly collected by the first author of this paper, all belonging to the genus Proctolaelaps Berlese. A new species, Proctolaelaps gizaensis n. sp., is described, thus raising to six the number of Proctolaelaps species recorded from Egypt. Complementary descriptions of the following species are also provided: Proctolaelaps aegyptiacus Nasr, 1986; Proctolaelaps holoventris Moraes, Britto, Mineiro & Halliday, 2016; Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller, 1859); Proctolaelaps drosophilae Karg, Baker & Jenkinson, 1995 and Proctolaelaps regalis De Leon, 1963. The latter two species were not found in Egypt, but they are related to the new species described here. They were re-described based on the type specimens from Europe and North America. A dichotomous key is given to help the separation of the Proctolaelaps species concluded to be found in Egypt. PMID:27615986

  11. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    .62, p>0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66%) than females (20%). Seroprevalence was highest (17/35, 48.57%) in 7-15 years old (COR=6.93, 95% CI=1.75-27.43, p=0.006). Seroprevalence values for T. canis antibodies were higher in those; raising dogs (29.85%), eating raw vegetables (25.21%) and not washing hands before meals (25.45%). T. canis antibodies were detected in 25% of those contacted with soil compared to 30% of those did not. Students were mostly affected (34.29%), followed by nomadic people (32%), house guarders (28%), housewives (20%), military workers (13%), and employees (10%). Conclusion: Detection of enteric parasites in dogs and humans in Egypt substantiates the role posed by dogs in transmitting zoonotic parasites to humans and knock an alarm for common sources of infection for humans and dogs. Common sources may be infected fish or contaminated vegetables that are consumed by dogs or humans or even infected rodents that may contaminate their feed. This pilot study necessitate the need for similar studies and tracing such infection in fish, vegetables, rodent that may be responsible for infecting humans and dogs in order to understand the epidemiology of zoonotic parasitic infection transmitted from dogs to humans. PMID:27047182

  12. Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

  13. Biomonitoring study of heavy metals in biota and sediments in the South Eastern coast of Mediterranean sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Maha A M; Abdallah, Aly M A

    2008-11-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe were determined in biota and sediment samples collected from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The levels of Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha compressa (green algae) and Jania rubens (red algae), recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Fe was the most predominant metal in the seaweed. The two species of bivalves, Donax trunculus and Paphia textile, showed different amounts of metals in their tissue. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the mussel samples was found in the order Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Co> Cd and Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co, respectively for the two species. The metals concentrations were generally higher compared with the previous studies in mussels from the same area. The levels of metals accumulated in the investigated fish samples, Saurida undosquamis, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Sphyraena sphyraena, were higher than those of Marmara Sea (Turkey), for Co and Cd and lower for Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. El-Mex Bay having the highest metals concentration in sediments as their order of abundance were Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co. Nevertheless, a high variability in the metal levels occurs among the studied algae and biota and also between the investigated Harbour. A significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found for each of Zn and Fe in P. textile and of Co in D. trunculus relative to their concentrations in surficial sediments. PMID:18074236

  14. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Michel, Martin C

    2013-11-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the journal confirmed this trend. An interesting new trend was the emerging presence of papers from a variety of Islamic countries including Egypt. Based on this trend, we shortly review the history and current structure of pharmacology in Egypt. It appears that the presence of Egyptian pharmacology in international journals including pharmacology journals has sharply been increasing over the last two decades. Challenges for a continuation of this encouraging trend are being discussed. PMID:24037453

  15. Gender and Material Transfers between Older Parents and Children in Ismailia, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, kin relations have been governed by a patriarchal contract, which defines expectations for intergenerational support along gendered lines. Social changes may be disrupting these customs and bringing attention to the ways gender may influence intergenerational support in rapidly changing contexts. Using data from 4,465 parent–child dyads in Ismailia, Egypt, we examined whether intergenerational material transfers favored women over men and whether gaps in needs and endowments accounted for gender differences in transfers. Fathers gave children money and goods more often than did mothers; mothers received material transfers from children more often than did fathers. Compared to sons, daughters made transfers to parents less often and received transfers from parents more often. We found residual advantages to mothers and daughters, even adjusting for differential needs and endowments. Findings corroborate persistent norms of gender complementarity, patrilocal endogamy, and reciprocation for women’s caregiving, despite changes that have threatened patriarchal rules of exchange. PMID:22448075

  16. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging global issue. It is expected to have significant impacts both in Egypt and around the world. Thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. Also, weather and climate play a significant role in people’s health. Direct impacts of climate change on the Egyptians public health may include also increased prevalence of human parasitic diseases. Climate could strongly influence parasitic diseases transmitted through intermediate hosts. The present work reviews the future of such parasitic diseases in the view of the current available evidence and scenarios for climate change in the Egypt. PMID:25685530

  17. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries. PMID:25575291

  18. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011. PMID:23527454

  19. An overview on selected Middle Miocene slope channel complexes, offshore east Nile Delta of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F. Sharaf, Essam; Khaled, Khaled A.; Abushady, Ahmed I.

    2015-12-01

    Middle Miocene turbidite channel reservoirs offshore Nile Delta of Egypt are difficult to develop efficiently. The depositional mechanism of these channels defines sand bodies with variable thickness and quality over short distances. Akhen Field is a turbidite high pressure and high temperature reservoir offshore in the East Nile Delta, Egypt. The turbidite deposits at Akhen area reflect varied depositional fabrics from poorly to moderately sorted and non-graded to graded. Well logs and core data suggest at least 3 sand packages in a cyclic pattern. Each package exhibits variable sedimentological and petrophysical properties and forms a separate reservoir, sealed by shale. A conceptual geologic model showing facies geometry based on 3D seismic mapping and core analysis was used for evaluation of the reservoir quality of the Field. Integrating sedimentologic and other subsurface data such as seismic attributes, pressure data, core analysis, was crucial to predict the fluid flow between the different reservoir units.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato from Farm Animals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B.; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt. PMID:25760944

  1. Origin and recharge rates of alluvial ground waters, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Gheith, H.; Sturchio, N. C.; El Alfy, Z.; Danishwar, S.

