Science.gov

Sample records for egyptian wall paintings

  1. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    PubMed

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:21678119

  2. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  3. Egyptian Symbols and Figures. Hieroglyphs [and] Scroll Paintings. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This lesson introduces students to the writing, art, and religious beliefs of ancient Egypt through hieroglyphs, one of the oldest writing systems in the world, and through tomb paintings. Hieroglyphs consist of pictures of familiar objects that represent sounds and were used in ancient Egypt from about 3100 BC to 400 CE. In the first part of the…

  4. 4. LARGE MEETING ROOM, SOUTH WALL, FIREPLACE AND PAINTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LARGE MEETING ROOM, SOUTH WALL, FIREPLACE AND PAINTING - Penn School Historic District, Frissell Community House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  5. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Glavcheva, Z; Yancheva, D; Velcheva, E; Stamboliyska, B; Petrova, N; Petkova, V; Lalev, G; Todorov, V

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials. PMID:25701135

  6. A multi-analytical approach for the study of the pigments used in the wall paintings from a building complex on the Caelian Hill (Rome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, Paola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; de Vos, Mariette; Andreoli, Martina

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, shards from Roman wall paintings (from the end of the first century to the fourth century A.D.) decorating the domus below the Basilica of SS. John and Paul on the Caelian Hill (Rome), were analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analytical techniques employed for the characterization of the pigments were the scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR and micro ATR). While SEM-EDS allowed to perform a qualitative analysis of the material, by FT-IR chemical species have been identified. The pigments identified were those mentioned in the literature for the Imperial Roman fresco painting: different types of ochre (yellow and red), mixtures containing lead, green earths and precious pigments such as cinnabar and Egyptian blue. They were often used as mixtures and the use of the most valuable pigments (cinnabar and Egyptian blue) were found in the most ancient rooms.

  7. Sukias House and its wall paintings: Reflection of English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanian, Kouros

    Sukias House is one of the Armenian noble houses located in New Julfa Neighbourhood in Isfahan city in Iran and belongs to the Safavid period (1501-1736 AD). European itineraries who visited Isfahan in 16th and 17th centuries, existed literatures and conservation reports on the Armenian buildings in New Julfa particularly on Sukias house in conjunction with condition survey and in situ examination of the paintings were the main tools to study the Sukias House and its paintings. This indicates a strong connection of the house to Armenian and English people at the time of the paintings and support idea of the involvement of the British ambassador and his Armenian translator in building of Sukias House. The existence of English and Armenian inscriptions indicates a strong connection between Armenian and English people in decorating of the house using wall painting. In addition, the depicting of Queen Elizabeth in a tableau on the external walls increases the likelihood of this house having belonged to the English ambassador in Isfahan during the Safavid period. Alternatively, it may be that English people working in Isfahan for the East India Company lived there.

  8. Analysis of Roman wall paintings found in Verona.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Rudello, Danilo; Murgia, Emanuela

    2007-09-01

    The present paper deals with the analysis of roman wall paintings fragments recovered from twelve buildings of Verona, Italy. The analytical techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, Xray powder diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. The wall preparation generally consisted of three layer: the pictorial layer, an intonachino layer of hydrated lime and a plaster one made of slaked lime and sand. The pigments found in the studied domus are different reflecting the taste and culture of Xa Regio of Italy but also the economical possibilities of the dominus and the building period. PMID:17970297

  9. Investigating shoulder muscle loading and exerted forces during wall painting tasks: influence of gender, work height and paint tool design.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Patricia M; Chopp, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2014-07-01

    The task of wall painting produces considerable risk to the workers, both male and female, primarily in the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Insufficient information is currently available regarding the potential benefits of using different paint roller designs or the possible adverse effects of painting at different work heights. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, work height, and paint tool design on shoulder muscle activity and exerted forces during wall painting. Ten young adults, five male and five female, were recruited to perform simulated wall painting at three different work heights with three different paint roller designs while upper extremity muscle activity and horizontal push force were recorded. Results demonstrated that for female participants, significantly greater total average (p = 0.007) and integrated (p = 0.047) muscle activity was present while using the conventional and curly flex paint roller designs compared to the proposed design in which the load was distributed between both hands. Additionally, for both genders, the high working height imposed greater muscular demands compared to middle and low heights. These findings suggest that, if possible, avoid painting at extreme heights (low or high) and that for female painters, consider a roller that requires the use of two hands; this will reduce fatigue onset and subsequently mitigate potential musculoskeletal shoulder injury risks. PMID:24636728

  10. Thin Wall Pipe Ultrasonic Inspection through Paint Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Petre, Cristian Cătălin

    Classical ultrasonic inspection of welds is currently done for plates thicker than 8 mm. The inspection of but welds in thin walled pipes has considerable implementation difficulties, due to guided waves dominating ultrasonic pulses propagation. Generation of purely symmetric modes, either torsional or longitudinal, requires a circumferential uniform distribution of transducers and dedicated inspection equipment, which are increasing the inspection costs. Moreover, if the surface is paint coated, the received signals are close to the detection level. The present work implies a single transducer, coupled to the painted surface. The proper choice of the guided mode and frequency range, allows the detection of a standard, small diameter through thickness hole. In this way, the inspection of pipe welds can use the same equipment as for thick materials, with only wedge adaptation.

  11. Moisture dynamics in wall paintings monitored by single-sided NMR.

    PubMed

    Oligschläger, D; Waldow, S; Haber, A; Zia, W; Blümich, B

    2015-01-01

    The durability of historic wall paintings is highly dependent on environmental influences such as moisture ingress, salt crystallization and temperature changes. A fundamental understanding of dynamic transport processes in wall paintings is necessary to apply suitable conservation and restoration methods to preserve such objects with high cultural value. Non-invasive, mobile-NMR techniques with single-sided sensors, such as the NMR-MOUSE(®), enable to monitor the moisture content, transport and apparent diffusion constants in wall paintings. We investigated this technique by experiment and modeling to correlate salt crystallization, moisture transport and local diffusion in wall-painting samples. Moreover, the influence of different painting techniques (fresco and secco) and conservation/consolidation methods on moisture transport and diffusion is discussed. The results are compared with results from field measurements on real fresco paintings in Casa del Salone Nero and the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum, Italy. PMID:25354262

  12. Wall paintings facies and their possible genetic correlates in the ancient Pompeii: A bio-anthropologic message from the past?

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Manfredini, Marco; Ruini, Cristel

    2016-09-10

    The figurative arts and precisely the ancient Pompeian wall paintings portraits can provide an additional source of information in supplementing bio-anthropological studies. There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to distinctive facial features. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by unusual skeletal changes, such as macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, hypertelorism, frontal and parietal bossing caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a spectrum of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to three thousand years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. In the present research, we discuss the potential relationship between Pompeian wall paintings portrait and the cranio-metric bone changes revealed among the Pompeian skull collections assuming that the ancient portraits can constitute an important tool that should be strictly integrated with osteologic and biomolecular data in order to argue a syndromic diagnosis in ancient population. PMID:27107679

  13. Characterization of pigments and ligands in a wall painting fragment from Liternum archaeological park (Italy).

    PubMed

    Corso, Gaetano; Gelzo, Monica; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo; Lomoriello, Filomena Schiano; D'Apolito, Oceania; Dello Russo, Antonio; Gargiulo, Patrizia; Piccioli, Ciro; Arcari, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Spectroscopic and MS techniques were used to characterize the pigments and the composition of polar and nonpolar binders of a stray wall painting fragment from Liternum (Italy) archaeological excavation. X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analysis of the decorations indicated mainly the presence of calcite, quartz, hematite, cinnabar, and cuprorivaite. Infrared spectroscopy, GC coupled to flame-ionization detector, and MS analysis of the polar and nonpolar components extracted from paint layers from three different color regions revealed the presence of free amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids. Interestingly, LC-MS shotgun analysis of the red painting region showed the presence of αS1-casein of buffalo origin. Compared to our previous results from Pompeii's wall paintings, even though the Liternum painting mixture contained also binders of animal origin, the data strongly suggest that in both cases a tempera painting technique was utilized. PMID:23002018

  14. Pigments with or without organic binder? A survey of wall painting techniques during Antiquity

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.

    1996-01-01

    The identification of ancient artistic techniques is based on laboratory studies and, for historical cases, also on literary sources. An analytical approach using the techniques of physical chemistry reveals the technical expertise of the artists, right at the dawn of art. In the case of prehistoric parietal art, we show that the artists prepared their pigments with different ground and mixed minerals. They applied their material onto the wall and the particles remained embedded in the superficial calcite layer. Later, the prehistoric people prepared a real paint with the proper pigment, an extender and an organic binder to fix the paint on the wall. During Antiquity, new techniques appear. The paint is applied to the natural or artificial wall and is executed, either directly or on a previously applied plaster. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of the techniques. The underlying chemistry provides some interesting clues on the technical choices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Polar and non-polar organic binder characterization in Pompeian wall paintings: comparison to a simulated painting mimicking an "a secco" technique.

    PubMed

    Corso, Gaetano; Gelzo, Monica; Sanges, Carmen; Chambery, Angela; Di Maro, Antimo; Severino, Valeria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Piccioli, Ciro; Arcari, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    The use of Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) allowed us to characterize the composition of polar and non-polar binders present in sporadic wall paint fragments taken from Pompeii's archaeological excavation. The analyses of the polar and non-polar binder components extracted from paint powder layer showed the presence of amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids but the absence of proteinaceous material. These results are consistent with a water tempera painting mixture composed of pigments, flours, gums, and oils and are in agreement with those obtained from a simulated wall paint sample made for mimicking an ancient "a secco" technique. Notably, for the first time, we report the capability to discriminate by tandem MS the presence of free amino acids in the paint layer. PMID:22302170

  16. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-07-15

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation.

  17. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  18. A study of smalt and red lead discolouration in Antiphonitis wall paintings in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sister Daniilia; Minopoulou, Elpida

    2009-08-01

    The present analytical study focuses on the degradation phenomena observed in fifteenth century wall paintings of the Christ Antiphonitis monastery in Cyprus. Examination of ten fragments by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), μRaman and FTIR spectroscopy revealed smalt discolouration and loss, and transformation of red lead from orange Pb3O4 to black PbO2. The chromatic changes have affected the aesthetic effect of the paintings insofar as these pigments were extensively used. The mechanisms of smalt weathering, i.e. leaching of alkali and formation of micro-cracks, are interpreted in relation to its chemical composition and to the aggressive environmental conditions. In addition, it is assumed that red lead degradation may have been induced not only by the effect of temperature, light and humidity but also by the presence of chlorine salts. These phenomena of pigment alteration and loss underline the unsuitability of smalt and minium on wall paintings, regardless of the painting technique ( fresco, fresco-secco, secco).

  19. FT-IR and EDXRF analysis of wall paintings of ancient Ainos Hagia Sophia Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, S.; Akyuz, T.; Basaran, S.; Kocabas, I.; Gulec, A.; Cesmeli, H.; Ucar, B.

    2009-04-01

    The wall paintings of ancient Ainos Hagia (Saint) Sophia Church were investigated by FT-IR and EDXRF spectroscopy. Calcite, aragonite, gypsum, and quartz were detected in all the samples. Feldspar phases and pigments were inferred from both band component analysis and the second derivative profiles of the IR spectra. The black, dark brown, and red colouration was due to different concentrations of MnO 2, Mn 2O 3, magnetite, and haematite.

  20. Wall paintings studied using Raman spectroscopy: a comparative study between various assays of cross sections and external layers.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Robador, Maria Dolores; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Siguenza, Belinda; Duran, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study between in situ applications of portable Raman spectroscopy and direct laboratory measurements using micro-Raman spectroscopy on the surface of small samples and of cross sections. The study was performed using wall paintings from different sites of the Alcazar of Seville. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer due to the presence of an acrylic polymer, calcium oxalate, calcite and gypsum that was formed or deposited on the surface. The pigments responsible for different colours, except cinnabar, were not detected by the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the surface of small samples taken from the wall paintings due to the presence of surface contaminants. The pigments and plaster were characterised using cross sections. The black colour consisted of carbon black. The red layers were formed by cinnabar and white lead or by iron oxides. The green and white colours were composed of green emerald or atacamite and calcite, respectively. Pb3O4 has also been characterised. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers consisted of calcite, quartz and feldspars. The fresco technique was used to create the wall paintings. A wall painting located on a gypsum layer was also studied. The Naples yellow in this wall painting was not characterised due to the presence of glue and oils. This study showed the advantage of studying cross sections to completely characterise the pigments and plaster in the studied wall paintings. PMID:24216251

  1. Scientific evaluation of wall paintings from Bunesti Evangelical Church, Brasov county

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Annamaria; MǎruÅ£oiu, Constantin; Bibire, Cristina; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Dreve, Simina

    2013-11-01

    Evangelical Church in the village Bunesti, Brasov county, is part of the fortified churches built since the XIV century at the south-eastern territory of Transylvania. Developed by addition in several stages during centuries, the church begun as Catholic chapel, then that was amplified in the sixteenth century, when Reform was adopted by the Saxon communities. In that period the building was extended in length and height and the catholic specific iconographic decorations were cancelled by covering with different layers of plaster and paint. The campaign of introducing in touristic circuit of old Saxon fortified churches generated, in terms of maintenance and renovations undertaken, the discovery of significant wall paintings, as treasures to be rescued and put into value. Our present efforts are focused on scientific evaluation of mural paintings found in Evangelical Church from Bunesti, by XRF and specific analysis performed on 10 different samples of mural paintings, completing visual and artistic analysis in order to establish the strategies for their recovering and preservation.

  2. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts.

    PubMed

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe2O3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb3O4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings. PMID:21216188

  3. D Survey of Pre-Hispanic Wall Painting with High Resolution Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucet, G.

    2013-07-01

    The survey and representation of pre-hispanic wall painting use to be done with traditional photography, we describe the difficulties and limitations found in this approach and we show another solution to improve the quality of this documentation. It relies on the use of photogrammetry and MicMac program. The calculated orthophotos have an accurate geometry, they are high resolution and the three-dimensional models present a high level of detail. We obtain a complete representation which satisfy the requirements of art historians and conservators to study the meanings of the paintings and their conservation state. Furthermore, as this improvement is achieved by following a particular strategy for the photo sessions and the mathematical processing on the images, it doesn't need the acquisition of additional equipment. We explain how we applied the method in the registration of a structure covered with pictorial representations that was discovered in the archaeological site of Las Higueras, México.

  4. The community distribution of bacteria and fungi on ancient wall paintings of the Mogao Grottoes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yantian; Zhang, He; Du, Ye; Tian, Tian; Xiang, Ting; Liu, Xiande; Wu, Fasi; An, Lizhe; Wang, Wanfu; Gu, Ji-Dong; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the microbial communities colonising ancient cave wall paintings of the Mogao Grottoes exhibiting signs of biodeterioration. Ten samples were collected from five different caves built during different time periods and analysed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The clone library results revealed high microbial diversity, including the bacterial groups Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi and the fungal groups Euascomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Plectomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Zygomycota, and Basidiomycota. The bacterial community structures differed among the samples, with no consistent temporal or spatial trends. However, the fungal community diversity index correlated with the building time of the caves independent of environmental factors (e.g., temperature or relative humidity). The enrichment cultures revealed that many culturable strains were highly resistant to various stresses and thus may be responsible for the damage to cave paintings in the Mogao Grottoes. PMID:25583346

  5. The community distribution of bacteria and fungi on ancient wall paintings of the Mogao Grottoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yantian; Zhang, He; Du, Ye; Tian, Tian; Xiang, Ting; Liu, Xiande; Wu, Fasi; An, Lizhe; Wang, Wanfu; Gu, Ji-Dong; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the microbial communities colonising ancient cave wall paintings of the Mogao Grottoes exhibiting signs of biodeterioration. Ten samples were collected from five different caves built during different time periods and analysed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The clone library results revealed high microbial diversity, including the bacterial groups Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi and the fungal groups Euascomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Plectomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Zygomycota, and Basidiomycota. The bacterial community structures differed among the samples, with no consistent temporal or spatial trends. However, the fungal community diversity index correlated with the building time of the caves independent of environmental factors (e.g., temperature or relative humidity). The enrichment cultures revealed that many culturable strains were highly resistant to various stresses and thus may be responsible for the damage to cave paintings in the Mogao Grottoes.

  6. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  7. Stratigraphic investigation of wall painting fragments from Roman villas of the Sabina area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Alessandra; Toschi, Francesco; Colosi, Francesca; Rubino, Gianluca; Santoro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    A number of plaster fragments of Roman wall paintings have been investigated through micro-Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in order to characterize the different layers of paint. The samples come from two Roman villas in the Sabina area, a countryside close to Rome. The two sets of painted plasters present different palette of colors, pictorial technique and texture as the villas are dated one in the first century A.D. and the other in the second. Both micro-Raman and LIBS spectroscopies have supplied compositional information by consuming a microscopic amount of sample material and not requiring sophisticated and expansive preparation of the plaster. Depth profile analysis has also been performed by monitoring the intensities ratio of specific emission lines related to some characteristic elements. The spectroscopic results have been integrated with microscopic and profilometric investigation of the samples, allowing to analyze the depth and morphology of the craters produced by the penetration of the laser pulses into the samples.

  8. Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of external wall paintings from St. Dumitru's Church, Suceava, Romania.

    PubMed

    Hernanz, A; Bratu, I; Marutoiu, O F; Marutoiu, C; Gavira-Vallejo, J M; Edwards, H G M

    2008-09-01

    The external sixteenth century wall paintings of St. Dumitru's Church in Suceava (Romania) are suffering visually from deterioration. Fragments of these paintings spallated from the external wall have been studied by micro-Raman microscopy in order to elucidate possible causes of this process. Calcite and alpha-quartz are the components of the substratum indicating that the artists used the Roman fresco technique comprising a limewash putty. No organic binders have been detected in the substrate or pigment application. Amorphous carbon and goethite, alpha-FeOOH, have been identified in areas containing residues of grey and yellow pigments, respectively. Small amounts of gypsum have been detected in the grey areas which we attribute to special attention being given to surface preparation and pigment application in these areas. An abundance of sodium nitrate, nitratine, microcrystals have been observed on the surfaces of many fragments which suggests that a biodeterioration process originating from guano deposits could have been operating in these frescoes. PMID:18649075

  9. Defect detection of wall paintings in the Château de Versailles using TV-holography and IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambard, Jean-Pierre; Roche, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Monuments are continuously submitted to external events like water infiltration or condensation, temperature variation, soil instability, that lead to internal damage of the structure itself as well as of its surfaces. Wall paintings are then submitted to stresses that may cause cracks, internal de-lamination of the plaster or de-bonding between canvas and plaster. In the frame of the restoration of the "galerie des glaces" in the "château de Versailles", TV-Holography and IR Thermography have been used to investigate the wall paintings of the vault. The surfaces to control were either direct paintings on the plaster or paintings on canvas backed on the plaster. IR Thermography for art work and in particular for wall paintings has only recently been used. The technique allows to record transient temperature maps, when slightly heating the surface during a short time. Then, nonhomogeneities in the conductive heat transfer are related to de-bonding or de-lamination. The time parameter gives information on the depth of the defect. A calibration procedure has to be carried out to ensure reliable defect detection. Speckle interferometry is a Non Destructive Testing technique that is currently used in industry. For the wall paintings, we have used TV-Holography associated with a continuous wave laser. The technique allows, 13 metres away from the surface, to detect parts of the paintings that were vibrating due to an acoustic excitation. The control processes based on these two technologies is detailed as well as the results obtained and a comparison with manual investigation is done.

  10. Cinnabar alteration in archaeological wall paintings: an experimental and theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, Madeleine Kegelman; Balonis, Magdalena; Kakoulli, Ioanna

    2015-11-01

    The red mineral pigment known as cinnabar (HgS) was commonly employed in Roman fresco wall paintings. Fresco artists of the period favored this pigment for its striking red color. However, upon excavation and exposure to air and light, cinnabar-pigmented surfaces recovered from archaeological contexts often proved to be unstable. Mural paintings colored with cinnabar that have been exposed in the open air frequently demonstrate a disfiguring, irreversible darkening of the surface. Traditionally, scholars have attributed this alteration to a light-induced phase change from red α-cinnabar to black β-cinnabar (meta-cinnabar). While this transformation has not been totally excluded, the prevailing view among conservation scientists is that chlorine plays a key role in the darkening process through the formation of light-sensitive mercury chloride compounds, or as a catalyst in the photochemical redox of Hg(II)S into Hg(0) and S(0). Using laboratory-based experiments and thermodynamic modeling, this paper attempts to further clarify the mechanism(s) and kinetics of cinnabar alteration in fresco applications, especially the role of light, humidity, and chlorine ions. Additionally, it explores possible pathways and preventive as well as remedial conservation treatments during or immediately following excavation, to inhibit or retard darkening of cinnabar-pigmented fresco surfaces.

  11. Near-crater discoloration of white lead in wall paintings during laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, R.; L'Hermite, D.; Semerok, A.; Salmon, L.; Detalle, V.