    2002-04-12

    Stable isotope and tritium analyses of shallow ground waters in the Eastern Desert of Egypt showed that the waters were derived largely by evaporation of regional precipitation and at least partly from precipitation in the past 45 y. To estimate the ground water recharge rate, we developed an integrated hydrologic model based on satellite data, geologic maps, infiltration parameters, and spatial rainfall distribution. Modeling indicated that during a severe 1994 storm, recharge through transmission loss in Wadi El-Tarfa was 21% of the precipitation volume. From archival precipitation data, we estimate that the annual recharge rate for the El-Tarfa alluvial aquifer is 4.7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Implications for the use of renewable ground waters in arid areas of Egypt and in neighboring countries are clear.

  2. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E

    2016-05-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch's rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt. PMID:27222738

  3. Mutual influence between climate and vegetation cover through satellite data in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shirbeny, Mohammed A.; Aboelghar, Mohamed A.; Arafat, Sayed M.; El-Gindy, Abdel-Ghany M.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of vegetation cover on climatic change has not yet observed in Egypt. In the current study, Ismailia Governorate was selected as a case study to assess the impact of the vegetation cover expansion on both land surface and air temperature during twenty-eight years from 1983 to 2010. This observation site was carefully selected as a clear example for the highly rate of reclamation and vegetation expansion process in Egypt. Land Surface Temperature (LST) that were extracted from NOAA/AVHRR satellite data and air temperature (Tair) data that were collected from ground stations, were correlated with the expansion of vegetation cover that was delineated using Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ data. The result showed that (LST) decreased by about 2.3°C while (Tair) decreased by about 1.6°C with the expansion of the cultivated land during twenty-eight years.

  4. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, Ahmed A.; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch’s rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt. PMID:27222738

  5. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  6. Early Holocene basinal sediments of the Dakhleh Oasis region, south central Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    1989-09-01

    Twenty samples of artifactual ostrich eggshell and hearth charcoal, firmly to loosely associated with basinal lacustrine, playa, and sand sheet sediments in the Dakhleh Oasis region of south-central Egypt, yield radiocarbon ages between ca. 8800 and ca. 4700 yr B.P. The sediments record variable sedimentary responses to an early Holocene pluvial interval in this virtually rainless region. Differences of hydrogeology and morphometry among and within basin types complicate paleoclimatic interpretation.

  7. Tectonic framework of northeast Egypt and its bearing on hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.; Moustafa, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    Detailed structural study of northern and central Sinai, the northern Eastern Desert, and the northern Gulf of Suez clarified the tectonic framework of northeast Egypt. This framework is related to the movements between the African Plate and the Eurasian and Arabian Plates. Late Cretaceous folding and thrusting in response to oblique convergence between the African and Eurasian Plates formed NE-ENE oriented, doubly plunging, en echelon folds of the northern Egypt fold belt. This fold belt is well exposed in northern Sinai and a few other places but is concealed under younger sediments in the other parts of northern Egypt. Younger folding of local importance is related to dextral slip on the Themed Fault (Central Sinai) in post Middle Eocene-pre Miocene time. Early Miocene rifting of the Afro-Arabian Plate led to the opening of the Suez rift and deposition of significant syn-rift facies. Half grabens and tilted fault blocks dominate the rift. Slightly tilted fault blocks characterize the competent Middle Eocene limestones of the Eastern Desert south of the Cairo-Suez road but north of this road, Middle Eocene rocks are locally dragged on nearby E-W and NW-SE oriented faults forming fault-drag folds. Ductile Upper Eocene and Miocene rocks are also folded about gentle NW-SE oriented doubly plunging folds. The different stages of tectonic activity in northern Egypt contributed to the development of different types of structural traps as well as different source, reservoir, and cap rocks. The sedimentary history of the region indicates well developed marine sediments of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene ages. Basin development in structurally low areas provided good sites for hydrocarbon generation and maturation.

  8. Orbital and Ground-penetrating Radar Studies of Mars-analog Terrain in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; Grant, J. A.; Campbell, B. A.

    2007-05-01

    Several study groups have endorsed the concept of flying an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in orbit that would penetrate areas of thin surface cover revealing underlying terrain and providing additional information on surface roughness, physical properties and composition. Egypt provides many excellent terrestrial field sites to study both the processes that we expect to be revealed in a Mars SAR Mission, as well as the stratigraphic setting of past depositional environments that are similar to those seen in southern Egypt. We have used terrestrial orbital radar data for southern Egypt, comparing geologic materials and boundaries mapped in the field and with visible wavelengths (from Landsat) to those discerned via Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) -C, and field checking key sites to determine the depth, physical characteristics and types of geologic boundaries that contribute to the radar returns. In addition to stratigraphic mapping of the thickness and extent of near-surface units in the field, we have used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to determine the lateral extent and depth of subsurface interfaces. In this manner, we expect to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of orbital and ground-based systems, the trade-offs between frequency, polarization and resolution in Mars-like terrain for detecting buried interfaces and structures, and more about the geologic history of southern Egypt. Several studies have concentrated on one of the areas of prominent radar-detected channels near Bir Safsaf in the southwest desert, we have concentrated on the Bir Kiseiba region, an area where the mixture of gravel spreads, buried paleochannels, and alluvium creates a setting that may mimic outflow deposit locations on Mars. While bedrock incised channels may stand out in SAR images because of a near-surface, sharp dielectric interface (such as those at Safsaf and in northern Sudan), the more complex problem of distinguishing fluvial patterns in Mars

  9. Pattern and Trend of Injuries Among Trauma Unit Attendants in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, Dalia G.; Farouk, Osama; Qayed, Mohammad H.; Berraud, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Background Injury is a growing public health problem worldwide. Deaths due to injuries account for 10% of the world’s mortality. More than 90% of the world’s injury deaths occur in low and middle income countries. In Egypt, injury is a hidden epidemic and its related deaths are misclassified due to lack of accurate national data. Furthermore, as a research problem it has also been largely ignored in developing countries. Objectives To determine the pattern and trend of injury from January 2002 to December 2009 among attendants at trauma unit in Assiut university hospital in Upper Egypt. Patients and Methods A descriptive retrospective study was conducted at the trauma unit in Assiut university hospital in Upper Egypt. All registered injuries during January 2002 to December 2009 were included in the study. Results During January 2002 to December 2009, 213835 injured cases were admitted to the trauma unit. The number of attendants increased every year from 9.3% from the total cases in all study period in 2002 up to 15.3% in 2009 with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.000). Young adults aged 20 - 29 years were the most common group affected by injuries (22.2%). Male to female ratio was 3:1. Falls represent one half of injuries (49.6%) from all attended cases, followed by exposure to inanimate mechanical forces (19.5%) and transport accidents (18.3%). Falls were ranked as the leading cause of injuries, while transport accidents were the second cause in 2007 - 2009. Conclusions Trauma in Upper Egypt is an under-recognized problem, which requires prioritized attention. Increasing the awareness of community, making policies and establishment of a trauma system are important to decrease the burden of injuries. PMID:27626001

  10. Zoonotic fascioliasis in donkeys: ELISA (Fges) and postmortum examination in the Zoo, Giza, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Gazaa H; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgood M I; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-12-01

    In Egypt, zoonotic fascioliasis is increasing. In this study, postmortum examination of 88 donkeys used as gargantuan meal in the Zoo at Giza revealed hepatic fascioliasis in 15 (17.05%). The serum examination for anti-Fasciola antibodies by ELISA showed positivity in 12/15 with crude worm antigen, and positivity in 14/15 with locally prepared Fasciola excretory-secretory (Fges) antigen. The zoonotic role of animal fascioliasis was discussed. PMID:18383809

  11. [The "medical school" of Alexandria and its influence upon medicine in Graeco-Roman Egypt].

    PubMed

    Marganne, Marie Hélène

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides new information on the most famous centre of rational medicine in the Graeco-Roman world and its influence in Egypt. It uses at its point of departure a remarkable but insufficiently known documentation: Greek literary papyri (from IV/III B.C. to A.D. VI/VII), which often are unique witnesses to lost medical works, bearing testimony to original theories, practices and vocabulary. PMID:14509988

  12. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  13. Travertine from Egypt's Western Desert: a terrestrial proxy for North African paleohydrology and paleoclimate during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, G.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Polyak, V. J.; Asmerom, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Green Sahara' pluvial phases that overprinted North African aridity during the Pleistocene are well recognized in tropical and Mediterranean marine records. Comparatively few studies have investigated the terrestrial expression of these pluvials, though, in part because of the paucity of paleohydrology archives in the desert. In this study, we show that travertine in Egypt's Western Desert constitutes a unique terrestrial proxy for the North African hydrologic cycle. In the Western Desert, travertine (defined inclusively as chemically-precipitated continental carbonate) deposits in paleo-oasis springs during times of high hydrologic head. Since head increases as meteoric precipitation falls in southern groundwater recharge areas, large-scale travertine accumulations can record pluvial episode durations as well as their geochemical characteristics. We built a database of new and previously-published U/Th ages from five paleo-oasis areas spanning a north-south gradient through the Western Desert. Integrating this geochronology with stable isotope and 87Sr/86Sr geochemistry of travertine samples, we present a terrestrial record of North African pluvial periods for the last ~650 ka. We show that groundwater sources for travertine remain constant through space and time, implying hydrological similarity between pluvial periods. The timing of travertine deposition is inconsistent over shorter (~10 ka) timescales in the various paleo-oases, though, suggesting that local hydrology may obscure the travertine response to pluvials. However, we observe significant travertine deposition across several areas between approximately 100 to 300 ka, and 450 to 600 ka, with a hiatus in between; we interpret these depositional 'peaks' to correspond with maxima in the 400-ka component of eccentricity. Thus, contrary to prior literature, we find that travertine deposition in the Western Desert, and thus pluvial occurrence, responds to orbitally-paced changes in equatorial insolation

  14. Is the Coniacian-Santonian OAE3 a real and global anoxic event ? Insights from Spain, Texas and Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; De Kaenel, Eric; Spangenberg, Jorge; Gertsch, Brian; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2013-04-01

    Several oceanic anoxic episodes (OAE) occurred on a worldwide scale throughout the Cretaceous. They are defined by the widespread accumulation of laminated organic-rich sediments and coincide with a positive excursion in δ13C. The Coniacian-Santonian OAE (= OAE3) is less well known and appears less expressed than the early Aptian and latest Cenomanian OAEs. This OAE appears not to be truly important on a global scale but was more dependent on local or regional conditions, as suggested by the paleogeographic distribution of organic-rich sediments. These are mainly restricted to the equatorial and South Atlantic basins and the Western Interior Seaway, and therein mostly to shallow-water settings and epicontinental seas. The mechanisms and paleoenvironmental conditions leading to and through OAE3 are poorly known, particularly with regards to the marine phosphorus cycle and changes therein, and to the climate conditions in general. Specifically, in our study, we focus on bulk and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, carbon isotopes, high-resolution biostratigraphy, and changes in climate and primary productivity. Several sections from different paleogeographic areas at different paleodepths were studied. Two sections were investigated, are candidates for the global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP), Olazagutia (NW Spain) and Ten Mile Creek-Arbor Park (Texas, USA); an additional section was analysed in Gabal Ekma (Sinai, Egypt), which exhibits several layers enriched in organic matter associated with extensive bonebeds. In the Olazagutia section, the inoceramid Platyceramus undulatoplicatus, which marks the base of Santonian, occurs well above the Coniacian-Santonian boundary indicated by nannofossil biostratigraphy, and its first occurrence appears to have been environmentally controlled. In Texas, several bentonite layers have been recognized just above the proposed Coniacian-Santonian boundary, which may provide a more accurate age. Based on a weathering index