    2007-12-01

    During Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of white lead pigment (basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO 3·Pb(OH) 2), used in wall paintings of historical interest, a yellow-brown discoloration has been observed around the crater. This phenomenon faded after a few days exposure under ambient atmosphere. It was established that the mechanism of this discoloration consists in lead oxides (PbO) formation. It was verified by further experiments under argon atmosphere that recombination of lead with oxygen in the plasma plume produces the oxides, which settle around the crater and induce this discoloration. The impact of discoloration on the artwork's aesthetic aspect and the role of atmosphere on discoloration attenuation are discussed. The mechanism is studied on three other pigments (malachite, Prussian blue and ultramarine blue) and threshold for discoloration occurrence is estimated.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube Paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowty, Heather; Wang, Chyi-Shan

    2005-04-01

    The fabrication of water-borne polyurethane nanocomposites containing multi-wall nanotubes has presented a significant technological challenge to those in the polymer community. Such conductive polyurethanes are of great interest to the paint and coatings industry for use in electrical grounding and shielding. Currently, these materials are formed by strong acidic reflux of the nanotubes and subsequent dispersal in the polymer matrix. This treatment can result in significant shortening of the tubes and degradation of the resulting mechanical and electrical transport properties. Here we present an alternate technique in which various conductive and non-conductive water-soluble polymers are physi-adsorbed to the surface of the nanotube. These interactions with the nanotubes result in highly uniform suspensions of water-based urethane coatings and bulk materials. We will examine the polymer chemistry and morphologies of these nanostructured materials and the resulting thermal, electrical and mechanical properties.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  14. Effect of resin content and substrate on the emission of BTEX and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this work is to explore the effect of resin content and the effect of substrate on the emission of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint. Four low-volatile organic compound (VOC) paints include paints A (20% acrylic), B (30% acrylic), C (20% polyvinyl acetate), and D (30% polyvinyl acetate) were painted on stainless steel specimen for the study of resin effect. Green calcium silicate, green cement, and stainless steel were painted with paints A and C for the study of substrate effect. Concentrations of the VOCs in the chamber decreased with the elapsed time. Both resin type and resin quantity in paint had effects on VOC emissions. Paints with acrylic resin emitted less BTEX and carbonyls than paints with polyvinyl acetate resin. However, the effects of resin quantity varied with VOCs. Porous substrates were observed to interact more strongly with paints than inert substrates. Both green calcium silicate and green cement substrates have strong power of adsorption of VOCs from wall paints, namely toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, methacrolein, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Some compounds like toluene, formaldehyde, and butyaldehyde were desorbed very slowly from green calcium silicate and green cement substrates. PMID:26498819

  15. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  16. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Cucci, Costanza; Cuzman, Oana; Fornacelli, Cristina; Galeotti, Monica; Gomoiu, Ioana; Lognoli, David; Mohanu, Dan; Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Tiano, Piero

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm2 to 1 mJ/cm2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  17. Laser paint removal on the outside walls of the Church Abbey Saint Adoeno in Bisceglie (BAT), Italy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Catalano, I. M.; Bassi, P.

    2010-09-01

    It is the oldest church in the city after the cathedral. It is among the purest examples of Romanesque. It was founded in 1074 and expenses for its construction helped the inhabitants of the agricultural hamlets of the Cirignano, Pacciano and Zappino. The church was dedicated to St. Adoeno Dado, bishop of Rouen, protector of Norman, because , according to tradition, the building also participated Norman soldiers. San Adoeno church has a façade at cusp with a truncated tympanum , crowned by an eagle. In the centre of the façade there is a rose ornament surrounded by four lions and a statue of St. Adoeno ( Figs. A to I ). On the outside walls of this Abbey many graffiti, produced by different coloured spray paints were found. After the usual photographical tests some Laser Paint Removal trials were executed to verify the damage threshold of the calcareous stony substrate as well as the possibility to ablate these paints by a Nd - YAG laser in Q-Switch mode. Even if all the classical four laser paint ablation techniques were employed some paints showed a great difficulty to be removed from the substrate. For these ones it was necessary to increase at maximum both the energy per pulse and the fluence value for obtaining some acceptable result but the substrate looked turned pale. It was decided to remove a small amount of these paints and subject to chemical analysis for determining whether they were acrylic based. At the same time it was investigated on the type of limestone substrate that appeared more porous and less hard on the surface than the common local limestone marble basin, that is, Trani or Bisceglie. So, on the light of these investigations, the possible solution for this hard laser ablation problem was carried out with an acceptable final result.

  18. Microcharacterization of a natural blue pigment used in wall paintings during the Romanesque period in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Pardos, Carlos; Abad, José-Luis; García, José-Ramón

    2013-12-01

    In Romanesque wall paintings in Aragon (Spain), the pigment used for creating blue was a very characteristic mineral, aerinite, which came from local ores in the southern Pyrenees. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance spectroscopy were used to make a detailed microcharacterization of this rare blue pigment in order to improve the knowledge of its composition and possible variability, from samples of medieval paintings and some mineral ores. New analytical data on the chemical composition of the blue pigment are reported here, together with the characterization of its microstructure, and the heterogeneity of the natural pigment made by the features of the ore itself. X-ray diffraction pattern and color parameters of the mineral ores are also included. The data obtained by SEM-EDX will assist identification of this pigment by electron microscopy. The natural variability in composition observed in the samples may be used to explain formation of the extracted mineral and to compare several ore sources. Connection of the ore composition with the pigments used in Romanesque wall paintings will help both provenance and attribution studies. PMID:24001355

  19. Romano-British wall paintings: Raman spectroscopic analysis of fragments from two urban sites of early military colonisation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H G M; Middleton, P S; Hargreaves, M D

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectroscopic analyses of 1st century AD Romano-British villa wall-painting fragments from two important military and early urban centres at Colchester and Lincoln have demonstrated some interesting contrasts in technique and palette usage. Colchester, the earliest fortified settlement, developed a sophisticated painting and craft industry compared with Lincoln in the assimilation of novel substrate preparation ideas and pigment adoption. The earliest use of the rather rare purple mineral pigment, caput mortuum, hitherto reported in only a few Roman villas elsewhere in mainland Europe, is in evidence in this early phase settlement and the use of gypsum as a special ground preparation agent as an additive to the more common limewash putty to enhance the effect of the use of lazurite as a pigment is worthy of note in this context. Otherwise, the pigments are seen to be those that are quite normally encountered in Roman villas, namely, haematite, goethite, terre verte, and carbon. The results of this study indicate that at Colchester there was a continued development in technique into the colonial phase compared with a stagnation in Lincoln; these scientific results have created a stimulus for further historical research into pigment and techniques development for wall paintings at the fringe of the Roman Empire in the 1st-3rd Centuries AD. PMID:19070538

  20. Romano-British wall paintings: Raman spectroscopic analysis of fragments from two urban sites of early military colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Middleton, P. S.; Hargreaves, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectroscopic analyses of 1st century AD Romano-British villa wall-painting fragments from two important military and early urban centres at Colchester and Lincoln have demonstrated some interesting contrasts in technique and palette usage. Colchester, the earliest fortified settlement, developed a sophisticated painting and craft industry compared with Lincoln in the assimilation of novel substrate preparation ideas and pigment adoption. The earliest use of the rather rare purple mineral pigment, caput mortuum, hitherto reported in only a few Roman villas elsewhere in mainland Europe, is in evidence in this early phase settlement and the use of gypsum as a special ground preparation agent as an additive to the more common limewash putty to enhance the effect of the use of lazurite as a pigment is worthy of note in this context. Otherwise, the pigments are seen to be those that are quite normally encountered in Roman villas, namely, haematite, goethite, terre verte, and carbon. The results of this study indicate that at Colchester there was a continued development in technique into the colonial phase compared with a stagnation in Lincoln; these scientific results have created a stimulus for further historical research into pigment and techniques development for wall paintings at the fringe of the Roman Empire in the 1st-3rd Centuries AD.

  1. Identification of bacteria in a biodegraded wall painting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rölleke, S; Muyzer, G; Wawer, C; Wanner, G; Lubitz, W

    1996-01-01

    Medieval wall paintings are often affected by biodecay. An inventory of the existing microorganisms associated with the damage to the paintings is not yet an integral part of the restoration process. This stems from the lack of effective means for such a stocktaking. Nevertheless, fungi and bacteria cause severe damage through mechanical processes from growth into the painting and its grounding and through their metabolism. Detailed information on the bacterial colonization of ancient wall paintings is essential for the protection of the paintings. We used a molecular approach based on the detection and identification of DNA sequences encoding rRNA (rDNA) to identify bacteria present on an ancient wall painting without prior cultivation of the organisms, since it has been shown that most of these bacteria cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. To trace the noncultivated fraction of bacteria, total DNA from a biodegraded wall painting sample from a 13th century fresco was extracted and 194-bp fragments of the 16S rDNA were amplified with eubacterial primers. The 16S rDNA fragments of uniform length obtained from the different bacterial species were separated according to their sequence differences by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). By sequencing excised and reamplified individual DNA bands, we characterized the phylogenetic affiliation of the corresponding bacteria. Using this approach, we identified members or close relatives of the genera Halomonas, Clostridium, and Frankia. To our knowledge, these groups of bacteria have not yet been isolated and implicated by conventional microbiological techniques as contributing to the biodegradation of wall paintings. PMID:8787403

  2. Egyptian Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lull, José; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The ancient Egyptians had a wide range of constellations, which populated the skies of ancient Egypt (see Chap. 133, "Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_146) for more than three millennia, whose knowledge has come to us through lists of stars and other representations which have mainly appeared in a dozen of coffins, a few clepsydrae, and a good set of astronomical ceilings. Hence, by making very simple assumptions and using the information provided by the ancient Egyptian sky-watchers, it is possible to uncover a great part of the ancient Egyptian firmament. This celestial tapestry was populated by the images of animals, symbols, and divinities that were most significant in understanding the Egyptian interpretation of the cosmos.

  3. Experimental study of unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena on shock-tube wall using fast-response temperature-sensitive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes an experimental study that used a fast-response temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) to investigate the unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena occurring on a shock-tube wall. To understand these phenomena in detail, a fast-response TSP with high temperature sensitivity developed for transient temperature measurement was applied to the wall. The shock-tube experiment was carried out under the over-tailored condition, with a pressure ratio of 110 for test gases of air in driver/driven tubes. The following aspects were clarified using the TSP: (a) the TSP could be used to visualize the unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena and estimate the quantitative heat flux on the shock-tube wall; (b) an x-t diagram based on the TSP response showed shock-tube wall characteristics that included the incident/reflected shocks, laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition, streaks in the turbulent boundary layer, reflected shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and waves reflected from a contact surface; (c) the TSP graphically showed that a transition front from the plate's leading edge and turbulent spots moved with 80% of the free-stream velocity behind the incident shock. In addition, the TSP could track the growth of the turbulent spots on the wall.

  4. Portable Raman, DRIFTS, and XRF Analysis to Diagnose the Conservation State of Two Wall Painting Panels from Pompeii Deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Italy).

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Maguregui, Maite; Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a methodology that combines spectroscopic speciation, performed through portable Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) working in situ, and thermodynamic speciation to diagnose the environmental impacts, induced by past and current events, on two wall painting panels (Nos. 9103 and 9255) extracted more than 150 years ago from the walls of a Pompeian house (Marcus Lucretius House, Regio IX, Insula 3, House 5/24) and deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (MANN). The results show a severe chemical attack of the acid gases that can be explained only by the action of H2S during and just after the eruption of the Vesuvius volcano, that expelled a high concentration of sulfur gases. This fact can be considered as the most important process impacting the wall painting panels deposited in the museum, while the rain-wash processes and the colonization of microorganisms have not been observed in contrast to the impacts shown by the wall paintings left outside in the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the systematic presence of lead traces and strontium in both wall paintings suggests their presence as impurities of the calcite mortars (intonacco) or calcite binder of these particular fresco Pompeian murals. PMID:26767639

  5. Recording Earthen Architecture at the Peruvian Andes: the Case of KUÑO Tambo CHURCH'S Historic Wall Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, K.; Hanley, C.; Santana Quintero, M.; Fai, S.; Ouimet, C.; Cancino, C.; Rainer, L.; Villacorta-Santamato, L.

    2013-07-01

    According to UNESCO "Earthen architecture is one of the most original and powerful expressions of our ability to create a built environment with readily available resources. It includes a great variety of structures, ranging from mosques, palaces and granaries, to historic city centres, cultural landscapes and archaeological sites" (WHEAP, 2007). This contribution looks at developing effective methods for recording earthen historic structures for their rehabilitation and preservation using the Kuño Tambo church in Peru, which is a Peruvian national historic site that requires serious rehabilitation work, as a case study. This project describes the compilation of an effective metric record of the "state-of-conservation" - "as found" of wall paintings in this important and remote building using a toolbox of different "off-the-shelf" heritage recording techniques. This approach was applied by Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), as part of the Earthen Architecture Initiative of the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI).

  6. Analysis of egg-based model wall paintings by use of an innovative combined dot-ELISA and UPLC-based approach.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Mariangela; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Giambi, Francesca; Rosi, Luca; Papini, Anna Maria; Dei, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The chemical analysis of egg-based wall paintings-the mezzo fresco technique-is an interesting topic in the characterisation of organic binders. A revised procedure for a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) able to detect protein components of egg-based wall paintings is reported. In the new dot-ELISA procedure we succeeded in maximizing the staining colour by adjusting the temperature during the staining reaction. Quantification of the colour intensity by visible reflectance spectroscopy resulted in a straight line plot of protein concentration against reflectance in the wavelength range 380-780 nm. The modified dot-ELISA procedure is proposed as a semi-quantitative analytical method for characterisation of protein binders in egg-based paintings. To evaluate its performance, the method was first applied to standard samples (ovalbumin, whole egg, egg white), then to model specimens, and finally to real samples (Giotto's wall paintings). Moreover, amino acid analysis performed by innovative ultra-performance liquid chromatography was applied both to standards and to model samples and the results were compared with those from the dot-ELISA tests. In particular, after protein hydrolysis (24 h, 114 °C, 6 mol L(-1) HCl) of the samples, amino acid derivatization by use of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate enabled reproducible analysis of amino acids. This UPLC amino acid analysis was rapid and reproducible and was applied for the first time to egg-based paintings. Because the painting technique involved the use of egg-based tempera on fresh lime-based mortar, the study enabled investigation of the effect of the alkaline environment on egg-protein detection by both methods. PMID:22614707

  7. Onoufrios, the famous XVI's century iconographer, creator of the ``Berati School'': studying the technique and materials used in wall paintings of inscribed churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; Arapi, M.; Zorba, T.; Anastasiou, M.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2006-06-01

    The study of the materials and techniques employed for wall painting, complementing the information from historical and aesthetic data, contributes to the integrated knowledge of the iconographer and his period. In the 16th century, regarding the iconography in the former Byzantine area, besides the School of Crete and Francos Catelanos and his school, a third artistic personality who also created his own school, Onoufrios, appeared in central Albania and expanded his activity as a painter to northern Greece as well as nearby areas, such as Ohrid. Inscriptions documenting the works of Onoufrios are found in some of the churches that he decorated with wall paintings: “St. Apostles” (1547) Kastoria Greece, “St. Nicolas” Shelcan Albania, “St. Paraskevi” (1554), Valsh Albania, while are attributed to him the church of “St. Theodores” in Berati, Albania (before 1547) and others. He is one of the best icon painters of the whole Balkan region, and the best painter that has ever worked in Albanian territory. Onoufrios managed to combine the local painting tradition with the best tradition of the eastern (Paleologian) and western (Italian) schools, resulting in a realistic and natural depiction. He is the creator of the “Berati School” that expanded to other parts of the peninsula. His individual character can be distinguished in the work of his students: his son Nikolaos (who inherited his style in painting), Onoufrios from Cyprus, etc. Based on careful observations, we extracted number of paint samples from wall paintings of three of the above mentioned churches. Ground and paint layers were examined using micro-FTIR, Optical Microscopy, TXRF and SEM-EDS, to characterize materials and methods used by the artist to create these works. Our findings in each church are discussed and compared with the others in order to understand how and with what material and resources the painter worked and how he developed his technique. The presence of calcium

  8. Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choińska, Marta; Zielińska, Dobrochna; Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia; Kijowska, Agnieszka; Wagner, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th-14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers.

  9. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  10. Sub-surface terahertz imaging through uneven surfaces: visualizing Neolithic wall paintings in Çatalhöyük.

    PubMed

    Walker, Gillian C; Bowen, John W; Matthews, Wendy; Roychowdhury, Soumali; Labaune, Julien; Mourou, Gerard; Menu, Michel; Hodder, Ian; Jackson, J Bianca

    2013-04-01

    Pulsed terahertz imaging is being developed as a technique to image obscured mural paintings. Due to significant advances in terahertz technology, portable systems are now capable of operating in unregulated environments and this has prompted their use on archaeological excavations. August 2011 saw the first use of pulsed terahertz imaging at the archaeological site of Çatalhöyük, Turkey, where mural paintings dating from the Neolithic period are continuously being uncovered by archaeologists. In these particular paintings the paint is applied onto an uneven surface, and then covered by an equally uneven surface. Traditional terahertz data analysis has proven unsuccessful at sub-surface imaging of these paintings due to the effect of these uneven surfaces. For the first time, an image processing technique is presented, based around Gaussian beam-mode coupling, which enables the visualization of the obscured painting. PMID:23571902

  11. Study by micro-Raman spectroscopy of wall paints (external parts and cross-sections) from reales alcazares of Seville (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián

    2013-04-01

    The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and

  12. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions.

  13. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions. PMID:26654964

  14. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  15. Use of mid-infrared fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) to evaluate efficacy of nanostructured systems in wall painting conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Carretti, E.; Picollo, M.; Baglioni, P.; Dei, L.

    2006-06-01

    Mid-infrared fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (Mid-IR FORS), a sensitive, non-invasive technique for determining chemicals present on a surface, has been used to test efficacy of oil-in-water microemulsions and micellar solutions in cleaning of painted surfaces. The target of the application of these innovative nanostructured systems was the selective removal of an undesired polymeric layer from a fresco surface. The experiments were carried out by first coating frosted glass slides and painted mortar simulating a real fresco with four acrylic and vinyl polymer varnishes commonly used in wall painting restoration. Spectra of the samples were then collected by means of microreflectance single-beam infrared spectroscopy and Mid-IR FORS before and after the application of the aqueous dispersed systems based cleaning agents. Sharp, strong peaks due to the stretching of the estereous C=O bond of the polymers in a wavelength range between 1730 and 1750 cm-1 were used as marker for the presence of these organic materials. Through Mid-IR FORS semiquantitative spectroscopy, the efficiency of the treatment has been clearly demonstrated, indicating that the nanotechnology approach represents a new, safe, and very efficient way of removing aged polymers from fresco surfaces.

  16. PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAINT SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OFFICE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. PROJECTING WALLS WITH INFILLED ARCHES WERE PART OF ONE PAINTING BOOTH IN ORIGINAL STRUCTURE. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Paint Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. Time-Resolved Visualization of Görtler Vortices in a Pulsed Convex Wall Jet using Fast Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, James; Danon, Ron; Greenblatt, David

    2015-11-01

    The time-resolved formation and structure of Görtler vortices in a pulsed convex wall jet are studied in this work. While the presence of Görtler vortices in laminar boundary layers on concave surfaces can be clearly observed, their presence in wall jets flowing over convex surfaces is difficult to discern due to transition to turbulence in the outer part of the jet. This work employed fast-response pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), which has a documented flat frequency response greater than 5 kHz, to visualize the time-resolved formation of the wall jet and the details of the Görtler vortices. The radius of curvature of the wall jet was 8 cm, and the Reynolds number (based on slot height and jet exit velocity) was varied between 5 ×102 and 4 ×104 . The characteristic spanwise wavelength of the vortices was studied as a function of jet Reynolds number. Furthermore, as the Reynolds number was increased, various secondary instabilities were observed that led to laminar-turbulent transition. Funding provided by the U.S. Fulbright Scholar Program.

  18. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  19. Recovering data from noisy fringe patterns from a portable digital speckle pattern interferometer for in-situ inspection of painting hanging on the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, P.; Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    We report on a method for recovering data from a simple portable Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer intended for utilization outside of laboratory conditions, without anti-vibration devices. We used the system for monitoring the structural behavior of a painting on wood, hanging on a wall. In such a situation, fringes, produced by the object displacements, were affected by random distortions caused by environment noise. However a satisfactory number of undistorted, or barely distorted, fringe patterns were found and utilized for processing. We performed fast continuous acquisitions of consecutive interferograms, picking usable fringe patterns out of a large amount of recorded frames. This is the crucial task in the measurement procedure. For this purpose we developed a software routine, based on jointly analysis of both spectral content and fringe image sharpne ss, as selection rule. From the selected frames, by using a simple approach based on Hilbert Transform and Phase Unwrapping, via MAx-flow (PUMA) algorithm, we were able to evaluate the painting whole structure deformations, caused by environmental thermo-hygrometric fluctuations.

  20. Ochre-differentiation through micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopies: application on wall paintings at Meteora and Mount Athos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikiaris, D.; Daniilia, Sister; Sotiropoulou, S.; Katsimbiri, O.; Pavlidou, E.; Moutsatsou, A. P.; Chryssoulakis, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely-used inorganic pigments of Byzantine and post-Byzantine hagiography are earth pigments called ochres such as, red and yellow ochres, limonite, goethite, raw and burnt sienna, caput mortuum and hematite. The present experimental work proposes a technique of differentiation that allows one to distinguish among all the different kinds of iron oxides, thereby providing a better understanding of the painting technique used on portable icons and wall paintings. The ratios between the main spectroscopic peaks, attributable to the major components usually present in ochres, were calculated and compared, one against the another, from the spectra obtained through micro-Raman spectroscopy. Elementary composition is also revealed through a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The possibility for detailed study on a particular Byzantine ochre palette can thus be performed based on the small differences in its nature and composition. These differences can first be observed and then measured among all of the natural earth pigments, through μRaman and μFTIR spectroscopies.

  1. Ochre-differentiation through micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopies: application on wall paintings at Meteora and Mount Athos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Bikiaris, D; Daniilia Sister; Sotiropoulou, S; Katsimbiri, O; Pavlidou, E; Moutsatsou, A P; Chryssoulakis, Y

    2000-01-01

    The most widely-used inorganic pigments of Byzantine and post-Byzantine hagiography are earth pigments called ochres such as, red and yellow ochres, limonite, goethite, raw and burnt sienna, caput mortuum and hematite. The present experimental work proposes a technique of differentiation that allows one to distinguish among all the different kinds of iron oxides, thereby providing a better understanding of the painting technique used on portable icons and wall paintings. The ratios between the main spectroscopic peaks, attributable to the major components usually present in ochres, were calculated and compared, one against the another, from the spectra obtained through micro-Raman spectroscopy. Elementary composition is also revealed through a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The possibility for detailed study on a particular Byzantine ochre palette can thus be performed based on the small differences in its nature and composition. These differences can first be observed and then measured among all of the natural earth pigments, through microRaman and microFTIR spectroscopies. PMID:10728852

  2. Microscopy and Microanalysis of an Extreme Case of Salt and Biodegradation in 17th Century Wall Paintings.

    PubMed

    Gil, Milene; Martins, Maria Rosário; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Souto, Cátia; Longelin, Stephane; Cardoso, Ana; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2015-06-01

    The present study characterizes the main deterioration mechanisms affecting the early 17th frescoes of Casa de Fresco, the only known example in Portugal of a semi-underground leisure room richly decorated with a balcony over a water well. Frescoes from the vault are at risk due to salt weathering and biodeterioration. The aim of the research was identification of the deterioration materials, determination of their origin, and their effect on the frescoes before future intervention. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) was used to determine salt morphology and microanalysis. The mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, complemented with µ-Raman and µ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biological assessment was evaluated with optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Bacterial and fungal isolation and identification were performed using standard culture media and methods according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and from the Compendium of Soil Fungi. The results show that Ca and Ca-Mg carbonates from the paint renderings are the predominant salt species affecting the site. Bacterial strains from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungal strains from the Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated in the salt formations, within and between the mortar layers. Azurite, malachite, and smalt paint layers are the most affected by the weathering conditions. PMID:26149345

  3. Egyptian Cosmology and Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, James P.

    Ancient Egyptian texts and images reveal a detailed view of the world and its origin. Multiple creation accounts, once seen as rival theologies, concentrate on different aspects of the creation, meshing into a coherent vision that remained stable throughout ancient Egyptian history.