  15. Late Neoproterozoic metamorphic assemblages along the Pan-African Hamisana Shear Zone, southeastern Egypt: Metamorphism, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Bik, Mohamed W.; Sadek, Mohamed F.; Ghabrial, Doris Sadek

    2014-11-01

    A variety of Late Neoproterozoic gneisses and amphibolites are distributed along the N-S trending Hamisana Shear Zone (HSZ), in southeastern Egypt. The HSZ originated after the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and covers an area of about 1500 km2 in southeastern Egypt and northeastern Sudan. The architecture of the northern part of the HSZ is best explained as a tectono-stratigraphic column, in which allochthonous ophiolitic mélange was thrusted onto metamorphosed island-arc assemblages (gneisses and amphibolites). The latter rock units were generally subjected to two successive phases of amphibolite facies metamorphism, followed by a thermal phase and retrograde overprint. The early penetrative, low- to medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) was synchronous with D1-gneissosity and N-S trending lineation, demarcating the high strain HSZ. The mineral assemblages formed during the M1 phase include quartz + andesine + hornblende (I) + biotite (I) in hornblende-biotite gneiss, quartz + andesine + pargasitic hornblende (I) + ferroan pargasitic hornblende (I) + edenitic hornblende (I) in hornblende-schist, quartz + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite in psammopelitic gneiss, and diopside + tremolite + calcite + sphene ± garnet in calc-silicates, being characteristic for amphibolite facies with metamorphic conditions of 600 ± 50 °C and 5-6.5 kbar. The second metamorphic phase (M2) is related to the crystallization of biotite and/or hornblende in S2 foliation demarcating the NE-SW trending dextral shear deformation (D2). The calculated temperature for this M2 phase is about 592 °C. Subsequent thermal events are documented by growth of spinel and scapolite in calc-silicate rocks and of cordierite in psammopelitic gneiss in response to uplift, decomposition and heat provided by the nearby late-formed igneous intrusions. Finally, the rocks reached a temperature of about 530 °C during the cooling retrogressive stage. Based on geological, petrological and geochemical

  16. Trend of application of World Health Organization control strategy of tuberculosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Mohammed, Asmaa M

    2014-09-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) control policy for tuberculosis (TB) includes Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine at birth, case detection, and treatment of cases with directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS). This policy has been applied through the Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt for more than 30years. The controversies about the efficacy of the BCG vaccination against TB in adults initiate some suggestions for its discontinuation from compulsory vaccinations in countries with low incidence of TB. The present work aimed to study the trend of applying the WHO control policy for TB in Egypt among the Egyptian population throughout the last 20years (1992-2011). The documented database of the country, bibliographic review on MEDLINE, published studies and reports, WHO and EMRO databases that covered the period from 1992 to 2011 were used in this study. The incidence rate of all forms of TB (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) dropped by 50% from 34 cases to 17 cases per 100,000 population, as well as the prevalence rate declined by 60.6% from 71 cases per 100,000 population throughout the last 20years. Case detection and treatment success rates have increased throughout the studied period while it flat-lined over the past 6years which may need attention. The results of this study introduce an evidence-based recommendation for continuation of the WHO TB control policy in Egypt towards elimination of the disease. PMID:25107655

  17. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  18. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Aerosol over Selected Urban Areas in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokr, Mohammed; El-Tahan, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    We utilize remote sensing data of atmospheric aerosols from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to explore spatio-temporal patterns over selected urban sites in Egypt during 2000-2015. High resolution (10 x 10 km^2) Level 2, collection 5, quality-controlled product was used. The selected sites are characterized by different human and industrial activities as well as landscape and meteorological attributes. These have impacts on the dominant types and intensity of aerosols. Aerosol robotic network (AERONET) data were used to validate the calculations from MODIS. The suitability of the MODIS product in terms of spatial and temporal coverage as well as accuracy and robustness has been established. Seasonal patterns of aerosol concentration are identified and compared between the sites. Spatial gradient of aerosol is assessed in the vicinity of major aerosol-emission sites (e.g. Cairo) to determine the range of influence of the generated pollution. Peak aerosol concentrations are explained in terms of meteorological events and land cover. The limited trends found in the temporal records of the aerosol measurements will be confirmed using calibrated long-term ground observations. The study has been conducted under the PEER 2-239 research project titled "The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosols to Climate in Egypt". Project website is CleanAirEgypt.org

  19. Palynology of some Cretaceous mudstones from southeast Aswan, Egypt: significance to regional stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdy S.; Essa, Mahmoud A.

    2007-01-01

    The basal mudstones from the El-Nom borehole in the Gebel Abraq area in southern Egypt have yielded a diverse and relatively well preserved terrestrial palynoflora that includes Balmeisporites holodictyus, Crybelosporites pannuceus, Foveotricolpites gigantoreticulatus, Nyssapollenites albertensis, Retimonocolpites variplicatus and Rousea delicipollis. These suggest an Albian-Cenomanian age and deposition in a fluvio-deltaic environment; no marine phytoplankton is reported. The fern-dominated palynoflora and the overwhelming presence of kaolinitic clays suggest a warm, humid palaeoclimate. According to available knowledge, the mudstones in the Gebel Abraq area, equivalents of the so-called "Timsah Formation", might be correlated with an older rock unit, the Maghrabi Formation, based on the new palynological age assessment. This new definition of local stratigraphy implies that the Bernice sheet of geological map of Egypt [Klitzsch, E., List, F., Pöhlmann, G., 1987. Geological map of Egypt, sheet NF 36 NE Bernice, 1: 500 000. Conoco and the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Cairo] ought to be reconsidered.

  20. Sero-prevalence of avian influenza in animals and human in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A; Prince, A; Fawzy, A; Nadra-Elwgoud; Abdou, M I; Omar, L; Fayed, A; Salem, M

    2013-06-01

    In opposite to most countries, avian influenza virus H5N1 became endemic in Egypt. Since, its first emerge in 2006 in Egypt, the virus could infect different species of birds and animals and even human. Beside the great economic losses to the local poultry industry in Egypt, the virus infected 166 confirmed human cases, 59 cases ended fatally. In the present study, the persistence of the avian influenza in the Egyptian environment was studied. For this purpose, serum samples were collected from human, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, horses, donkeys, swine, sewage rats, stray dogs and stray cats. The sera were collected from Cairo and the surrounding governorates to be examined for the presence of anti-H5N1 antibodies by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) and ELISA test. Clear differences in the seroprevalence were noticed among different species and also between the results obtained by both techniques indicating the difference in test accuracy. The present data indicate wide spread of the H5N1 virus in the Egyptian environment. PMID:24498821

  1. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  2. Serological detection and epidemiology of Neospora caninum and Cryptosporidium parvum antibodies in cattle in southern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fereig, Ragab M; AbouLaila, Mahmoud Rezk; Mohamed, Samy G A; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Ali, Alsagher O; Ali, Asmaa F; Hilali, Mosaad; Zaid, Anis; Mohamed, Adel Elsayed Ahmed; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Neospora caninum and Cryptosporidium parvum are intracellular protozoan parasites that are distributed worldwide and of major economical concern in cattle industry. N. caninum can cause abortion storms and high culling rates, whereas C. parvum has zoonotic implications and can cause diarrhea in calves. There are currently no data on the prevalence of neosporosis and cryptosporidiosis in humans or animals in southern Egypt. Prevalence of these two infections was determined in a sample of cattle from two different areas in southern Egypt, Sohag and Qena, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total 301 cattle were sampled, of which 18.9% were positive for N. caninum, 35.9% were positive for C. parvum and 10.0% were positive for both. Geographical location and breeding system were considered as potential risk factors for C. parvum infection. A higher prevalence of infection was identified on small scale farms, compared with larger, intensive systems, with a prevalence of 50.2% compared with 37.8%, respectively. Animals in Sohag had a significantly higher prevalence compared with Qena, with a seroprevalence of 46.1% compared with 31.6%, respectively. In brief, marked seroprevalence recorded in this study indicates a high incidence of N. caninum and C. parvum infections in cattle, and this necessitates the application of more effective strategies for combating these types of infections on farms in Egypt. PMID:27377768

  3. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Amal S.; Khaled, Hussein M.; Mikhail, Nabiel NH; Baraka, Hoda; Kamel, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes), 175.9 (males), and 157.0 (females). Commonest sites were liver (23.8%), breast (15.4%), and bladder (6.9%) (both sexes): liver (33.6%) and bladder (10.7%) among men, and breast (32.0%) and liver (13.5%) among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs. PMID:25328522

  4. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Colebunders, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6). HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7%) than the wives (12.1%; P < 0.001). Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9) and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1) for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC) had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt. PMID:24778883

  5. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains. PMID:24741348

  6. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings. PMID:24084761

  7. North-South Partnership in Space Research and Application: Space Research Center at Minufiyia University, Egypt, as Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, M.

    With the starting the year 2002 the Minufiyia University Council taked an Issue by construction Space Research Center, as a first Center for Space Research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. The green area of Egypt (Nile Valley and Delta) are 4% only from the total area of Egypt, the remain 96% is desert area. The most useful thing is to study the desert from space. For that the suggested projects to be performed in this new center are: 1.Monitoring the storage tanks of the underground water in the Egyptian Desert (Sahara) by artificial satellites as GRACE of NASA and DLR. 2.Building 32 meter Radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africa. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project of Egypt. 3.Solar activity and the climatic changes through the 21st century as clarified by global solar radiation data at Khargha Oases at the western desert of Egypt. 4.Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2003 and 2005 space trips to Mars in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the driest area in the worl d, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and dry valleys. In collaboration with NASA and ESA. 5.Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 Million years. Also, studding the meteors chemistry, for meteors found in the Egyptian desert, and the origin of life as meteor (Nachlet) in collaboration with NASA and ESA. Solar energy and humidity distribution over Sahara from artificial Satellite Meteostat observations.

  8. The way forward in capacity building in developing countries: space research center at Minoufiyia University, Egypt, as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    With the starting the year 2002 the Menoufiyia University Council taked an Issue by construction Space Research Center, as a first Center for Space Research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. The green area of Egypt (Nile Valley and Delta) are 4% only from the total area of Egypt, the remain 96% is desert area. The most useful thing is to study the desert from space. For that the suggested projects to be performed in this new center are: 1. Monitoring the storage tanks of the underground water in the Egyptian Desert (Sahara) by artificial satellites as GRACE of NASA and DLR. 2. Building 32 meter Radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africa. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project of Egypt. 3. Solar activity and the climatic changes through the 21st century as clarified by global solar radiation data at Khargha Oases at the western desert of Egypt. 4. Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2005 space trips to Mars in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the driest area in the world, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and dry valleys. In collaboration with NASA and ESA. 5. Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 Million years. Also, studding the meteors chemistry, for meteors found in the Egyptian desert, and the origin of life as meteor (Nachlet) in collaboration with NASA and ESA. 6. Solar energy and humidity distribution over Sahara from artificial Satellite Meteostat observations.