  4. Paint-Overspray Catcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to catch paint overspray has been proposed. Overspray is an unavoidable parasitic component of spray that occurs because the flow of air or other gas in the spray must turn at the sprayed surface. Very small droplets are carried away in this turning flow, and some land on adjacent surfaces not meant to be painted. The basic principle of the paint-spray catcher is to divert the overspray into a suction system at the boundary of the area to be painted. The paint-spray catcher (see figure) would include a toroidal plenum connected through narrow throat to a nozzle that would face toward the center of the torus, which would be positioned over the center of the area to be spray-painted. The plenum would be supported by four tubes that would also serve as suction exhaust ducts. The downstream ends of the tubes (not shown in the figure) would be connected to a filter on a suction pump. The pump would be rated to provide a suction mass flow somewhat greater than that of the directed spray gas stream, so that the nozzle would take in a small excess of surrounding gas and catch nearly all of the overspray. A small raised lip at the bottom edge of the nozzle would catch paint that landed inside the nozzle. Even if the paint is directly piston pumped, the droplets entrain an air flow by time they approach the wall, so there is always a gas stream to carry the excess droplets to the side. For long-duration spraying operations, it could be desirable to include a suction-drain apparatus to prevent overflowing and dripping of paint from inside the lip. A version without an external contraction and with the throat angled downward would be a more compact version of catcher, although it might be slightly less efficient.

  5. Paint Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lewis Research Center (LEW) has assisted The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) in analyzing the museum's paintings. Because of the many layers of paint that are often involved, this is a complex process. The cross-section of a paint chip must be scanned with a microscope to determine whether a paint layer is original or a restoration. The paint samples, however, are rarely flat enough for high magnification viewing and are frequently scratched. LEW devised an automated method that produces intact, flat, polished paint cross-sections. A sophisticated microprocessor-controlled grinding and polishing machine was manually employed in preparation of exotic samples for aerospace research was a readily adaptable technique. It produced perfectly flat samples with clearly defined layers. The process has been used successfully on a number of paintings, and LEW and CMA are considering additional applications.

  6. Painting "mania".

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2011-02-01

    Bipolar mood disorder (manic-depressive illness) has many artistic references, especially in the painting domain, depicting moods and associated features. The title of some paintings directly refers to the psychopathological state of the disorder. There are a great number of painting masterpieces showing the depressive pole of manic-depressive illness. In some paintings bearing the title Melancholia, some admixture of the opposite manic pole can be traced, the phenomenon named today as "mixed depressive state". On the other hand, a painting depicting a pure manic pole, as an element of bipolar mood disorder is very difficult to find. However, it seems that such criteria could be met by the painting presented on the next page entitled "Mania" whose author is Florencio Yllana, a contemporary artist of Philippine origin (born 1977), studying in USA and presently living in Brazil. The painting was done in 2001 following the acute manic episode in the course of bipolar mood disorder in the artist. PMID:20692707

  7. Deposition of lithium on a plasma edge probe in TFTR -- Behavior of lithium-painted walls interacting with edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Ashida, K.; Kugel, H.

    1998-05-01

    Recent observations have indicated that lithium pellet injection wall conditioning plays an important role in achieving the enhanced supershot regime in TFTR. However, little is understood about the behavior of lithium-coated limiter walls, interacting with edge plasmas. In the final campaign of TFTR, a cylindrical carbon fiber composite probe was inserted into the boundary plasma region and exposed to ohmically-heated deuterium discharges with lithium pellet injection. The ion-drift side probe surface exhibits a sign of codeposition of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and deuterium, whereas the electron side essentially indicates high-temperature erosion. It is found that lithium is incorporated in these codeposits in the form of oxide at the concentration of a few percent. In the electron side, lithium has been found to penetrate deeply into the probe material, presumably via rapid diffusion through interplane spaces in the graphite crystalline. Though it is not conclusive, materials mixing in the carbon and lithium system appears to be a key process in successful lithium wall conditioning.

  8. Ancient Egyptian Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalinger, Anthony

    The study of the Egyptian calendar lends itself to a deeper analysis in which the original system of calendrics was based on the moon and the later one, organized by a simple device of 365 days per year. The latter, originally determined by the sighting of the star Sothis (Sirius) in the east after a period of 70 days of invisibility, is called the Civil Calendar. The change, however, brought with it an alteration in the names of the Egyptian months.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma).

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2004-02-01

    Bacterial diversity in caves is still rarely investigated using culture-independent techniques. In the present study, bacterial communities on Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma) were analyzed, using 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis community fingerprinting and phylogenetic analyses without prior cultivation. Results revealed complex bacterial communities consisting of a high number of novel 16S rDNA sequence types and indicated a high biodiversity of lithotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Identified bacteria were related to already cultured bacteria (39 clones) and to environmental 16S rDNA clones (46 clones). The nearest phylogenetic relatives were members of the Proteobacteria (41.1%), of the Acidobacterium division (16.5%), Actinobacteria (20%), Firmicutes (10.6%), of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides division (5.9%), Nitrospira group (3.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (1.2%), and candidate WS3 division (1.2%). Thirteen of these clones were most closely related to those obtained from the previous studies on Tito Bustillo Cave. The comparison of the present data with the data obtained previously from Altamira and Tito Bustillo Caves revealed similarities in the bacterial community components, especially in the high abundance of the Acidobacteria and Rhizobiaceae, and in the presence of bacteria related to ammonia and sulfur oxidizers. PMID:19712338

  10. Painted Pickup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  11. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  12. Monster Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  13. Tempera Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albenda, Pauline

    1973-01-01

    Through his experiences with tempera painting, the youthful person will become aware that art expression involves a combining of factors of the original ingredients into new modes of expression. (Author)

  14. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  15. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

    2009-05-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  16. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  17. [[Evolution of Egyptian migration

    PubMed

    Saleh, S A

    1985-01-01

    Changing patterns of Egyptian emigration over the past 30 years are reviewed. Four phases are identified: migration among Arab countries up to 1961, migration to the West for professional advancement, migration for political freedom, and migration to oil-producing countries since 1973 for economic reasons. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12268794

  18. Sit Like an Egyptian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…

  19. Paint and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many other mixtures of paints used for industry, the arts, and hobbies. Years ago, lead and mercury were used in paint. How would I be exposed to the chemicals in paint? Exposure to paint can happen by: ...

  20. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  1. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  2. Improving FTIR imaging speciation of organic compound residues or their degradation products in wall painting samples, by introducing a new thin section preparation strategy based on cyclododecane pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Papliaka, Zoi Eirini; Vaccari, Lisa; Zanini, Franco; Sotiropoulou, Sophia

    2015-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging in transmission mode, employing a bidimensional focal plane array (FPA) detector, was applied for the detection and spatially resolved chemical characterisation of organic compounds or their degradation products within the stratigraphy of a critical group of fragments, originating from prehistoric and roman wall paintings, containing a very low concentration of subsisted organic matter or its alteration products. Past analyses using attenuated total reflection (ATR) or reflection FTIR on polished cross sections failed to provide any evidence of any organic material assignable as binding medium of the original painting. In order to improve the method's performance, in the present study, a new method of sample preparation in thin section was developed. The procedure is based on the use of cyclododecane C12H24 as embedding material and a subsequent double-side polishing of the specimen. Such procedure provides samples to be studied in FTIR transmission mode without losing the information on the spatial distribution of the detected materials in the paint stratigraphy. For comparison purposes, the same samples were also studied after opening their stratigraphy with a diamond anvil cell. Both preparation techniques offered high-quality chemical imaging of the decay products of an organic substance, giving clues to the painting technique. In addition, the thin sections resulting from the cyclododecane pre-treatment offered more layer-specific data, as the layer thickness and order remained unaffected, whereas the samples resulting from compression within the diamond cell were slightly deformed; however, since thinner and more homogenous, they provided higher spectral quality in terms of S/N ratio. In summary, the present study illustrates the appropriateness of FTIR imaging in transmission mode associated with a new thin section preparation strategy to detect and localise very low-concentrated organic matter subjected to

  3. Painting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  4. The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhorne, Clifton O.

    A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press…

  5. Pressure Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Bencic, T.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews new advances and applications of pressure sensitive paints in aerodynamic testing. Emphasis is placed on important technical aspects of pressure sensitive paint including instrumentation, data processing, and uncertainty analysis.

  6. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  7. I Can Paint!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kate; Bower, Robin, Ed.

    This book gives detailed information concerning the use of tools and media of paint. It aims at developing skills and knowledge that will allow young students to express themselves by painting. The book is organized into five sections with subheadings, including: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Exploring Paint As We Use..." with subheadings: "Hands";…

  8. Ottoman Perception of Egyptian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out before the period described as "Arab Spring" in Egypt which is one of the highly effective countries of Middle East in political, economic and demographic structuring. The aim was to determine the Ottoman Turks image of Egyptian secondary school third grade students. Descriptive scanning model out of…

  9. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INTERIOR ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors depending on the frequency of use and amount of surface paint. The U...

  11. 178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING IN BACKGROUND IS SLIDING WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. 8. Second floor front apartment showing ornately painted pressed metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Second floor front apartment showing ornately painted pressed metal ceiling, as well as modern partitions and wall treatments. View looking north. - Franklin Grocery Company Building, 1 South Main Street, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  13. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    PubMed

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  14. Photodynamic inactivation of biofilm building microorganisms by photoactive facade paints.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Annegret; Bornhütter, Tobias; Färber, Alexander; Schaller, Christian; Röder, Beate

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed as a proof of concept for singlet oxygen generating facade paint as an alternative to conventional biocide containing facade paint for the prevention of biofilm growth on outdoor walls. Biofilms on outdoor walls cause esthetic problems and economic damage. Therefore facade paints often contain biocides. However commercially available biocides may have a series of adverse effects on living organisms as well as harmful environmental effects. Furthermore, biocides are increasingly designed to be more effective and are environmentally persistent. Thus, an eco-friendly and non-harmful to human health alternative to conventional biocides in wall color is strongly recommended. The well-known photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TMPyP) was used as an additive in a commercially available facade paint. The generation of singlet molecular oxygen was shown using time resolved 2D measurements of the singlet oxygen luminescence. The photodynamic activity of the photosensitizer in the facade paint was demonstrated by phototoxicity tests with defined mold fungi and a mixture of microorganisms harvested from native outdoor biofilms as model organisms. It was proven in general that it is possible to inhibit the growth of biofilm forming microorganisms growing on solid wall paint surfaces by the cationic photosensitizer TMPyP added to the facade paint using daylight conditions for illumination in 12h light and dark cycles. PMID:27101275

  15. Spot Paint Sprayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifsen, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Proposed atomizing system applies paint to small areas or objects - typically nuts, bolts, or other fasteners on flat surfaces. System used in electronic and mechanical assemblies, where small parts coated but not reached by normal spraying techniques. Coverage expected more complete than that obtained by hand brushing. Paint applicator contains two chambers in which flow of air and atomized paint controlled to ensure complete coating of fastener. In electrostatic version, inner tube serves as one electrode, while object coated serves as other electrode.

  16. 107. TOWER STAIRHALL, SECOND FLOOR LANDING, SOUTH WALL, ENTABLATURE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. TOWER STAIRHALL, SECOND FLOOR LANDING, SOUTH WALL, ENTABLATURE SHOWING SECTION WITH ALL PAINT REMOVED RANGING FROM TWENTY-FIVE TO FIFTY COATS OF PAINT ON SECTIONS - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Interior building details of Building C, Room C113: historic painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-113: historic painted plaster lath partition wall, painted plaster east wall and four light over two light double-hung window; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  19. Extraordinarily Egyptian Jewelry Fit for a Pharaoh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Berniece

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)

  20. Egyptian Fractions: Ahmes to Fibonacci to Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Spencer P.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is the ancient Egyptian algorithm for the operations of multiplication and division of integers and fractions. Theorems involving unit fractions, proved by Fibonacci, justifying and extending the Egyptian or Ahmes' methods into the Hindu-Arabic numeric representational system are given. (MDH)

  1. Pollock without Paint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

  2. Watercolor paints - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the person swallowed the paint, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not to. DO NOT give anything to drink if the person has symptoms that make it ... Use soap and water to wash any paint off skin and clothes.

  3. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  4. Paint-Stirrer Submarine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick submarine, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick submarine fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…

  5. Multiscale effect of paint pulverization orientation on appearance after painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezghani, S.; Zahouani, H.; Piezanowski, J.

    2011-08-01

    The perceived quality of a vehicle is strongly affected by paint appearance that shares major part of the outer car body panels. The painting process modifies the surface topography in a wide range of roughness and waviness scales, and consequently modifies the functionality of the surface in terms of appearance. Since painting process is a multistage process leading to stratified surfaces, a multiscale surface topography characterization approach is suited. In this paper, 2D multiscale signature of the painting process was introduced and applied to track the effect of the painting process working variable on painted surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. To this aim, experimental painting tests were performed using three painting orientation modes (horizontal, oblique and vertical) on random and deterministic metal sheet surface textures. Results show that the painting orientation mode affect only the wavelength band greater than 500 μm and optimal painting orientation depends strongly on the texture of the initial sheet surface.

  6. Comets in Bushman Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, B.

    2007-07-01

    About ten years ago I was asked to give a talk on African astronomical folklore and spent many hours reading up on the subject. My queries eventually led me to Bert Woodhouse, a member of the archaeological society and well-known recorder of Bushman paintings. He has published seven books on Bushman paintings and has a collection of over 30 000 slides covering all aspects of the subject. One section of his collection is labeled "comets" and he kindly made copies of these slides for me to use in that talk. This paper highlights those slides and discusses the objects depicted in the paintings.

  7. Contemporary Poetry about Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carl R. V.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that teachers of contemporary literature should enjoy the advantages of poetry written in response to, or interpreting, paintings or other works of art. Illustrates the advantages of such poetry with two examples. (PRA)

  8. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  9. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  10. Egyptian blue — Cuprorivaite a window to ancient Egyptian technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, H.; Seipel, W.; Weiner, K. L.; Goresy, A. El

    1983-11-01

    Egyptian Blue, a multicomponent synthetic blue pigment has been recorded in ancient Egypt since the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2600 2480 B.C.). The pigment consisting of cuprorivaite (CaCuSi4O10) with variable amounts of wollastonite (CaSiO3), Cu-rich glass and cuprite (Cu3O) or tenorite (CuO) was prepared by melting the copper-rich ingredient with lime and desert sand. Low melting temperatures (below 742 °C) were achieved by addition of flux-like plant ashes. The high quality of the pigments collected from monuments of the Fifth Dynasty (2480 2320 B.C.) may indicate that the first manufacture was in early dynastic or perhaps predynastic eras. During the reign of Thutmosis III (18th Dynasty, 1490 1436 B.C.) probably bronze filings were first applied as starting material, thus indicating a technological innovation. This new method was employed till the Roman times.

  11. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  12. Reading Through Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional data matrix symbols, which contain encoded letters and numbers, are permanently etched on items for identification. They can store up to 100 times more information than traditional bar codes. While the symbols provide several advantages over bar codes, once they are covered by paint they can no longer be read by optical scanners. Since most products are painted eventually, this presents a problem for industries relying on the symbols for identification and tracking. In 1987, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center began studying direct parts marking with matrix symbols in order to track millions of Space Shuttle parts. Advances in the technology proved that by incorporating magnetic properties into the paints, inks, and pastes used to apply the matrix symbols, the codes could be read by a magnetic scanner even after being covered with paint or other coatings. NASA received a patent for such a scanner in 1998, but the system it used for development was not portable and was too costly. A prototype was needed as a lead-in to a production model. In the summer of 2000, NASA began seeking companies to build a hand-held scanner that would detect the Read Through Paint data matrix identification marks containing magnetic materials through coatings.

  13. 37. INTERIOR VIEW, PAINTING AREA SHOWING PAINT VAT AND CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR VIEW, PAINTING AREA SHOWING PAINT VAT AND CONVEYOR LINE WITH THE TOOLS HANGING FROM HOOKS TO DRY; NOTE PINCH POINT CROW BARS (CENTER) - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  14. 1. Photocopy of painting (original painting in possesion of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of painting (original painting in possesion of the family of Judge Jasper Brinton, Cairo, Egypt) Thomas Eakins, Artist 1878 SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS - Brinton 1704 House, Oakland Road (Birmingham Township), Dilworthtown, Chester County, PA

  15. Monet's painting under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Paula; Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R

    2003-04-01

    An oil painting by Claude Monet, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile 1887 (collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales), was examined to determine both the identity of the pigments used by the artist in this painting and his technique of mixing colors and laying paint on the canvas. The extremely complex construction of the painting was revealed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray mapping (XRM) analysis of cross sections of paint flakes excised from damaged regions of Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile. Nine different pigments were found on the painting. Many of the identified colors were modern pigments that became available only late in the 19th century as a result of scientific advances in pigment chemistry. Although similar colors were available in a natural mineral form, they lacked the vivid color of their manufactured counterparts. The use of these new synthetic metallic oxide colors by Monet accounts for the brilliance of his paintings. In addition, a separation between successive paint layers was observed in some areas of paint chip cross sections, indicating that oil-based paint was applied to paint that had dried, and consequently, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile was painted over a long period of time. This observation is contrary to the general perception of Monet's technique of painting freely and quickly. PMID:12639239

  16. Monet's Painting under the Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, Paula; Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R.

    2003-04-01

    An oil painting by Claude Monet, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile 1887 (collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales), was examined to determine both the identity of the pigments used by the artist in this painting and his technique of mixing colors and laying paint on the canvas. The extremely complex construction of the painting was revealed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray mapping (XRM) analysis of cross sections of paint flakes excised from damaged regions of Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile. Nine different pigments were found on the painting. Many of the identified colors were modern pigments that became available only late in the 19th century as a result of scientific advances in pigment chemistry. Although similar colors were available in a natural mineral form, they lacked the vivid color of their manufactured counterparts. The use of these new synthetic metallic oxide colors by Monet accounts for the brilliance of his paintings. In addition, a separation between successive paint layers was observed in some areas of paint chip cross sections, indicating that oil-based paint was applied to paint that had dried, and consequently, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile was painted over a long period of time. This observation is contrary to the general perception of Monet's technique of painting freely and quickly.

  17. Paint removal using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Katherine; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 107 in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m2 area of paint 14 mu m thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  18. Paint removal using lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Garmire, E

    1995-07-20

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power. PMID:21052275

  19. Preliminary Results of the Er:YAG Laser Cleaning of Mural Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, A.; Colombini, M. P.; Felici, A.; deCruz, A.; Lanterna, G.; Lanfranchi, M.; Nakahara, K.; Penaglia, F.

    The conservation of mural paintings requires a deep knowledge of the alterations caused by natural ageing, environmental agents and previous restoration treatments. All the operations concerning cleaning and consolidation of wall paintings must assure the safety of the paint layers. This is especially true the more fragile the painting technique. For example, "a secco" paintings, executed with organic binders such as tempera, oil, glue, when altered and damaged, present a very weak adhesion to the mortar underneath, and provoke detachment of paint fragments. In this circumstance it is necessary to find a feasible alternative to the usual cleaning methods (wet and mechanical ones) and a valid way to operate. Moreover, the removal of scialbo layers (a thick, pure lime layer applied on the wall painting) presents difficulties in order to preserve the integrity of the painting layers. Previous experiments carried out in Opificio with Er:YAG laser on easel painting cleaning, lead us to extend the experiments on the cleaning of mural paintings.

  20. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Egyptian Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…

  1. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  2. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  3. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  4. Worried about leaks Don't paint before hydrotesting

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Occasionally, painting before hydrostatic pressure testing is required in petrochemical and other industrial plants. Because some process fluids may be solvents to paint, in-service leakage could occur if the paint masks leakage during hydrotesting. To eliminate unplanned releases, it is important to know whether painting before hydrotesting could really mask leaks at the test pressures typically used in hydrotesting. Unfortunately, very little guidance is provided by national standards or codes, and empirical data are not readily available to support an answer. ASTME 1003-84, Standard Method for Hydrostatic Leak Testing, states that new systems should be tested prior to painting, where practical. However, Sections 1 and 8 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and B31.1 and B31.3 of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping are silent on this issue. To help resolve this issue, tests were done to determine the effect of paint on leak-tightness during hydrotesting. Pipe samples with through-wall pinholes were fabricated, painted, and then hydrotested.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  6. Static-Suppressing Optical Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electrically conductive flat black paint adheres well to magnesium, aluminum, fiberglass, and other materials. Paint absorbs stray light in optical instruments while preventing buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Paint consists of primer and topcoat, both containing electricallyconductive carbon-black powder. Primer two-part epoxy base, and topcoat polyurethane base.

  7. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  8. Stylized Silk Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art activity inspired by a workshop "Surrounded by Silk" given by Susan Skvoe in which the students create silk paintings. Explains that the students first sketch their floral design on paper, trace the design on the silk's surface, and apply liquid dye for color. Provides an easier activity for younger students. (CMK)

  9. Improved thermal paint formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Roger, F. O.; Zerlaut, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Potassium silicate-treated zinc oxide paint stabilizes pigment against ultraviolet-induced, bleachable degradation in infrared region, and permits use of ZnO as pigment in ultraviolet-stable coatings based upon polymethyl siloxane elastomers and resins. Material has low absorptance/emittance ratio.

  10. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  11. Cultural Collage Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  12. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  13. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  14. Interior building details of Building A, Room A101: painted wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A-101: painted wood staircase, wood handrails with metal brackets, plastered finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. 38. Detail of a sign painted on the side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Detail of a sign painted on the side of a building. The structure has a timber lintle and a piece of wood attached to the wall above the windows, giving the impression of a string course. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. 18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON INTERIOR WALL OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  17. Holonic Manufacturing Paint Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Morten; Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Nyen, Per Åge; Gellein, Lars Tore; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    In pursuit of flexibility and agility within discrete manufacturing, the surrounding logistics and handling processes of a paint shop is under construction as a laboratory prototype application. Holonic Manufacturing seems to be a promising strategic paradigm and architecture to use for a system characterised by production logistics and control. This paper describes the physical devices to be used; the desired functionality; and the basic logic control designed. Additionally, the ideas for holonification based on the already designed logic control is presented.