  9. Seasonal Oscillation of Human Infection with Influenza A/H5N1 in Egypt and Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Eleanor J.; Morse, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    As of June 22, 2011, influenza A/H5N1 has caused a reported 329 deaths and 562 cases in humans, typically attributed to contact with infected poultry. Influenza H5N1 has been described as seasonal. Although several studies have evaluated environmental risk factors for H5N1 in poultry, none have considered seasonality of H5N1 in humans. In addition, temperature and humidity are suspected to drive influenza in temperate regions, but drivers in the tropics are unknown, for H5N1 as well as other influenza viruses. An analysis was conducted to determine whether human H5N1 cases occur seasonally in association with changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity. Data analyzed were H5N1 human cases in Indonesia (n = 135) and Egypt (n = 50), from January 1, 2005 (Indonesia) or 2006 (Egypt) through May 1, 2008 obtained from WHO case reports, and average daily weather conditions obtained from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. Fourier time series analysis was used to determine seasonality of cases and associations between weather conditions and human H5N1 incidence. Human H5N1 cases in Indonesia occurred with a period of 1.67 years/cycle (p<0.05) and in Egypt, a period of 1.18 years/cycle (p≅0.10). Human H5N1 incidence in Egypt, but not Indonesia, was strongly associated with meteorological variables (κ2≥0.94) and peaked in Egypt when precipitation was low, and temperature, absolute humidity and relative humidity were moderate compared to the average daily conditions in Egypt. Weather conditions coinciding with peak human H5N1 incidence in Egypt suggest that human infection may be occurring primarily via droplet transmission from close contact with infected poultry. PMID:21909409

  10. Estimating the geotechnical Parameters from CSEM monitoring Data for the Buildings and the Environment at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Atya, Magdy; Khachay, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at "Quarter 27" in 15th May City, which is linked with cracks formation into the buildings. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. Reference 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  11. Epidemiology of nonfatal stroke and transient ischemic attack in Al-Kharga District, New Valley, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Farghaly, Wafaa MA; El-Tallawy, Hamdy N; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Abdel-Hakeem, Nabil M; Elhamed, Mohamed A Abd; Al-Fawal, Bastawy MA; Badry, Reda

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is a medical emergency. Nonfatal stroke may cause permanent neurologic damage, complications, and disability. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of nonfatal stroke in Al-Kharga District, New Valley, Egypt. Methods The total population (62,583) was screened via a door-to-door study by three neurology specialists and 15 female social workers for demographic data collection. All subjects with probable stroke were subjected to a full clinical examination, neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain), and laboratory investigations including blood sugar, lipid profile, serum uric acid, a complete blood count, blood urea, and serum creatinine. Stroke severity and outcome were assessed using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and Barthel Index. Carotid Doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid function tests were done in selected cases. Results During the study period (June 1, 2005 to May 31, 2008), 351 subjects were diagnosed as having suffered a cerebrovascular stroke at some point during their lives, yielding a total lifetime prevalence of 5.6 per 1,000 population. Of these, 156 subjects were identified as having suffered a stroke during the year from January 1 to December 31, 2007, with an incidence rate of 2.5 per 1,000. Both prevalence and incidence rates were higher in urban (5.8 per 1,000 and 2.6 per 1,000, respectively) than rural communities (5.2 per 1,000 and 2.3 per 1,000), and were higher in males (6.1 per 1,000 and 2.7 per 1,000, respectively) than in females (5.1 per 1,000 and 2.3 per 1,000). Thrombotic stroke had the highest prevalence and incidence rates (4.2 per 1,000 and 1.7 per 1,000, respectively), whereas subarachnoid hemorrhage had the lowest prevalence and incidence rates (0.03 per 1,000 and 0.02 per 1,000). Conclusion The prevalence of cerebrovascular accident in Al-Kharga lies in the lower range of that in developing countries, and is similar to that in industrialized countries

  12. Environmental impact and natural hazards on Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, A. B.; Howari, F. M.; El-Sankary, M. M.; Wali, A. M.; Saleh, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Kharga Oasis monumental sites are important to the cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The studied sites include the Hibis, EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples as well as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The present study found that natural hazards have remarkable impacts on these sites. The impact of weathering processes, encroachment of sand dunes, stability of foundation beds and shallow groundwater seepage were documented. The present study found that humidity, temperature, sunlight and water content conditions seem to be favorable for biodegradation as evidenced by the presence of algae, bat blood and bird excretions. The radioactivity levels at the investigated sites are also measured via gamma-ray spectrometry. Sand dunes in the area pose a serious natural threat to the monumental sites. Active sand dunes are rapidly encroaching upon the components of these monuments, partially covering some monuments such as El-Ghueita Temple. These dunes load wind storms with fine sand particles. This causes wind erosion through sand blasting of these sites. Some monuments, such as EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples were constructed on a suitable hard sandstone ground, whereas others, such as the Hibis Temple, were constructed on unsuitable soft shale ground in relatively topographically low area. The impact of the unstable foundation and shallow groundwater levels have caused severe structural damage as evidenced by tilted columns, cracked walls and salt-crystal growth in the porous building stones. These destructive elements threaten some other temples in Kharga Oasis and will eventually cause total physical collapse. Although rain is rare in this area, it can form a real threat to mud brick monuments such as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose equivalent values averaging 0.20, 0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 m

  13. Geophysical and geochemical studies to delineate seawater intrusion in Bagoush area, Northwestern coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Mustafa A.; Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; El-Shiekh, Abdelfattah; Parker, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Coastal aquifers are the main source for sustainable freshwater in many arid and semi-arid regions around the earth. In such regions, groundwater extraction far exceeds the natural replenishment rates due to additional demands on groundwater resources especially in the last few decades. The characterization of the seawater intrusion in the Baghoush area along the northwestern coast of Egypt assesses the risk of seawater intrusion for the purpose of managing the groundwater resources in coastal areas. The (SI) in the oolitic Pleistocene aquifer is affected by several natural factors, including the drainage patterns, geological structures, distance from the sea and the manipulation of groundwater. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been implemented to identify the geometry of the brackish/saline water interface and to map the distribution of brackish water zone floating over the denser saline water. Seven 2-D resistivity imaging profiles were conducted using a Wenner array with different electrode distance spacings. The inverse resistivity models of these profiles indicate that these profiles are composed of three zones: the upper dry zone, the middle brackish water zone, and the lower saline water zone. The thickness of the brackish groundwater zone decreases toward the sea and the resistivity decreases with depth due to increase in water salinity. Water table along these profiles decreases from south to north, which indicates that groundwater flow is from south (inland) to north (sea). Groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes were used to determine the fresh groundwater recharge source(s), to identify mixing of different groundwaters, to evaluate seawater intrusion zone along the coast, and to investigate the upwelling of deep saline groundwater underneath the brackish zone. The recharge of fresh groundwater originates from the mountain watershed located upstream as well as the annual rainfall; however, seawater is the main source of groundwater

  14. Pisolitic flint kaolin from Kalabsha, Egypt: A laterite-derived facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Gilg, H. Albert

    2011-05-01

    Nodular, pisolitic, and plastic kaolins from Kalabsha area, Egypt were investigated for their textural, mineralogical, and geochemical compositions to examine their source and origin. The three kaolins are composed of kaolinite, quartz, anatase, and traces of hematite and rutile. Clay fractions have relatively high Nb (56-189 ppm) and Zr (480-1260 ppm) contents. Heavy minerals from the sand fractions are composed of zircon, high Cr rutile, and leucoxene. Detrital quartz occurs as either monocrystalline or polycrystalline grains with worm-like corrosion features. Two types of quartz were distinguished based on their cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis; bright and dark luminescence quartz. Rare earth elements (REEs) patterns show enrichment of light REEs relative to heavy REEs ((La/Yb) N = 1.6-10) and negative Eu anomaly (Eu*/Eu = 0.6-0.7). Nodular and pisolitic kaolins show distinct positive Ce anomaly (Ce*/Ce = 1.2-3.4) and a variable LREE depletion. The pisolitic kaolin is considered here as flint kaolin based on its unique characteristics such as hardness, massiveness, conchoidal fracture, high density, very fine-grained nature, resistance to slacking in water, high crystallinity, and homogeneous compositions. Abundance of high Cr rutile, polycrystalline, and dark luminescent quartz suggest a contribution of medium to high grade metamorphic mafic rocks to the source of Kalabsha kaolins, while presence of zircon, bright luminescence monocrystalline quartz, and REEs pattern indicate a contribution of granitic rocks. The unusual high Nb contents attest to a contribution of alkaline rocks in the source area of the deposits. Lithostratigraphic succession, pisolitic texture, corroded quartz, depletion of many trace elements including LREE, distinct positive Ce anomaly, unusual grain size distribution, and compositional homogeneity suggest a lateritic precursor of the pisolitic flint kaolin. The lateritic precursor sediments have been deferrated and resilicified in the

  15. Macroinvertebrate palaeo-communities from the Jurassic succession of Gebel Maghara (Sinai, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad; Fürsich, Franz Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Macrobenthic palaeo-communities of the Middle and Upper Jurassic strata of G. Maghara, Egypt, were investigated to identify relationships with environmental parameters and to trace the temporal changes of the ecosystem associated with sea-level fluctuations. The quantitative analysis of a data matrix comprising 198 macrobenthic taxa in 138 samples collected from four sections identified nine associations and three assemblages, interpreted to be representative of their original environment. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) delineated the same degree of habitat partitioning as hierarchical clusters with very little overlap. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) identified water depth as the primary environmental gradient controlling the distribution of the fauna, while Axis 2 reflects substrate consistency. Community structure is related to the various ramp environments. Based on diversities, the associations and assemblages have been divided into two major groups, low-stress polyspecific associations and high-stress paucispecific associations. The low-stress polyspecific associations were interpreted to represent two different habitats, a high-energy, firm substrate habitat, in which epifaunal bivalves and brachiopods in addition to solitary corals dominated during advanced stages of transgression, and a low-energy, soft substrate habitat dominated by infaunal bivalves during the maximum flooding. The high-stress paucispecific associations are dominated by one or few taxa and occurred (1) in an oligotrophic setting that developed during episodes of sediment starvation in restricted inner ramp environments or during early transgression, (2) in a setting characterized by high sedimentation rates which developed during advanced regression, (3) in a distal prodelta setting with soft substrate and dysoxia during sea-level lowstand, and (4) in a high-energy shoal environment during peak regression. A combined stress involving a shortage in food supply