  18. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  19. Islam in Egyptian Education: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Charlotte M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…

  20. Pigment Degradation in Oil Paint Induced by Indoor Climate: Comparison of Visual and Computational Backscattered Electron Images.

    PubMed

    Keune, Katrien; Kramer, Rick P; Huijbregts, Zara; Schellen, Henk L; Stappers, Marc H L; van Eikema Hommes, Margriet H

    2016-04-01

    For the first time the degradation of lead white pigment in mature oil paint has been used as an internal marker for the degree of saponification and hence chemical degradation of oil paint. Computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images quantified the degree of the intact lead white pigment versus the nonpigmented and lead-rich areas (degraded lead white) in the paint layers. This new methodology was applied to a series of paint samples taken from four painted wall hangings (dated 1778), which makes it possible to study the influence of indoor climate on chemical degradation of aged oil paintings. The visual interpretation and computational image analysis of the backscattered electron images revealed clear trends. The highest degree of lead white degradation in the room was found in samples from the north wall close to the windows, whereas degradation diminished further away from the window. Lead white from the south wall was less degraded, but showed a similar trend as in the paintings on the north wall. These results imply a strong relationship between chemical degradation of paint and location of the paint in the room. PMID:26891673

  1. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  2. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  4. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  5. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints...

  6. Delving Deeper: Painting the Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Painting the Cube is commonly used in middle and high school mathematical courses as a mathematically rich problem, wherein the exposed faces of the large cubes are painted after being assembled from small unit cubes. The problem perfectly combines algebraic as well as geometrical aspects and helps students to study and understand various linear,…

  7. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  8. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  9. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  10. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  11. Death by paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Collison, Ines; Moorehead, Wayne

    2002-10-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian male, reportedly missing for four days, was found dead 40 feet down a steep ravine, apparently after jumping down the cliff. Two rectangular cans of paint thinner, 1-qt and 1-gal sizes, were found in his vehicle at the top of the cliff. The autopsy report indicated that the decedent was normal except for the heart and myocardium, the lung parenchyma, and the gastric and esophageal mucosa. The stomach contents revealed a brownish liquid with a nearly clear, thick, oily film, and the small and large bowels showed oily liquid with a strong odor of a petroleum distillate. Toxicological analysis was negative for ethanol and common drugs of abuse. Valproic acid, diphenhydramine, and norsertraline where found in therapeutic concentrations, and sertraline, diazepam, and nordiazepam were found in subtherapeutic levels. Bupropion metabolites were also detected. Static adsorption-elution, commonly used in fire debris analysis, was used to examine the brain, liver, lung, blood, and urine. A liquid-liquid extraction was performed on the vitreous humor. The stomach contents and samples from the paint thinner cans were diluted with carbon disulfide. All but the blood and vitreous contained a medium petroleum distillate. The stomach content was consistent with the liquid from the one-gallon can. Chromatograms suggest differential metabolism and/or distribution among the different organs. PMID:12423013

  12. Contributions of Egyptian Women in Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nadi, Lotfia

    2009-04-01

    Physics is a dynamic, global field. Progress in research motivates scientists to explore new areas and find useful applications for their work. Femtosecond ultrashort pulsed lasers and progress in nanostructures to study the properties of extremely dense matter, as well as one-dimensional materials, are two examples of innovations that encourage students and scientists—male and female—to pursue physics. Young Egyptian women's contributions to physics grew from 46% in 2003 to 69% in 2008. This paper discusses the role of women in physics in Egypt; presents statistics regarding their contributions and presence at Egyptian universities and institutes; and gives information about their decision making leadership roles. Ideas, applicable in Egypt as well as in developing countries, to address problems facing women are raised.

  13. The entheomycological origin of Egyptian crowns and the esoteric underpinnings of Egyptian religion.

    PubMed

    Berlant, Stephen R

    2005-11-14

    In this paper, I theorize that the Egyptian White and Triple Crowns were originally primordia of the entheogenic Psilocybe (Stropharia) cubensis, which an Egyptian tale known as Cheops and the Magicians allegorically explained grew on barley, and that Osiris was the God of spiritual rebirth because he personified this and other entheogenic mushrooms. I go on to theorize that the plant known commonly as the Eye of Horus, which the Egyptians included in cakes and ales designed to spiritually rebirth the living and the dead, was an entheogenic mushroom cap entirely analogous, if not identical, to Soma. Finally, I explain why so many scholars failed to discern these identities and relationships for so long. PMID:16199133

  14. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study. PMID:24438285

  15. Studying pigments on painted plaster in Minoan, Roman and early Byzantine Crete. A multi-analytical technique approach.

    PubMed

    Westlake, Polly; Siozos, Panayiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Apostolaki, Chryssa; Derham, Brendan; Terlixi, Agni; Perdikatsis, Vasilios; Jones, Richard; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Wall paintings spanning two millennia of Cretan painting history and technology were analysed in an effort to determine similarities and evolutions of painting materials and technology. A multi-technique approach was employed that combined the use of (a) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman microspectroscopy, based on mobile instrumentation, appropriate for rapid, routine-level object characterization, and (b) non-destructive X-ray diffractometry (XRD), performed directly on the wall painting fragment, which provides detailed information on the minerals constituting the paint. Elemental analysis data obtained through LIBS were compared with molecular and crystal structure information from Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Cross-sections from selected samples were also investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to micro-probe analysis and X-ray mapping that enabled identification of several mineral components of the paint confirming the results of the XRD analysis. In parallel, replica wall paintings, created with known pigments and binding media for reference purposes, were examined with optical microscopy and stain tested for organic materials. The overall study shows that the LIBS and Raman techniques offer key advantages, such as instrument mobility and speed of data collection and interpretation that are particularly important when dealing with on-site investigations. Thus, they are capable of providing important compositional information in an effective manner that enables quick surveying of wall paintings and permit targeted sample selection for further analysis by advanced laboratory techniques. PMID:21845529

  16. Interior building details of Building A, Room A002: plastered painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A-002: plastered painted west brick wall, four light double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel, east plastered wall (could be granite), wood ceiling; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. Egyptian Art Institutions and Art Education from 1908 to 1951

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…

  18. Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population sample.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Jessica L; Irwin, Jodi A; Strouss, Katharine M; Ragab, Hisham; Sturk, Kimberly A; Parsons, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Entire mitochondrial control region data was generated for 277 unrelated Egyptian individuals. High-throughput robotics, a redundant sequencing approach, and several quality control checks were implemented to generate a high-quality database. The data presented here will augment the limited Egyptian mtDNA reference data currently available for forensic comparisons. PMID:19414160

  19. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  20. 7 CFR 3201.106 - Paint removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Paint removers. 3201.106 Section 3201.106 Agriculture... Items § 3201.106 Paint removers. (a) Definition. Products formulated to loosen and remove paint from painted surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  1. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  2. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed...

  3. Fluidized bed paint stripping and sludge burning

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, J.; Staffin, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    High volume automated painting, as encountered in the painting of automobiles and appliances, requires that the item being painted be positioned in a conveying frame or fixture so that the painting machine or robot achieves a reproducible, high quality paint job. These conveying frames or fixtures are extensive fabrications carefully designed to position and support the item being painted. In the case of automotive painting, they are rather large and involve substantial weights, because they must be capable of supporting and positioning auto bodies and large sub-assemblies.

  4. KSC volunteers help paint Baxley Manor as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A volunteer for Days of Caring '99 prepares a light fixture before painting the walls in the hallway at Baxley Manor, an apartment building for senior citizens on Merritt Island. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  5. Acute effect of indoor exposure to paint containing bis(tributyltin) oxide--Wisconsin, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-03

    In January 1991, a woman in Wisconsin contacted her local public health department to report that she and her two children had become ill after her landlord painted the walls and ceilings of two rooms of her apartment. Reported symptoms included a burning sensation in the nose and forehead, headache, nose bleed, cough, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. The woman, who was in the third trimester of pregnancy, also complained of a persistent odor from the paint and provided an empty bottle of a paint additive used for mildew control. The label indicated that this product contained 25% bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) as its only active ingredient.

  6. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  7. Farmers' paintings promote family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692

  8. Energy-efficiency urban center in the Egyptian desert

    SciTech Connect

    Albis, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    This research effort is concerned with the identification and utilization of practical design guidelines to meet the demand for guidance in innovative planning and building design for Egyptian desert conditions. An energy-conscious design can be realized with a minimum expenditure of exhaustible energy resources and maximum utilization of the natural energies for cooling and heating. The energy design guidelines developed will be applied to an Urban Center, on a site selected to alleviate the stress on Cairo, which has been suffering for over two decades from housing shortages due to overpopulation. Design criteria to meet the challenges of this research include: neighborhood planning; orientation; building details; shading; colors of walls and roofs; materials; and massing configuration. In this research, desert construction and its aspects, use of building materials, approaches to energy conservation, and architectural principles for neighborhood planning are identified. The human requirement for thermal comfort specific to desert environments are analyzed and related to diurnal and annual patterns of outdoor conditions, and to the potential for modifying indoor thermal conditions by designs suitable to prevailing climatic conditions.

  9. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    PubMed

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers. PMID:12159614

  10. Single and multiplexed immunoassays for the chemiluminescent imaging detection of animal glues in historical paint cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, G; Dolci, L S; Guardigli, M; Zangheri, M; Prati, S; Mazzeo, R; Roda, A

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of the organic components in a complex, multilayered paint structure is fundamental for studying painting techniques and for authentication and restoration purposes. Proteinaceous materials, such as animal glue, are of particular importance since they are widely used as binders, adhesives and for gilding. Even though proteins are usually detected by chromatographic and proteomic techniques, immunological methods represent an alternative powerful approach to protein analysis thanks to the high specificity of antigen-antibody reactions. Our previous studies demonstrated that ovalbumin and casein could be localized in paint cross-sections with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution (i.e. within the single painting layers) by using chemiluminescent (CL) immunochemical microscope imaging. In the present research work, we describe for the first time the immunolocalization of collagen (the main protein of animal glue) in paint cross-sections by CL imaging microscopy. Two different analytical protocols have been developed, allowing either the detection of collagen or the simultaneous detection of collagen and ovalbumin in the same paint sample. The assays were used to detect collagen and ovalbumin in cross-sections from model samples and historical paintings (a wall painting dated to 1773-1774 and a painted wood panel of the Renaissance period) in order to achieve information on paint techniques and past restoration interventions. PMID:23064674

  11. Egyptian human babesiosis and general review.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-04-01

    Babesiosis is tick-borne malaria-like disease. Man is an opportuneistic host for Babesia species. This paper presented the second Egyptian human babesiosis. The signs and symptoms, CBC, liver functions and kidney functions tests and all other serologic tests did not give any definite diagnosis. Also, he was sero-negative for malaria infection. The patient was critically diagnosed by the demonstration of the typical ring forms of Babesia species in stained blood smears. He was successfully treated with Quinine and Clindamycin, and was discharged from the hospital after the clinical and parasitological improvement. The epidemiology of zoonotic babesiosis was discussed. PMID:19143136

  12. Painted supported lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Florin, E.-L.; Gaub, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We report herein measurements on a novel type of supported lipid films, which we call painted supported membranes (PSM). These membranes are formed in a self-assembly process on alkylated gold films from an organic solution. The formation process was investigated with surface plasmon resonance microscopy. The optical and electrical properties of the films were determined for various types of lipids and as a function of temperature by means of cyclic voltammetry and potential relaxation after charge injection. We could show that these films exhibit an extraordinarily high specific resistivity which, depending on the lipid, may be as high as 109 ohm/cm2. We could also show that due to this low conductivity, an electrical polarization across the PSM relaxes with characteristic time constants of up to 20 min. The electrical properties together with their high mechanical stability and accessibility to surface sensitive techniques make these films well suitable model membranes for optical and electrical investigations. Examples for such applications are given in the subsequent article by Seifert et al. ImagesFIGURE 3FIGURE 4 PMID:19431873

  13. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials.

    PubMed

    Moharram, B M; Suliman, M N; Zahran, N F; Shennawy, S E; El Sayed, A R

    2012-01-01

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005μGyh(-1) to 0.071μGyh(-1) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. PMID:21839645

  14. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  15. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  16. The Objectives of the Egyptian Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    : The aim of the Egyptsat series is to build on the experience gained from these missions to extend Egypt's space effort into scientific research and to expand its role in educational, agricultural and other development fields. The Egyptian Space Programme envisages that Egypt will be able to join the space age through the gradual establishment of the facilities needed for the manufacture of small research and remote sensing satellites, by acquiring appropriate technological knowledge and capabilities, and by building up the necessary infrastructure to enable the country to design and manufacture its own small satellites. Included in this overall vision would be the capacity to utilize space technologies And applications to serve the national development plans and contribute to the development of scientific and technological research in Egypt, as well as to the establishment of a scientific and research base for advanced industries in Egypt. To hasten the achievement of some or all of these objectives, it will be necessary to: • Transfer advanced space technologies in communication, computers, programs, optics, sensors, new materials, command and control, and energy into the domain of the Egyptian scientific community. • Utilize space technologies and apply these to the country's development plans. • Acquire national capabilities in space technology disciplines. Establish scientific and industrial base in advanced technology fields. • Enhance our human resource capabilities for space sciences fields. • Promote cooperation between the country's research and industrial centres in order to bring about successful project within the national space programme.

  17. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Hassab-El-Naby, Hussein M M; El-Khalawany, Mohamed A

    2013-04-01

    Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is uncommon clinical variant that was commonly observed in dark-skinned individuals. We described the clinical characteristics, pathological features, immunohistochemical profile and prognosis of HMF in Egyptian patients. During the period from January 2004 to December 2011, we were able to diagnose and follow up 27 patients with HMF. The study included 18 males (66.7%) and 9 females (33.3%) with a mean age of 35.39 ±13.13 years. The duration ranged from 1 to 6 years with a mean of 3.26 ±1.7 years. The majority of patients were skin type IV (63%) and presented with multiple (88.9%), asymptomatic (74.1%), ill-defined (70.4%) and non-scaly (77.8%) lesions distributed on the trunk (81.5%). Histologically, epidermotropic lymphocytes were observed in 100%, basal alignment of lymphocytes in 81.5%, Pautrier's microabscesses in 29% and folliculotropism in 18.5%. Immunostaining showed predominance of epidermal CD8+ cells in 51.9% while in 29.6% CD4+ cells were predominant. Phototherapy was effective in 86.7% of patients with success rate 66.7% of narrow band (NB) ultraviolet-B and 80% of psoralen ultraviolet-A. HMF among Egyptians could be classified as non-aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic CD8+ variant. It is common among middle age males with skin type IV and mostly well respond to phototherapy. PMID:23379648

  18. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  19. 14. INTERIOR DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL OF TOILET ROOM, SHOWING ORNATE PAINTED RADIATOR AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WAINSCOTING. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. CT of a Ptolemaic period mummy from the ancient Egyptian City of Akhmim.

    PubMed

    Chan, Steve S; Elias, Jonathan P; Hysell, Mark E; Hallowell, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Mummies associated with the ancient city of Akhmim in Egypt provide an important portal for radiologic research concerning the ancient Egyptian population. As part of an ongoing investigation, a mummy of Akhmimic derivation owned by the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was scanned with a 16-detector row computed tomographic scanner. The resultant images helped confirm that the mummy was that of a female in her late teens. Although the deliberate omission of hieroglyphic texts on the painted coffin rendered the deceased individual anonymous, it is noteworthy that great care had been taken in preparing the corpse for burial. The mummy represents conscientious work by the embalmers, work that is broadly consistent with methods used during the early Ptolemaic period for well-to-do persons. Features of bodily decomposition, including the rotary dissociation of the C1 and C2 vertebral bodies and a missing right patella, point to neglect of the body prior to its recovery and mummification. The fact that the body was well prepared but thinly wrapped and interred in an uninscribed coffin further suggests that the deceased was not of the community that eventually performed the mummification. This evidence is not inconsistent with a scenario involving the body's postmortem immersion in water. Although it cannot be determined with certainty whether the deceased was a drowning victim, it appears that the treatment of the body followed protocols developed in connection with an ancient Egyptian tradition that persons dying in, or retrieved from, the Nile River were embalmed with special care. PMID:19001656

  1. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  2. Egyptian international labor migration and social processes: toward regional integration.

    PubMed

    Sell, R R

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews evidence that contemporary Egyptian international labor migration to oil-rich Arab countries has followed a classic social process which starts with a homo economicus phase, advances into a goal reorientation phase, and ends with the establishment of diaspora communities in destination societies. The history of Egyptian migration, current estimates of migration, the role of Egyptians in selected Arab countries, and emergent processes all were found to support the predictions of the social process model. Particularly important support comes from the finding that all social classes participated in this migration. For 1982, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, based on individual consulate figures, reported 2.9 million migrants in oil-rich countries. Conclusions suggest the likelihood that Egyptian migration processes will promote economic and perhaps social integration in the region. PMID:12281731

  3. Echinochasmus aspinuosa as a new record species in Egyptian heron.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammad K; El-Attar, Nagy M; Samn, Alla A M

    2011-04-01

    This paper reported a new Egyptian of Echinochasmus aspinuosa in herons trapped in Giza and Sharkia Governorates. The detailed morphology was given and illustrated. The zoonotic importance of this digenetic treamatode was discussed. PMID:21634254

  4. 14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  5. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN REVIVAL TOMB SITUATED WITHIN SURROUNDING GRAVES - Mount Pleasant Cemetery, George Opdyke Tomb, 375 Broadway Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  6. 13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  7. ATMOSPHERIC ACID DEPOSITION DAMAGE TO PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available data from laboratory and field studies of damage to paints by erosion have been analyzed to develop an atmospheric acid deposition damage function for exterior house paints containing calcium carbonate or silicate extenders. Regression analysis coefficients associated w...

  8. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    PubMed Central

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  10. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy in investigating Egyptian archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, N. A.; Sallam, H. A.

    1988-12-01

    This article summarizes the results of applications of the Mössbauer spectroscopy to investigate Ancient Egyptian pottery from the periods: Ancient Egyptian (3200 525 B.C.) Greek-Roman (320 B.C. 640 A.C.) and Early Islamic (800 1000 A.C.). Many objective informations deduced about: provinance, manufacturing techniques for different domestic purposes, civilization transfer between the Arab countries, methods of colouration and applying decorating glazes, and finally dating of ancient pottery.

  11. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  12. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  13. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When... requirements apply. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the description “Paint” is the proper...

  14. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.

    PubMed

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable. PMID:27195146

  15. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable. PMID:27195146

  16. Postmenopausal symptoms among Egyptian geripausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweed, H S; Elawam, A E; Nabeel, A M; Mortagy, K

    2012-03-01

    Increases in life expectancies mean that women are spending longer periods of their life in a hypo-oestrogenic state. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms among elderly Egyptian women in the geripausal phase. A sample of 400 community-dwelling elderly women aged > 65 years were recruited from 6 geriatric social clubs in Cairo. A full personal and medical history was taken from all participants. The menopause rating scale was applied to all participants after translation and linguistic validation in the Arabic language. The most prevalent postmenopausal symptoms were joint pain (90.3%), followed by sleep problems (84.0%) and physical and mental exhaustion (80.0%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between total menopause rating scale score and age, duration of menopause and number of chronic diseases but not with age of menopause. PMID:22574473

  17. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  18. Qualification of black electrically conductive paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    A paint having low electrical resistance has been developed. Using a low outgassing polyurethane resin, specific amounts of conductive carbon particles were added to produce paint compositions having a range of electrical resistance. Methods of testing for electrical resistance are discussed. The adhesion of these paints has been tested successfully over the temperature range from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 80 C (176 F).

  19. Drawing and Painting with Under-Threes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Ursula; Smyth, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Noting that drawing and painting offer very young children powerful ways to explore and communicate thoughts and feelings, this booklet for caregivers and teachers offers suggestions related to painting and drawing for children under 3 years. The booklet discusses what young children can do with drawing and painting materials, including exploring…

  20. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Surface Preparation and Preservation § 1915.35 Painting. (a) Paints mixed...

  1. Bringing Art to Life through Living Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwagon, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she and other art teachers developed a "living painting" lesson, an art lesson that incorporates art history and painting. The lesson was developed also in part to help new student-teachers plan a memorable lesson. With the living painting lesson, students will have to choose and recreate famous paintings…

  2. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  3. EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE PAINTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of two novel spray painting techniques that may decrease volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with the application of surface coatings. ne technique uses supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent and a propellant to ...

  4. Paint the World with Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  5. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  6. Chicanos Paint Their Way Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treguer, Annick

    1999-01-01

    In Tucson (Arizona) and El Paso (Texas), Chicano mural painters and art educators have begun community programs to engage alienated Chicano and Yaqui youth in painting murals that defuse gang conflicts, celebrate Mexican culture and history, and provide training in marketable skills. (SV)

  7. Basking Behavior of Painted Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the basking postures of captive eastern painted turtles exposed to two different sources of illumination (white floor lamps and infrared heat lamps) and three types of substrates (sphagnum, rock, wood) and discusses possible ecological and evolutionary significance of these behaviors. (Author/JN)

  8. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27490546

  9. But when was it painted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the

  10. Salt damage of stone, plaster and painted layers at a medieval church, South-Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2016-04-01

    The Chapel of Pécsvárad is one of the best preserved and oldest medieval stone monument in South Hungary. It dates back to the 11th century. The interior of the chapel is decorated with wall paintings, which are later and probably originating from the late 12th century. The wall painting is partly preserved and it is located on an interior stone wall of the chapel facing to the East. The wall painting shows various forms of damage from salt efflorescence to chipping. The current research provides information on the in situ and laboratory analyses of salts, plasters, pigments and stone material suggesting mechanisms of decay that lead to partial loss of the painting. Both on site techniques and laboratory analyses were performed. Imaging techniques such as UV luminescence and IR thermography were used to identify the moist and salt covered zones on the wall surface. Portable moisture meter were also applied to map the wet zones in the interior and also at the external part of the chapel. Schmidt hammer and Duroscop were used for testing the surface strength of stone. Laboratory tests were focused on mineralogical and chemical compositional analyses. Small samples of stone, mortar, plaster and pigments were tested by optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. According to our tests the chapel was predominantly made of porous limestone and sandstone. Laboratory analyses proved that the major salt responsible for the damage of external walls are gypsum and halite, while in the interior part higher amount of halite and significant amount of sodium-nitrate were found besides gypsum. The painted layers are on Byzantine-type of plaster with organic compounds (plant fragments) and with a substrate layer rich in calcium carbonate. The identified pigments are dominantly earth pigments such as iron-oxide containing red and yellow (ochre) and green earth. A unique preservation of ultramarine blue in Hungary was found on the wall painting. The partial

  11. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & FINISHED PAINTED AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Finishing touches on the largest American flag ever painted were completed today on the south side of the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC's Launch Complex 39. The flag was painted as part of 3rd Century America, the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology to be held here from May 30 through September 7. The flag is located on the western side of the VAB's south wall. Still to be painted is the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration's [ARBA] distinctive emblem. This will be placed on the eastern side of the south wall and should be completed by mid-May. The flag is 209 feet long and 100 feet in width. Each of its 13 red and white bars is nearly 8 and a half feet wide. The ARBA symbol will be 110 feet in diameter.

  12. THz imaging studies of painted samples to guide cultural heritage investigations at the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos in Paphos, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radpour, Roxanne; Bajwa, Neha; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Balonis-Sant, Magdalena; Tewari, Priyamvada; Grundfest, Warren; Kakoulli, Ioanna; Taylor, Zachary

    2014-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is a relatively new non-destructive analytical technique that is transitioning from established application research areas such as defense and biomedicine to studies of cultural heritage artifacts. Our research adopts a THz medical imaging system, originally designed for in vivo tissue hydration sensing, to acquire high contrast imagery of painted plaster samples in order to assess the ability of the system to image the Byzantine wall paintings at the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos in Paphos, Cyprus. The original 12th century paintings show evidence of later painting phases overlapping earlier iconography. A thin layer of lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) underlies, in parts, later wall paintings, concealing the original painting scheme beneath. Traditional imaging modalities have been unable to image the underlying iconography due to a combination of absorption and scattering. We aim to use THz imaging and novel optical design to probe beyond the visible surface and perform in situ analysis of iconography beneath the lead white layer. Imaging results of painted plaster mock-ups covered with a thin layer of lead white and/or chalk, as well as of a painted wooden panel with obscured writing, are presented, and from these images sufficient contrast for feature identification is demonstrated. Preliminary results from the analysis of these mock-ups confirmed the utility of this technique and its potential to image concealed original paintings in the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos. The results encourage analysis of THz scattering within paint and plaster materials to further improve spatial resolution and penetration depth in THz imaging systems.

  13. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Postma, Eric O.

    2010-08-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of brushstroke structure that views the wildly overlapping brushstrokes as texture. The analysis of the painting texture is performed with the help of a texton codebook, i.e., a codebook of small prototypical textural patches. The texton codebook can be learned from a collection of paintings. Our textural analysis technique represents paintings in terms of histograms that measure the frequency by which the textons in the codebook occur in the painting (so-called texton histograms). We present experiments that show the validity and effectiveness of our technique for textural analysis on a collection of digitized high-resolution reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh and his contemporaries. As texton histograms cannot be easily be interpreted by art experts, the paper proposes to approaches to visualize the results on the textural analysis. The first approach visualizes the similarities between the histogram representations of paintings by employing a recently proposed dimensionality reduction technique, called t-SNE. We show that t-SNE reveals a clear separation of paintings created by Van Gogh and those created by other painters. In addition, the period of creation is faithfully reflected in the t-SNE visualizations. The second approach visualizes the similarities and differences between paintings by highlighting regions in a painting in which the textural structure of the painting is unusual. We illustrate the validity of this approach by means of an experiment in which we highlight regions in a painting by Monet that are not very "Van Gogh-like". Taken together, we believe the tools developed in this study are well capable of assisting for art historians in support of

  14. Soil paints as a tool to increase soil awareness among different publics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine C.

    2013-04-01

    The Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef at the Soil Department of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Minas Gerais, Brazil, was opened in 1993 with a goal to sensibilize its public about soils, besides the usual geological approach. Since its opening, many of the guided visits include an activity of painting or modelling with soil materials. Such activities have the aim to familiarize people about the properties of soils, in special, colours, consistencies and textures in a joyful way. The tropical soils of the region offer a wide diversity of colours and textures that wonders and intrigues people in general. With time, some of the visitors as well as the museum team started to make trials how it would be to paint walls with the soil paints. It became a project to develop a social technology since the soil paints could be easily prepared and used at much lower cost than industrial paints. Additionally, to have the house painted offers populations living in the peripheral areas of the town of Viçosa the possibility to increase their quality of life by embellishing the surroundings where they live. After the basic know how was developed, the Museum and other extension groups of UFV started to train people in doing it. A brochure was published and the technique spread rapidly in the region and to other parts of the state and country as well. The workshops on soil paint preparation and use, offered by the Museum are open to a much diversified public: school children, professional painters, farmers of the landless movement, etc. The workshops have been taken as an opportunity to approach soils and its importance to life and environment. They start with questions about how people consider and see soils. From this starting point, soil formation processes and soil properties are introduced and discussed with the group. This is followed by the discussion of landscapes and where the soil materials can be collected and what are the differences to be expected between

  15. Reproductive rights of Egyptian women: issues for debate.

    PubMed

    el Dawla, A S

    2000-11-01

    Because the definitions of reproductive health and reproductive rights are so broad, it has been possible in Egypt and elsewhere for one or other issue on the reproductive health agenda to be prioritised to the detriment or exclusion of others, and a comprehensive approach avoided. Reproductive health and rights language was introduced in Egypt around the time of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. From the moment these concepts were translated into Arabic, activists, scholars and women themselves discussed and debated their meanings and questioned whether Egyptian culture permitted a rights approach of this kind and whether reproductive rights were actually perceived as such by Egyptian women. This paper discusses the language of reproductive rights in relation to cultural specificity in the Egyptian context, Egyptian women's perceptions of reproductive rights, the role of tradition and religion, and the ways in which reproductive rights are taken up under Egyptian law. It analyses some of the arguments used against reproductive rights on these grounds. PMID:11424249

  16. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.

  17. Lead-based paint assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lorie, C.; Cowdery, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1977, The US consumer product safety commission banned the use of lead-based paint (LBP) in all industries, except the maritime industry which still has certain privileged uses. Unfortunately for property and building owners, the ban did not come soon enough. In response to this heightened awareness, several environmental market sectors addressing the issues have emerged. These include: residential; soil; commercial; water; and structures. The first and most important step in addressing the concerns posed by the existence of lead based contamination is to quantify the amount of lead-based product, to determine the location of the lead based product and the extent, if any, of lead based contamination, and to make recommendations for the remediation or abatement of the lead product and resultant contamination. In narrowing the focus of these issues, this paper discusses lead-based paint assessment; preparing and organizing the assessment, the regulatory considerations, assessment methodology, and presentation of results.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant: no mere paint on the alveolar wall.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, T E

    1996-12-01

    The gas-liquid interface within the alveolus is completely lined with a complex mixture of lipids and unique proteins termed pulmonary surfactant, which both reduces surface tension and permits it to vary directly with the radius of curvature. In this way it minimizes the work of breathing and permits alveoli of different sizes to exist in equilibrium. However, surfactant does far more in that it also controls fluid balance in the lung and appears to play a key role in host defence. Either a deficiency in surfactant or an aberrant surfactant results in atelectasis and oedema. The surfactant system is very dynamic: alveolar surfactant phosphatidylcholine, the principal component, having a half life of only a few hours, with as much as 85% being recycled. Although distortion of the alveolar type II cell is now accepted as the principal stimulus for release, much remains to be discovered of modulating factors and intracellular signalling in the control of surfactant homeostasis. Likewise, many questions remain concerning the control of synthesis of the surfactant phospholipids, neutral lipids and proteins and their assembly into the tubular myelin form of alveolar surfactant, the refining of the monolayer with breathing, the control of re-uptake of different components into the type II cells and the roles of the proteins. PMID:9441113

  19. On the Wall: Art Students Learn to Paint a Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Mississippi University for Women's studio art course that teaches students the ins and outs of mural making from inception and design to application of the final glaze. While students in other courses may spend the semester working toward a final exam or paper, this four-and-a-half-week summer course…

  20. Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, M. P.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.; Owens, L. R.; Wahls, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    New facilities and test techniques afford research aerodynamicists many opportunities to investigate complex aerodynamic phenomena. For example, NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) can hold Mach number, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure, stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure constant during testing. This is important because the wing twist associated with model construction may mask important Reynolds number effects associated with the flight vehicle. Beyond this, the NTF's ability to vary Reynolds number allows for important research into the study of boundary layer transition. The capabilities of facilities such as the NTF coupled with test techniques such as temperature sensitive paint yield data that can be applied not only to vehicle design but also to validation of computational methods. Development of Luminescent Paint Technology for acquiring pressure and temperature measurements began in the mid-1980s. While pressure sensitive luminescent paints (PSP) were being developed to acquire data for aerodynamic performance and loads, temperature sensitive luminescent paints (TSP) have been used for a much broader range of applications. For example, TSP has been used to acquire surface temperature data to determine the heating due to rotating parts in various types of mechanical systems. It has been used to determine the heating pattern(s) on circuit boards. And, it has been used in boundary layer analysis and applied to the validation of full-scale flight performance predictions. That is, data acquired on the same model can be used to develop trends from off design to full scale flight Reynolds number, e.g. to show the progression of boundary layer transition. A discussion of issues related to successfully setting-up TSP tests and using TSP systems for boundary layer studies is included in this paper, as well as results from a variety of TSP tests. TSP images included in this paper are all grey-scale so that similar to

  1. The effect of thermal aging and color pigments on the Egyptian linen properties evaluated by physicochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gaoudy, H.; Kourkoumelis, N.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2011-11-01

    Archaeologists in Egypt discovered ancient colored textiles in great quantities in comparison with the analogous uncolored ones. Furthermore, the latter are far more deteriorated. Most research investigations into archaeological linen have been concerned with manufacture, restoration, and conservation but little information is available about the properties of the fibers, and particularly their chemical and physical properties after dyeing with natural dyes or painted with pigments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Egyptian linen textiles coloring with a variety of pigments used in painting in ancient times after thermally aged to get linen samples which are similar as possible to the ancient linen textiles. The evaluations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and tensile strength, and elongation measurements. Results showed that beyond cosmetic reasons, colored textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration. Specifically, in the molecular level, pigments under study seem to interact to cellulose and lignin compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Electron microscopy confirms that pigment particles are deposited on and between the fibers' surfaces.

  2. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  3. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    PubMed

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified. PMID:24798232

  4. Ejecta production mechanisms on painted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariteau, Muriel; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Schäfer, Frank

    2001-10-01

    Painted surfaces are frequently used on space vehicles, whether on satellites or on rocket bodies. A bibliographic research allows us to evaluate the painted surfaces in orbit at about 63000 m2. The observation of impacts on painted surfaces of the LDEF satellite shows that the total ejected mass is large. However, no description of hypervelocity impact tests on painted surfaces has been found in the literature. An ejecta model has been previously developed at ONERA/DESP. This model is applicable for hypervelocity impacts on homogeneous ductile targets, homogeneous brittle targets and solar cells. The objective of this work is to extend this model to the case of painted surfaces. Consequently, impact pictures on painted surfaces of LDEF were analysed and some laboratory impact tests were performed at the Ernst-Mach-Institut, in Freiburg, under an ESA contract.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the...

  10. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

  12. Bir Umm Fawakhir: Insights into ancient Egyptian mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Carol

    1997-03-01

    Archaeological surveys at the site of Bir Umm Fawakhir in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt have clarified its role as a 5th-6th century gold-mining town. To date, 152 out of an estimated 216 buildings in the main settlement have been mapped in detail, eight outlying clusters of ruins have been identified, and four ancient mines have been inspected. In conjunction with Diodorus Siculus' first century b.c. account of Egyptian gold mining, the recent archaeological discoveries permit new insights into ancient Egyptian mining towns and techniques. Some evidence of activity at Bir Umm Fawakhir in earlier Roman, Ptolemaic, and pharaonic times has also been found.

  13. THE HAZARDS OF PAINTING AND VARNISHING 1965

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A review of paint hazards is made, giving brief descriptions of methods of application in use in 1965, of paint usage according to resin base, and of paint ingredients. The most interesting and complex of these are the resin bases, which have much in common with plastics. Reference is made to some of the many minor ingredients. The problem of keeping abreast of the possible toxic effects, so that paint manufacturers and their customers may be warned and protected, will be clear. PMID:5836564

  14. Composition of Egyptian nerolì oil.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Schipilliti, Luisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Fakhry, Hussein A; Dugo, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    The bitter orange flower oil (or neroli) is an essential product, largely used in perfumery. Neroli is obtained by hydrodistillation or steam distillation, from the flowers of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Since a long time neroli production is limited and its cost on the market is considerably high. The annual production in Tunisia and Morocco is ca. 1500 Kg, representing more than 90% of the worldwide production. A small amount ofneroli is also produced in Egypt, Spain and Comorros (not exceeding 150 kg totally). Due to the high cost, the producers and the users have tried to obtain less expensive products, with odor characters close to that of neroli oil to be used as substitute and sometimes as adulterants of the genuine oil. In this study are investigated five samples of Egyptian neroli oils produced in 2008 and 2009, in the same industrial plant, declared genuine by the producer. For all the samples the composition was determined by GC/FID and by GC/MS-LRI; the samples were also analyzed by esGC to determine the enantiomeric distribution of twelve volatiles and by GC-C-IRMS for the determination of the delta13C(VPDB) values of some mono and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. The analytical procedures allowed to quantitatively determining 86 components. In particular the variation of the composition seems to be dependent on the period of production. In fact, the amount of linalool decreases from March to April while linalyl acetate presents an opposite trend, increasing in the same period. The RSD determined for the delta13C(VPDB) are very small (max. 3.89%), ensuring the authenticity of all samples. The results are also discussed in function of the limits provided by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) (2004), AFNOR (1995) and ISO (2002) regulations for genuine neroli oils. PMID:21834247

  15. Research of water-base nano-PU paint for heat insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Jeng, Lung-Yue; Cheng, Ho; Chen, Sih-Li

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to research and produce water-base nano-PU paint with energy conservation, environmental consciousness and high efficiency of heat insulation, which can be enhance the traditional PU paint for performance improvement of heat insulation and range of application. In this study, research will be held on the two-stage synthesis method. The SiO2 nanoparticles are added into the water-base PU paint to improve the properties of traditional PU paint. Next, the fundamental properties of this paint, including water resistance, weather rsistance, weak acid solvent resistance, and heat insulation rate, will be measured and analyzed, and the performance of heat insulation will be evaluated in order to confirm the performance and practicability of the heat insulation of water-base nano-PU paint in this study. The experimental results show that for the SiO2/W-PU composite nanopaint prepared by two-stage synthesis method, the dispersion of SiO2 powder in the water-base PU (W-PU) paint is even. For the SiO2/W-PU nanocomposite paint prepared by adding SiO2 powder at 8% wt. to the marketed water-base PU, the water absorption of its experimental sample is enhanced by around 10.1 times, whereas its weak acid dissolve erosion rate is increased by 3.3 times. However, the average heat insulation rate in the thermal properties is also increased, increasing around 24.22% for the W-PU paint without SiO2 powder. Through the multilayered coating construction, the water-base nano-PU paint added with SiO2 powder can be used on any facility of heat insulation, including vehicle, safety helmet, umbrella, drapes, and outer wall of building. The newly developed water-base nano-PU paint with high thermal resistance is especially suitable for application to the shell coating of air conditioner and cooling tower,. Due to the better thermal resistance of this nanopaint, the problems of poor heat transfer and temperature rise of cooling water caused by direct sunlight can be

  16. Diffusely Reflecting Paints Containing TFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shai, M. C.; Schutt, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Highly reflective, diffused coatings developed by incorporating polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) pigment with alcohol-soluble binders. Alcohol and binder mixed together in blender before adding TFE. TFE preferably outgassed in mechanical-pump vacuum for typical interval of 4 hours before adding to liquid. Like wetting agent, vacuum treatment helps to prevent clumping of TFE and eases dispersion throughout mixture. Mixture blended for 3 to 5 minutes before used. Coatings useful on reflectance-standard surfaces for calibrating radiometric instruments in both laboratory and field. Paints washable and usable as optical reference surfaces.

  17. Evaluating paint-sludge chars for adsorption of selected paint solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; Salmeen, I.T.; Kruse, C.W.; Demir, I.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Carlson, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    At Ford, a study had been carried out to investigate the technical feasibility of converting paint sludge to activated char and reusing the char in paint spray-booth water to capture paint solvents from spray-booth air. As part of the study, several chars were made from a paint sludge and six dried paints to evaluate their effectiveness as adsorbents by conducting a series of liquid-phase adsorption experiments. Three commonly-used paint solvents and p-nitrophenol were selected as adsorbates. The three paint solvents were toluene, 2-methyl-1-propanol (iso-butanol), and 2-butoxyethanol (butylcellosolve). In this paper, the results of the pyrolysis and adsorption experiments are presented along with practical implications. The primary findings include the following: (1) Black-paint chars showed substantially larger surface area and higher adsorption capacity (based on total weight) than white-paint chars which had high ash contents due to the white pigment, titanium dioxide; (2) the adsorption capacity of the paint-sludge char was between those of black-paint and white-paint chars, and was 5--20% that of a commercial activated carbon; (3) titanium dioxide in white-paint chars did not improve the chars` affinity for hydrophilic compounds such as 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-butoxyethanol; (4) coal could be added to paint sludge to improve the quality of the resulting char and to reduce ash content; and (5) the pyrolysis of paint sludge could present an attractive opportunity for reusing and recycling a waste product for pollution abatement and as a vehicle component.

  18. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  19. Improving Reading Performance among Egyptian Engineering Students: Principles and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.; Nasr, Atef

    2004-01-01

    The research project set out to improve reading skills among third level engineering students at an Egyptian College of Technology where many of them were dissatisfied with existing negative attitudes towards English and the inadequacies of the teaching that they received. A needs analysis was carried out to establish what they and their teachers…

  20. Promoting Phonological Awareness Skills of Egyptian Kindergarteners through Dialogic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…

  1. New Horizons: An Empowerment Program for Egyptian Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Julie Hanson

    New Horizons is a nonschool program that demystifies and communicates essential information on basic life skills and reproductive health to Egyptian girls and young women aged 9-20. The program consists of 100 hour-long sessions, each including an introduction to a specific topic, review of group knowledge level, discussion around key points…

  2. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  3. Wissa Wassef's Experiment: The Phoenix of Egyptian Weaving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Elsbeth

    1985-01-01

    The gallery and weaving workshops of the Wissa Wassef School, located near Cairo, Egypt, are described. The school was started 30 years ago by the Egyptian architect Wissa Wassef, who believed in innate creativity and the need to encourage artistic creation by the practice of the craft from early childhood. (RM)

  4. The Case for (Social) Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…

  5. Musical Education and Egyptian Child's Psychological and Social Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenawy, Hoda Mohammed

    The role played by music in Egyptian education in developing the character of the child is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics of the elementary school child and examines how each can be developed through musical education. For example, young children have a fertile imagination that can be stimulated by music.…

  6. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  7. Student Involvement in the Egyptian Quality Assurance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…

  8. Shifting Pedagogical Space: Egyptian Educators Use of Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson; Finholt-Daniel, Matt; Sales, Greg; Flora, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on exploring the outcomes of an e-learning initiative in Egypt. Researchers conducted training with 17 Egyptian educators on how to build, maintain, and teach using Moodle, an online content management system. The researchers evaluated the outputs of the training using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) in an effort to assess…

  9. Constructing an Engineering Model for Raising an Egyptian Obelisk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…

  10. Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery.

    PubMed

    Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Younus, Ayesha; Salort, Simon; Chassagne, Bruno; Recur, Benoît; Ziéglé, Anne; Dautant, Alain; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2011-07-10

    A monochromatic millimeter-wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor has been used to investigate historic objects preserved at the Museum of Aquitaine (France). In particular, two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of nearly 3500-year-old sealed Egyptian jars. PMID:21743572

  11. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF BUILDING 1'S MAIN ENTRY TOWER (INCLUDING THE ENGAGED COLUMN CAPITALS, PILASTERS & CAPITALS, CORNICES, AND TERRA COTTA EAGLES); LOOKING SW FROM THE E WING ROOF. (Ryan) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  12. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  13. Products of Chemistry: Chemistry of Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuerman, George; Bruzan, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of coatings along with paint preparation labs. Provides students with information about and methods for preparing a product that is an integral part of daily life. Gives methodology which can be used to prepare oil based and water based paints. (MVL)

  14. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  15. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  16. Fluorescent paint simplifies laser-beam alinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    Usually to aline optics safely, low power laser which can safely operated without safety goggles is substituted for higher power laser during alinement procedure. Need for lower power substitute laser can be eliminated by painting target area with commercial paint which fluoresces strongly in red or yellow portion of spectrum when excited by argon laser beam.

  17. WASH SOLVENT REUSE IN PAINT PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. eusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. he evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology...

  18. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  19. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  20. Lead content in household paints in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-12-15

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level. PMID:18950834

  1. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; de la Calleja, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock's paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri's Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri's Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks.

  2. Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highwater, Jamake

    1980-01-01

    To the Indian, art is a way of seeing, and the Indian painters of the 1970s have given greater emphasis to the personal nature of seeing than have any Native artists before them. Article discusses recent trends, qualities, and innovations in Indian art and some of the significant Indian artists.

  3. Emittance characterization of thermal control paints, coatings and surfaces using a calorimetric technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces are used in every spacecraft thermal management system to dissipate heat through radiant heat transfer. This paper describes the thermal performance of several thermal control paints, coatings, and surfaces, as characterized by a calorimetric vacuum emissometer. The emissometer is designed to measure the functional emittance of a surface based on heat transfer from an underlying substrate to the surface and from the surface or near surface to a surrounding cold wall. Emittance measurements were made between 200 and 350 K. Polished aluminum, used here as a standard, was found to have a total hemispherical emittance of 0.06, as expected. A velvet black paint, also used here as a standard, was found to have an emittance of 0.94 at room temperature. Other surfaces of interest included a polyurethane-based black paint designated Z-306, a highly polished 316L stainless steel, and an atomic oxygen beam-textured carbon-carbon composite.