  16. Assessment of the geodynamical setting around the main active faults at Aswan area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Radwan; Hosny, Ahmed; Kotb, Ahmed; Khalil, Ahmed; Azza, Abed; Rayan, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The proper evaluation of crustal deformations in the Aswan region especially around the main active faults is crucial due to the existence of one major artificial structure: the Aswan High Dam. This construction created one of the major artificial lakes: Lake Nasser. The Aswan area is considered as an active seismic area in Egypt since many recent and historical felted earthquakes occurred such as the impressive earthquake occurred on November 14, 1981 at Kalabsha fault with a local magnitude ML=5.7. Lately, on 26 December 2011, a moderate earthquake with a local magnitude Ml=4.1 occurred at Kalabsha area too. The main target of this study is to evaluate the active geological structures that can potentially affect the Aswan High Dam and that are being monitored in detail. For implementing this objective, two different geophysical tools (magnetic, seismic) in addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been utilized. Detailed land magnetic survey was carried out for the total component of geomagnetic field using two proton magnetometers. The obtained magnetic results reveal that there are three major faults parallel {F1 (Kalabsha), F2 (Seiyal) and F3} affecting the area. The most dominant magnetic trend strikes those faults in the WNW-ESE direction. The seismicity and fault plain solutions of the 26 December 2011 earthquake and its two aftershocks have been investigated. The source mechanisms of those events delineate two nodal plains. The trending ENE-WSW to E-W is consistent with the direction of Kalabsha fault and its extension towards east for the events located over it. The trending NNW-SSE to N-S is consistent with the N-S fault trending. The movement along the ENE-WSW plain is right lateral, but it is left lateral along the NNW-SSE plain. Based on the estimated relative motions using GPS, dextral strike-slip motion at the Kalabsha and Seiyal fault systems is clearly identified by changing in the velocity gradient between south and north stations

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in livestock animals and humans in the Ismailia province of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Yosra A; Krücken, Jürgen; Nöckler, Karsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Zessin, Karl-H

    2013-03-31

    The zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium was studied in one of the most densely populated provinces of Egypt regarding livestock and people. In a representative survey, faecal samples from cattle, buffalo and stool samples from diarrhoeic children (<10 years) were investigated. Parameters assumed to be related to cryptosporidiosis were recorded for animals and children. Animal samples (804) were examined by the Copro-antigen RIDA(®)QUICK test, followed by PCRs targeting the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes for antigen-positive and 10% randomly selected negative samples. All 165 human samples were tested by both methods. The overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium in ruminants was 32.2%, without significant difference between animal species. PCR identified 65.7% Cryptosporidium parvum, 11.8% Cryptosporidium ryanae, 4.1% Cryptosporidium bovis, and combinations of C. parvum plus C. ryanae (11.2%), C. parvum plus C. bovis (5.3%) and of C. parvum plus Cryptosporidium andersoni (1.8%), also without significant differences in species occurrence between cattle and buffalos. The human Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence was 49.1%, of which 60.5% were Cryptosporidium hominis, 38.2% C. parvum and 1.2% C. parvum plus C. bovis. Analysis of gp60 variants allocated C. parvum found in animals to the zoonotic subtype family IIa (18.9%, subtype IIaA15G1R1 only) and to IId (81.1%, mostly IIdA20G1). In humans 50% were classified as subtype family IIa (IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA15G2R1) and 50% were IIdA20G1. C. andersoni occurred only in cattle older than 1 year. In contrast, mono-infections with one of the three single Cryptosporidium species and the three combinations with C. parvum were more prevalent in cattle and buffaloes younger than 1 year, particularly in those younger than 3 months, and were predominantly subtype family IId. In human samples no Cryptosporidium were identified in children younger than 7 months. Neither place of residence nor the source of drinking-water had measurable

  18. Natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazard indices in granite from Aswan to Wadi El-Allaqi southeastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Uosif, M A M; Orabi, A A

    2007-01-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in granite from Aswan to Wadi El-Allaqi area that is located in southeastern desert of Egypt were undertaken. The samples collected from five locations: Gabal El Mesala, Umm Hibal, Abu Herigle, Abu Marw and Deneibit El Quleib. The purpose of this study is to provide a baseline map of radioactivity background levels in the investigated area environment, and this study will be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to geological processes. The highest average values of 226Ra and 232Th concentrations (24.00 and 31.28 Bq kg(-1), respectively) were observed at Abu Herigle region, whereas the highest average value of 40K concentration, 589.95 Bq kg(-1), was detected in Umm Hibal. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to be in the range between 5.40 and 45.11 nGy h(-1), and radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 29.57 and 71.85 Bq kg(-1). Also the representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples were also estimated and given. PMID:17569689

  19. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2010-09-01

    Twenty representative geological samples (tonalite, granodiorite, adamellite, syenogranite, rapakivi syenogranite, alkali feldspar granite and monzogranite) were collected from G. Kattar area in Eastern Desert, Egypt, for analysis by instrumental neutron activation as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) and to find out the following: (1) what information could be obtained about the REEs and distribution patterns of REEs in geological samples under investigation, (2) to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of the INAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The gamma spectra were collected by an HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of a computerized multichannel analyzer. The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values. PMID:20236830

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Bioremediation Potential of the Highly Contaminated Marine Sediments at El-Max District (Egypt, Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Ranya A.; Mapelli, Francesca; El Gendi, Hamada M.; Barbato, Marta; Goda, Doaa A.; Corsini, Anna; Cavalca, Lucia; Fusi, Marco; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal environments worldwide are threatened by the effects of pollution, a risk particularly high in semienclosed basins like the Mediterranean Sea that is poorly studied from bioremediation potential perspective especially in the Southern coast. Here, we investigated the physical, chemical, and microbiological features of hydrocarbon and heavy metals contaminated sediments collected at El-Max bay (Egypt). Molecular and statistical approaches assessing the structure of the sediment-dwelling bacterial communities showed correlations between the composition of bacterial assemblages and the associated environmental parameters. Fifty strains were isolated on mineral media supplemented by 1% crude oil and identified as a diverse range of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria involved in different successional stages of biodegradation. We screened the collection for biotechnological potential studying biosurfactant production, biofilm formation, and the capability to utilize different hydrocarbons. Some strains were able to grow on multiple hydrocarbons as unique carbon source and presented biosurfactant-like activities and/or capacity to form biofilm and owned genes involved in different detoxification/degradation processes. El-Max sediments represent a promising reservoir of novel bacterial strains adapted to high hydrocarbon contamination loads. The potential of the strains for exploitation for in situ intervention to combat pollution in coastal areas is discussed. PMID:26273661