  4. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  5. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-01-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

  6. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  7. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  8. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hassany, Sahar M; Moustafa, Ehab F Abdou; Taher, Mohamed El; Abdeltwab, Afaf Adel; Blum, Hubert E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts: (1) personal information regarding the physician (name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and (2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development (screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development (P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health (MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt (P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening (P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo (P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation. CONCLUSION: In Egypt

  9. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  10. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  11. Accuracy of Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Guille, M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty in pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurement is investigated from a standpoint of system modeling. A functional relation between the imaging system output and luminescent emission from PSP is obtained based on studies of radiative energy transports in PSP and photodetector response to luminescence. This relation provides insights into physical origins of various elemental error sources and allows estimate of the total PSP measurement uncertainty contributed by the elemental errors. The elemental errors and their sensitivity coefficients in the error propagation equation are evaluated. Useful formulas are given for the minimum pressure uncertainty that PSP can possibly achieve and the upper bounds of the elemental errors to meet required pressure accuracy. An instructive example of a Joukowsky airfoil in subsonic flows is given to illustrate uncertainty estimates in PSP measurements.

  12. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    PubMed

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

  13. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  14. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  15. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  16. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800...

  17. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  18. 40 CFR 745.65 - Lead-based paint hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead-based paint hazards. 745.65 Section 745.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Hazards § 745.65 Lead-based paint hazards. (a)...

  19. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  20. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  1. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800...

  2. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  3. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  4. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  5. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800...

  6. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800...

  7. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  8. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  9. The Amon Carter Museum: Paintings That Tell a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Presents four classroom lessons designed for elementary and secondary students based on paintings in the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas. Provides an overall goal, specific objectives, background of the painting, and suggestions for discussion and activities for each painting. Includes full-page color prints of each painting. (CFR)

  10. Incite Their Interest with a Collaborative Painting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative painting project that allows first- through third-grade students to work with partners to create a four-inch square of a group painting and learn the basics of mixing paints to produce lights and darks, and tints and shades. One by one, the students worked on the painting in their free time. The author kept a…

  11. [Study of Paints and Drawing Techniques of Fine Brushwork Yunlong Ripples Painting in Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Hao, Sheng-cai; Shi, Ji-long; Wang, Ji-gang; He, Qiu-ju; Qi, Xiao-kun; Zhou, Zhong; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the paints and techniques of decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves, the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting were measured by three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the green clothes was firstly colored by Paris green, the decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves were then painted by hematite, the edge was delineated by brass powder at last. The dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of green and red paints. In addition, ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, we can make sure the time limit of the painting finished. PMID:27209755

  12. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, Sumner Daniel

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  13. RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIGGERS LOFT/PAINT SHOP/SHEET METAL SHOP, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. THE PAINT SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CLOSEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE SHEET METAL SHOP WAS LOCATED IN THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. THE RIGGERS LOFT WAS LOCATED IN THE PORTION OF THE BUILDING OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Riggers Loft/Paint Shop/Sheet Metal Shop, 1322 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    PubMed

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt. PMID:21657103

  15. The Egyptian Civil Calendar: a Masterpiece to Organize the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    The ancient Egyptians had just one calendar in operation, the civil one, during most of their history and before the overwhelming influence of Hellenic culture. This calendar may have been invented for a specific purpose in the first half of the third millennium B.C., when the previous local Nile-based lunar calendars were rendered useless, as the result of the unification of the country and new social, economic and administrative requirements. The civil calendar always started at the feast of Wepet Renpet in the first day of the first month of the Inundation season (I Akhet 1). Its peculiar length of only 365 days (without leap years) might have been established from simple astronomical (presumably solar) observations. Consequently, Wepet Renpet wandered throughout the seasons in a period close to 15 centuries. Our research has shown that this phenomenology was reflected in the Egyptian worldview by the orientation of most important sacred structures accordingly.

  16. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  17. Arthritis in Flemish paintings (1400-1700).

    PubMed Central

    Dequeker, J

    1977-01-01

    A close examination of the hands of people depicted in paintings of the Flemish school showed that in five paintings there were figures with hand lesions resembling those of rhematoid arthritis. Although none of the deformities or swellings are indisputable examples of rheumatoid arthritis, they do at least suggest that the painters must have been confronted with rheumatoid-like lesions in their models. In two other paintings there were signs of rheumatic fever and of temporal arteritis. No arthritic lesions were found in the works of painters of the Italian Renaissance, probably because they are less detailed. The finding of rheumatoid deformities in the Flemish paintings does, however, question the general belief that rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that has arisen relatively recently. Images FIGS 1-2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 PMID:324568

  18. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  19. Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ackley, M W

    1980-05-01

    Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liguid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol concentration dradients arise when the nozzle is not properly positioned. Filter loading resistance is significantly affected by these concentration variations. With regard to selection of standard aerosol test be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of the particle-size distribution, a more precise definition of the paint and paint thinner chemical compositions, and a narrower concentration range. PMID:6932174

  20. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  1. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  2. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. Painting a Data-Rich Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Lorna; Katz, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using data for school reform is like painting a series of pictures--pictures that are subtle and capture the nuances of the subject. This is a far cry from drawing stick figures or paint-by-numbers. Imagine the experiences of the French painter Claude Monet as he wandered through his garden at Giverny at different times of the day and year,…

  4. Effects Of Moisture On Zinc Orthotitanate Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, Gordon R.; Gonzalez, Charles C.; Ross, JR., Ronald g.; Wen, Liang C.; O'Donnell, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Report presents results of tests of electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion of zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) paint. Measured effects of temperature, humidity, and vacuum on ceramic paint. Used as temperature-control coating designed to have low and stable ratio of absorptance to emittance for heat radiation. Helps to prevent buildup of static electric charge and helps to protect electronic circuitry from potentially damaging static discharges.

  5. A multi-analytical study of the fifteenth century mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Portugal) in view of their conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadas, S.; Candeias, A.; Dias, C.; Schiavon, N.; Cotovio, M.; Pestana, J.; Gil, M.; Mirão, J.

    2013-12-01

    The systematic characterization of the painting's palette and technique applied on the execution of the mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Batalha, Leiria, Portugal) is presented. These are the oldest mural paintings known in Portugal (apart from Roman frescoes) and represent the beginning of an artistic Portuguese tradition that continues until the nineteenth century. The aim of the study was to identify for the first time by adopting a multi-analytical physico-chemical approach of the pigments, binder, and alteration products (white veils, crusts, and pigment alteration) of these unique works of arts in order not only to better understand the painting technique, but also to support a conservation-restoration intervention that took place from April to August 2010. Micro-sampling of paint layers was performed on representative areas of the paintings. The characterization of the pigments and binders was carried out by microscopy and microanalysis of cross sections using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-FTIR, and micro X-ray diffraction. The combined analysis of the paintings allowed the identification of the painting's palette: Vermillion (HgS) and red ochre for the reds, yellow ochres for the yellows, green earths and malachite for the greens, azurite for the blues, and carbon for the blacks. The use of the pigment is dependent of the motive painted while the most expensive materials were used in the most important iconographic motives. Alteration of malachite was identified in darkened layers in green areas of the paintings. White veil areas on the surface of the paintings were identified as calcite from precipitation/dissolution processes due to water run-off on the sacristy dome ceiling and walls.

  6. Anxiety and death anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish nursing students.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n = 132) and Spain (n = 126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native language. Alpha reliabilities of the total score scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.91 (Egyptian sample) and between 0.71 and 0.90 (Spanish sample). The Spanish respondents attained significantly lower mean scores than the Egyptian sample in all the 5 scales. All the intercorrelations between these scales were statistically significant, and yielded two factors: Death Anxiety and General Anxiety in both countries. The correlations between these factors were significant, positive, and moderate, that is, 0.57 and 0.50 in the Egyptian and Spanish samples, respectively. The general conclusion is that Death Anxiety and General Anxiety are 2 different, but correlated factors. PMID:15822243

  7. Egyptian Red Sea petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y.H.; Shalaan, A.A.; Zaki, H.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The primary objectives were to encourage increased hydrocarbon exploration techniques basin wide, and to train national geoscientists in exploration techniques. The study was carried out be task forces for each participating country, working in Cairo under the supervision of World Bank technical personnel. In addition, biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and lithostratigraphic analyses by Robertson Group and geochemical studies and BEICIP were carried out on well cuttings and core samples. The study of the Egyptian Red Sea was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. This included reports, sections, and wireline logs from 13 well, samples from ten wells for biostratigraphic analysis, and samples from eight wells for geochemical analysis. Interpretation was carried out on 4,350 line-km of seismic data selected from a grid of 19,000 line-km of data. Four horizons were identified on a regional basis, including the sea floor, top, and near base of middle to upper Miocene evaporites, and approximate acoustic basement. The results show that the Egyptian Red Sea is similar to the better known, productive Gulf of Suez in many respects, including overall tectonic evolution and structural style, present geothermal gradients, and Miocene to Holocene stratigraphic sequence. Based in part on this similarity, the Egyptian Red Sea appears to contain the necessary elements for an attractive petroleum potential.

  8. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027749

  9. Paleoradiology: advanced CT in the evaluation of nine Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Heidi; Torres, William E; Ernst, Randy D

    2002-01-01

    Axial thin-collimation state-of-the-art spiral computed tomography (CT) was combined with sagittal and coronal reformatting, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, and virtual "fly-through" techniques to nondestructively study nine Egyptian mummies. These techniques provided important paleopathologic and historical information about mummification techniques, depicted anatomy in the most informative imaging plane, illustrated the soft-tissue preservation and physical appearance of mummies in superb detail, and generated an intriguing virtual tour through hollow mummified remains without harming the specimens themselves. Images generated with these methods can help archaeologists and Egyptologists understand these fascinating members of mankind and can serve as adjunct visual aids for laypersons who are interested in mummies. CT has emerged as the imaging modality of choice for the examination of Egyptian mummies due to its noninvasive cross-sectional nature and inherently superior contrast and spatial resolution. As multi-detector row CT and postprocessing tools evolve, the capabilities and applications of CT will continue to proliferate, attesting to the expanded versatility and utility of CT as a noninvasive research tool in the multidisciplinary study of Egyptian mummies. PMID:11896227

  10. A quantitative approach to painting styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Sbrissa, David; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This research extends a method previously applied to music and philosophy (Vilson Vieira et al., 2012), representing the evolution of art as a time-series where relations like dialectics are measured quantitatively. For that, a corpus of paintings of 12 well-known artists from baroque and modern art is analyzed. A set of 99 features is extracted and the features which most contributed to the classification of painters are selected. The projection space obtained provides the basis to the analysis of measurements. These quantitative measures underlie revealing observations about the evolution of painting styles, specially when compared with other humanity fields already analyzed: while music evolved along a master-apprentice tradition (high dialectics) and philosophy by opposition, painting presents another pattern: constant increasing skewness, low opposition between members of the same movement and opposition peaks in the transition between movements. Differences between baroque and modern movements are also observed in the projected "painting space": while baroque paintings are presented as an overlapped cluster, the modern paintings present minor overlapping and are disposed more widely in the projection than the baroque counterparts. This finding suggests that baroque painters shared aesthetics while modern painters tend to "break rules" and develop their own style.

  11. Laser decontamination of epoxy painted concrete surfaces in nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2014-04-01

    Laser technology offers an efficient decontamination of surfaces contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by precise application of highly focused laser beam power. In the context of nuclear decommissioning all walls and floors of a reactor building have to be cleaned from chemical-toxic substances. State of the art is a manual and mechanic ablation and a subsequent treatment in a hazardous waste incinerator. In this study, alternatively, a laser-based system exhibiting, decontamination rates of up to 6.4 m2/h has been operated using a 10 kW diode laser in continuous wave (CW) mode with a spot size of 45×10 mm2 and a wavelength of 980-1030 nm. The system allows a rapid heating of the surfaces up to temperatures of more than 1000 °C leading to ablation and thermal decomposition of PCB in one process step. Thermal quenching prevents formation of polychlorinated dioxines (PCDD) and polychlorinate furans (PCDF) in the flue gas. Additionally, an in situ measurement system based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is developed to monitor the thermal decomposition of PCB. For initial experiments samples covered with epoxy paint were used to evaluate the process and to carry out finite element based simulations. In this paper, experimental results of ablation tests by laser irradiation of epoxy painted concrete are presented and discussed.

  12. Finding out egyptian gods' secret using analytical chemistry: biomedical properties of egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian

    2010-01-15

    Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells. PMID:20030333

  13. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Strategy Use in Egyptian Arabic and American English Refusals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Carson, Joan; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    2002-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences between Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals using a modified version of the discourse completion test. Thirty U.S. interviews resulted in 298 refusals, and 24 Egyptian interviews resulted in 250 refusals. Results indicate both groups use similar strategies with similar frequency in making…

  14. The Problem of the Pyramid or Egyptian Mathematics from a Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We consider Egyptian mathematics from a postmodern perspective, by which we mean suspending judgement as to strict correctness in order to appreciate the genuine mathematical insights which they did have in the context in which they were working. In particular we show that the skill which the Egyptians possessed of obtaining the general case from…

  15. Ancient Egyptian Medical Texts: A Rhetorical Analysis of Two of the Oldest Papyri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Carol S.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes two ancient Egyptian technical texts, the Edwin Smith Surgery Manual and the Ebers Manual, to identify complex rhetorical dynamics that present or encourage substantive reformulation of medical practice and thinking within a strongly conservative, authoritarian culture. Shows how the ancient Egyptian rhetorical forms allow for challenges…

  16. Higher Education and Some Upper Egyptian Women's Negotiation of Self-Autonomy at Work and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…

  17. The Acquisition of an Egyptian Phonological Variant by U.S. Students in Cairo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of an Egyptian phonological variant by student participants in a study abroad program at The American University in Cairo. Participants completed pre- and post-study abroad Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews (SOPIs). The SOPI data showed a move toward an Egyptian realization of the phonological variable…

  18. Design and Application of The Painting Material Supply System of The Painting Robot for Steel Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kunio; Hisayasu, Azuma; Mori, Tsunehito; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Nakashima, Yoshio

    With the increase of painting works and the decrease of skilled workers, the demand for robot painting of the large-scale steel product is rapidly increasing. But there are many technical problems in the development of the painting robot for this use. The collision between a robot and a work-piece is one of the most important problems, because the robot operates in a small space of a work-piece. Above all, the collision of the painting material supply hose with painted film on a work-piece is very serious. To avoid the hose collision, we propose an in-line type of paint supply mechanism using swivel joints. The key point in this system is the sealing performance and its durability, and we propose the piping system with compliance to strengthen the sealing performance. In this paper, the design method of this system is discussed on the basis of the analysis of the fluctuatinal elastic deformation of a O-ring in the swivel joint. We produced a prototype of the painting robot with the in-line system designed by this method. Application of this robot to the painting of ship-hull block is also discussed. Results from this application show the effectiveness of the in-line system.

  19. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  20. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  1. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    PubMed

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available. PMID:23492376

  2. Comparative chromosome painting in Carnivora and Pholidota.

    PubMed

    Perelman, P L; Beklemisheva, V R; Yudkin, D V; Petrina, T N; Rozhnov, V V; Nie, W; Graphodatsky, A S

    2012-01-01

    The order of Carnivora has been very well characterized with over 50 species analyzed by chromosome painting and with painting probe sets made for 9 Carnivora species. Representatives of almost all families have been studied with few exceptions (Otariidae, Odobenidae, Nandiniidae, Prionodontidae). The patterns of chromosome evolution in Carnivora are discussed here. Overall, many Carnivora species retained karyotypes that only slightly differ from the ancestral carnivore karyotype. However, there are at least 3 families in which the ancestral carnivore karyotype has been severely rearranged - Canidae, Ursidae and Mephitidae. Here we report chromosome painting of yet another Carnivora species with a highly rearranged karyotype, Genetta pardina. Recurrent rearrangements make it difficult to define the ancestral chromosomal arrangement in several instances. Only 2 species of pangolins (Pholidota), a sister order of Carnivora, have been studied by chromosome painting. Future use of whole-genome sequencing data is discussed in the context of solving the questions that are beyond resolution of conventional banding techniques and chromosome painting. PMID:22889959

  3. Development of a portable ESPI system for the analysis in situ of mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaglio, E.; Lamas, J.; López, Ana J.; Ramil, A.; Pereira, L.; Prieto, B.; Silva, B.

    2012-10-01

    The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is well documented in the literature as a non-destructive technique for structural diagnostics in the field of cultural heritage.. In the case of mural paintings the lack of adhesion between the plaster and the mural support is one of the most important risk factors that threaten their conservation. With this non-invasive method it is possible to detect detachments and cracks in the paintings before they become visible The objective of this work is the development of ESPI portable equipment based on a fibre interferometer for in situ qualitative analysis of mural paintings. The novelty of the presented set up is the use of a variable ratio coupler which makes the system more immune to vibrations and allows for better use of available light compared with the equivalent of free air guided. This configuration simplifies the arrangement and makes it possible to obtain ESPI interferograms with high contrast; moreover, the use of a ceramic heater as excitation source enables the analysis during the heating. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory conditions have shown that detachments and cracks can be successfully detected on model samples of the wall paintings.

  4. Evaluation of corrective measures implemented for the preventive conservation of fresco paintings in Ariadne’s house (Pompeii, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A microclimate monitoring study was conducted in 2008 aimed at assessing the conservation risks affecting the valuable wall paintings decorating Ariadne’s House (Pompeii, Italy). It was found that thermohygrometric conditions were very unfavorable for the conservation of frescoes. As a result, it was decided to implement corrective measures, and the transparent polycarbonate sheets covering three rooms (one of them delimited by four walls and the others composed of three walls) were replaced by opaque roofs. In order to examine the effectiveness of this measure, the same monitoring system comprised by 26 thermohygrometric probes was installed again in summer 2010. Data recorded in 2008 and 2010 were compared. Results Microclimate conditions were also monitored in a control room with the same roof in both years. The average temperature in this room was lower in 2010, and it was decided to consider a time frame of 18 summer days with the same mean temperature in both years. In the rooms with three walls, the statistical analysis revealed that the diurnal maximum temperature decreased about 3.5°C due to the roof change, and the minimum temperature increased 0.5°C. As a result, the daily thermohygrometric variations resulted less pronounced in 2010, with a reduction of approximately 4°C, which is favorable for the preservation of mural paintings. In the room with four walls, the daily fluctuations also decreased about 4°C. Based on the results, other alternative actions are discussed aimed at improving the conservation conditions of wall paintings. Conclusions The roof change has reduced the most unfavorable thermohygrometric conditions affecting the mural paintings, but additional actions should be adopted for a long term preservation of Pompeian frescoes. PMID:23683173

  5. 42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, BEHIND WHICH ARE MOUNTED JIGS AND PATTERNS FOR WINDMILL AND STEEL WATER TANK CONSTRUCTION, AS WELL AS THIN SHEET STEEL STENCILS USED FOR MARKING PRODUCTS WITH PAINT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  6. Toward a behavioral toxicology of paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Colotla, V A; Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Rodríguez, R

    1980-01-01

    Few experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effects of toxic industrial substances such as the solvents on operant behavior. Laboratory rats trained in a mult FR DRL reinforcement schedule showed a differential impairment in performance when exposed to various doses of paint thinner in the experimental chamber, the FR performance being more sensitive to the solvent than DRL responding. Another study of rats working under a FI schedule suggested that the effects of paint thinner are rate-dependent, a finding which suggests a similarity of thinner with the amphetamines in regard to the behavioral effect. Two other experiments addressed to the behavioral effects of chronic exposure to the solvent showed a decrease in locomotor activity and an impaired acquisition of a complex temporal discrimination task in laboratory rats exposed to paint thinner during four, eight of sixteen weeks. These findings are suggestive of brain dysfunction associated with thinner inhalation but further experiments are needed for more definite conclusions. PMID:7442918

  7. Wash solvent reuse in paint production

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

  8. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  9. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  10. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  11. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  12. Gloss paints in late paintings by Francis Picabia: a multi-analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkori, Maria; Hubert, Marie-Odile; Balcar, Nathalie; Barabant, Gilles; Sutherland, Ken; Casadio, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-analytical approach for the study of the materials used by Francis Picabia in two paintings dating from 1949 and 1950 is reported, with a particular reference to the possible use of enamel paints. The study is complemented by analysis of paints that had the appearance of glossy enamel sampled from the artist's easel in the collection of the Comité Francis Picabia. Analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-Py-GCMS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that only few paints match the composition of historical reference samples of Ripolin enamels, while the majority of the glossy paints sampled likely consist of mixtures of binders and varnishes made by the artist. This study confirms the importance of scientific testing and comparison with reference materials, when determining artists' use of enamel paints. Results should be interpreted in the context of documentary/historical evidence, for a more informed characterization of oleoresinous paint media.

  13. Biochemical key to eight species of adult Egyptian mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Farid, H A; Gad, A M; Salem, A M; Kashef, A H

    1991-04-01

    1. An electrophoretic key is described, based on enzyme relative mobility, to distinguish eight species of Egyptian mosquito adults. 2. Using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, five different enzyme assays unambiguously separated Culex pipiens L., Cx antennatus (Becker), Cx pusillus Macquart, Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards, Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu and An.pharoensis Theobald. 3. Diagnostic loci between species were: Ak-2, G6pd, alpha-Gpd, Gpi and 6-Pgd; the probability of correct diagnosis in each case was at least 0.989. PMID:1685104

  14. Use of barley in the egyptian late paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, F; Schild, R; El Hadidi, N; Close, A E; Kobusiewicz, M; Wieckowska, H; Issawi, B; Haas, H

    1979-09-28

    Several grains of barley have been recovered from archeological sites at Wadi Kubbaniya, near Aswan in Egypt. The sites are typical Late Paleolithic and are firmly dated between 18,300 and 17,000 years ago. They seem to represent a very early use of ground grain in the Nile Valley, and evidence is presented for its continued use over the subsequent 6000 years. The Egyptian findings possibly record an initial stage of food production, and if they indeed do, then they suggest that food production may not have been brought about by environmental stress and may not have led inevitably to radical social changes. PMID:17732313

  15. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  16. SMALL DIAMETER PAINTING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. United States Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMALL DIAMETER PAINTING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  18. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  20. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  1. 9. Interior view looking E on second floor Paint Shop. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view looking E on second floor Paint Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Paint & Coach Barn, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. 12. Wagon Repair and Paint Shop (second floor in Woodworking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Wagon Repair and Paint Shop (second floor in Woodworking Mill): view looking east showing paint storage on left and old living quarters on right - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  3. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  4. INTERIOR OF EASTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF EASTERN ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHWEST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  5. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW 'HEADS', HEX SIGNS (BLACK AND WHITE COLORS) AND PAINTED SCALLOP PATTERN (ON BOTTOM OF OVERHANG) - Decorated Red Barn, Alburtis, Lehigh County, PA

  6. PAINT SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATED COLUMN AT JUNCTION OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PAINT SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATED COLUMN AT JUNCTION OF WEST BAY (ORIGINAL) AND CENTER BAYS (SECOND ADDITION), LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Paint Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 8. Interior view looking SE on second floor of Paint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view looking SE on second floor of Paint Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Paint & Coach Barn, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical Society Original: 1868 (Painting) Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM WEST (AFTER EARTHQUAKE OF 1868) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  9. Creative Writing as Dialectical Interplay: Multiple Viewings of a Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Hollis

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate grade students were asked to do a creative writing project based on Kier's painting "The Picnic." The approach they used to view the painting was one influenced by the aesthetic philosophy of Mikel Dufrenne. (RM)

  10. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  11. Optimization of measurements with pressure sensitive paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Puram, Chith K.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1995-01-01

    Use of luminescent paints for the measurement of global pressures on wind tunnel model surfaces requires a full understanding of the inherent accuracy of the technique. Theoretical emission of the paint luminophor follows the well known Stern-Volmer relation. Inherent in this relation are fundamental limits to achievable sensitivity and accuracy. Equations for relative error in pressure as a function of relative signal intensity (emittance), relative error in pressure as a function of pressure, and the relationship between sensitivity and pressure are derived and represented graphically.

  12. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present. PMID:8662502

  13. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens’s works. PMID:27101221

  14. School Walls as Battle Grounds: Technologies of Power, Space and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Annegret

    2005-01-01

    A daily war is waged in schools all over the United States over wall space. Adolescents are using school walls to convey messages, create name recognition, slander each other, or for claiming territorial space. On the other side is the school administration, which paints over and erases these unsanctioned claims to space, power and identity, as it…

  15. 24 CFR 574.635 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....635 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 574.635...

  16. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607...

  17. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607...

  18. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607...

  19. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607...

  20. 24 CFR 574.635 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....635 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 574.635...

  1. 24 CFR 511.15 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations at... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 511.15...

  2. 24 CFR 511.15 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations at... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 511.15...

  3. 24 CFR 511.15 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations at... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 511.15...

  4. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607...

  5. 24 CFR 574.635 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....635 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 574.635...

  6. Terahertz NDE for Under Paint Corrosion Detection and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion under paint is not visible until it has caused paint to blister, crack, or chip. If corrosion is allowed to continue then structural problems may develop. Identifying corrosion before it becomes visible would minimize repairs and costs and potential structural problems. Terahertz NDE imaging under paint for corrosion is being examined as a method to inspect for corrosion by examining the terahertz response to paint thickness and to surface roughness.

  7. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: <21-500,000 ppm). Sixty-six percent of the new paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale. PMID:23472856

  8. Taxonomic status and origin of the Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Mónica; Bos, Arthur R; Hoath, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J; Lymberakis, Petros; Cento, Michele; Ghawar, Wissem; Ozkurt, Sakir O; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Merilä, Juha; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) is a small mustelid with a distribution restricted to the lower Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Traditionally considered a subspecies of the least weasel (M. nivalis), it is currently recognized as a separate species based on morphology. Here we present the first genetic assessment of the taxonomic status of the Egyptian weasel by comparing mitochondrial DNA (Cytochrome b gene and control region) sequences to those of least weasels from the western Palearctic, with a focus on the Mediterranean region. Our results provide no evidence to support the view that the Egyptian weasel is genetically distinct from the least weasel, as we found that, for both Cytochrome b and control region, haplotypes were shared between the two taxa. Specifically, the Cytochrome b and control region haplotypes detected in the Egyptian weasel were also present in M. nivalis from Turkey and Malta, two populations genetically analysed here for the first time. Our results suggest that the Egyptian weasel is distinct from the least weasel populations currently living in the Maghreb, which were inferred to be the result of an earlier colonization of North Africa, but the genetic data alone do not allow us to determine whether the Egyptian weasel is native or introduced. Nevertheless, the observed genetic patterns, together with the weasel fossil record in Israel and the unique commensal lifestyle of the Egyptian weasel, are consistent with the hypothesis that the Egyptian population is a relict of past range expansion from the Levant into Egypt. We suggest that the large size and characteristic sexual dimorphism of the Egyptian weasel are likely to represent ecotypic variation, but genomic studies are required to clarify the extent of its functional genetic divergence. PMID:26961232

  9. Nonflammable organic-base paint for oxygen-rich atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, R. J.; Key, C. F.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    New paint formulations, which combine aqueous latex paints with inorganic pigments and additives, produce coatings that are self-extinguishing in pure oxygen at pressures up to twice the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen. A paint formulation in percent by weight is given and the properties of resultant coatings are discussed.

  10. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section...

  11. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section...

  12. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section...

  13. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.608 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608...

  14. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section...

  15. 24 CFR 891.325 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.325 Lead-based paint requirements. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  16. 24 CFR 891.325 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.325 Lead-based paint requirements. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  17. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.608 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608...

  18. 24 CFR 891.325 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.325 Lead-based paint requirements. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  19. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section...

  20. 24 CFR 891.325 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.325 Lead-based paint requirements. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements....

  1. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.608 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608...

  2. Brushstrokes: Styles and Techniques of Chinese Painting. A Teacher Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    Brushwork is the essential characteristic of Chinese painting. Ink and brushwork provide the foundation of Chinese pictures, even when color also is used. In the quality of the brushwork the artist captures the spirit resonance, the raison d'etre of a painting. In China, painting and writing developed hand in hand, sharing the same tools and…

  3. Interior Painting and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Ways in which school facility planners, managers, and others can guard against the potential indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by paint are covered in this bulletin. It opens with an overview of paint formulations and the functional quality of different paints, paying special attention to the volatile organic compounds present in some…

  4. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  9. 47 CFR 25.286 - Antenna painting and lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna painting and lighting. 25.286 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.286 Antenna painting and lighting. The owner of an earth station antenna structure must comply with all applicable painting, marking, and/or lighting...

  10. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  11. 77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Flagstaff, Arizona on May..., concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and...

  12. 78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in... improvements in, concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the...

  13. 75 FR 17897 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-marking Paint Committee will meet in Colorado Springs..., concerns about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and...

  14. 76 FR 17379 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Missoula, Montana on June... about, and the handling and use of tree-marking paint by personnel of the Forest Service and...

  15. 47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.21 Painting and lighting, when required. Antenna structures shall be painted and lighted when:...

  16. 47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.21 Painting and lighting, when required. Antenna structures shall be painted and lighted when:...

  17. 47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.21 Painting and lighting, when required. Antenna structures shall be painted and lighted when:...

  18. 47 CFR 17.21 - Painting and lighting, when required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Painting and lighting, when required. 17.21... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.21 Painting and lighting, when required. Antenna structures shall be painted and lighted when:...

  19. MC Painting--A New Medium for Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Bruce; Zibit, Melanie

    The MC (microcomputer) paint brush and other parts of the MC painting medium can be used easily by the student, teacher, or artist, young or old, to produce color pictures on a TV screen and store them for later viewing or modification. The 15 colors available--two intensities of each of six colors, black, and two whites--can be painted with any…

  20. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  1. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  2. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.34 - Mechanical paint removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical paint removers. 1915.34 Section 1915.34 Labor... Preservation § 1915.34 Mechanical paint removers. (a) Power tools. (1) Employees engaged in the removal of paints, preservatives, rusts, or other coatings by means of power tools shall be protected against...

  4. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  5. 46 CFR 108.147 - Certain paints prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certain paints prohibited. 108.147 Section 108.147... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.147 Certain paints prohibited. No nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paint or lacquer may...

  6. 16 CFR 1109.11 - Component part testing for paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Component part testing for paint. 1109.11... Component part testing for paint. (a) Generally. The Commission will permit certification of a consumer product, or a component part of a consumer product, as being in compliance with the lead paint limit...

  7. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited methods of paint removal. 35.140 Section 35.140 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

  8. Detection and molecular characterization of Egyptian isolates of grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    Fattouh, F; Ratti, C; El-Ahwany, A M D; Aleem, E Abdel; Babini, A R; Autonell, C Rubies

    2014-01-01

    Selected commercial and/or local vineyards and nurseries in three different governorates of Egypt (Alexandria, El-Beheira and El-Menofia) were surveyed for symptoms indicative of infection by grapevine viruses. Leaf samples from red-fruited and white-fruited Vitis vinefera were tested for grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, and GLRaV-3), grapevine viruses A and B (GVA, GVB), grapevine rupestris stem pitting virus (GRSPaV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), and grapevine fleck virus (GFKV) from early April to late October 2010. Incidence of these viruses was assessed by RT-PCR in 60 different samples. Selected amplicons were sequenced. While GVA was the most wide spread (30%), GLRaV-1, GVB, GFLV, and GFKV were not detected during the survey. However, GVA, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, and GRSPaV were detected in the form of single infection or in mixed infections of 2 to 4 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on all Egyptian isolates of GLRaV-2 (4), GLRaV-3 (7), GVA (3), and GRSPaV (6). GRSPaV was detected for the first time in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis provided insights into the evolutionary relationship between the reported Egyptian isolates and other previously reported isolates. PMID:24957718

  9. LAMQS and XRF analyses of ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Borrielli, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A.; Mondio, G.; Mezzasalma, A.; Serafino, T.; Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E. D.; Paniz, E.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    2010-10-01

    A set of Egyptian bronze coins, dating back to the sixth or seventh century AD, has been studied by different experimental techniques in order to compare their composition and surface morphology, the process of coinage and, possibly, to also identify the place of production. The measurements have been performed by laser ablation with mass quadrupole spectrometry and energy dispersed X-ray fluorescence. Both analyses are non-invasive and can be safely used according to the integrity requirements of the analyzed pieces. Owing to the poor number of available samples, this work, more than to solve a numismatic question, has been carried out in order to test the validity of the above experimental techniques in view of further analyses on the same coins, based on better quality statistics. The preliminary results, presented in this paper, indicate significant differences in the chemistry of the coins' patina, i.e. composition and isotopic species content. This seems to support, in agreement with the archaeological expectations, the hypothesis of the existence of a local mint in Antinoopolis, never before considered in Egyptian numismatics.

  10. Engineering properties of cement/lime-stabilized Egyptian soft clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M. A.; Samieh, A. M.; Matter, H. E.

    2015-09-01

    Soft clay formations are extensively located in many coastal areas around the world. The significant high compressibility and low shear strength of these formations impose challenging engineering problems. The deep cement/lime-mix-in-place method is one of the ground improvement techniques exhibiting successful use in stabilizing soft clay. Analysis and design of the deep mixing systems necessitate the identification of the additive content, the proportions of the lime to cement and the characteristics of the stabilized clay. This paper investigates experimentally the influence of adding lime and cement or cement alone, as stabilizing additives, on the engineering behavior of an Egyptian soft clay extracted from the north delta region. A series of laboratory tests were carried out considering, different additive contents of 8, 10, 12, and 14% of the dry weight, with different proportions of lime to cement of 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. A series of unconfined compression strength tests were performed after different periods; one week, four weeks and 8 weeks, to assess the effect of curing period on the stabilized clay response. In addition, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the compressibility properties of the stabilized clay. This study declared that the use of an additive content in the range of 12% and more is recommended to improve the characteristics of the considered Egyptian clay. It was pointed out that addition of lime and cement to soft clay significantly increases the strength characteristics and significantly reduces the compressibility characteristics of such clay.

  11. Study of a XVIII century hand-painted Chinese wallpaper by multianalytical non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Cabaço, M. I.; Bittencourt, K.; Bruneel, Jean L.; Besnard, Marcel

    2009-06-01

    In this work, hand-painted wallpaper belonging to a private Portuguese collection was analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analyzed artwork was an extraordinary XVIII century Chinese wallpaper that depicts exotic birds and flowers, which was painted with considerable accuracy and expertise. Thorough, in situ, X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed on nearly all the wallpaper. Since the elemental content of several colors was consistent for the four papered walls, strategic micro-samples were taken and analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy to further identify the pigments used. Pigments such as yellow ochre, lead white and barium white, vermilion, carmine, azurite and malachite were identified. Optical microscopy was used to analyze the fibers in the paper support, and fibers such as kozo, ramie and hemp or linen were identified.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.; Southon, J.

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  13. Thermal injuries due to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel, Güzin Yeşim; Akin, Selçuk; Ozbek, Serhat; Kahveci, Ramazan; Ozcan, Mesut

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of burn injuries due to paint thinner in a local burn center. During a 10-year period, 32 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit for paint thinner thermal burn. Patients were reviewed regarding the age, sex, etiologic factors, extent and localization of burn, treatment methods, length of hospitalization, and results. There were 30 males and 2 females. The mean age of patients was 25.9 +/- 11 years. The most common etiologic factor was kindling a fire with paint thinner. The mean extent of burn was 33.6 +/- 24% of the total body surface area. All patients sustained burn injury on the face, arms, and hands and five patients among them had extended burn areas on the trunk and/or lower extremity. The mean length of hospitalization for the survivors was 34.5 +/- 21.6 days. Twenty-eight patients were treated by early excision and split-thickness skin grafting. In four patients, burn wounds were healed by conservative management. Five patients with burn size of over 75% of the total body surface area died. In conclusion, paint thinner may be the cause of a catastrophic thermal injury and should not be used for the purpose of kindling fire. PMID:15019124

  14. Kids Paint Mural to Send Message!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Callie; Adams, Alexis

    1994-01-01

    Describes the efforts of a group called Teens Networking Together (TNT) to paint a mural and send a message to their neighbors about taking care of the environment and taking pride in their cultural history. The teens focused on the importance of clean water and waste disposal issues. (LZ)

  15. Painting and Painter in Aesthetic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolnitz, Jerome

    1984-01-01

    Whether or not knowledge about the painter Picasso is helpful or indispensable in teaching appreciation of his art is discussed. Three studies by Denis Thomas, Mary M. Gedo, and Frank Elgar that argue that knowledge of Picasso the man helps students understand his paintings are examined. (RM)

  16. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  17. Landscape Painting: Artists Who Love the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Linda; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Through the study of several works of art by Albert Bierstadt, George Catlin, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran, this resource explores the way that people felt about their growing nation during the period of westward expansion until the end of the 19th century. It introduces students to basic principles of landscape painting and has students…

  18. Painting, Poetry and Pots of Basil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Gabrielle Cliff

    1995-01-01

    Argues that how and why a particular range of texts are selected, read, and taught determines the extent to which they contribute to a pupil's development. Shows how the teaching of John Keats's "Isabella or the Pot of Basil" and paintings by William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais meet the challenges of the new Order for English. (TB)

  19. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  20. STABILIZATION OF LEAD-BASED PAINT WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the ability of a cementitious stabilizing agent to reduce leachable lead from lead-based paint waste removed from substrate via blasting, and to evaluate the mechanism by which the reduction occurs. Testing demonstrated that the representative cementitious ag...

  1. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  2. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  3. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  4. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  5. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  6. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  7. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  8. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN...

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  10. Deliberate metallic paint inhalation and cultural marginality: paint sniffing among acculturating central California youth.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate metallic paint inhalation, paint sniffing, has recently become the focus of community concern in central California, as numbers of recalcitrant young abusers have entered the overloaded Mental Health and Juvenile Justice systems. This study, based on an extension of psychological, sociological and anthropological explanations of inhalant abuse, describes the adolescent paint sniffer and proposes that a combination of interacting factors both differentiates him/her from other-drug abusing youth, and predisposes him/her to inhalant use. The experimental hypothesis was tested by a stepwise discriminant analysis performed on 50 subjects, equally divided into two groups, paint and other-drug. Six variables, in combination, were found to significantly differentiate the groups, and the derived function accounted for 56% of the between group differences. The following conclusions can be drawn from this investigation. Firstly, the adolescent paint sniffer is demonstrably and meaningfully different as discriminated by a combination of personal, familial and sociocultural variables. Secondly, these identified factors have predisposed the sniffer to abuse, and cannot be considered simply the consequence of said abuse. Finally, it can be concluded that the paint sniffer is a youth disengaged from the symbols and traditions of his/her culture of origin and concomitantly rejected by the majority culture. Inhalant intoxication provides a "cheap" and effective escape from his/her isolation. Recommendations for prevention, early intervention and treatment are addressed. PMID:6880929

  11. Pigeons' discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi

    1995-01-01

    Pigeons successfully learned to discriminate color slides of paintings by Monet and Picasso. Following this training, they discriminated novel paintings by Monet and Picasso that had never been presented during the discrimination training. Furthermore, they showed generalization from Monet's to Cezanne's and Renoir's paintings or from Picasso's to Braque's and Matisse's paintings. These results suggest that pigeons' behavior can be controlled by complex visual stimuli in ways that suggest categorization. Upside-down images of Monet's paintings disrupted the discrimination, whereas inverted images of Picasso's did not. This result may indicate that the pigeons' behavior was controlled by objects depicted in impressionists' paintings but was not controlled by objects in cubists' paintings. PMID:16812755

  12. Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy

    PubMed

    Samuel

    1996-07-26

    Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast. PMID:8662535

  13. Applications of external beam PIXE at RMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, M.; Bubb, I. F.; Johnston, P. N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W. B.; Short, R. C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of an external Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) facility for the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator based at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology has enabled the analysis of artefacts from the Museum of Victoria. Analyses of antique bullets, Egyptian glass samples, an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils have been carried out. The results from the analysis of antique bullets determined the composition of blue spots on one bullet and aided in the conservation process. External PIXE analysis of two Egyptian glass samples enabled the partial determination of the colouring transition metals. Analysis of an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils originating from the archaeological excavation of the town of Ismant el-Kharab as part of the Dakhleh Oasis Project revealed the necessity to find additional pigments to enable identification of the geographical origin of the wall paint.

  14. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  15. Genetic variability of antigen B among Echinococcus granulosus Egyptian isolates.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Gihan M; Elwakil, Hala S; Awad, Nabil S; El-Hoseiny, Laila; Thabet, Hala S; Sarhan, Rania M; Darweesh, Samar K; Anwar, Wagida A

    2009-09-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of encoding antigen B2 gene (AgB2) in Echinococcus granulosus were studied using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing among 20 Egyptian isolates. Five isolates from different host origins (humans, camels, pigs, and sheep) were collected and used. All examined isolates of each host group gave very similar patterns of PCR-RFLP after restriction enzyme digestion with AluI, with the gene size of approximately 140 bp and 240 bp for sheep and human isolates, and approximately 150 bp and 250 bp for pig and camel isolates. No digestion pattern was obtained after incubation of all studied isolates with EcoRI. These results reveal high intra-group homogeneity. DNA sequence analysis highlighted that human infecting strain showed 100% identity with respect to sheep infecting isolate, 96% and 99% with pig and camel infecting isolates, respectively. PMID:19724699

  16. Parasitic copepods from Egyptian Red Sea fishes: Bomolochidae Claus, 1875.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-02-01

    Two species of parasitic copepods from the genus Bomolochus von Nordmann, 1832 (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from the gills of Red Sea fishes. Host material was caught at El-tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh, and in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Both sexes of Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1835 were collected from the gills of a needlefish Tylosurus choram (Rüppell) caught in the Gulf of Suez. This is a new host record. The female is well characterised so only the male is described. Adult females of Bomolochus minus Lin & Ho, 2005 were obtained from the branchial cavities and gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description in Taiwan, and this report constitutes a new host record and a significant range extension. Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters. PMID:26790683

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations of ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, C.; Walter, P.; Castaing, J.; Penhoud, P.; Veyssière, P.

    The processing technologies available during the time of ancient Egypt are of present concern to the field of Archaeology and Egyptology. Materials characterization is the best tool for establishing the processing history of archaeological objects. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used, in addition to other techniques, for phase identification and study of the microstructure and characteristic defect structures in ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders. These powders generally consist of a mix of Pb-containing mineral phases: galena (PbS), cerussite (PbCO3), and phosgenite (Pb2Cl2CO3), among others. Modern materials are fabricated according to recipes found in ancient texts to mimic the processing of ancient times and to compare with the archaeological specimens. In particular, a comparison between the dislocation structures of PbS crystals deformed in the laboratory and PbS from archaeological specimens from the collections of the Louvre Museum is presented .

  18. Genetic Variability of Antigen B among Echinococcus granulosus Egyptian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Tawfeek, Gihan M.; Awad, Nabil S.; El-Hoseiny, Laila; Thabet, Hala S.; Sarhan, Rania M.; Darweesh, Samar K.; Anwar, Wagida A.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of encoding antigen B2 gene (AgB2) in Echinococcus granulosus were studied using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing among 20 Egyptian isolates. Five isolates from different host origins (humans, camels, pigs, and sheep) were collected and used. All examined isolates of each host group gave very similar patterns of PCR-RFLP after restriction enzyme digestion with AluI, with the gene size of approximately 140 bp and 240 bp for sheep and human isolates, and approximately 150 bp and 250 bp for pig and camel isolates. No digestion pattern was obtained after incubation of all studied isolates with EcoRI. These results reveal high intra-group homogeneity. DNA sequence analysis highlighted that human infecting strain showed 100% identity with respect to sheep infecting isolate, 96% and 99% with pig and camel infecting isolates, respectively. PMID:19724699

  19. Subjective well-being and religiosity in Egyptian college students.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2011-02-01

    A sample of 224 Egyptian college students (101 men, 123 women) was recruited. Their ages ranged from 17 to 29 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.5). They responded to the Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Love of Life Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale, as well as five separate single-item self-rating scales assessing physical health, mental health, happiness, satisfaction, and religiosity. All correlations between the measures and rating scales of subjective well-being and religiosity were statistically significant and positive, the largest between satisfaction and religiosity. Only one factor was retained in principal components factor analysis of the correlation matrix and labeled "Well-being and religiosity." It was concluded that religious persons in the present sample reported higher subjective well-being. PMID:21526591

  20. Novel mutation in an Egyptian patient with infantile Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Osama K; El Abd, Heba S; Mohamed, Shaimaa A; Zayed, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a rare fatal childhood neurological autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the ASPA gene, which lead to catalytic deficiency of the ASPA enzyme that catalyzes the deacetylation of NAA. It is a severe progressive leukodystrophy characterized by spongiform degeneration of the white matter of the brain. CD occurs frequently among Ashkenazi Jewish population, however it has been reported in many other ethnic groups with significantly lower frequency. Here, we report on a 2 year-old Egyptian child with severe CD who harbors a novel homozygous missense variant (c.91G > T, p.V31F) in the ASPA gene. The clinical, radiological, and molecular genetic profiles are reviewed in details. PMID:26613958

  1. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E. D.; Paniz, E.; Salici, A.

    2010-05-01

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  2. Relative bioaccessibility of Pb-based paint in soil.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The threat posed by lead (Pb) in soil for pediatric populations continues to be a public health issue. In long-established residential areas, a principal source of Pb in soil is likely to be old Pb-based paint originating from building surfaces. The health hazard posed by Pb from paint in soil will likely depend on quantity of paint incorporated, its Pb-mineral composition, whether the Pb is locked in some other material and the paint residence time in the soil (degree of aging). Here the relative bioavailability (RBA) of Pb in different types of Pb-bearing paint has been assessed. Tests were performed with individual paints, with paints mixed with a low-Pb soil, and with paints mixed with soil and the biogenic phosphate apatite II. Thirteen Pb-bearing paint samples were ground and passed through 250- and 100-µm screens. Samples nominally <100 µm from all the paints were analyzed, and six of the paints for which there was sufficient material in the 100- to 250-µm-size range were also tested. RBA extraction of Pb employed a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) of HCl and glycine adjusted to a pH of 1.5 in which samples were agitated (in an end-over-end rotator) for 2 h. Original paints were examined by SEM/EDX, and by XRD, residues collected after RBA extraction were examined by SEM/EDX. The concentration of Pb in the extraction fluid was measured by AAS. The quantity of Pb mobilized in each test batch was approximately an order of magnitude less in the paint-soil mix compared to the corresponding paint-only sample. The difference in the amount of Pb extracted from the paint-soil mix compared to the paint-soil-phosphate mix was minimal. However, in the post-RBA residues of the paint-soil mix, a PbCl precipitate was observed, and in the extraction residues of the paint-soil-apatite II mixes PbClP phases were recorded. Precipitation of these secondary phases obviously modified the amount of Pb in the extraction fluid, and this may need to be considered, i.e., under

  3. Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Yang, Leichao; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates) are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II) Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments. PMID:22247685

  4. Waveguide BEC Interferometry with Painted Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshier, Malcolm; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Samson, Carlo; Ryu, Changhyun

    2015-05-01

    Waveguide atom interferometers offer the possibility of long measurement times in a compact geometry, which can be an advantage over free space interferometers if the dephasing due to interatomic interactions can be controlled. We are investigating waveguide BEC interferometers created with the painted potential, a technique which allows for the creation and manipulation of BECs in arbitrary 2D potentials. The goal is to measure a linear acceleration of the device. The painted potential allows new approaches to the initial splitting of the BEC. For example, instead of smoothly deforming a single well potential into a double well, it is possible instead to gradually remove a weak link coupling two initially separated waveguides. This strategy should reduce excitations created in the splitting process. We are currently implementing such schemes and measuring the coherence time of the BEC after division. We will present the results of these measurements, and report progress towards measuring linear accelerations. Supported by LANL/LDRD.

  5. Aquastrip (tm): An innovative paint removal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmar, J.

    1993-03-01

    Environmental, safety and health issues, forced operators to search for an alternative paint removal process. High pressure water jetting and new integrated paint and stripper systems are Lufthansa's answer to this challenge. AQUASTRIP complies with the specification requirements. In order to receive approval from airframe manufacturers and authorities the process has undergone an extensive research program since 1988. An operation window was established, to enable maximum of safety during operation on metal and composite surfaces. Even though AQUASTRIP is a hybrid process and requires technological investment, it is well on the way to prove its innovative, ecological and economical character in first large scale applications under realistic conditions. Its potential has already been reflected by patents and trademarks, which were registered in conjunction with the development of AQUASTRIP and the vital interest for cooperative work on the process development and other potential utilization.

  6. Coatings for rubber bonding and paint adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulos, M. S.; Petschel, M.

    1997-08-01

    Conversion coatings form an important base for the adhesion of paint to metal substrates and for the bonding of rubber to metal parts. Four types of conversion coatings were assessed as base treatments for the bonding of rubber to steel and for the corrosion protection of metal substrates under paint: amorphous iron phosphate, heavy zinc phosphate, and three types of modified zinc phosphates that utilized one or more metal cations in addition to zinc. When applied, these conversion coatings formed a thin film over the metal substrate that was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and chemical methods. The performance of the coatings was assessed using physical methods such as dry adhesion, conical mandrel, impact, and stress adhesion for the rubber-bonded parts, and by corrosion resistance methods such as humidity, salt spray, and cyclic corrosion. Coating characterization and performance were correlated.

  7. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  8. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  9. Progressive macular hypomelanosis among Egyptian patients: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Mohamed Khaled; Ahmed, El-Shahat Farag; Abdelgawad, Mamdouh Morsy; El-Kamel, Mohammed Fawzy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a disease of unclear etiology. Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes) was claimed to be an etiological factor. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathological features of PMH in Egyptian patients and to evaluate the therapeutic outcome. Methods: Patients with clinical features of PMH were recruited. Wood’s lamp examination, skin scrapings for fungi, and skin biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, PAS, Fontana-Masson, and S100 protein. Patients received either narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) or nbUVB plus daily topical clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide gel 5% (bcUVB). The period of active treatment was 14 weeks followed by a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included. Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens showed no significant differences between lesional and normal skin. Fontana-Masson stained sections showed overall reduction of melanin granules in the basal layer of lesional skin only and S100 staining did not detect significant differences in the number of melanocytes in lesional and normal skin. Nearly complete repigmentation was reported in 10 patients treated with bcUVB compared to 9 patients treated with nbUVb with no significant differences between both groups after 14 weeks. Only 2 patients in each group retained the pigmentation and the remaining patients returned to the baseline color before treatment. Conclusions: This study documented the clinicopathological features of PMH among Egyptians. No permanently effective treatment is available. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove the pathogenic role of P. acnes in PMH. PMID:24396712

  10. Blanching of paint and varnish layers in easel paintings: contribution to the understanding of the alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Eveno, Myriam; Nowik, Witold; Bastian, Gilles; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Cabillic, Isabelle; Uziel, Jacques; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The blanching of easel paintings can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer with a blurring effect. The understanding of the physicochemical and optical phenomena involved in the whitening process remains an important challenge for the painting conservation. A set of ca. 50 microsamples from French, Flemish, and Italian blanched oil paintings, from sixteenth to nineteenth century, have been collected for in deep investigations. In parallel, the reproduction of the alteration was achieved by preparing some paint layers according to historical treatises and altering them in a climatic chamber in a humid environment or directly by immersing in ultrapure water. The observation of raw samples with a field-emission gun scanning electron microscope revealed for the first time that the altered layers have an unexpected highly porous structure with a pore size ranging from ca. 40 nm to 2 μm. The formation mechanism of these pores should mostly be physical as the supplementary analyses (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) do not reveal any noticeable molecular modification. Considering the tiny size of the pores, the alteration can be explained by the Rayleigh or Mie light scattering.

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  12. Nanoindentation and the micromechanics of Van Gogh oil paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvant, Johanna; Barthel, Etienne; Menu, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ancient paintings is a major issue for conservation and restoration. One strategy is to measure the mechanical properties of reconstructed paints: however, the aging process is poorly known, so it is also desirable to measure mechanical properties directly on ancient paint samples. Using nanoindentation, we have characterized submillimetric samples recovered from restoration of two Van Gogh paintings and compared the results with reconstructed paint samples. We demonstrate that the reduced modulus and hardness of historical paints can be measured at a very local scale, even differentiating between each paint layer. Our reconstructed paint samples exhibit elastic moduli comparable to values of the literature, but the values measured on the two 19th century paint samples are found to be significantly larger. Similarly, the compositional dependence of the elastic modulus is consistent with literature results for our reconstructed samples while our preliminary results for ancient samples do not readily fall into the same pattern. These results all point out to a significant impact of long term aging, in a manner which is difficult to predict in our present state of understanding. They demonstrate that nanoindentation is a very adequate tool to improve our knowledge of art paint mechanics and aging.

  13. Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Obara, Clifford J.; Amer, Tahani R.; Faulcon, Nettie D.; Carmine, Michael T.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Pritchard, Daniel W.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System that is used to provide global surface pressure and temperature measurements on models tested in Langley wind tunnels. The system was developed and is maintained by Global Surface Measurements Team personnel of the Data Acquisition and Information Management Branch in the Research Facilities Services Competency. Descriptions of the system hardware and software are presented and operational procedures are detailed.

  14. Solar paint: From synthesis to printing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2014-11-13

    Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint) offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. We review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV) devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

  15. Validity of Bartram's Painted Vulture (Aves: Cathartidae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Noel F R; Fry, Joel T

    2013-01-01

    William Bartram described the Painted Vulture (Vultur sacra) as a new species in his 1791 book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist. Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus), a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway (Jacquin), or a garbled mixture of species. In fact, his description bears almost no resemblance to a Northern Caracara, but it does match the King Vulture in all important respects except tail color (which is uniform dark brown in all ages and sexes of King Vultures but was white with a dark brown or black tip in Bartram's description). Most 20th century ornithologists commenting on Bartram's bird have been reluctant to accept his description because of the tail-color discrepancy. Only McAtee (1942) concluded that his description could be fully accurate as written, indicating a bird closely related to, but different from, a typical King Vulture. Paralleling Bartram's description is an apparently independent account and painting of a vulture of uncertain geographic origin by Eleazar Albin (1734). Details of Albin's description, including tail color, are very similar to those of Bartram's description. The only discrepancies are minor differences in color of softparts and tail that seem explicable as intraspecific variation. Available evidence suggests that Bartram knew nothing of Albin's description, and if so, Albin's bird provides quite persuasive support for the validity of Bartram's bird. Equally important, none of the arguments offered historically against the validity of the Painted Vulture is persuasive when examined closely. Together, these and other factors make a strong case for acceptance of Bartram's Painted Vulture as a historic resident of northern Florida and

  16. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  17. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  18. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  19. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    PubMed

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement. PMID:11523444

  20. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saffar, Y.; Aldraihem, O.; Baz, A.

    2012-04-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures.

  1. Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1988-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Isocyanate Exposure Below Analytical Detection When a Paint Brush and Roller Are Used to Apply Moisture-Cure Polyurethane Paint.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Schoonover, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Isocyanate exposure is known to be hazardous when polyurethane paints are applied with a spray gun, but less is known of exposure when paint is applied with a paint brush and roller. Concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and three HDI polymers were assessed when two moisture-cure polyurethane paints containing 31-35% isocyanates were applied with a paint roller and brush. Short-term 15-min samples were taken during paint application in an indoor test environment with no ventilation (n= 12); in an outdoor test environment (n= 11); and in an outdoor in-situ assessment (n= 22). The outdoor in-situ assessment involved the painting of a bus shelter and light poles at a public transit station over two night shifts. All isocyanate samples were below analytical detection. The analytical limits of detection for HDI monomer, HDI biuret, HDI isocyanurate, and HDI uretdione were 0.005, 0.84, 0.87, and 0.88 µg, respectively. The finding that isocyanate concentrations were below detection is attributed to the use of paint roller and brush which minimize paint aerosolization and the paint formulation itself which contained <1% of volatile HDI monomer. PMID:26833099

  3. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  4. Microclimate monitoring of Ariadne’s house (Pompeii, Italy) for preventive conservation of fresco paintings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ariadne’s house, located at the city center of ancient Pompeii, is of great archaeological value due to the fresco paintings decorating several rooms. In order to assess the risks for long-term conservation affecting the valuable mural paintings, 26 temperature data-loggers and 26 relative humidity data-loggers were located in four rooms of the house for the monitoring of ambient conditions. Results Data recorded during 372 days were analyzed by means of graphical descriptive methods and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results revealed an effect of the roof type and number of walls of the room. Excessive temperatures were observed during the summer in rooms covered with transparent roofs, and corrective actions were taken. Moreover, higher humidity values were recorded by sensors on the floor level. Conclusions The present work provides guidelines about the type, number, calibration and position of thermohygrometric sensors recommended for the microclimate monitoring of mural paintings in outdoor or semi-confined environments. PMID:23190798

  5. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    PubMed

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. PMID:25482095

  6. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  7. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  8. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  9. 40 CFR 745.233 - Lead-based paint activities requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements. Lead-based paint... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead-based paint...

  10. Smart Surfaces: New Coatings & Paints with Radiation Detection Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Choi, J

    2007-03-12

    Paints are being developed and tested that might ultimately be able to detect radiological agents in the environment by incorporating special pigments into an organic polymeric binder that can be applied as a paint or coatings. These paints detect radioactive sources and contaminants with inorganic or organic scintillation or thermo-luminescent pigments, which are selected based upon the radiation ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} or n) to be detected, and are shown in Figure 1.

  11. Survey Problems and Representation of Architectural Painted Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpiceci, M.

    2011-09-01

    The painted surfaces of a building are generally vertical walls and flat roofs or arched roofs. The detection of these objects must be prepared according to the reason why the metric operation is designed; metric control of the whole performance practice is crucial for the result to matches the predetermined needs. It's now clear that the acquisition of metric data, as the whole process of detection, can certainly not be left to an unidentified automation. The mere representation of point clouds transformed in mesh and processed into 'maps' can cover only a few limited requirements. Conservation and restoration also require the transformation of "discrete" three-dimensional data into two-dimensional representations, resulting in geometric transformations that require a new mindset, especially considering hardware and software potential. We want to propose a new type of projection end analysis as base for the development of representation systems that will transform three-dimensional models in two-dimensional projections for the conservation and restoration.

  12. Astronomical Dating of Edvard Munch's Summer Sky Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ava; Olson, Donald

    2010-02-01

    Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, most famous for The Scream, created many spectacular works depicting the skies of Norway. Our Texas State group used astronomical methods to analyze three of these paintings: Starry Night, The Storm, and Sunrise in Asgardstrand. Astronomical dating of these paintings has some importance because the precise days when Munch visited Asgardstrand are unknown. Our research group traveled to Norway in August 2008 to find the locations from which Munch painted these three works. We then used astronomical calculations, topographical analysis, historical photographs, and weather records to determine the precise dates and times for the scenes depicted in these paintings. )

  13. Astronomical Dating of Edvard Munch's Summer Sky Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ava; Olson, Donald

    2009-10-01

    Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, most famous for The Scream, created many spectacular works depicting the skies of Norway. Our Texas State group used astronomical methods to analyze three of these paintings: Starry Night, The Storm, and Sunrise in Asgardstrand. Astronomical dating of these paintings has some importance because the precise days when Munch visited Asgardstrand are unknown. Our research group traveled to Norway in August 2008 to find the locations from which Munch painted these three works. We then used astronomical calculations, topographical analysis, historical photographs, and weather records to determine the precise dates and times for the scenes depicted in these paintings.

  14. Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

  15. 13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, WEST HALF, LOOKING WEST - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  16. 14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, NORTH HALF LOOKING NORTH - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  17. Noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance profiling of painting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presciutti, Federica; Perlo, Juan; Casanova, Federico; Glöggler, Stefan; Miliani, Costanza; Blümich, Bernhard; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    In this work we demonstrate the potential of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors to access deeper layers of paintings noninvasively by means of high-resolution depth profiles spanning several millimeters. The performance of the sensor in resolving painting structures was tested on models for which excellent agreement with microscopy techniques was obtained. The depth profiling NMR technique was used in situ to investigate old master paintings. The observation of differences in NMR relaxation times of tempera binders from these paintings and from artificially aged panels raises the possibility to differentiate between original and recently restored areas.

  18. Evaluation of metal texture effect on paint appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Haizhuang; Butler, Clive; Yang, Qingping

    1999-11-01

    With the increasing improvement on painting techniques in automotive industry, high quality paint appearance with high gloss, clear image and low orange peel can be achieved on car bodies. In this case, another defect called `metal texture effect' is becoming more significant to paint appearance. In this paper, image texture analysis method, gray-tone spatial-dependence matrices have been employed to evaluate metal texture effect on paint appearance. The preliminary experimental result showed that this method could effectively evaluated metal texture effect as perceived with human eye.

  19. Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Field, III, F. R.; Isaacs, J. A.

    1998-10-01

    Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.

  20. HUMAN INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FACTORS IN RURAL EGYPTIAN COMMUNITIES. A REPORT OF THE U.S.-EGYPTIAN RIVER NILE AND LAKE NASSER RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of common intestinal parasites was completed in three areas of the Egyptian Nile Valley: The Nile Delta, Upper Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt. The relocated Nubian population was also included. The total sampling included 15,664 persons in 41 villages. More than 95% attend...

  1. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Chiaradia, Massimo; Davis, Jeffrey; O'Connor, Gary

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using (206)Pb/(208)Pb vs (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. PMID:26803686

  2. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  3. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  4. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  5. A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-02-01

    A method of using commercial virtual satellite image to check the pattern painting spot effect contrast with the satellite images before painting and after painting have been discussed. Using a housetop as the testing platform analyses and discusses the factors' influence such as resolution of satellite image, spot size and color of pattern painting spot and pattern painting camouflage method choosing to the plan implement. The pattern painting design and spot size used in the testing has been ensured, and housetop pattern painting has been painted. Finally, the small spot pattern painting camouflage effect of engineering using upon painting pattern size, color and texture have been checked, contrasting with the satellite image before painting and after painting.

  6. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189

  7. Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine…

  8. The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morkus, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  9. Robot Mounted Laser Scanner For Paint Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. N.; Baker, L. R.; Atkinson, R. M.; Claridge, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The final inspection of manufactured goods is a labour intensive activity. The use of human inspectors has a number of potential disadvantages; it can be expensive, the inspection standard applied is subjective and the inspection process can be slow compared with the production process. The use of automatic optical and electronic systems to perform the inspection task is now a growing practice but, in general, such systems have been applied to small components which are accurately presented. Recent advances in vision systems and robot control technology have made possible the installation of an automated paint inspection system at the Austin Rover Group's plant at Cowley, Oxford.

  10. Image registration for luminescent paint applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

  11. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M.; Lallier, J.P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Frequency Response of Pressure Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Neal A.; Carroll, Bruce F.; Setzer, Fred M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring the frequency response of Pressure Sensitive Paints (PSP) is presented. These results lead to the development of a dynamic correction technique for PSP measurements which is of great importance to the advancement of PSP as a measurement technique. The ability to design such a dynamic corrector is most easily formed from the frequency response of the given system. An example of this correction technique is shown. In addition to the experimental data, an analytical model for the frequency response is developed from the one dimensional mass diffusion equation.

  13. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  14. Radiological evaluation of the evisceration tradition in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Wade, A D; Nelson, A J

    2013-02-01

    Descriptions of the preparation of ancient Egyptian mummies that appear in both scientific and popular literature are derived largely from accounts by the Greek historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. Our reliance on these normative descriptions obscures the wide range of techniques practised, and so stifles the study of geographic, chronological, and social variations in the practice. Using published descriptions in the literature for 150 mummies and 3D reconstructions from computed tomography data for 7 mummies, this study compares empirical data with classical descriptions of evisceration, organ treatment, and body cavity treatment. Techniques for accessing the body cavity, removal and treatment of the organs, and treatment of the eviscerated body cavity vary with time period, sex, and status, and are discussed in relation to their treatment in the literature and their radiological appearance. The Herodotean and Diodorean stereotypes, including the restriction of transabdominal evisceration to the elite and cedar oil enema evisceration to commoners, are falsified by the data. The transperineal forms are present only in elites, and chemical evisceration is not apparent at all. Additionally, the dogmatic contention that the heart was universally retained in situ, or replaced if accidentally removed, is also greatly exaggerated. PMID:23290862

  15. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt. PMID:27545210

  16. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  17. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  18. Autopsy of an Egyptian mummy (Nakht--ROM I).

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Autopsy of a 3200-year-old Egyptian mummy by an international multidisciplinary team yielded much information about diseases of the ancient past. Major contributions were made by the disciplines of anatomy, dentistry, genetics, hematology, histology, microbiology, nuclear medicine, occupational medicine, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, pathology, pediatrics, plastic surgery, radiology and virology. Scientists from Toronto, Detroit, Philadelphia and Cardiff participated in the investigation. The following were the main findings of medical interest: skeleton, infection or malnutrition as suggested by Harris's lines in distal femoral metaphyses; muscle (intercostal), cyst of Trichinella spiralis; lungs, deposits of anthracotic pigment and granite particles; spleen, enlargement with evidence of possible rupture; liver, early cirrhosis and calcified ova of Schistosoma sp.; kidney, calcified ova of Schistosoma sp.; and large and small intestines, calcified ova of Schistosoma and Taenia spp. This autopsy demonstrated the value of well coordinated efforts by specialists in various medical disciplines. Such efforts are essential when such a rare scientific endeavour is to yield a maximum of useful and reliable information. PMID:332299

  19. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Egyptian children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, H M; El-Serougi, A O; El Deeb, H K; Hussein, H M; Abou-Seri, H M; Klotz, C; Aebischer, T; El Sayed Khalifa Mohamed, K

    2015-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide. Genetic studies revealed that at least eight assemblages (A-H) exist. Of these assemblages, A and B are found primarily in human beings and occasionally in animals. The association between clinical symptoms and G. duodenalis assemblages is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the assemblages of G. duodenalis prevalent among Egyptian children with diarrhea. Therefore, 96 positive stool samples for Giardia by light microscopy were subjected to multilocus genotyping targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were then purified, sequenced, and aligned with reference strains to determine the assemblages of the Giardia isolates. Out of the 96 microscopically positive stool samples for Giardia, 77 (80 %) were successfully amplified and sequenced at least at one locus. Of these, 21 (27.3 %) were shown to be assemblage A, 54 (70.1 %) assemblage B, while discordant sequence typing results were observed in 2 (2.6 %) samples. AII was the predominant subassemblage of assemblage A, while it was generally difficult to further classify assemblage B. It was concluded that infection with assemblage B was more common than that with assemblage A. No associations between epidemiological information and assemblage were detected, except with age. Although infections with assemblage B were more frequently associated with abdominal pain and acute diarrhea than with assemblage A, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25939803

  20. 75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 56666, November 2, 2009) was adequate and that... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives...