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Sample records for ei ole perpetuum

  1. Pastors and the "Perpetuum Mobile": The Dynamics of Professional Learning in Times of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reite, Ingrid Chr.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing knowledge society, many workplaces experience a great number of reforms, implying improvement, new ways of working and professional learning. When a reform is introduced, however, does a professional act as an ever-moving machine--a "perpetuum mobile"--always learning with full energy? In this article, I ask the following:…

  2. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  3. OLED devices

    DOEpatents

    Sapochak, Linda Susan [Arlington, VA; Burrows, Paul Edward [Kennewick, WA; Bimalchandra, Asanga [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    An OLED device having an emission layer formed of an ambipolar phosphine oxide host material and a dopant, a hole transport layer in electrical communication with an anode, an electron transport layer in communication with a cathode, wherein the HOMO energy of the hole transport layer is substantially the same as the HOMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer, and the LUMO energy of the electron transport layer is substantially the same as the LUMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer.

  4. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  5. OLED panel with fuses

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  6. Statistical thermodynamics of quantum Brownian motion: construction of perpetuum mobile of the second kind.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th M; Allahverdyan, A E

    2002-09-01

    The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a harmonic confining potential and coupled to harmonic quantum thermal bath is exactly solvable. Though this system presents at high temperatures a pedagogic example to explain the laws of thermodynamics, it is shown that at low enough temperatures the stationary state is non-Gibbsian due to an entanglement with the bath. In physical terms, this happens when the cloud of bath modes around the particle starts to play a nontrivial role, namely, when the bath temperature T is smaller than the coupling energy. Indeed, equilibrium thermodynamics of the total system, particle plus bath, does not imply standard equilibrium thermodynamics for the particle itself at low T. Various formulations of the second law are found to be invalid at low T. First, the Clausius inequality can be violated, because heat can be extracted from the zero point energy of the cloud of bath modes. Second, when the width of the confining potential is suddenly changed, there occurs a relaxation to equilibrium during which the entropy production is partly negative. In this process the energy put on the particle does not relax monotonically, but oscillates between particle and bath, even in the limit of strong damping. Third, for nonadiabatic changes of system parameters the rate of energy dissipation can be negative, and, out of equilibrium, cyclic processes are possible which extract work from the bath. Conditions are put forward under which perpetuum mobility of the second kind, having one or several work extraction cycles, enter the realm of condensed matter physics. Fourth, it follows that the equivalence between different formulations of the second law (e.g., those by Clausius and Thomson) can be violated at low temperatures. These effects are the consequence of quantum entanglement in the presence of the slightly off-equilibrium nature of the thermal bath, and become important when the characteristic quantum time scale variant Planck's over 2pi /k

  7. Anisotropy in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, M. K.; Yokoyama, D.; Neyts, K.

    2015-09-01

    Small-molecule OLEDs, deposited by thermal evaporation, allow for precise control over layer thicknesses. This enables optimisation of the optical behaviour of the stack which ultimately determines the outcoupling efficiency. In terms of optical outcoupling there are limits to the efficiency by which the generated electromagnetic radiation can be extracted from the stack. These limitations are linked to the refractive indices of the individual layers. Values for maximum outcoupling efficiency are sometimes calculated under the implicit assumptions that the OLED stack is planar, that all layers are isotropic with a certain refractive index and that the emitters are not preferentially oriented. In reality it is known that these assumptions are not always valid, be it intentional or unintentional. In our work we transcend these limiting assumptions and look at different forms of anisotropy in OLEDs. Anisotropy in OLEDs comes in three distinct flavours; 1. Geometrical anisotropy, as for example in gratings, lenses or other internal or external scattering centres, 2. Anisotropic emitters, where the orientation significantly influences the direction in which radiation is emitted and 3. Anisotropic optical materials, where their anisotropic nature breaks the customary assumption of isotropic OLED materials. We investigate the effect of these anisotropic features on the outcoupling efficiency and ultimately, on the external quantum efficiency (EQE).

  8. OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

    2004-02-29

    The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most

  9. OLED displays for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.; Hack, Michael G.; Hewitt, Richard H.; Huffman, David C.

    2000-08-01

    Through the years, there has been a steady evolution of technology to ruggedize displays for harsh military environments. This work has spanned cathode-ray-tubes (CRTs) to present day active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs). Organic light emitting device (OLED) display technology has the potential to solve many of the inherent limitations of today's AMLCD technology and to provide the military system designer with a more cost effective solution. OLED technology offers bright, colorful emissive light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates; it is also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of display applications. OLED displays also have a very thin and lightweight form factor. Moreover, in full production, OLEDs are projected to be very cost-effective by comparison to AMLCDs. This paper will examine some of these advantages and the opportunities presented by the rapidly emerging OLED display technology for military applications.

  10. OLED study for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  11. Yucca EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the disposal of commercial and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Notice of Intent for the EIS was placed in the Federal Register on August 7; the period for public comment (the "scoping" period) will end December 5, 1995.

  12. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  13. Solid State Lighting OLED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of OLED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  14. Series connected OLED structure and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Balch, Ernest Wayne; Duggal, Anil Raj; Heller, Christian Maria; Guida, Renato; Nealon, William Francis; Faircloth, Tami Janene

    2006-05-23

    A light emitting device comprises a plurality of organic light emitting diode (OLED) modules. The OLED modules are arranged into a series group where the individual OLED modules are electrically connected in series. The device is configured to be coupled to a power supply. A display is also provided. The display includes a plurality of OLED modules arranged to depict a shape selected from the group consisting of at least one letter, at least one number, at least one image, and a combination thereof.

  15. Rigid and flexible OLEDs: prototypes to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monz, Stefan; Wolf, Konrad; Möbius, Hildegard; Blankenbach, Karlheinz

    2011-03-01

    Major achievements of this research project on rigid and flexible OLEDs are: lifetime enhancement by advanced constant luminance (L) operation, integration into textiles and furthermore, the prototype production on flexible PET/ITO substrates of polymer OLEDs. Our OLEDs were manufactured with spin-coating assisted by ink-jet printing. We introduced constant luminance operation (instead of the usual constant current) which was implemented in order to extend the overall lifetime of OLEDs. A threefold lifetime improvement was achieved by maintaining 50% luminance using an advanced microcontroller-based lifetime(LT) model. Various approaches to textile integration and evaluation of environmental issues in clothes (e.g. moisture) were investigated.

  16. Recent progress in flexible OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Michael G.; Weaver, Michael S.; Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.

    2001-09-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology has recently been shown to demonstrate excellent performance and cost characteristics for use in numerous flat panel display (FPD) applications. OLED displays emit bright, colorful light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates. OLEDs are also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of applications. OLED technology is also the first FPD technology with the potential to be highly functional and durable in a flexible format. The use of plastic and other flexible substrate materials offers numerous advantages over commonly used glass substrates, including impact resistance, light weight, thinness and conformability. Currently, OLED displays are being fabricated on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon wafers. At Universal Display Corporation (UDC), we are developing a new class of flexible OLED displays (FOLEDs). These displays also have extremely low power consumption through the use of electrophosphorescent doped OLEDs. To commercialize FOLED technology, a number of technical issues related to packaging and display processing on flexible substrates need to be addressed. In this paper, we report on our recent results to demonstrate the key technologies that enable the manufacture of power efficient, long-life flexible OLED displays for commercial and military applications.

  17. Using prismatic microstructured films for image blending in OLEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Haenichen, Lukas; Pschenitzka, Florian

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a microstructured film disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The microstructured film contains features which diffuse light emitted by said OLED device and increase the luminance of the device.

  18. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  19. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  20. OLED microdisplay design and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Ghosh, Amalkumar

    2010-04-01

    AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use. The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. eMagin's largest format display is currently the SXGA design, which includes features such as a 30-bit wide RGB digital interface, automatic luminance regulation from -45 to +70°C, variable gamma control, and a dynamic range exceeding 50:000 to 1. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices. The ongoing development of reduced size pixels and larger format displays (up to WUXGA) as well as new OLED device architecture (e.g. high-brightness yellow) will be discussed. Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.

  1. Platinum and Gold Complexes for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Chung; Chan, Alan Kwun-Wa; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-01

    Encouraging efforts on the design of high-performance organic materials and smart architecture during the past two decades have made organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology an important competitor for the existing liquid crystal displays. Particularly, the development of phosphorescent materials based on transition metals plays a crucial role for this success. Apart from the extensively studied iridium(III) complexes with d(6) electronic configuration and octahedral geometry, the coordination-unsaturated nature of d(8) transition metal complexes with square-planar structures has been found to provide intriguing spectroscopic and luminescence properties. This article briefly summarizes the development of d(8) platinum(II) and gold(III) complexes and their application studies in the fabrication of phosphorescent OLEDs. An in-depth understanding of the nature of the excited states has offered a great opportunity to fine-tune the emission colors covering the entire visible spectrum as well as to improve their photophysical properties. With good device engineering, high performance vacuum-deposited OLEDs with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 30 % and solution-processable OLEDs with EQEs of up to 10 % have been realized by modifying the cyclometalated or pincer ligands of these metal complexes. These impressive demonstrations reveal that d(8) metal complexes are promising candidates as phosphorescent materials for OLED applications in displays as well as in solid-state lighting in the future. PMID:27573398

  2. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  3. Active Matrix OLED Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  4. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function (“gamma correction”). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications. PMID:24155345

  5. Full colour RGB OLEDs on CMOS for active-matrix OLED microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreye, D.; Toerker, M.; Vogel, U.; Amelung, J.

    2006-08-01

    Microdisplays are used in various optical devices such as headsets, viewfinders and helmet-mounted displays. The use of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in a microdisplay on silicone substrate provides the opportunity of lower power consumption and higher optical performance compared to other near-to-eye display technologies. Highly efficient, low-voltage, top emitting OLEDs are well suitable for the integration into a CMOSprocess. By reducing the operating voltage for the OLEDs below 5V, the costs for the CMOS process can be reduced significantly, because a standard process without high-voltage option can be used. Various OLED stacks on silicone substrate are presented, suitable for full colour (RGB) applications. Red and green emitting phosphorescent OLEDs and blue emitting fluorescent OLEDs all with doped charge transport layers were prepared on a two metal layer CMOS test substrate without active transistor area. Afterwards, the different test displays were measured and compared with respect to their performance (current, luminance, voltage, luminance dependence on viewing angle, optical outcoupling etc.)

  6. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  7. OLES : Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetin, Sandrine; Beaufil, Xavier; Chaffard, Véronique; Juen, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    One of the major scientific challenges in the 21st century is to improve our understanding on the evolution of the water cycle associated with the climate variability. Main issues concern the prediction of i) the water resource and the access to drinkable water and ii) the extreme events, both droughts and floods. Observation strategies covering a wide range of space and time scales must therefore be set up, while continuing advanced research on the involved mechanisms and developing integrated modeling approaches. Within this general context, the present work relies on three natural observatories, located in West Africa, Worldwide Glaciers, and in Mediterranean region, managed at LTHE (Laboratoire d'étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement; Grenoble, France) and gathered at OSUG (Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers; Grenoble, France). Their scientific objectives aim at improving the understanding of the water cycle functioning, providing water and mass balances for multi-scale basin sizes, and evaluating the hydrological impacts of the evolving climate. Water cycle variables (precipitation; soil moisture; snow cover; discharge; air and river temperatures; suspended material; etc …) are observed and recorded in 3 different databases built under specific technical constraints linked to the respective partnerships of the natural observatories. Each of the observatories has its own database, and modeling tools were developed separately leading to important efforts often duplicated. Therefore, there was a need to build an integrated cyber-infrastructure to provide access to data, and to shared tools and models that enable the understanding of the water cycle. This is the project called OLES, for Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences. Focused on the understanding of the water cycle under contrasted climates, OLES facilitates the work of the scientific community and then, help interactions between the research community and water agencies or

  8. Effect of electrodes properties on OLED performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, Mario; Vacca, Paolo; Miscioscia, Riccardo; Nenna, Giuseppe; Minarini, Carla; Rubino, Alfredo

    2007-05-01

    The effects induced by different electrical contacts, both for the anode and for the cathode, have been analyzed in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). The properties of anode electrode, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), have been varied through different surface treatments allowing roughness control, carbon impurity removal, spikes decrement. These induce changes of ITO surface chemical-physical characteristics as roughness, surface energy and surface polarity. OLEDs manufactured employing treated ITO have showed an improvement of 25 times in luminance. Thermionic injection model has been used to estimate decrement in effective hole barrier at ITO-organic layer. It is shown that this effect is correlated to ITO surface energy. The second step of process optimization has concerned the cathode electrode investigation. In order to perform this task, Al, Ca/Al, Ag, Mg/Ag have been used to realize different ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PF6/Alq 3/Metal OLEDs. Measurements of electrical and optical behaviour have been performed. A thermionic injection model, with and without Schottky barrier decrement, has been used to calculate the change of the cathode electrical barrier.

  9. Update of status of OLED technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Gurdial S.

    1999-08-01

    Flat-panel displays are basically of two types: light valve (needs an external source of light) and emissive type (generates light at the display surface). The light emitting diode (LED) display is of the emissive type. The inorganic LED displays have been in use for more than 25 years in one form or the other. Because of certain limitations of inorganic materials (such as luminous efficiency and color), LED applications have been limited. The recent discovery (over the past 15 years) of polymer and organic materials has changed LED prospects. It now may become possible to make LED displays that are inexpensive, bright, low-power, large size, and at the same time provide full color. If present research objectives are met, LEDs, especially organic LEDs (OLEDs), may have the potential to revolutionize a certain segment of flat- panel display market. This paper discusses various types of OLED technologies with particular reference to Small Molecule and Conjugated Polymer displays. Some unique versions of these displays such as transparent displays and flexible displays will also be discussed. A part of the discussion will be devoted to various driver circuitry and full color generation schemes. A comprehensive list of various research efforts in OLED technology all over the world will be presented with their differentiating features. The strength of the underlying technology and the challenges facing these types of displays will be discussed.

  10. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  11. Luminescent Platinum Compounds: From Molecules to OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Lisa; Williams, J. A. Gareth

    Around 30 years ago, much of the research into platinum coordination chemistry was being driven either by research into one-dimensional, electrically conducting molecular materials exploiting the stacking interactions of planar complexes, or by the unprecedented success of cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2 (cisplatin) as an anticancer agent. At that time, a number of simple platinum(II) compounds were known to be photoluminescent at low temperature or in the solid state, but almost none in fluid solution at room temperature. Since that time, several families of complexes have been discovered that are brightly luminescent, and a number of investigations have shed light on the factors that govern the luminescence efficiencies of Pt(II) complexes. Over the past decade, such studies have been spurred on by the potential application of triplet-emitting metal complexes as phosphors in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), where their ability to trap otherwise wasted triplet states can lead to large gains in efficiency. In this contribution, we take a chemist's perspective of the field, overviewing in the first instance the factors that need to be taken into account in the rational design of highly luminescent platinum(II) complexes, and the background to their use in OLEDs. We then consider in more detail the properties of some individual classes, highlighting work from the past 3 years, and including selected examples of their utility in OLEDs and other applications.

  12. Steerable patterned OLED backlight for autostereoscopic display application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Fehse, Karsten; Wartenberg, Philipp; Knobbe, Jens; Scholles, Michael; Richter, Bernd; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    OLED can be applied as highly efficient and high-resolution patternable illumination source for controllable and steerable backlights, e.g., for use in autostereoscopic displays. To evaluate technology and approach a 3.5" 3D QVGA display prototype has been developed and combines several achievements: large-area OLED backlight, highly-efficient and fast-response OLED top-emitter, striped patterned backlight, individual electronic driving for adaptive backlight control and 3D mobile display application.

  13. High Efficient OLEDs and Their Application to Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoda, Takuya; Ide, Nobuhiro; Kido, Junji

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation solid state lighting alternative to conventional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps. There are still a lot of issues to overcome in order to commercialize OLED lighting, but a number of elemental technologies indispensable for OLED lighting such as high efficiency, long lifetime at high luminance and large area uniform emission have been developed.

  14. Extracting and shaping the light of OLED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Daniel; Dlugosch, Julian; Wehlus, Thomas; Brabec, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Before the market entry of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) into the field of general illumination can occur, limitations in lifetime, luminous efficacy and cost must be overcome. Additional requirements for OLEDs used for general illumination may be imposed by workplace glare reduction requirements, which demand limited luminance for high viewing angles. These requirements contrast with the typical lambertian emission characteristics of OLEDs, which result in the same luminance levels for all emission angles. As a consequence, without additional measures glare reduction could limit the maximum possible luminance of lambertian OLEDs to relatively low levels. However, high luminance levels are still desirable in order to obtain high light output. We are presenting solutions to overcome this dilemma. Therefore this work is focused on light-shaping structures for OLEDs with an internal light extraction layer. Simulations of beam-shaping structures and shapes are presented, followed by experimental measurements to verify the simulations of the most promising structures. An investigation of the loss channels has been carried out and the overall optical system efficiency was evaluated for all structures. The most promising light shaping structures achieve system efficiencies up to 80%. Finally, a general illumination application scenario has been simulated. The number of OLEDs needed to illuminate an office room has been deduced from this scenario. By using light-shaping structures for OLEDs, the number of OLEDs needed to reach the mandatory illuminance level for a workplace environment can be reduced to one third compared to lambertian OLEDs.

  15. Optical characterization of OLED displays with touch screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, A. D.; Feldman, Rodney D.; Siwinski, Michael; Kilmer, Kathleen

    2002-02-01

    Brightness and color resolution, wider viewing angles, lower power consumption, and a thin aspect ratio are all well understood physical characteristics of organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, an up-and-coming flat panel displays. Increasing numbers of applications of flat panel displays are being commercialized with touch screens. This paper will describe the optical characteristics of mating a touch screen with a full-color active matrix OLED display. We will quantify the OLED optical properties with respect to touch screens with matte finishes and anti-reflective topcoats, and with and without the use of a polarizer on the OLEDs top glass.

  16. Streamlining the EIS Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1977-01-01

    A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

  17. OLED-on-CMOS integration for optoelectronic sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Kreye, Daniel; Reckziegel, Sven; Törker, Michael; Grillberger, Christiane; Amelung, Jörg

    2007-02-01

    Highly-efficient, low-voltage organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suitable for post-processing integration onto the top metal layer of CMOS devices. This has been proven for OLED microdisplays so far. Moreover, OLEDon- CMOS technology may also be excellently suitable for various optoelectronic sensor applications by combining highly efficient emitters, use of low-cost materials and cost-effective manufacturing together with silicon-inherent photodetectors and CMOS circuitry. The use of OLEDs on CMOS substrates requires a top-emitting, low-voltage and highly efficient OLED structure. By reducing the operating voltage for the OLED below 5V, the costs for the CMOS process can be reduced, because a process without high-voltage option can be used. Red, orange, white, green and blue OLED-stacks with doped charge transport layers were prepared on different dualmetal layer CMOS test substrates without active transistor area. Afterwards, the different devices were measured and compared with respect to their performance (current, luminance, voltage, luminance dependence on viewing angle, optical outcoupling etc.). Low operating voltages of 2.4V at 100cd/m2 for the red p-i-n type phosphorescent emitting OLED stack, 2.5V at 100cd/m2 for the orange phosphorescent emitting OLED stack and 3.2V at 100cd/m2 for the white fluorescent emitting OLED have been achieved here. Therefore, those OLED stacks are suitable for use in a CMOS process even within a regular 5V process option. Moreover, the operating voltage achieved so far is expected to be reduced further when using different top electrode materials. Integrating such OLEDs on a CMOS-substrate provide a preferable choice for silicon-based optical microsystems targeted towards optoelectronic sensor applications, as there are integrated light barriers, optocouplers, or lab-onchip devices.

  18. Alkali metal sources for OLED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Lorena; Longoni, Giorgio; Bonucci, Antonio; Tominetti, Stefano

    2005-07-01

    In OLED organic layers electron injection is improved by using alkali metals as cathodes, to lower work function or, as dopants of organic layer at cathode interface. The creation of an alkali metal layer can be accomplished through conventional physical vapor deposition from a heated dispenser. However alkali metals are very reactive and must be handled in inert atmosphere all through the entire process. If a contamination takes place, it reduces the lithium deposition rate and also the lithium total yield in a not controlled way. An innovative alkali metal dispensing technology has been developed to overcome these problems and ensure OLED alkali metal cathode reliability. The alkali Metal dispenser, called Alkamax, will be able to release up to a few grams of alkali metals (in particular Li and Cs) throughout the adoption of a very stable form of the alkali metal. Lithium, for example, can be evaporated "on demand": the evaporation could be stopped and re-activated without losing alkali metal yield because the metal not yet consumed remains in its stable form. A full characterization of dispensing material, dispenser configuration and dispensing process has been carried out in order to optimize the evaporation and deposition dynamics of alkali metals layers. The study has been performed applying also inside developed simulations tools.

  19. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O2-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (~9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (~1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O2 concentration, which indicates that O2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O2:dye collisional quenching

  20. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  1. High-performance OLEDs and their application to lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroya; Ito, Norihiro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nishimori, Taisuke; Kuzuoka, Yoshikazu; Fujihara, Koki; Miyai, Takao; Komoda, Takuya

    2008-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLED) are expected to be used in next generation solid state lighting sources serving as an alternative to conventional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps. OLEDs will provide the environmental benefits of possible considerable energy savings and elimination of mercury, as well as some other advantages such as thin flat shape, planar emission, and no UV emission. Recently, important properties of OLEDs such as efficiency and lifetime have been greatly improved. Additionally, for lighting applications, a high color rendering index (CRI) at the desired CIE chromaticity coordinates, high luminance and large area uniform emission, and high stability over long time operation are also required. In this paper, we describe the development and performance of our high CRI OLEDs: the conventional OLED with multiple emissive layers and the multi-unit OLED with only two emissive units (a fluorescent blue emissive unit and a phosphorescent green / red emissive unit). Related technologies for OLED lighting to obtain uniform emission at high luminance in large areas are also described.

  2. EDITORIAL: Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang-Joo; Han, Min-Koo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-03-01

    Following the great discovery of the electrically conducting polymer, doped polyacetylene, which was honorably recognized in 2000 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry, conjugated molecules, i.e. organic semiconductors, have become an attractive class of active elements for various electronic or opto-electronic applications. Significant effort has been made in both academia and industry to investigate π-conjugated molecules for their unique electrical or opto-electrical properties over the last three decades. The discovery of electroluminescence in conjugated small molecules in 1982 and in polymers in 1989 was a major breakthrough, bringing those molecules to commercial applications within reach for the first time in (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and field-effect transistors (OFETs). Nowadays, we use OLED displays in everyday life in mobile devices. The potential of these devices, which have been fabricated with conjugated molecules, lies in the possibility to combine the advantages of solution processability, chemical tunability and material strength of polymers with the typical properties of plastics, to realize low-cost, large-area electronic devices on flexible substrates by solution deposition and direct-write graphic art printing techniques. The articles in the flexible OLEDs and organic electronics special issue in Semiconductor Science and Technology deal with a diversity of topics and effectively reflect the current status of research from all over the world on various organic electronic devices, including OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs. Firstly, S Park et al describe the recent progress in thin-film encapsulation techniques for flexible AM-OLED and large-area OLED lightings, and their applications are discussed by J-W Park et al. Flexible active-matrix OLEDs on plastics require stable and flexible thin-film transistors processed at low temperature. Metal oxide thin-film transistors are proposed

  3. Luminance uniformity study of OLED lighting panels depending on OLED device structures.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyeong Woo; Son, Young Hoon; Kang, Byoung Yeop; Lee, Jung Min; Nam, Hyoungsik; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2015-11-30

    This paper describes the luminance uniformity of OLED lighting panels depending on OLED device structures of single emission layer (single-EML), 2-tandem, and 3-tandem. The luminance distribution is evaluated through the circuit simulation and the fabricated panel measurement. In the simulation results with yellow-green color panels of 30 × 80 mm2 emission area, a 3-tandem structure shows the lowest non-uniformity (1.34% at 7.5V), compared to single-EML (5.67% at 2.8V) and 2-tandem (2.78% at 5.3 V) structures at 1,000 cd/m2. The luminance non-uniformity is germane to the OLED conductance showing that the high luminance-current efficiency is of the most importance to achieve the uniform voltage and luminance distribution. In measurement, a 3-tandem structure also achieves the most uniform luminance distribution with non-uniformity of 4.1% while single EML and 2-tandem structures accomplish 9.6%, and 6.4%, respectively, at ~1,000 cd/m2. In addition, the simulation results ensure that a 3-tandem structure panel is allowed to be enlarged the panel size up to about 5,000 mm2 for lower luminance non-uniformity than 10% without any auxiliary metal electrodes. PMID:26698702

  4. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  5. Recent advances in small molecule OLED-on-silicon microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Ali, Tariq A.; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Vazan, Fridrich; Prache, Olivier F.; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-08-01

    High resolution OLED-on-silicon microdisplay technology is unique and challenging since it requires very small subpixel dimensions (~ 2-5 microns). eMagin's OLED microdisplay is based on white top emitter architecture using small molecule organic materials. The devices are fabricated using high Tg materials. The devices are hermetically sealed with vacuum deposited thin film layers. LCD-type color filters are patterned using photolithography methods to generate primary R, G, B colors. Results of recent improvements in the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay technology, with emphasis on efficiencies, lifetimes, grey scale and CIE color coordinates for SVGA and SXGA resolution microdisplays is presented.

  6. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G.A. )

    1993-12-25

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis.

  7. Emission enhancement of microlens on OLED with different layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Lin, Hoang-Yan

    2008-04-01

    Low out-coupling efficiency is one of the most critical problems in organic light-emitting device (OLED) application. Only 20~30% of the emitting light from OLED can propagate into air [1]. Therefore, several methods have been utilized to extract more light from device. Here, we use the microlens array attached on device to couple out wave-guiding mode in the glass substrate. We found that, the luminous enhancement behavior has great dependence on OLED structure. When light emitted in the layered structure of OLED, the wide angle interference and multi-beam interference occurred, and far-field emission profile change simultaneously. For different emission profile, microlens array film shows a different enhancement behavior. For a conventional OLED device, the most critical interference will occur at the electron transport layer (ETL). We fabricated a series of OLEDs with different ETL thicknesses to investigate the influence to the optical properties, such as spectrum, CIE coordinate change, and emission profile at different view angles. By controlling the emission dipole position, we investigate the relation between the emission profile and the efficiency enhancement by microlens array attachment. When increasing the ETL thicknesses from 30nm to 150nm, the weaker micro cavity effect results in broader spectrum and more light extracted. In these devices, the luminous enhancement varies from 25.1% to 51.3%.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2008-07-01

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of ~2 × 105 h (~23 yr) at ~150 Cd m-2 (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m-2). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor.

  9. Optical characteristics of the OLED with microlens array film attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hoang-Yan; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Yu

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the luminance enhancement, spectral shift and image blur of the OLED with the microlens array film (MAF) attachment experimentally and theoretically. Higher density, larger curvature, and smaller diameter of the microlenses extracted more light from the substrate mode. The maximum improvements of the luminance at the normal direction and the total power were 42.5% (80%) and 45% (85%) from our experimental (simulation) results, respectively. The differences between the theoretical and experimental results may come from the non-Lambertian radiation of OLED and the imperfection of the microlens array film. From observing the planar OLED, the peak wavelength is blue-shifted and the full width at the half maximum (FWHM) decreased with respect to increasing viewing angles due to the microcavity effect. When the MAF was attached, the spectral peak had a further blue shift (5 to 10 nm at different viewing angles) compared to that of the planar OLED and it came from the light extraction of the MAF from the substrate mode. We also quantitatively investigated the "blur width" of the OLED with MAF attachment. Higher image blur was observed as accompanied with higher extraction efficiency which showed a tradeoff between the image quality and extraction efficiency. It means that the MAF attachment is more suitable for OLED lighting application, rather than display application. To reduce the image blur and keep the high extraction efficiency at the same time, we re-designed the arrangement of the microlens arrays on the film. In our optimized case, we found that the blur width can be reduced from 79 μm to 9 μm, while the extraction efficiency is kept nearly the same. It shows a possibility to use the microlens array film on real OLED display for improving the extraction efficiency without image quality degradation.

  10. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, Joseph

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  11. On the lighting design aspect of OLED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Peter Y.

    2010-02-01

    One of the most promising market segments to mainstream OLED lighting is the Commercial and Institutional Segment. It account for 40% of the entire lighting market. 75% of all the fluorescent luminaires are sold into this market segment. In order to meet the future lighting energy allowances, it is recommended that OLED efficacy be designed to around 70+ lumens/watt initially and gradually increases to 100 lumens per watt and perhaps ultimately to 140 lumens per watt. Luminous Exitance of an OLED can be designed to 6400 - 8000 lumens per square meter (approximately 2000 - 2500 candelas per square meter). This level of performance will enable OLED to participate in most of the lighting applications found in commercial and institutional market segment. As for lifetime of an OLED, an initial lifetime of around 20,000 hours at L70 is reasonable. The performance will move toward the target of around 50,000 hours of effective operating life at L85. Proper lighting design with daylight harvesting and other means can be very helpful in accomplishing this target.

  12. Analysis of current driving capability of pentacene TFTs for OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Gi Seong; Byun, Hyun Sook; Xu, Yong Xian; Pyo, Kyung Soo; Choe, Ki Beom; Song, Chung Kun

    2005-01-01

    The flexible display and the application of Roll-To-Roll process is difficult because high temperature process of a-Si;H TFT and poly-Si TFT limited the use of plastic substrate. We proposed AMOLED using Pentacene TFT (OTFT) to fabricate flexible display. The first stage for OTFT application to OLED, we analyzed OTFT as driving device of OLED. The process performed on glass and plastic (PET) substrate that is coated ITO and PVP is used for gate insulator. The field effect mobility of the fabricated OTFT is 0.1~0.3cm2/V"sec and Ion/Ioff current ratio is 103~105. OLED is fabricated with two stories structure of TPD and Alq3, and we can observe the light at 5V by the naked eye. The wavelength of observed lights is 530nm ~550nm. We can confirm the driving of OLED due to OTFT using Test panel and observe OLED control by gate voltage of OTFT. Also, we verify designed structure and process, and make a demonstration fabricating 64 by 64 backplane based on Test panel.

  13. Fabrication of OLED Devices on Engineered Plastic Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Hall, Michael G.; Mast, Eric S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Martin, Peter M.; Shi, Ming-Kun; Brown, J.; Mahon, J.; Burrows, P.; Sullivan, M.

    2000-04-15

    Protective ultrabarrier coatings for displays on flexible polymeric film substrates were deposited. The ultrabarrier coatings met a number of tight performance specifications including low gas permeation, high conductivity transparent electrodes, chemical resistance, thermal stability and scratch resistance must be met. Transmission of oxygen and water vapors by native polymeric materials was sufficiently high to prohibit their use in LCD and OLED applications. A multilayer film structure with alternate layers of organic polymer and metal oxide, demonstrated oxygen and moisture permeation rates below the measurement limit of commercial instrumentation (<0.005 O2 cc/m2/day, H2O g/m2/day). This highly transparent, multilayer ultra-barrier coating, with and without ITO overocats, was deposited by roll-to-roll compatible, vacuum deposition processes. The process for vacuum evaporation of organic monomers and in-situ polymerization, was used to deposit the organic layers. This process was also used to encapsulate OLED structures on plastic, glass, and silicon. Flexible OLED devices have been successfully fabricated using these ultrabarrier substrates. Lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours were achieved for encapsulated OLED devices. Performance of the OLED devices on plastic substrates was similar to those on glass substrates.

  14. OpenEIS Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  15. Materials and architectures for efficient harvesting of singlet and triplet excitons for white light emitting OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen

    2015-02-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  16. Numerical analysis of nanostructures for enhanced light extraction from OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschiedrich, Lin; Greiner, Horst J.; Burger, Sven; Schmidt, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Nanostructures, like periodic arrays of scatters or low-index gratings, are used to improve the light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). In order to optimize geometrical and material properties of such structures, simulations of the outcoupling process are very helpful. The finite element method is best suited for an accurate discretization of the geometry and the singular-like field profile within the structured layer and the emitting layer. However, a finite element simulation of the overall OLED stack is often beyond available computer resources. The main focus of this paper is the simulation of a single dipole source embedded into a twofold infinitely periodic OLED structure. To overcome the numerical burden we apply the Floquet transform, so that the computational domain reduces to the unit cell. The relevant outcoupling data are than gained by inverse Flouqet transforming. This step requires a careful numerical treatment as reported in this paper.

  17. Design of OLED gamma correction system based on the LUT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun; Shi, Junsheng; Chen, Zaiqing; Li, Qiong

    2011-11-01

    Gamma correction is an important processing in reproduce images information realizing of video source. In order to improve the image sharpness of the OLED micro-display, a Gamma correction system was established to compensate for the gray scale distortion of the micro-display which is caused by the difference between the optical and electrical characteristic property. Based on the North OLEiD Company's 0.5 inch OLED, We proposed a Gamma correction system to converts 8 bits input signal into 9 bits displayed on the OLED. It used Microchip as the MCU and the master of the I2C serial bus, Development of the hardware system measurement verified the correction of VGA and CVBS video input and the picture quality also apparently improved.

  18. Recent developments in OLED-based chemical and biological sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Cai, Yuankun; Shinar, Ruth

    2007-09-01

    Recent developments in the structurally integrated OLED-based platform of luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed. In this platform, an array of OLED pixels, which is structurally integrated with the sensing elements, is used as the photoluminescence (PL) excitation source. The structural integration is achieved by fabricating the OLED array and the sensing element on opposite sides of a common glass substrate or on two glass substrates that are attached back-to-back. As it does not require optical fibers, lens, or mirrors, it results in a uniquely simple, low-cost, and potentially rugged geometry. The recent developments on this platform include the following: (1) Enhancing the performance of gas-phase and dissolved oxygen sensors. This is achieved by (a) incorporating high-dielectric TiO II nanoparticles in the oxygen-sensitive Pt and Pd octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP and PdOEP, respectively)- doped polystyrene (PS) sensor films, and (b) embedding the oxygen-sensitive dyes in a matrix of polymer blends such as PS:polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). (2) Developing sensor arrays for simultaneous detection of multiple serum analytes, including oxygen, glucose, lactate, and alcohol. The sensing element for each analyte consists of a PtOEP-doped PS oxygen sensor, and a solution containing the oxidase enzyme specific to the analyte. Each sensing element is coupled to two individually addressable OLED pixels and a Si photodiode photodetector (PD). (3) Enhancing the integration of the platform, whereby a PD array is also structurally integrated with the OLED array and sensing elements. This enhanced integration is achieved by fabricating an array of amorphous or nanocrystalline Si-based PDs, followed by fabrication of the OLED pixels in the gaps between these Si PDs.

  19. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  20. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Rui

    2012-01-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O2 and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  1. Characterization and optimization of OLED materials and layer sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Becker, Edo; Benstem, Torsten; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Metzdorf, Dirk; Neuner, H.; Schoebel, Joerg

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been put into the development of light emitting devices based on evaporated layers of organic semiconductors. To date, matrix displays consisting of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been brought into marketable commodity. OLED matrix displays offer high contrast, wide viewing angle and a broad temperature range at low power consumption. In contrast to polymer devices, OLEDs are processed in ultrahigh vacuum systems. The organic source materials are sublimated from effusion cells. Due to the sensitivity of organic thin films, device structuring by conventional etching techniques is not feasible and alternative structuring techniques were developed. Electrical current in organic devices is limited by the low conductivity of organic semiconductors and by energy barriers at the metal-organic semiconductor interface. Photoelectric measurements facilitate the determination of barrier height differences between various electrode setups. Further insight in the energy band alignment at organic heterointerfaces are gained by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). In addition to widely employed electrical (I-V, C-V) and optical (P-I) measurements, thermally stimulated current (TSC) and luminescence (TSL) allow the characterization and a more detailed understanding of carrier traps and charge transport in organic devices. Energy transfer in a doped OLED emitting layer can be investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  2. Current state of OLED technology relative to military avionics requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchon, Joseph L.; Barnidge, Tracy J.; Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Bahadur, Birendra

    2014-06-01

    The paper will review optical and environmental performance thresholds required for OLED technology to be used on various military platforms. Life study results will be summarized to highlight trends while identifying remaining performance gaps to make this technology viable for future military avionics platforms.

  3. Some approaches for fabricating high-efficiency OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Wang, Wei-Ben; Shen, Shih-Ming; Wu, Ming-Hsuan

    2009-08-01

    High-efficiency is strongly desired for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to be fully realized as the future display and lighting technology. To replace current illumination tools, such as incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes, for examples, OLEDs with much higher efficiency are demanded. We will present herein some approaches for fabricating high-efficiency OLEDs of blue and white emission. Besides employing highly efficient electroluminescent guests and thin device architecture, low injection barriers to carriers, high carrier-transporting character, effective carrier/exciton confinement, balanced carrier-injection, exciton generation on host, effective host-to-guest energy-transfer and improved light-coupling efficiency are essential. Amongst, the incorporation of nano-dots in emissive- and non-emissive-layers can markedly improve the device efficiency. The enhancement is especially marked as small polymeric nano-dots are incorporated into the non-emissive layers. Since the incorporation is not in the emissive layer, the efficiency improvement mechanism works for both fluorescent and phosphorescent devices. Importantly, the efficiency improvement is also a strong function of the surface charge density of the nano-dots. Regardless positively or negatively charged, the improvement becomes more pronounced as the charge density increases. Results regarding some lately achieved extraordinarily highly-efficient OLEDs containing nano-dots with high surface charge will be presented.

  4. Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2010-07-09

    In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

  5. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  6. Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and its application to lighting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Nobuhiro; Komoda, Takuya; Kido, Junji

    2006-08-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) is an emerging technology as one of the strong candidates for next generation solid state lighting with various advantages such as thin flat shape, no UV emission and environmental benefits. At this moment, OLED still has a lot of issues to be solved before widely used as lighting devices. Nonetheless, typical properties of OLED, such as efficiency and lifetime, have been recently made great progress. For example, a green phosphorescent OLED with over 100 lm/W and a red fluorescent OLED with an estimated half decay time of over 100,000 h at 1,000 cd/m2 were reported. Large area, white OLEDs with long lifetime were also demonstrated. In this way, some of the issues are going to be steadily overcome. In this publication, we will present a phosphorescent white OLED with a high luminous efficiency of 46 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of 20.6 percent observed at 100 cd/m2. This device achieves a luminous efficiency of 62.8 lm/W with a light-outcoupling film attached on the glass substrate. This is one of the highest values so far reported for white OLEDs. And we will also show a color-tunable stacked OLED with improved emission characteristics. This device minimizes a viewing angle dependence of the emission spectra and has color tunability from white to reddish-white. These technologies will be applied to OLED lighting.

  7. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang

    2011-03-01

    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  8. INK-JET PRINTING OF PF6 FOR OLED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Burrasca, G.; Fasolino, T.; Miscioscia, R.; Nenna, G.; Vacca, P.; Villani, F.; Minarini, C.; Della Sala, D.

    2008-08-28

    In the last years there has been much interest in applying ink-jet printing (IJP) technology to the deposition of several materials for organic electronics applications, including metals, polymers and nanoparticles dispersions on flexible substrates. The aim of this work is to study the effect of ink-jet deposition of polymer films in the manufacturing of OLED devices comparing their performances to standard technologies. The ink-jet printed polymer is introduced in an hybrid structure in which other layers are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation. The electrical and optical properties of the obtained devices are investigated.OLEDs with the same structure were fabricated by spin-coating a polymer film by the same solution used as ink. Results have been compared to the above ones to determine how the deposition method affects the device optoelectronic properties.

  9. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  10. Inkjet printing of photopolymerizable small molecules for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Simon; Derue, Lionel; Geffroy, Bernard; Ishow, Eléna; Maindron, Tony

    2015-09-01

    The elaboration of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) via a solution deposition process turns out to be a cheaper alternative to the vacuum evaporation technique. However the most popular spin-coating wet deposition process mainly used in the semiconductor industry is not applicable for large mother glass substrates used in display applications. The inkjet technology addresses this drawback and appears to be a good solution to produce on a large scale wet deposited OLEDs1. This process has been commonly used for polymer deposition and only a few examples2-4 have demonstrated the possibility of depositing small molecules in functional devices. Deposition of small molecules from inkjet printing is supposed to be easier than polymers because monomers do not show polydispersity and consequently the viscosity of the solution containing the monomers, the ink, is easily controllable in production. This work aims at fabricating OLEDs composed of inkjet-printed hole-transporting molecules and a new class of fluorescent molecules that have been further UV-photopolymerized right after deposition.

  11. Multi-objective optimization of microcavity OLEDs with DBR mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Albert W.; Chan, J.; Ng, Alan Man Ching; Djurišić, A. B.; Rakić, A. D.

    2007-02-01

    In this work, the emission efficiency and spectral shift with respect to viewing angle were optimized by optimizing the design of the multi-layer top mirror of a microcavity OLED device. We first established criteria for the emission side mirror in order to optimize light intensity and spectral shift with viewing angle. Then we designed mirror using metallic and dielectric layers based on the target defined. The electroluminescence emission spectra of a microcavity OLED consisting of widely used organic materials, N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB) as a hole transport layer and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq 3) as emitting and electron transporting layer was then calculated. Silver was used as the anode and back reflection mirror for the microcavity OLED. The simulation was performed for both the conventional LiF/Al cathode/top mirror and the optimized 5-layered top mirror. Our results indicate that by following the design procedure outlined, we simultaneously optimize the device for better light intensity and spectral shift with viewing angle.

  12. Extraction of internal emission characteristics from printed OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildner, Mark L.; Ziebarth, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-01

    Accurate optical modeling of OLED device performance is beneficial to OLED manufacturing because as materials and architectures are modified, experimental effort and resources are saved in the search for optimal structures. The success of such modeling depends crucially on model inputs, which include, along with layer thicknesses and optical constants, internal emission characteristics such as the internal emission spectrum (IES) of the emitter and the location and profile of emission in the emissive layer (EML). This presentation will describe two methods we have used to extract the internal emission characteristics of our printed bottom emitting OLEDs. The first method, which we devised and implemented with assumptions specific to our devices, is a simpler one for both modeling and data collection: we collected spectra at normal viewing angle for a series of devices with different architectures, and extracted a normalized IES common to all these devices. We will show how an emission location was obtained from this method with some simple model assumptions. In the more rigorous second method - one presented by van Mensfoort et al 1 - internal emission characteristics were extracted independently for each device: spectra at multiple angles were collected, which allowed the extraction of an individual IES and emission profile. We will compare the findings of the two methods and assess the validity of the assumptions used in the first method.

  13. HL7 with CORBA and OLE: software components for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rishel, W

    1996-01-01

    Componentized software promises easier, more fine-grained integration of disparate software systems. Variations of the technology can help to achieve tight coupling among disparate programs on the clinical workstation or across wide area networks. HL7 members have been designing extensions to the protocol for the exchange of healthcare information using Microsoft OLE and CORBA technologies. Extensive prototyping has been performed, including the simultaneous interconnection of sixteen different vendor systems exchanging demographic data and lab results. The first release of this standard will be notable in that the specifications for OLE and CORBA will be entirely isomorphic, they will be based directly, on HL7 version 2.3, and they may easily be implemented in systems that are not written using object-oriented programming tools. As HL7 version 3 is developed on an object-oriented model of healthcare information, the same approach will be used so information about the objects may be shared using CORBA and OLE. PMID:8947635

  14. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  15. Flexible OLED fabrication with ITO thin film on polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Kyo Woong; Bhusan Sahu, Bibhuti; Geon Han, Jeon

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) films in a dual pulse magnetron sputtering (DPMS) system at low temperature (<100 °C) deposition condition. This study also presents experimental demonstration of the ITO films for their possible use in the fabrication of organic light emitting diode (OLED) device, and the device performance on the super polycarbonate substrates. The presented data reveals the feasibility of ITO films, with a very low sheet resistance of ∼30 Ω/□ and high transmittance of ∼88% at 550 nm, simply by the magnetron pulse mode operations with increasing pulse frequency from 0 to 50 kHz.

  16. Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDS) and Their Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Gang Li

    2003-12-12

    Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs), both small molecular and polymeric have been studied extensively since the first efficient small molecule OLED was reported by Tang and VanSlyke in 1987. Burroughes' report on conjugated polymer-based OLEDs led to another track in OLED development. These developments have resulted in full color, highly efficient (up to {approx} 20% external efficiency 60 lm/W power efficiency for green emitters), and highly bright (> 140,000 Cd/m{sup 2} DC, {approx}2,000,000 Cd/m{sup 2} AC), stable (>40,000 hr at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}) devices. OLEDs are Lambertian emitters, which intrinsically eliminates the view angle problem of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Thus OLEDs are beginning to compete with the current dominant LCDs in information display. Numerous companies are now active in this field, including large companies such as Pioneer, Toyota, Estman Kodak, Philipps, DuPont, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and Osram, and small companies like Cambridge Display Technology (CDT), Universal Display Corporation (UDC), and eMagin. The first small molecular display for vehicular stereos was introduced in 1998, and polymer OLED displays have begun to appear in commercial products. Although displays are the major application for OLEDs at present, they are also candidates for nest generation solid-state lighting. In this case the light source needs to be white in most cases. Organic transistors, organic solar cells, etc. are also being developed vigorously.

  17. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2016-06-28

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  18. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2015-06-23

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  19. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  20. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  1. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  2. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  3. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  4. Light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on OLED with microcavity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Doo-Hee; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Park, Seung Koo; Moon, Jaehyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-10-20

    We examined the light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on microcavity designed OLEDs. The results of FDTD simulations and experiments showed that the pillar shaped nano-structure was more effective than the concave micro-structure for light diffusing of microcavity OLEDs. The sharp luminance distribution of the microcavity OLED was changed to near Lambertian luminance distribution by the nano-structure, and light diffusing effects increased with the height of the nano-structure. Furthermore, the nano-structure has advantages including light extraction of the substrate mode, reproducibility of manufacturing process, and minimizing pixel blur problems in an OLED display panel. The nano-structure is a promising candidate for a light diffuser, resolving the viewing angle problems in microcavity OLEDs. PMID:25607307

  5. Improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing super-multiview display based on planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yueli; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jiahui; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-08-24

    Through gating spectrum plane of multiple planar aligned OLED microdisplays by a timely sequential manner, a super-multiview (SMV) three-dimensional (3D) display based on spatiotemporal-multiplexing was developed in our previous paper. But an upper limit of the allowable sub-viewing-zones (SVZs) for an OLED microdisplay did exist in the previous system, even if microdisplays with very high frame rates could be commercially available. In this manuscript, an improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing SMV displays system is developed, which removes the above limitation through controllable fusing of light beams from adjacent OLED microdisplays. The employment of a liquid-crystal panel as the gating-aperture array allows the improved system to accommodate multiple rows of OLED microdisplays for denser SVZs. Experimentally, a prototype system is demonstrated by 24 OLED microdisplays, resulting in 120 SVZs with an interval small to 1.07mm. PMID:26368135

  6. Fast algorithm of low power image reformation for OLED display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungwoo; Kim, Taewhan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a fast algorithm of low-power image reformation for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display. The proposed algorithm scales the image histogram in a way to reduce power consumption in OLED display by remapping the gray levels of the pixels in the image based on the fast analysis of the histogram of the input image while maintaining contrast of the image. The key idea is that a large number of gray levels are never used in the images and these gray levels can be effectively exploited to reduce power consumption. On the other hand, to maintain the image contrast the gray level remapping is performed by taking into account the object size in the image to which each gray level is applied, that is, reforming little for the gray levels in the objects of large size. Through experiments with 24 Kodak images, it is shown that our proposed algorithm is able to reduce the power consumption by 10% even with 9% contrast enhancement. Our algorithm runs in a linear time so that it can be applied to moving pictures with high resolution.

  7. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N′-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  8. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  9. Quantum Dot Light Enhancement Substrate for OLED Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    James Perkins; Matthew Stevenson; Gagan Mahan; Seth Coe-Sullivan; Peter Kazlas

    2011-01-21

    With DOE Award No. DE-EE00000628, QD Vision developed and demonstrated a cost-competitive solution for increasing the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for solid state lighting (SSL). Solution processable quantum dot (QD) films were integrated into OLED ITO-glass substrates to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting OLED) devices as well as outcouple light from the ITO film. This QD light-enhancement substrate (QD-LED) technology demonstrated a 60% increase in OLED forward light out-coupling, a value which increases to 76% when considering total increase in multi-directional light output. The objective for the first year was an 80% increase in light output. This project seeks to develop and demonstrate a cost-competitive solution for realizing increased extraction efficiency organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for SSL. Solution processible quantum dot (QD) films will be utilized to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting phosphorescent OLED (Ph-OLED) devices.

  10. Evidence that the Yeast Desaturase Ole1p Exists as a Dimer In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2010-06-18

    Desaturase enzymes are composed of two classes, the structurally well characterized soluble class found predominantly in the plastids of higher plants and the more widely distributed but poorly structurally defined integral membrane class. Despite their distinct evolutionary origins, the two classes both require an iron cofactor and molecular oxygen for activity and are inhibited by azide and cyanide, suggesting strong mechanistic similarities. The fact that the soluble desaturase is active as a homodimer prompted us test the hypothesis that an archetypal integral membrane desaturase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the {Delta}{sup o}-acyl-Co-A desaturase Ole1p, also exhibits a dimeric organization. Ole1p was chosen because it is one of the best characterized integral membrane desaturase and because it retains activity when fused with epitope tags. FLAG-Ole1p was detected by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates in which anti-Myc antibodies were used for capture from yeast extracts co-expressing Ole1p-Myc and Ole1p-FLAG. Interaction was confirmed by two independent bimolecular complementation assays (i.e. the split ubiquitin system and the split luciferase system). Co-expression of active and inactive Ole1p subunits resulted in an {approx}75% suppression of the accumulation of palmitoleic acid, demonstrating that the physiologically active form of Ole1p in vivo is the dimer in which both protomers must be functional.

  11. Recent progress in OLED and flexible displays and their potential for application to aerospace and military display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2015-05-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display technology has advanced significantly in recent years and it is increasingly being adapted in consumer electronics products with premium performance, such as high resolution smart phones, Tablet PCs and TVs. Even flexible OLED displays are beginning to be commercialized in consumer electronic devices such as smart phones and smart watches. In addition to the advances in OLED emitters, successful development and adoption of OLED displays for premium performance applications relies on the advances in several enabling technologies including TFT backplanes, pixel drive electronics, pixel patterning technologies, encapsulation technologies and system level engineering. In this paper we will discuss the impact of the recent advances in LTPS and AOS TFTs, R, G, B and White OLED with color filter pixel architectures, and encapsulation, on the success of the OLEDs in consumer electronic devices. We will then discuss potential of these advances in addressing the requirements of OLED and flexible displays for the military and avionics applications.

  12. Exciton formation and diffusion in OLEDs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Grayson L.; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-10-01

    This talk will discuss recent experiments designed to study the formation of excitons and their subsequent diffusions in OLEDs. These experimental results suggest that contrary to conventional wisdom, host singlet exciton diffusion can occur over long distances, while host triplet excitons are confined close to the exciton formation region for the archetype host and hole transport layer CBP. The exciton formation mechanism is studied and we show that the ratio of excitons formed on the host to excitons formed on the dopant varies strongly with the applied voltage. Refinements to models of efficiency roll off are discussed in light of the improved understanding of exciton formation and we suggest design guidelines to improve efficiency by engineering exciton formation.

  13. High-sensitivity permeation measurements on flexible OLED substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, Ralph; Henseler, Debora; Heuser, Karsten; Cesari, Valentina; Sarfert, Wiebke; Wittmann, Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2004-02-01

    We describe a novel method to measure permeation rates for oxidizing agents with very high sensitivity. The technique is based on monitoring the resistance of a degrading Ca sensor in situ, inside a climate chamber. A sensitivity limit below 10-6 g/m2 day is reported for accelerated measurement conditions of 38°C and 90% relative humidity. The benefits of the method are demonstrated for single- and double-sided barrier foils, and the temperature and humidity dependence of the transport through PET is analyzed in detail. The method is also applied to obtain permeation rates for a barrier-coated substrate after as well as during bending. Theoretical simulations are used to evaluate the influence of a defect-dominated transport mechanism on the experimental results and to model the time evolution of the concentration profile in a double-barrier stack. Implications for the development of barrier-enhanced substrates for flexible OLED applications are discussed.

  14. Water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Min-Sik; Yoon, Heekoo; Kim, Tae Hyung

    2012-09-01

    Newly prepared water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes, trans-[Ir(ppy)(PAr3)2(H)L]0,+ (ppy = bidentate 2-phenylpyridinato anionic ligand; L= Cl (1), CO (2), CN- (3); H being trans to the nitrogen of ppy ligand; PAr3 (TPPTS) = P(m-C6H4SO3Na)3), have been synthesized and characterized. Those complexes containing water-soluble phosphine ligands can emit any color region as altering cyclometalated ligands in aqueous media with high quantum efficiencies. Even though these water-soluble phosphorescent iridium complexes can be the sensing probe for toxic CO gas and CN anion, they will be capable of promising materials in the solution processible OLED applications.

  15. Electroluminescence property of organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    SciTech Connect

    Özdemir, Orhan; Kavak, Pelin; Saatci, A. Evrim; Gökdemir, F. Pınar; Menda, U. Deneb; Can, Nursel; Kutlu, Kubilay; Tekin, Emine; Pravadalı, Selin

    2013-12-16

    Transport properties of electrons and holes were investigated not only in a anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)- alt - poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes (OLED) but also in an ITO/Ag/polymer/Ag electron and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Au hole only devices. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer.

  16. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  17. Outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergei; Bogdanova, Maria; Teslyuk, Anton

    2016-03-01

    We study theoretically the optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode. We show how emergence of radiative surface plasmon resonances at the 2D corrugated cathode leads to the enhancement of the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED, which is primarily due to the outcoupling of emission generated by vertically oriented emitting excitons in the emission layer. We analyze the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED as a function of geometrical parameters of the corrugation and establish design rules for optimal outcoupling enhancement with the 2D corrugation at the cathode.

  18. Soft lithography microlens fabrication and array for enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Wai Y.; Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Constant, Kristen P.; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-03

    Provided are microlens arrays for use on the substrate of OLEDs to extract more light that is trapped in waveguided modes inside the devices and methods of manufacturing same. Light extraction with microlens arrays is not limited to the light emitting area, but is also efficient in extracting light from the whole microlens patterned area where waveguiding occurs. Large microlens array, compared to the size of the light emitting area, extract more light and result in over 100% enhancement. Such a microlens array is not limited to (O)LEDs of specific emission, configuration, pixel size, or pixel shape. It is suitable for all colors, including white, for microcavity OLEDs, and OLEDs fabricated directly on the (modified) microlens array.

  19. Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Huh, Jin Woo; Park, Seung Koo; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Nam Sung; Hwang, Joohyun; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a random nanostructure scattering layer (RSL) on the microcavity and light extraction in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In the case of the conventional OLED, the optical properties change with the thickness of the hole transporting layer (HTL) because of the presence of a microcavity. However, OLEDs equipped with the an RSL showed similar values of external quantum efficiency and luminous efficacy regardless of the HTL thickness. These phenomena can be understood by the scattering effect because of the RSL, which suppresses the microcavity effect and extracts the light confined in the device. Moreover, OLEDs with the RSL led to reduced spectrum and color changes with the viewing angle. PMID:24978528

  20. Development of functional nano-particle layer for highly efficient OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Choi, Haechul; Choi, Yoonseuk

    2015-12-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are now widely commercialized in market due to many advantages such as possibility of making thin or flexible devices. Nevertheless there are still several things to obtain the high quality flexible OLEDs, one of the most important issues is the light extraction of the device. It is known that OLEDs have the typical light loss such as the waveguide loss, plasmon absorption loss and internal total reflection. In this paper, we demonstrate the one-step processed light scattering films with aluminum oxide nano-particles and polystyrene matrix composite to achieve highly efficient OLEDs. Optical characteristics and surface roughness of light scattering film was optimized by changing the mixing concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles and investigated with the atomic force microscopy and hazemeter, respectively.

  1. Materials design concepts for efficient blue OLEDs: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Polikarpov, Evgueni; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2012-04-01

    Since their discovery, organic light emitting devices have evolved from a scientific curiosity into a technology with applications in flat panel displays and the potential to revolutionize the lighting market. During their relatively short history, the technology incorporated into OLEDs has rapidly advanced. Device quantum efficiencies have increased more than 20-fold since the first OLEDs, approaching the theoretical limit for internal quantum efficiencies. , , At this point, OLED research moves towards optimization of manufacturing processes, drive circuitry, light extraction, and overall cost reduction. However, finding the organic materials that provide both operational stability and high efficiency for the devices still remains one of the biggest challenges, particularly for blue emission. In this presentation, we will describe our approach to design functional OLED materials to meet the complex criteria set forth by device efficiency and stability goals.

  2. Color tunability in multilayer OLED based on DCM doped in a PVK matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P. K.; Ivanov, P. I.; Tomova, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we present our achievements in color tunability in novel multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DCM (4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-[p- (dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran) as red emitter doped in a composite PVK:TPD holetransporting layer, DPVBi (4,4'-Bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl) as a separate blue emitting layer, BAlq (aluminum bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinate)-4-phenylphenolate) as holeblocking layer and blue emitter at the same time, and Zn(BTz)2 (zinc bis(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole)) as yellow emitter and electron transporting layer. By modification of the OLED structure and changing the DCM doped concentration in the matrix (in the range of 0 up to 5 %) the color tunability of OLED structures has been obtained. The efficiencies, luminance and chromaticity coordinates of the fabricated OLED structures have been specified.

  3. Dual side transparent OLED 3D display using Gabor super-lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestak, Sergey; Kim, Dae-Sik; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2015-03-01

    We devised dual side transparent 3D display using transparent OLED panel and two lenticular arrays. The OLED panel is sandwiched between two parallel confocal lenticular arrays, forming Gabor super-lens. The display provides dual side stereoscopic 3D imaging and floating image of the object, placed behind it. The floating image can be superimposed with the displayed 3D image. The displayed autostereoscopic 3D images are composed of 4 views, each with resolution 64x90 pix.

  4. Numerical simulation on white OLEDs with dotted-line doped emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wen, Chien-Yang; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Kuo, Yen-Kuang

    2009-02-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted great attention recently. In this study, high-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with dotted-line doped layers are numerically investigated with the APSYS (abbreviation of Advanced Physical Model of Simulation Devices) simulation program. The APSYS simulation program, developed by Crosslight Inc., is capable of dealing with the optical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of OLED devices. To approach the real situation, the OLED device fabricated by Park et al. (Current Applied Physics 1, 116, 2001) was first modeled by adjusting the appropriate physical parameters. Based on this OLED structure, a new structure of ITO/α-NPD (40 nm)/Alq3:DCJTB (30 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/Mg:Ag emitting quasi-white light was then proposed. Then, the single layer of Alq3:DCJTB was replaced by multi-(Alq3:DCJTB/Alq3)n layers, which are the so-called dotted-line doped layers (see, e.g., paper by Han et al., Solid State Communications 141, 332, 2007), to further improve the optical performance. The optical properties of the white OLEDs with different pairs of (Alq3:DCJTB/Alq3)n dotted-line doped layers are investigated and discussed in detail. Optimization of the proposed quasi-white OLED structures is attempted. The simulation results indicate that the OLED with dotted-line doped layers has higher radiative recombination rate and better emission efficiency than that with a single Alq3:DCJTB layer. The physical origin of the improved optical performance for the OLED with dotted-line doped layers could be due to the increased electrons and holes at the interfaces between the Alq3:DCJTB and Alq3 layers, which thus results in higher radiative recombination rate and better emission efficiency.

  5. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    J.-J. Kim and co-workers achieve highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a low-refractive-index layer. As described on page 4920, an external quantum efficiency over 34% is achieved, owing to the low refractive index of the materials. A milepost and a shining entrance of the castle are the metaphor indicating the way to highly efficient blue OLEDs. On the way to the castle, the depicted chemical structures serve as the light-emitting layer. PMID:27311092

  6. Study of a new type anode of OLED by MIC poly-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Meng, Zhiguo; Wu, Chunya; Man, Wong; Hoi, Kwok Sing; Xiong, Shaozhen

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a boron-doped poly-Si crystallized by solution-based metal induced (S-MIC) as the anode of organic light emitting diode (OLED) was studied. The semi-transparent and semi-reflective anode of OLED systemized with the high reflectivity of Al cathode could form a micro-cavity structure with a low Q to improve the efficiency. The maximum luminance efficiency of red OLED made by Alq3: DCJTB (1.5wt %)( 30nm) with the poly-Si anode is 2.66cd/A, higher than that of the OLED with the ITO anodes by 30%. In order to improve the device performance, some key to optimize the character of MIC poly-Si thin film are analyzed theoretically. A new kind of TFT/OLED coupling structure in AMOLED was proposed, in which the pixel electrode of OLED was made by the same poly-Si thin film with its driver TFT's drain electrode. So that this coupling structure will simplify the AMOLED processes flow.

  7. Flexible low-power-consumption OLED displays for a universal communication device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Michael G.; Chwang, Anna B.; Lu, Min-Hao M.; Kwong, Raymond C.; Weaver, Michael S.; Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Brown, Julie J.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we will outline the technical challenges and progress towards enabling a novel communication device based on a roll-out, low power consumption, OLED display. Advanced mobile communication devices require a bright, high information content display in a small, light-weight, low power consumption package. We believe that phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) technology fabricated on a truly flexible substrate, enables a mobile Universal Communication Device (UCD) to offer a high information content display in an extendable form, while rolling up into a small form factor when not in use. This communication device is of great interest for a range of both consumer and military applications. From the display perspective, the key component is achieving a long-lived, low power consumption display. We believe the OLEDs are the preferred display media, and in this talk we will outline our flexible phosphorescent OLED technology. The key to reliable operation is to ensure that the organic materials are fully encapsulated in a package designed for repetitive flexing. UDC has been developing long-lived flexible OLED (FOLED) displays based on plastic substrates and multi-layer monolithic encapsulation. Recent progress in this area will also be reported. Finally, we will outline the backplane requirements for flexible OLED displays and compare the various technology options that can be used to fabricate the UCD.

  8. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  9. Development of Emergency Intravehicular Spacesuit (EIS) assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A program was undertaken to develop and test two prototype pressure suits to operate at pressures up to 413 mm Hg (8.0 PSIG). The units were designated Emergency Intravehicular Spacesuits (EIS). Performance requirements, design evolution, testing performed, problems encountered, and final EIS configuration are reported.

  10. AMOLED (active matrix OLED) functionality and usable lifetime at temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Prache, Olivier; Jones, Susan

    2005-05-01

    Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays are known to exhibit high levels of performance, and these levels of performance have continually been improved over time with new materials and electronics design. eMagin Corporation developed a manually adjustable temperature compensation circuit with brightness control to allow for excellent performance over a wide temperature range. Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (US Army) tested the performance and survivability of a number of AMOLED displays in a temperature chamber over a range from -55°C to +85°C. Although device performance of AMOLEDs has always been its strong suit, the issue of usable display lifetimes for military applications continues to be an area of discussion and research. eMagin has made improvements in OLED materials and worked towards the development of a better understanding of usable lifetime for operation in a military system. NVESD ran luminance degradation tests of AMOLED panels at 50°C and at ambient to characterize the lifetime of AMOLED devices. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military systems: where good fits are made, and where further development is needed.

  11. Active matrix OLED for rugged HMD and viewfinder applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Kia; Jones, Susan K.; Prache, Olivier; Fellowes, David A.

    2004-09-01

    We present characterization of a full-color 852x3x600-pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) color microdisplay (eMagin Corporation's SVGA+ display) for environmentally demanding applications. The results show that the AMOLED microdisplay can provide cold-start turn-on and operate at extreme temperature conditions, far in excess of non-emissive displays. Correction factors for gamma response of the AMOLED microdisplay as a function of temperature have been determined to permit consistent luminance and contrast from -40°C to over +80°C. Gamma adjustments are made by a simple temperature compensation adjustment of the reference voltages of the AMOLED. The typical room temperature full-on luminance half-life of the SVGA+ full color display organic light emitting diode (OLED) display at over 3,000 hr at a starting luminance at approx. 100 cd/m2, translates to more than 15,000 hr of continuous full-motion video usage, based on a 25% duty cycle at a typical 50-60 cd/m2 commercial luminance level, or over 60,000 hr half-life in monochrome white usage, or over 100,000 hr luminance half-life in monochrome yellow usage at similar operating conditions. Half life at typical night vision luminance levels would be much longer.

  12. The spin-Dicke effect in OLED magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, D. P.; Joshi, G.; Kavand, M.; Limes, M. E.; Malissa, H.; Burn, P. L.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2015-11-01

    Pairs of charge-carrier spins in organic semiconductors constitute four-level systems that can be driven electromagnetically. Given appropriate conditions for ultrastrong coupling--weak local hyperfine fields Bhyp, large magnetic resonant driving fields B1 and low static fields B0 that define Zeeman splitting--the spin-Dicke effect, a collective transition of spin states, has been predicted. This parameter range is challenging to probe by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy because thermal magnetic polarization is negligible. It is accessed through spin-dependent conductivity that is controlled by electron-hole pairs of singlet and triplet spin-permutation symmetry without the need of thermal spin polarization. Signatures of collective behaviour of carrier spins are revealed in the steady-state magnetoresistance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), rather than through radiative transitions. For intermediate B1, the a.c.-Zeeman effect appears. For large B1, a collective spin-ensemble state arises, inverting the current change under resonance and removing power broadening, thereby offering a unique window to ambient macroscopic quantum coherence.

  13. Photochemically induced emission tuning of conductive polumers used in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Pistolis, G.; Argitis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The present work focuses on the use of novel patterning technology schemes for the fabrication of OLED-based displays and in particular on the definition of two colour emitting pixels in one polymeric conducting layer. The approach adopted to this end is based on photochemically induced emition tuning. On the basis of this approach a novel photolithographic patterning technique was developed, aiming at the considerable simplification of the display fabrication process and on the performance improvement. We prepared electroluminescent devices that are emitting blue colour (λmax = 413 nm) with a turnon voltage about 12-15 V. In other devices we introduce a dispersed dye (1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexatriene) and a series of photoacid generators (onium salts) in the polymeric layer and, by using an appropriate photochemical transformation through a photomask in a single layer, we were able to change the colour to desirable direction, since the parent compound and its photochemical product have distinguishable luminescence spectra (green and blue colour respectively). We were able to produce two of the three primary colours in a single layer of a conductive polymer by using a photochemical transformation based on photoacid induced emission change. A series of photoacid generators were evaluated.

  14. High-Performance Green OLEDs Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence with a Power Efficiency of over 100 lm W(-1).

    PubMed

    Seino, Yuki; Inomata, Susumu; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Pu, Yong-Jin; Kido, Junji

    2016-04-01

    A green organic light-emitting device (OLED) with an extremely high power efficiency of over 100 lm W(-1) is realized through energy transfer from an exciplex. An optimized OLED showed a maximum external efficiency of 25.7%, and a power efficiency of 79.4 lm W(-1) at 1000 cd m(-2) , which is 1.6-times higher than that of state-of-the-art green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) OLEDs. PMID:26833580

  15. Widespread Head-to-Head Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Bacteria and Role of OleA ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sukovich, David J.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Richman, Jack E.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, α/β-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C28 to C31 and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a β-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones. PMID:20418421

  16. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  17. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics. PMID:26134292

  18. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  19. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  20. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  1. FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Jang, Ji-Hyang; Oh, Min-Cheol; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-01-13

    The light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a nano-sized random scattering layer (RSL-OLEDs) was analyzed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to periodic diffraction patterns, the presence of an RSL suppresses the spectral shift with respect to the viewing angle. For FDTD simulation of RSL-OLEDs, a planar light source with a certain spatial and temporal coherence was incorporated, and the light extraction efficiency with respect to the fill factor of the RSL and the absorption coefficient of the material was investigated. The design results were compared to the experimental results of the RSL-OLEDs in order to confirm the usefulness of FDTD in predicting experimental results. According to our FDTD simulations, the light confined within the ITO-organic waveguide was quickly absorbed, and the absorption coefficients of ITO and RSL materials should be reduced in order to obtain significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). When the extinction coefficient of ITO was 0.01, the EQE in the RSL-OLED was simulated to be enhanced by a factor of 1.8. PMID:24515010

  2. OLED-based sensor array for simultaneous monitoring of multiple analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuankun; Shinar, Ruth; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Shinar, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    A compact, photoluminescence (PL)-based sensor array, utilizing tris(quinolinolate) Al OLED pixels as the excitation sources, for sequential or simultaneous monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO), glucose, lactate, and alcohol, is described. The DO is monitored through its effect on the PL lifetime of the oxygen-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) embedded in a polystyrene film. The other analytes are monitored through their oxidation, catalyzed by an appropriate oxidase, which reduces the amount of DO in their vicinity. The OLED pixels are fabricated on a glass substrate; each pixel is typically 2×2 mm2, with a 2 mm gap between the pixels. Two OLED pixels are associated with the detection of each of the analytes. The pixels are individually addressable, enabling consecutive detection of the different analytes within a few minutes utilizing a single photodetector (PD). Simultaneous detection is achieved by using an array of PDs. The OLED-based sensing array is compact and uniquely simple in its ease of fabrication and integration. Its performance attributes are comparable to those obtained for a single analyte using any excitation source. The potential of small-size, multi-color OLED pixel arrays for multianalyte detection is also discussed.

  3. Efficient, inkjet-printed TADF-OLEDs with an ultra-soluble NHetPHOS complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Anand; Zink, Daniel M.; Fléchon, Charlotte; Leganés Carballo, Jaime; Flügge, Harald; Navarro, José M.; Baumann, Thomas; Volz, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Using printed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for lighting, smart-packaging and other mass-market applications has remained a dream since the first working OLED devices were demonstrated in the late 1980s. The realization of this long-term goal is hindered by the very low abundance of iridium and problems when using low-cost wet chemical production processes. Abundant, solution-processable Cu(I) complexes promise to lower the cost of OLEDs. A new copper iodide NHetPHOS emitter was prepared and characterized in solid state with photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV photoelectron spectroscopy under ambient conditions. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency was determined as 92 ± 5 % in a thin film with yellowish-green emission centered around 550 nm. This puts the material on par with the most efficient copper complexes known so far. The new compound showed superior solubility in non-polar solvents, which allowed for the fabrication of an inkjet-printed OLED device from a decalin-based ink formulation. The emission layer could be processed under ambient conditions and was annealed under air. In a very simple stack architecture, efficiency values up to 45 cd A-1 corresponding to 13.9 ± 1.9 % EQE were achieved. These promising results open the door to printed, large-scale OLED devices with abundant copper emitters.

  4. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Min

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs' performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  5. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  6. High efficient OLEDs based on novel Re(I) complexes with phenanthroimidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang-Wei; Hu, Yong-Xu; Chi, Hai-Jun; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Guo-Yong; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Dong-Yu

    2015-09-01

    Novel rhenium(I) [Re(I)] complexes with phenanthroimidazole ligands were successfully designed, synthesized and characterized. The Re(I) complexes displayed intense phosphorescence with yellow or orange color around 540-580 nm at room temperature with relatively short lifetimes. The phosphorescent simple-structure OLEDs using these Re(I) complexes as dopants exhibited low turn-on voltage of 3.5-3.6 V, maximum current efficiencies of 18.7-21.1 cd A-1 and maximum power efficiencies of 13.3-18.9 lm W-1, which were amongst the highest reported for OLEDs based on Re(I) complexes with phenanthroline ligands as emitters. The excellent performances are due to the bulky steric Re(I) complexes with short lifetime and good electron-transporting ability, which may improve the electron injection and result in greater balance between electron and hole fluxes. The results suggest that these complexes have potential application in OLEDs.

  7. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  8. OLEDs: light-emitting thin film thermistors revealing advanced self-heating effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Axel; Koprucki, Thomas; Glitzky, Annegret; Liero, Matthias; Gärtner, Klaus; Hauptmann, Jacqueline; Reineke, Sebastian; Kasemann, Daniel; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl; Scholz, Reinhard

    2015-09-01

    Large area OLEDs show pronounced Joule self-heating at high brightness. This heating induces brightness inhomogeneities, drastically increasing beyond a certain current level. We discuss this behavior considering 'S'-shaped negative differential resistance upon self-heating, even allowing for 'switched-back' regions where the luminance finally decreases (Fischer et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014, 24, 3367). By using a multi-physics simulation the device characteristics can be modeled, resulting in a comprehensive understanding of the problem. Here, we present results for an OLED lighting panel considered for commercial application. It turns out that the strong electrothermal feedback in OLEDs prevents high luminance combined with a high degree of homogeneity unless new optimization strategies are considered.

  9. Advances in OLED/OPD-based spectrometer on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving an integrated all-organic spectrometer on a chip. To this end, 2-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity (μc) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths were fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between the two metal electrodes. The latter, one of which is semitransparent, form the cavity. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources of varying wavelength for monitoring light absorption or emission. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by the sample under study and the transmitted light (or the light emitted by an electronically excited sample) is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) is fabricated and integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using μcOLEDs based on different emitting layers. The OPD used to realize the first all-organic integrated spectrometer described here is based on P3HT:PCBM, though more sensitive OPDs we utilized in sensing applications are expected to improve the spectrometers' performance. The utility of this all-organic μcOLED/OPD spectrometer is shown for monitoring the absorption spectra of P3HT and Alexa Fluor 405 films. The results show excellent agreement with the absorption spectra obtained with a commercial Ocean Optics spectrometer.

  10. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  11. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEI, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  12. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  13. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  14. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Min

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  16. Physical process in OLED architectures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets as electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle Robles, Raquel

    There has been a great deal of activity in the development of organic light emitting diodes (OLED's) and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLED's). Research in OLEDs and PLEDs have been having a significant development over the last few years towards commercialization, extended life time, stability, efficiency and new fabrication processes suitable for mass production are some of the topics. The potential for commercialization is high due to their low operating voltage (typically between 2.5 to 5 volts), their high brightness and their ease to process. They are light weight and can be flexible. Furthermore, these devices can be easily color tune to produce red, green and blue colors. Research in this type of electroluminescence devices has advanced rapidly and device prototypes now meet realistic specifications for applications. By proper device engineering these devices can achieve high electroluminescence efficiencies and lifetimes. In this research project we present several methods and procedures that we developed and use to produce OLEDs and PLEDs. We have incorporated quantum dots into OLEDs as emissive dopants that contribute to the control of the spectral distribution of emitted light allowing the production of white OLEDs using both a multilayer structure with emission from multiple layers and a bilayer structure with emission from only the quantum dots. We have also produced PLED devices with a new family of novel PPV polymers achieving high bright efficient devices. OLED structures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets, obtained by dry drawing from a CVD-grown forest have been produced. The devices shown to be very bright and the MCNT sheets are efficient hole-injecting anodes for OLEDs Also, for flexible display applications, there is a need for high strength, flexible materials which can be deposited as transparent films and can act as hole injectors for organic films. By using a hybrid ITO/MWCNT anode onto flexible substrates an enhancement of the

  17. Color tunability in multilayer OLEDs based on DCM and DPVBi as emitting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P. K.; Ivanov, P. I.; Tomova, R. L.

    2014-05-01

    We report studies on the color tunability of a novel type of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on three emitting materials: DCM (4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran) as a red emitter, DPVBi [4,4'-Bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl] as a blue emitter and zinc bis(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole) (Zn(BTz)2) as a yellow emitter, and an electron transporting layer. We established that the positions and thicknesses of the different emitting layers determine the efficiencies, luminance and color of the light emitted by the OLEDs.

  18. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  19. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  20. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a “one-way” rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  1. Catalytic strategy for carbon-carbon bond scission by the cytochrome P450 OleT.

    PubMed

    Grant, Job L; Mitchell, Megan E; Makris, Thomas Michael

    2016-09-01

    OleT is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide-dependent metabolism of Cn chain-length fatty acids to synthesize Cn-1 1-alkenes. The decarboxylation reaction provides a route for the production of drop-in hydrocarbon fuels from a renewable and abundant natural resource. This transformation is highly unusual for a P450, which typically uses an Fe(4+)-oxo intermediate known as compound I for the insertion of oxygen into organic substrates. OleT, previously shown to form compound I, catalyzes a different reaction. A large substrate kinetic isotope effect (≥8) for OleT compound I decay confirms that, like monooxygenation, alkene formation is initiated by substrate C-H bond abstraction. Rather than finalizing the reaction through rapid oxygen rebound, alkene synthesis proceeds through the formation of a reaction cycle intermediate with kinetics, optical properties, and reactivity indicative of an Fe(4+)-OH species, compound II. The direct observation of this intermediate, normally fleeting in hydroxylases, provides a rationale for the carbon-carbon scission reaction catalyzed by OleT. PMID:27555591

  2. Viewing angle and imaging multispectral analysis of OLED display light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2015-03-01

    OLED displays exhibit luminance fluctuations and color shifts that can be sensitive to human eye in particular conditions. Using viewing angle and imaging multispectral measurements we show that color shifts are generally related to the multilayered structure of each sub-pixel. Interference fringes result in angular variations while thickness variations result in surface non-uniformities.

  3. Rearrangement of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) diketone: 9,10-diarylanthracenes with OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Sarsah, Samuel R S; Lutz, Marlon R; Zeller, Matthias; Crumrine, David S; Becker, Daniel P

    2013-03-01

    Electroluminescent 9,10-diaryl anthracenes have been shown to be promising host and hole-transporting materials in organic electroluminescence due to their high thermal stability, electrochemical reversibility, and wide band gap useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), especially blue OLEDs. Oxidation of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) to the corresponding diketone and subsequent bromination resulted in an unexpected rearrangement to a highly functionalized 9-aryl-10-bromoanthracene derivative, which was employed in Suzuki couplings to synthesize a series of 9,10-diaryl compounds that are structural analogues of anthracene derivatives used in the preparation of OLEDs but are more highly functionalized, including electron-donating methoxy groups in addition to substitution by a carboxylic acid moiety. The UV/fluorescence solution spectra show strong emissions at 446, 438, and 479 nm, respectively, for the anthracene 10-phenyl, 10-naphthyl, and 10-pyrenyl adducts containing a benzoic acid functional group, whereas the analogues bearing the hydroxymethylene moiety from reduction of the benzoic acid to the corresponding alcohols gave much shorter emission wavelengths of 408, 417, and 476 nm, respectively, and had somewhat higher quantum yields, suggesting they are better candidates for OLED applications. PMID:23190432

  4. To enhancement illuminance efficiency of OLED by thin film included microparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chuang-Hung; Chien, Chao-Heng; Lee, Jen-Chi; Chien, Wei-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    An optical thin film was provided to address light illuminance efficiency of OLED up to 80%. A polymer material was used as a film base material which could avoid the influence of total reflection angle. One kinds of oxidized metal micro-particles was chosen to dope inside the optical thin film and to increase scattering and refractive effect.

  5. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a "one-way" rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  6. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-02-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a ``one-way'' rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved.

  7. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  8. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  9. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  10. Improved designs for p-i-n OLEDs towards the minimal power loss of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dashan

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the low yield, high power loss, and poor stability of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) panels are remaining as the obstacles to the fast growth of the OLED industry, especially for the lighting application. The p-i-n OLEDs have been widely recognized as the promising method to circumvent these bottleneck factors, due to the unique merit of the electrical doping to enable low power loss. In p-i-n OLEDs, the frequently used n-doped electron transport layers (n-ETL1) such as n-BCP, n-Alq3 possess markedly lower conductivities but better capabilities of injecting electrons into ETL such as BCP, Alq3, as compared to another class of n-doped ETLs (n-ETL2), e.g., n-NTCDA, n-PTCDA, n-C60. Thus, in order to minimize the electron loss, we provide the structure of uniting two n-doped layers, cathode/ n-ETL2/ n-ETL1/ ETL. In p-i-n OLEDs, the hole current injected from the single p-doped hole transport layer (p-HTL) into the neat HTL must be limited, because the higher conductivity p-HTL has the higher lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, leading to a larger hole transport energy barrier (φB) at the interface with the neat HTL. Therefore, in order to minimize the hole loss, we suggest the structure of uniting two p-HTLs, anode/ p-HTL2/ p-HTL1/ HTL. The p-HTL2 possesses high-lying HOMO level and thereby high conductivity, decreasing the ohmic loss in the hole conduction; the p-HTL1 features a low-lying HOMO level, reducing the φB.

  11. Structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis Eis in complex with paromomycin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; An, Doo Ri; Yoon, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Kuk; Suh, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The Rv2416c gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein that enhances intracellular survival of the pathogen in host macrophages during infection. The Mtb Eis protein is released into the cytoplasm of the phagocyte during intracellular infection and modulates the host immune response. It also contributes to drug resistance by acetylating multiple amine groups of aminoglycosides. Interestingly, the nonpathogenic M. smegmatis (Msm) contains a homologous eis gene (MSMEG_3513). The overall structures of Mtb Eis and Msm Eis are highly similar to each other, reflecting the high level (58%) of amino-acid sequence identity between them. Both Mtb Eis and Msm Eis are active as aminoglycoside acetyltransferases, while only Mtb Eis functions as an N ∊-acetyltransferase to acetylate Lys55 of dual-specificity protein phosphatase 16 (DUSP16)/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 7 (MKP-7), leading to the suppression of host immune responses. Here, the crystal structure of Msm Eis in the paromomycin-bound form is reported, revealing detailed interactions between an aminoglycoside antibiotic and Msm Eis. The crystal structure of Msm Eis in the paromomycin-bound form has been determined at 3.3 Å resolution. This work provides potentially useful information for structure-guided discovery of Eis inhibitors as a novel antituberculosis drug against drug-resistant Mtb. PMID:25195887

  12. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.41 Conditions requiring an EIS. An EIS is...

  13. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect

    Pschenitzka, Florian; Mathai, Mathew; Torke, Terri

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaled's HIL material instead of Plextronics. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are

  14. 24 CFR 50.41 - EIS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false EIS policy. 50.41 Section 50.41 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... stated in § 50.3 and 40 CFR 1505.2 (b) and (c)....

  15. 24 CFR 50.41 - EIS policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false EIS policy. 50.41 Section 50.41 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... stated in § 50.3 and 40 CFR 1505.2 (b) and (c)....

  16. Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Blue-phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 34.1% external quantum efficiency (EQE) and 79.6 lm W(-1) are demonstrated using a hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer with low refractive index values. Using optical simulations, it is predicted that outcoupling efficiencies with EQEs > 60% can be achieved if organic layers with a refractive index of 1.5 are used for OLEDs. PMID:27060851

  17. OLED and OPD-based mini-spectrometer integrated on a single-mode planar waveguide chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuz, M.; Leuenberger, D.; Pfeiffer, R.; Bürgi, L.; Winnewisser, C.

    2009-04-01

    Evanescent coupling is used to couple light from an organic Lambertian emitter into a single mode planar waveguide. Either an organic light emitting diode (OLED) directly excites the waveguide mode or an OLED pumps a photoluminescent (PL) material layer located directly on the waveguide. At the out-coupling grating the guided light is diffracted onto an array of organic photodiodes acting as a spectrometer. A spectral resolution of down to 16nm could be achieved with integrated optoelectronic system.

  18. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  19. Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Electroluminescence in OLEDs by Self-Assembly Ag Nanoparticle Film.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zheng, Wanquan; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated Ag nanoparticle (NP) film in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs), and a 23 times increase in electroluminescence (EL) at 518 nm was probed by time-resolved EL measurement. The luminance and relative external quantum efficiency (REQE) were increased by 5.4 and 3.7 times, respectively. There comes a new energy transport way that localized surface plasmons (LSPs) would absorb energy that corresponds to the electron-hole pair before recombination, promoting the formation of electron-hole pair and exciting local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The extended lifetime of Alq3 indicates the existence of strong interaction between LSPR and exciton, which decreases the nonradiative decay rate of OLEDs. PMID:26631223

  20. Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Electroluminescence in OLEDs by Self-Assembly Ag Nanoparticle Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zheng, Wanquan; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated Ag nanoparticle (NP) film in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs), and a 23 times increase in electroluminescence (EL) at 518 nm was probed by time-resolved EL measurement. The luminance and relative external quantum efficiency (REQE) were increased by 5.4 and 3.7 times, respectively. There comes a new energy transport way that localized surface plasmons (LSPs) would absorb energy that corresponds to the electron-hole pair before recombination, promoting the formation of electron-hole pair and exciting local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The extended lifetime of Alq3 indicates the existence of strong interaction between LSPR and exciton, which decreases the nonradiative decay rate of OLEDs.

  1. Solution-Procesed Small-Molecule OLED Luminaire for Interior Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ian

    2012-02-29

    Prototype lighting panels and luminaires were fabricated using DuPont Displays solution-processed small-molecule OLED technology. These lighting panels were based on a spatially-patterned, 3-color design, similar in concept to an OLED display panel, with materials chosen to maximize device efficacy. The majority of the processing steps take place in air (rather than high vacuum). Optimization of device architecture, processing and construction was undertaken, with a final prototype design of 50 cm{sup 2} being fabricated and tested. Performance of these panels reached 35 lm/W at illuminant-A. A unique feature of this technology is the ability to color tune the emission, and color temperatures ranging from 2700 to > 6,500K were attained in the final build. Significant attention was paid to low-cost fabrication techniques.

  2. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  3. Light-Induced Solubility Modulation of Polyfluorene To Enhance the Performance of OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Korwin M; Bender, Markus; Jeltsch, Krischan; Buckup, Tiago; Müllen, Klaus; Hamburger, Manuel; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-11-23

    Liquid-phase processing is a key prerequisite for the cost-efficient fabrication of organic electronic devices. We report an approach for light-induced modulation of the solubility of π-conjugated polymers (polyfluorene) with side chains functionalized with hydroxycinnamic acid. Irradiation with light cleaves the solubilizing side chains and renders the thin films of the polyfluorene insoluble. In a proof of concept device, polyfluorenes were applied as emissive layers in OLEDs. Photoirradiation of the emission layer leads to an increase in OLED performance combined with a modulation of the solubility of the thin film. These results offer the possibility for further development in terms of manipulating the solubility and emissive parameters of an important class of functional materials. PMID:26463263

  4. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  5. Structure and characterization of a white up-emitting OLED on silicon for microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tom; Ali, Tariq A.; Ramakrishnan, E. S.; Campos, Richard A.; Howard, Webster E.

    2001-02-01

    We have developed highly efficient, top-emitting white OLED structures suitable for black-and-white or full color microdisplay applications. White light emission was obtained from both singly doped and doubly doped emitter layer structures. However, the double-dopant structure, employing fluorescent blue and red-emitting dyes, generated much higher luminous efficiency than that of the single dopant structure incorporating only the red dopant. For top- emitting, white OLED devices with the double-dopant structure, we have achieved luminous efficiencies of 974 cd/m2, 4.9 cd/A, 1.9 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of 1.8% when driven at 20 mA/cm2 and 7.9 V. The device has an electroluminescence turn-on voltage of 2.2 V. After turn-on, the current varies as the 14th power of the voltage. The projected operational half-life of these devices is greater than 6000 hrs. This estimate is based on devices that have been continuously driven at a constant current of 20 mA/cm2 for more than 3000 hrs. Based on an up-emitting, double-dopant white OLED structure, we have developed an SXGA-resolution, black-and-white active matrix OLED (AMOLED) on silicon microdisplay. This AMOLED-on-Si has demonstrated real-time video with 256 gray levels and consumes less than 400 mW of power at a brightness of 200 cd/m2.

  6. Fabrication of a three-dimensional nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser for microcavity OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Beom; Cho, Ye Ram; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-09-01

    We used a nanoporous polymer film prepared by cellulose acetate butyrate with ~40% of optical haze value as a diffuser. It was fabricated by a simple spin-coating process during continuous water mist supply by a humidifier. The pores were created by the elastic bouncing mechanism (rather than the thermocapillary convection mechanism) of the supplied water droplets. The shapes and sizes of the caves formed near the polymer surface are randomly distributed, with a relatively narrow pore size distribution (300-500 nm). Specifically, we focused on controlling the surface morphology to give a three-dimensional (3D) multi-stacked nanocave structure because we had already learnt that two-dimensional nanoporous structures showed serious loss of luminance in the forward direction. Using this approach, we found that the 3D nanoporous polymer film can effectively reduce the viewing angle dependency of strong microcavity OLEDs without any considerable decrease in the total intensity of the out-coupled light. We applied this nanoporous polymer film to microcavity OLEDs to investigate the possibility of using it as a diffuser layer. The resulting nanoporous polymer film effectively reduced the viewing angle dependency of the microcavity OLEDs, although a pixel blurring phenomenon occurred. Despite its negative effects, such as the drop in efficiency in the forward direction and the pixel blurring, the introduction of a nanoporous polymer film as a scattering medium on the back side of the glass substrate eliminated the viewing angle dependency. Thus, this approach is a promising method to overcome the serious drawbacks of microcavity OLEDs.

  7. Simple Bipolar Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue, Green, and White Phosphorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Liu, Di; Jin, Qian

    2016-08-31

    3-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine is used as electron-transporting unit to construct bipolar host materials o-CzPyPz, m-CzPyPz, and p-CzPyPz for application in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). By varying the ortho-, meta-, or para-linking mode between the n-type 3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and the p-type carbazole on phenylene bridge, the optoelectronic parameters are tuned to large extent. The highly twisted o-CzPyPz has high triplet energy of 2.95 eV, while the isomer p-CzPyPz with more coplanar conformation has smaller triplet energy of 2.67 eV. The m-CzPyPz-hosted blue PhOLED exhibits a peak current efficiency of 49.1 cd A(-1) (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 24.5%) and low-efficiency roll-off, while the p-CzPyPz-hosted green PhOLEDs turns on at 2.8 V and exhibits high efficiencies of 91.8 cd A(-1) (96.1 lm W(-1) and 27.3%). Furthermore, two-emitting-layer white OLEDs are fabricated with m-CzPyPz or p-CzPyPz as common hosts for both blue and orange phosphors, which realize high efficiencies of 57.8 cd A(-1) (45.4 lm W(-1) and 23.6%) and 60.7 cd A(-1) (38.1 lm W(-1) and 23.1%). The optimization of host structure for good matching of host and dopant and finally for the ideal performance is discussed. PMID:27517473

  8. Multi-layer printing of OLEDs as a tool for the creation of security features.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bert; Kreissl, Stefanie; Boeffel, Christine; Wedel, Armin

    2012-03-12

    The combined deposition of structured and homogenous layers for the device setup of OLEDs results in a structured display visible with a gray scale impression. These permanently imprinted structures are only visible during the application of an electrical field and almost invisible in the off state. Most intriguing applications of such devices are security marks, electronic watermarks but also for advertising and design applications the creation of gray scale structures might have interesting applications. PMID:22418671

  9. Roll-To-Roll Process for Transparent Metal Electrodes in OLED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Slafer, W. Dennis

    2010-06-02

    This program will develop and demonstrate a new manufacturing technology that can help to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing the next generation solid-state lighting (OLEDs)for a broad range of commercial applications. This will not only improve US competitiveness in the manufacturing sector but will also result in a positive impact in meeting the Department of Energy’s goal of developing high efficiency lighting while reducing the environmental impact.

  10. Universal Host Materials for High-Efficiency Phosphorescent and Delayed-Fluorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Zhuo; Zhang, Shufen

    2015-12-01

    A series of bipolar hosts, namely, 5-(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (o-CzDPz), 5-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (m-CzDPz), 5-(9-phenyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (3-CzDPz), and 5-(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (mCPDPz), are developed for phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). They are designed by selecting pyrazole as n-type unit and carbazole as p-type one. The triplet energy (E(T)), the frontier molecular orbital level, and charge transporting abilities, are adjusted by varying the molar ratio of pyrazole to carbazole and the linking mode between them. They have high E(T) values of 2.76-3.02 eV. Their electroluminescence performance is evaluated by fabricating both phosphorescent and TADF devices with blue or green emitters. The m-CzDPz hosted blue phosphorescent OLEDs achieves high efficiency of 48.3 cd A(-1) (26.8%), the 3-CzDPz hosted green phosphorescent device exhibits 91.2 cd A(-1) (29.0%). The blue and green TADF devices with 3-CzDPz host also reach high efficiencies of 26.2 cd A(-1) (15.8%) and 41.1 cd A(-1) (13.3%), respectively. The excellent performance of all these OLEDs verifies that these pyrazole-based bipolar compounds are capable of being universal host materials for OLED application. The influence of molar ratio of n-type unit to p-type one and the molecular conformation of these hosts on their device performance is discussed and interpreted. PMID:26544965

  11. Integration of OLEDs in biomedical sensor systems: design and feasibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    Organic (electronic) Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) have been shown to have applications in the field of lighting and flexible display. These devices can also be incorporated in sensors as light source for imaging/fluorescence sensing for miniaturized systems for biomedical applications and low-cost displays for sensor output. The current device capability aligns well with the aforementioned applications as low power diffuse lighting and momentary/push button dynamic display. A top emission OLED design has been proposed that can be incorporated with the sensor and peripheral electrical circuitry, also based on organic electronics. Feasibility analysis is carried out for an integrated optical imaging/sensor system, based on luminosity and spectrum band width. A similar study is also carried out for sensor output display system that functions as a pseudo active OLED matrix. A power model is presented for device power requirements and constraints. The feasibility analysis is also supplemented with the discussion about implementation of ink-jet printing and stamping techniques for possibility of roll to roll manufacturing.

  12. Investigation on slot-die coating of hybrid material structure for OLED lightings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Dong-Kyun; Park, Jongwoon

    2016-08-01

    With an attempt to fabricate large-area OLED lighting panels, we investigate slot-die coating of a small molecule (SM) hole transport layer (HTL). It is observed that SM HTL films formed by spin coating exhibit pinhole-like surface, whereas the films by slot-die coating show micro-sized hillocks due to agglomeration. As the plate temperature of the slot coater is increased, smaller hillocks appear more densely. To tackle it, a small amount of a polymer HTL is added into the SM HTL (Hybrid HTL). By the aid of entangled polymer chains, small molecules are prohibited from migrating and thus agglomerations disappear. The peak-to-peak roughness of the slot-coated hybrid HTL films is measured to be about 11.5 nm, which is slightly higher than that (~7 nm) of the polymer HTL film, but much lower than that (~1071 nm) of the SM HTL film. Similar results are also observed in spin-coated films. It is also addressed that OLED with the hybrid HTL shows higher luminous efficacy, compared to OLED with the SM HTL or the polymer HTL. We have further demonstrated that the dissolution problem occurring between two stacked layers with different solvents during slot-die coating can be suppressed to a great extent using such a combination of materials in hybrid structure.

  13. Security Implications of OPC, OLE, DCOM, and RPC in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    OPC is a collection of software programming standards and interfaces used in the process control industry. It is intended to provide open connectivity and vendor equipment interoperability. The use of OPC technology simplifies the development of control systems that integrate components from multiple vendors and support multiple control protocols. OPC-compliant products are available from most control system vendors, and are widely used in the process control industry. OPC was originally known as OLE for Process Control; the first standards for OPC were based on underlying services in the Microsoft Windows computing environment. These underlying services (OLE [Object Linking and Embedding], DCOM [Distributed Component Object Model], and RPC [Remote Procedure Call]) have been the source of many severe security vulnerabilities. It is not feasible to automatically apply vendor patches and service packs to mitigate these vulnerabilities in a control systems environment. Control systems using the original OPC data access technology can thus inherit the vulnerabilities associated with these services. Current OPC standardization efforts are moving away from the original focus on Microsoft protocols, with a distinct trend toward web-based protocols that are independent of any particular operating system. However, the installed base of OPC equipment consists mainly of legacy implementations of the OLE for Process Control protocols.

  14. Cost-Effective Force Field Tailored for Solid-Phase Simulations of OLED Materials.

    PubMed

    Moral, M; Son, W-J; Sancho-García, J C; Olivier, Y; Muccioli, L

    2015-07-14

    A united atom force field is empirically derived by minimizing the difference between experimental and simulated crystal cells and melting temperatures for eight compounds representative of organic electronic materials used in OLEDs and other devices: biphenyl, carbazole, fluorene, 9,9'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole)-1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (pCBP), phenazine, phenylcarbazole, and triphenylamine. The force field is verified against dispersion-corrected DFT calculations and shown to also successfully reproduce the crystal structure for two larger compounds employed as hosts in phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs: N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPD), and 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI). The good performances of the force field coupled to the large computational savings granted by the united atom approximation make it an ideal choice for the simulation of the morphology of emissive layers for OLED materials in crystalline or glassy phases. PMID:26575772

  15. Candle light-style OLED: a plausibly human-friendly safe night light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chen, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tung, F.-C.; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Candles emit sensationally-warm light with a very-low color-temperature, comparatively most suitable for use at night. In response to the need for such a human-friendly night light, we demonstrate the employment of a high number of candle light complementary organic emitters to generate mimic candle light based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). One resultant candle light-style OLED shows a very-high color rendering index, with an efficacy at least 300 times that of candles or twice that of an incandescent bulb. The device can be fabricated, for example, by using four candle light complementary emitters, namely: red, yellow, green, and sky-blue phosphorescent dyes, vacuum-deposited into two emission layers, separated by a nano-layer of carrier modulation material to maximize both the desirable very-high color rendering index and energy efficiency, while keeping the blue emission very low and red emission high to obtain the desirable low color temperature. With different layer structures, the OLEDs can also show color tunable between that of candle light and dusk-hue. Importantly, a romantic sensation giving and supposedly physiologically-friendly candle light-style emission can hence be driven by electricity in lieu of the hydrocarbon-burning and greenhouse gas releasing candles that were invented 5,000 years ago.

  16. Measurement of gas permeation through packaging materials of OLED by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Li, Junjian; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Jianxiang

    2010-10-01

    Mass spectrometry method was introduced to measure the gas permeability of OLED packaging materials in this paper. Mass spectrum measuring gas permeability of barrier material have the characteristics of quick measure speed, may measuring any gas permeability, and high sensitivity. The penetration rates and the permeability coefficient of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeating the encapsulation materials of OLED such as PET plastic film, UV curable adhesive and vacuum sealing wax film have been measured by using the mass spectrometry. The results of experiments show that the permeability coefficient of water vapor through a PET plastic film is 1.8×10-6 cm2/s, and of water vapor through UV curable adhesive is 1.2×10-6 cm2/s at temperature of 80 °C and relative humidity of 68 %. The water permeability coefficient of vacuum sealing wax at 50 °C and 92 %RH is 1.4×10-7 g/m2day. The water permeability of vacuum sealing wax decreases an order of magnitude than that of UV curable adhesive, So Vacuum sealing wax is suitable for the seal material in the packing of OLED than UV curable adhesive.

  17. Multiview three-dimensional display with continuous motion parallax through planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Xiong, Yi; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Existing multiview three-dimensional (3D) display technologies encounter discontinuous motion parallax problem, due to a limited number of stereo-images which are presented to corresponding sub-viewing zones (SVZs). This paper proposes a novel multiview 3D display system to obtain continuous motion parallax by using a group of planar aligned OLED microdisplays. Through blocking partial light-rays by baffles inserted between adjacent OLED microdisplays, transitional stereo-image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo-images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between two adjacent SVZs. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo-images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous motion parallax. The proposed display system employs projection-type architecture, taking the merit of full display resolution, but at the same time having a thin optical structure, offering great potentials for portable or mobile 3D display applications. Experimentally, a prototype display system is demonstrated by 9 OLED microdisplays. PMID:25836825

  18. Generation of 360° three-dimensional display using circular-aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-02-01

    A 360° all-around multiview three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by using coarse-pitch circular-aligned OLED microdisplays. The magnified virtual color images projected from microdisplays serve as stereo images, which can create separate eyeboxes for the viewer. Through inserting baffles, a transitional stereo image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between adjacent eyeboxes. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous moving parallax. Such a controllable light-ray fusing technology, assured by the inherent large divergent angle of OLED pixels, decreases the required number of display panels for 360° multiview 3D display greatly. A prototype display system with only 67 full-color OLED microdisplays is set up to demonstrate the 360° 3D color display. The develop system is freed from the dependence on mechanical moving elements, high-speed components and diffusion screens. PMID:25836077

  19. Biochemical and structural analysis of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase Eis from Anabaena variabilis.

    PubMed

    Pricer, Rachel E; Houghton, Jacob L; Green, Keith D; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2012-10-30

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhanced intracellular survival (Eis_Mtb) protein is a clinically important aminoglycoside (AG) multi-acetylating enzyme. Eis homologues are found in a variety of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial species. Variation of the residues lining the AG-binding pocket and positions of the loops bearing these residues in the Eis homologues dictates the substrate specificity and, thus, Eis homologues are Nature-made tools for elucidating principles of AG recognition by Eis. Here, we demonstrate that the Eis from Anabaena variabilis (Eis_Ava), the first non-mycobacterial Eis homologue reported, is a multi-acetylating AG-acetyltransferase. Eis_Ava, Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb), and Eis from Mycobacterium smegmatis (Eis_Msm) have different structures of their AG-binding pockets. We perform comparative analysis of these differences and investigate how they dictate the substrate and cosubstrate recognition and acetylation of AGs by Eis. PMID:23090428

  20. Stratéole 2: a long-duration balloon campaign at the Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, Albert; Cocquerez, Philippe; Plougonven, Riwie; Venel, Stephanie

    The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the low-latitude atmospheric region located between 14 and 20 km altitude, with intermediate tropospheric and stratospheric characteristics. Air parcels that have been rapidly lofted by the underlying deep convection to the bottom of the TTL are radiatively heated in the TTL and slowly ascends to the stratosphere. In particular, the water vapour mixing ratio of air entering the stratosphere is set in the TTL under the influence of a number of dynamical (e.g., planetary and gravity waves) and microphysical (e.g., nucleation) processes that cover a wide range of scales. Despite recent improvements of spaceborne sensors, providing accurate observations at global scale of these processes has proved rather challenging. At the same time, observed inter-annual variations of the stratospheric water content, which have profound consequences on the Earth radiative budget and on ozone chemistry, are poorly simulated in climate models. Stratéole 2 is hence a superpressure balloon campaign aimed at improving our knowledge of small and mesoscale processes in the TTL. Superpressure balloons, which have been successfully used in previous campaigns in Antarctica (Vorcore 2005, Concordiasi 2010), can fly for several months in the lower stratosphere (18-20 km). Advected by the winds on constant-density surfaces, they behave as quasi-Lagrangian tracers of air-parcel motions, and can circle around the equatorial belt to provide observations at global scale. During Stratéole 2, many in-situ and remote-sensing instruments aimed at characterizing the TTL dynamics and composition will be hosted on the balloon and make high-resolution measurements along the flight. Stratéole 2 observations will be used to document the occurrence of subvisible cirrus clouds in the TTL, as well as the mechanisms responsible for their formation. They will also serve to quantify the momentum flux associated with gravity waves generated by deep convection, and their

  1. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) < μe (iL) < μe (LEP) < μh (iL). A method to measure the photon generation zone profile and dipole orientation is presented and shown to follow the expected behavior. The efficiency drop of P-OLEDs during device operation is a known issue, the understanding and prevention of which is key for the commercial success of P-OLED technology. We present a detailed degradation study of devices containing model materials, and highlight the generation of fluorescence quenching sites as the key factor limiting the operational stability. A striking feature of this degradation is its partial (~50%) reversibility upon baking above the LEP glass transition temperature. Some reversibility is also observed in the conductivity, suggesting a common origin to the optical and electrical degradation. We also show that the species responsible for the generation of the reversible PL quenching sites are the excitons themselves, and that optically excited excitons can also generate many of the features characteristic of electrical stressing. Finally we demonstrate that materials with a dramatically improved lifetime also suffer from a similar, although slowed down, degradation

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-independent production of α-alkenes by OleTJE P450 fatty acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form α-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic α-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used as biofuels to replace fossil fuels, or for making lubricants, polymers and detergents, studies on OleTJE fatty acid decarboxylase are significant and may lead to commercial production of biogenic α-alkenes in the future, which are renewable and more environmentally friendly than petroleum-derived equivalents. Results We report the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE for the first time. In the presence of NADPH and O2, this P450 enzyme efficiently decarboxylates long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C20) in vitro when partnering with either the fused P450 reductase domain RhFRED from Rhodococcus sp. or the separate flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. In vivo, expression of OleTJE or OleTJE-RhFRED in different E. coli strains overproducing free fatty acids resulted in production of variant levels of multiple α-alkenes, with a highest total hydrocarbon titer of 97.6 mg·l-1. Conclusions The discovery of the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE not only raises a number of fundamental questions on the monooxygenase-like mechanism of this peroxygenase, but also will direct the future metabolic engineering work toward improvement of O2/redox partner(s)/NADPH for overproduction of α-alkenes by OleTJE. PMID:24565055

  3. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  4. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  5. The yeast acyltransferase Sct1p regulates fatty acid desaturation by competing with the desaturase Ole1p

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Cedric H.; Vittone, Elisa; Scherer, Max; Houweling, Martin; Liebisch, Gerhard; Brouwers, Jos F.; de Kroon, Anton I.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fatty acid unsaturation, that is, the ratio of unsaturated versus saturated fatty acyl chains, determines membrane fluidity. Regulation of expression of the fatty acid desaturase Ole1p was hitherto the only known mechanism governing the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report a novel mechanism for the regulation of fatty acid desaturation that is based on competition between Ole1p and the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase Sct1p/Gat2p for the common substrate C16:0-CoA. Deletion of SCT1 decreases the content of saturated fatty acids, whereas overexpression of SCT1 dramatically decreases the desaturation of fatty acids and affects phospholipid composition. Whereas overexpression of Ole1p increases desaturation, co-overexpression of Ole1p and Sct1p results in a fatty acid composition intermediate between those obtained upon overexpression of the enzymes separately. On the basis of these results, we propose that Sct1p sequesters C16:0-CoA into lipids, thereby shielding it from desaturation by Ole1p. Ta­king advantage of the growth defect conferred by overexpressing SCT1, we identified the acyltransferase Cst26p/Psi1p as a regulator of Sct1p activity by affecting the phosphorylation state and overexpression level of Sct1p. The level of Sct1p phosphorylation is increased when cells are supplemented with saturated fatty acids, demonstrating the physiological relevance of our findings. PMID:22323296

  6. Influence of bilayer resist processing on p-i-n OLEDs: towards multicolor photolithographic structuring of organic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkus, Simonas; Nehm, Frederik; Janneck, Robby; Kalkura, Shrujan; Zakhidov, Alex A.; Schober, Matthias; Hild, Olaf R.; Kasemann, Daniel; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Recently, bilayer resist processing combined with development in hydrofluoroether (HFE) solvents has been shown to enable single color structuring of vacuum-deposited state-of-the-art organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). In this work, we focus on further steps required to achieve multicolor structuring of p-i-n OLEDs using a bilayer resist approach. We show that the green phosphorescent OLED stack is undamaged after lift-off in HFEs, which is a necessary step in order to achieve RGB pixel array structured by means of photolithography. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of both, double resist processing on red OLEDs and exposure of the devices to ambient conditions, on the basis of the electrical, optical and lifetime parameters of the devices. Additionally, water vapor transmission rates of single and bilayer system are evaluated with thin Ca film conductance test. We conclude that diffusion of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) through the fluoropolymer film is the main mechanism behind OLED degradation observed after bilayer processing.

  7. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped

  8. Expanding the substrate scope and reactivity of cytochrome P450 OleT.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chun H; Makris, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    The efficient hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxylation and epoxidation of hydrocarbons is catalysed by a P450 fatty acid decarboxylase (OleT) active-site variant. The introduction of an acidic functionality in the protein framework circumvents the necessity for a carboxylate that is typically provided by the substrate for efficient H2O2 heterolysis. Spectroscopic and turnover studies show that the mutation eliminates the binding and metabolism of prototypical fatty acid substrates, but permits the oxidation of a broad range of inert hydrocarbon substrates. PMID:27246733

  9. Photo- and electroluminescence from semiconductor colloidal quantum dots in organic matrices: QD-OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Vitukhnovskii, A. G. Vaschenko, A. A.; Bychkovskii, D. N.; Dirin, D. N.; Tananaev, P. N.; Vakshtein, M. S.; Korzhonov, D. A.

    2013-12-15

    The results are reported of an experimental study of samples of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with luminescent layers fabricated on the basis of two types of CdSe/CdS/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with average CdSe core diameters of 3.2 and 4.1 nm and the same overall diameters of 6.5 nm. The dependences of the LED efficiency on the applied voltage are determined. Assumptions are made about ways of optimizing the design of high-efficiency LEDs.

  10. LABONFOIL: investigations regarding microfluidic skin patches for drug detection using flexible OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholles, M.; Kroker, L.; Vogel, U.; Krüger, J.; Walczak, R.; Ruano-Lopez, J.

    2010-02-01

    This contribution describes first results concerning the overall and especially optical system design of microfluidic skin patches for drug detection based on fluorescence analysis of sweat samples. This work has been carried out within the European project LABONFOIL which aims to develop low-cost lab-on-chip systems for four different applications, one of them for the detection of cocaine abuse by professional drivers. To date work has focused on the integrated design of the skin patch itself including methods for sweat collection as well as studies concerning the feasibility of OLEDs for optical excitation of the fluorescence signal.

  11. Theoretical studies on the photophysical properties of some Iridium (III) complexes used for OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urinda, Sharmistha; Das, Goutam; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

    2016-09-01

    The structural and photophysical properties of four heteroleptic Iridium (III) complexes, based on 1-phenylpyrazole ligand, have been investigated theoretically. The effect of chemical substitution on the absorption and the emission spectra of the complexes has been studied and compared with the experimental data. We observe a significant structural change in the lowest triplet excited state as compared to the ground singlet state. We compute the emission wavelength of the complexes by considering the spin-orbit coupling. Using these understandings, we predict two new complexes having deeper blue emission which are supposed to be better efficient OLED materials.

  12. Blue fluorescent OLED materials and their application for high-performance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuma, Hitoshi; Hosokawa, Chishio

    2014-06-01

    The authors applied two technologies to improve the efficiency of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). First, an efficiency-enhancement layer (EEL) was introduced to boost triplet-triplet fusion (TTF). Second, new blue dopants with a higher orientation factor in the emitting layer were developed. Consequently, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) was increased up to 11.5% with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) 1931 color coordinates of (0.138, 0.092). The reported results may lead to EQEs that exceed 14% with fluorescent blue emitters.

  13. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  14. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  15. Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies Toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad Omary; Bruce Gnade; Qi Wang; Oussama Elbjeirami; Chi Yang; Nigel Shepherd; Huiping Jia; Manuel Quevedo; Husam Alshareef; Minghang Li; Ming-Te Lin; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Iain Oswald; Pankaj Sinha; Ravi Arvapally; Usha Kaipa; John Determan; Sreekar Marpu; Roy McDougald; Gustavo Garza; Jason Halbert; Unnat Bhansali; Michael Perez

    2010-08-31

    This project has advanced solid-state lighting (SSL) by utilizing new phosphorescent systems for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The technical approach was two-fold: a) Targeted synthesis and screening of emitters designed to exhibit phosphorescence with maximized brightness in the solid state; and b) Construction and optimizing the performance of monochromatic and white OLEDs from the best new emitters to improve performance metrics versus the state of the art. The phosphorescent systems were screened candidates among a large variety of recentlysynthesized and newly-designed molecular and macromolecular metal-organic phosphors. The emitters and devices have been optimized to maximize light emission and color metrics, improve the long-term durability of emitters and devices, and reduce the manufacturing cost both by simplifying the process flow and by seeking less expensive device components than common ones. The project succeeded in all these goals upon comparison of the best materials and devices investigated vs. the state of the art of the technology.

  16. Novel fabrication method of microlens arrays with High OLED outcoupling efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Moon, Seong Il; Hwang, Dong Eui; Jeong, Ki Won; Kim, Chang Kyo; Moon, Dae-Gyu; Hong, Chinsoo

    2016-03-01

    We presented a novel fabrication method of pyramidal and hemispherical polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microlens arrays to improve the outcoupling efficiency. Pyramidal microlens arrays were fabricated by replica molding processes using concave-pyramidal silicon molds prepared by the wet etching method. Concave-hemispherical PMMA thin film was used as a template for fabrication of the hemispherical microlens array. The concave-hemispherical PMMA template was prepared by blowing a N2 gas stream onto the thin PMMA film suspended on a silicon pedestal. A PMMA microlens arrays with hemispherical structure were fabricated by a replica molding process. The outcoupling efficiency of the hemispherical microlens array was greater than that of the pyramidal microlens array. The outcoupling efficiency of hemispherical microlens arrays with a higher contact angle was larger than that of those with lower contact angle. This indicates that, for the hemispherical microlens with larger contact angle, more light can be extracted from the OLEDs due to the decrease in the incident angle of the light at the interface between an air and a hemispherical microlens arrays. After attaching a hemispherical microlens array with contact angle of 50.4° onto the OLEDs, the luminance was enhanced by approximately 117%.

  17. Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application.

    PubMed

    Cioarec, Cristina; Melpignano, Patrizia; Gherardi, Nicolas; Clergereaux, Richard; Villeneuve, Christina

    2011-04-01

    For a lab-on-chip application, we fabricate a blue bottom emitting strong microcavity organic light emitting diode (OLED), using very smooth and optically thin (25 nm) silver film as anode on a glass substrate. To improve the hole injection in the OLED device, PEDOT-PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) has been used, so the silver anode must present not only a very smooth surface but also a strong adherence on the glass and a high wettability to allow a good PEDOT-PSS spin coating deposition. To obtain these physical properties, different 5 nm thick nucleation layers (germanium, chromium, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon) have been used to grow the silver thin films by e-beam deposition. The Ge/Ag bilayer presents all the desired properties: this bilayer, investigated by ellipsometry, optical profilometry, contact angle measurements, and XPS analysis, highlights an ultrasmooth surface correlated with the film growth mode and a high wettability related to its surface chemical composition. PMID:21391637

  18. Benzobisoxazole cruciforms: A tunable, cross-conjugated platform for the generation of deep blue OLED materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chavez, III, Ramiro; Cai, Min; Tlach, Brian; Wheeler, David L.; Kaudal, Rajiv; Tsyrenova, Ayuna; Tomlinson, Aimee L.; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph; Jeffries-EL, Malika

    2016-01-20

    Four new cross-conjugated small molecules based on a central benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisoxazole moiety possessing semi-independently tunable HOMO and LUMO levels were synthesized and the properties of these materials were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The molecules were thermally stable with 5% weight loss occurring well above 350 °C. The cruciforms all exhibited blue emission in solution ranging from 433–450 nm. Host–guest OLEDs fabricated from various concentrations of these materials using the small molecule host 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)-biphenyl (CBP) exhibited deep blue-emission with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.17, 0.05 ≤ y ≤ 0.11), and maximum luminance efficiencies as highmore » as ~2 cd A–1. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of benzobisoxazole cruciforms as emitters for developing high-performance deep blue OLEDs.« less

  19. Polymers Containing Diphenylvinyl-Substituted Indole Rings as Charge-Transporting Materials for OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalevicius, S.; Zostautiene, R.; Sipaviciute, D.; Stulpinaite, B.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Liu, L.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monomers and polymers containing electronically isolated diphenylvinyl-substituted indole rings were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopies as well as by gel permeation chromatography. The polymers represent amorphous materials with glass transition temperatures of 91-109°C and thermal decomposition starting above 307°C. Electron photoemission spectra of thin films of the synthesized polymers revealed ionization potentials of 5.54-5.58 eV. The synthesized polymers were tested as hole-transporting materials in simple electroluminescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as an emitter as well as an electron-transporting layer. A green OLED device containing a hole-transporting layer of poly[1-(2,3-epithiopropyl)-2-methyl-3-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)índole] exhibited the best overall performance with a driving voltage of 4.0 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.8 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 4200 cd/m2.

  20. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Property of New Hexaphenyl Benzene Derivatives Including Emitting Core for OLED.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwangyu; Kang, Hyeonmi; Kim, Jong-Hyung; Wang, Yun-Fan; Kim, Seungho; Kay, Kwang-Yol; Park, Jongwook

    2015-10-01

    Three new emitting compounds of 5P-2TPA, 5P-2An and 5P-2Py for OLED based on hexaphenyl benzene moiety were synthesized. Physical properties were systematically examined by the change of the substitution groups of the synthesized materials. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the synthesized materials showed maximum emitting wavelengths of about 437~488 nm in solution state and 457~516 nm in film state, indicating blue emission color. OLED devices were fabricated by the synthesized compounds using vacuum deposition process as an emitting layer. Device structure was ITO/2-TNATA 60 nm/NPB 15 nm/EML 35 nm/TPBi 20 nm/LiF 1 nm/Al 200 nm. External quantum efficiencies and CIE values of 5P-2TPA, 5P-2An and 5P-2Py were 3.34, 1.06 and 2.06% and (0.14, 0.12), (0.23, 0.45) and (0.24, 0.45), respectively. The three compounds exhibited thermal stablility with high Td of 426 °C, 449 °C and 467 °C. PMID:26726505

  1. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  2. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  7. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.42 Actions normally requiring an EIS....

  8. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of requirement for EIS. 907.7 Section 907.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.7 Determination of requirement for EIS. Determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement is...

  9. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  10. ["The Society for letters and natural science" The young Ole H. Mynster and the chemical revolution around 1800].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ole H. Mynster (1772-1818) was a stepson of the leading physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital in Copenhagen. At an early age he became fond of zoology and mineralogy. He created "societies" in Enlightenment-style for boys and young people with lectures and collections. Later on a circle of talented young students, scientists and poets met in his small room at the hospital. Some of them with Ole Mynster as the head set up a modern scientific journal, Physicalsk, oeconomisk og medicochirurgisk Bibliotek for Danmark og Norge which encouraged the introduction of antiphlogistic chemistry. Ole Mynster became physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital and lecturer in clinical pharmacology. He wrote the first book in Danish on pharmacology based upon chemistry. In their memoirs, prominent members of his circle have told about him, and his son F.L. Mynster has written a draft for a biography. An overview of the activities within natural science and medicine of the young Ole Hieronymus Mynster is presented. PMID:27086444

  11. Low cost solution-based materials processing methods for large area OLEDs and OFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jonghwa

    In Part 1, we demonstrate the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with precisely patterned pixels by the spin-casting of Alq3 and rubrene thin films with dimensions as small as 10 mum. The solution-based patterning technique produces pixels via the segregation of organic molecules into microfabricated channels or wells. Segregation is controlled by a combination of weak adsorbing characteristics of aliphatic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and by centrifugal force, which directs the organic solution into the channel or well. This novel patterning technique may resolve the limitations of pixel resolution in the method of thermal evaporation using shadow masks, and is applicable to the fabrication of large area displays. Furthermore, the patterning technique has the potential to produce pixel sizes down to the limitation of photolithography and micromachining techniques, thereby enabling the fabrication of high-resolution microdisplays. The patterned OLEDs, based upon a confined structure with low refractive index of SiO2, exhibited higher current density than an unpatterned OLED, which results in higher electroluminescence intensity and eventually more efficient device operation at low applied voltages. We discuss the patterning method and device fabrication, and characterize the morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the organic pixels. In part 2, we demonstrate a new growth technique for organic single crystals based on solvent vapor assisted recrystallization. We show that, by controlling the polarity of the solvent vapor and the exposure time in a closed system, we obtain rubrene in orthorhombic to monoclinic crystal structures. This novel technique for growing single crystals can induce phase shifting and alteration of crystal structure and lattice parameters. The organic molecules showed structural change from orthorhombic to monoclinic, which also provided additional optical transition of hypsochromic shift from

  12. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OleC-Catalyzed ATP-Dependent Formation of Long-Chain Z-Olefins from 2-Alkyl-3-hydroxyalkanoic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, Papireddy; Bonnett, Shilah A; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathway of olefin biosynthesis starts with OleA catalyzed "head-to-head" condensation of two CoA-activated long-chain fatty acids to generate (R)-2-alkyl-3-ketoalkanoic acids. A subsequent OleD-catalyzed reduction generates (2R,3S)-2-alkyl-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids. We now show that the final step in the pathway is an OleC-catalyzed ATP-dependent decarboxylative dehydration to form the corresponding Z olefins. Higher kcat /Km values were seen for substrates with longer alkyl chains. All four stereoisomers of 2-hexyl-3-hydroxydecanoic acid were shown to be substrates, and GC-MS and NMR analyses confirmed that the product in each case was (Z)-pentadec-7-ene. LC-MS analysis supported the formation of AMP adduct as an intermediate. The enzymatic and stereochemical course of olefin biosynthesis from long-chain fatty acids by OleA, OleD and OleC is now established. PMID:27238740

  13. A hybrid simulated method for analyzing the optical efficiency of a head-mounted display with a quasi-crystal OLED panel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kao-Der; Li, Chang-Yi; Pan, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan

    2014-03-10

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a quasi-crystal (QC) structure are analyzed and applied in a head-mounted display (HMD) system in this study. We adopt a hybrid simulated method to evaluate the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and far-field pattern in the air, and study the relationship between them. The simulation results show that OLEDs implanted with the QC structure can provide a collimated far-field pattern to increase the brightness. Using this 10-fold QC arrangement the maxima LEE of the OLEDs can be increased by 1.20 times. Compared with conventional OLEDs, the viewing angle of the OLED panel decreases from 120 degrees to 26 degrees with an improvement in the optical efficiency of the HMD system by 2.66 times. Moreover, the normalized on-axis intensity in the pupil of the eyepiece can be enlarged up to 3.95 times which suggests that the OLED panel can save 74.68% energy while achieving the same on-axis intensity as conventional OLEDs. PMID:24922267

  14. Long-lived and highly efficient green and blue phosphorescent emitters and device architectures for OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Christian; Murer, Peter; Geßner, Thomas; Birnstock, Jan; Kröger, Michael; Choi, Zungsun; Watanabe, Soichi; May, Falk; Lennartz, Christian; Stengel, Ilona; Münster, Ingo; Kahle, Klaus; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Mangold, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, two OLED device concepts are introduced. First, classical phosphorescent green carbene emitters with unsurpassed lifetime, combined with low voltage and high efficiency are presented and the associated optimized OLED stacks are explained. Second, a path towards highly efficient, long-lived deep blue systems is shown. The high efficiencies can be reached by having the charge-recombination on the phosphorescent carbene emitter while at the same time short emissive lifetimes are realized by fast energy transfer to the fluorescent emitter, which eventually allows for higher OLED stability in the deep blue. Device architectures, materials and performance data are presented showing that carbene type emitters have the potential to outperform established phosphorescent green emitters both in terms of lifetime and efficiency. The specific class of green emitters under investigation shows distinctly larger electron affinities (2.1 to 2.5 eV) and ionization potentials (5.6 to 5.8 eV) as compared to the "standard" emitter Ir(ppy)3 (5.0/1.6 eV). This difference in energy levels requires an adopted OLED design, in particular with respect to emitter hosts and blocking layers. Consequently, in the diode setup presented here, the emitter species is electron transporting or electron trapping. For said green carbene emitters, the typical peak wavelength is 525 nm yielding CIE color coordinates of (x = 0.33, y = 0.62). Device data of green OLEDs are shown with EQEs of 26 %. Driving voltage at 1000 cd/m2 is below 3 V. In an optimized stack, a device lifetime of LT95 > 15,000 h (1000 cd/m2) has been reached, thus fulfilling AMOLED display requirements.

  15. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  16. Coronal Loops: New Insights from EIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Bradshaw, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Multi-instrument observations of coronal loops of different active regions have been studied. The general features discussed in Del Zanna (2003) and Del Zanna and Mason (2003) based on SOHO/CDS are confirmed. Hinode/EIS high-cadence observations clearly show how dynamic loops are at all temperatures. This clearly reflects the fast changes in the photospheric magnetic fields measured by SOT over a minute timescale. Despite that, persistent patterns are present. In particular, the pattern of Doppler shifts and non-thermal widths, found for the first time in NOAA 10926 (cf. Del Zanna 2007, 2008), is actually a common feature in all active regions. It is likely that the majority of cool (0.5--1 MK) loops are observed during their radiatively cooling phase.

  17. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  18. High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Zhu, Ruidong; Tsai, Yi-Shou; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Luo, Zhenyue; Lee, Yuh-Zheng; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-08-01

    A high ambient contrast ratio display device using a transparent organic light emitting diode (OLED) or transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) with embedded multilayered structure and absorber is proposed and its performance is simulated. With the help of multilayered structure, the device structure allows almost all ambient light to get through the display device and be absorbed by the absorber. Because the reflected ambient light is greatly reduced, the ambient contrast ratio of the display system is improved significantly. Meanwhile, the multilayered structure helps to lower the effective refractive index, which in turn improves the out-coupling efficiency of the display system. Potential applications for sunlight readable flexible and rollable displays are emphasized.

  19. Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Wu, Hairuo; Yan, Xingwu; Jin, Fangming; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chengyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrated a highly efficient DCJTB emission with delayed fluorescent exciplex TCTA:3P-T2T as the host. For the 1.0% DCJTB doped concentration, a maximum luminance, current efficiency, power efficiency and EQE of 22,767 cd m(-2), 22.7 cd A(-1), 21.5 lm W(-1) and 10.15% were achieved, respectively. The device performance is the best compared to either red OLEDs with traditional fluorescent emitter or traditional red phosphor of Ir(piq)3 doped into CBP host. The extraction of so high efficiency can be explained as the efficient triplet excitons up-conversion of TCTA:3P-T2T and the energy transfer from exciplex host singlet state to DCJTB singlet state. PMID:26023882

  20. Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Wu, Hairuo; Yan, Xingwu; Jin, Fangming; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chengyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrated a highly efficient DCJTB emission with delayed fluorescent exciplex TCTA:3P-T2T as the host. For the 1.0% DCJTB doped concentration, a maximum luminance, current efficiency, power efficiency and EQE of 22,767 cd m−2, 22.7 cd A−1, 21.5 lm W−1 and 10.15% were achieved, respectively. The device performance is the best compared to either red OLEDs with traditional fluorescent emitter or traditional red phosphor of Ir(piq)3 doped into CBP host. The extraction of so high efficiency can be explained as the efficient triplet excitons up-conversion of TCTA:3P-T2T and the energy transfer from exciplex host singlet state to DCJTB singlet state. PMID:26023882

  1. A Codeposition Route to CuI-Pyridine Coordination Complexes for OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiwei; Qayyum, Munzarin F.; Wu, Chao; Whited, Matthew T.; Djurovich, Peter I.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to utilize copper(I) iodide coordination complexes as emissive layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), by in situ codeposition of copper(I) iodide and 3,5-bis(carbazol-9-yl)pyridine (mCPy). With a simple three-layer device structure, pure green electroluminescence at 530 nm from a copper(I) complex was observed. Maximum luminance and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9700 cd/m2 and 4.4% have been achieved, respectively. The luminescent species has been identified as [CuI(mCPy)2]2 based on photophysical studies of model complexes and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). PMID:21366248

  2. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact...

  3. Bright coppertunities: efficient OLED devices with copper(I)iodide-NHetPHOS-emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallesch, Manuela; Volz, Daniel; Fléchon, Charlotte; Zink, Daniel M.; Bräse, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The mass market application of OLEDs is currently hindered because i) the materials are too expensive and contain rare metals such as iridium and ii) current processing techniques are elaborate and cannot easily be up-scaled. Solution processable Cu(I)-complexes promise to solve both problems with one blow: Copper is an abundant metal, which offers new opportunities to develop materials for OLEDs. Due to their structural diversity, Cu(I) emitters allow for the design of materials with tunable properties. Beside this, it is also possible to adjust solution properties and introduce functionalities for cross-linking. The new materials feature exciting photophysical properties such as PLQY values close to unity and a tunable emission. The emission decay times are in the range of common emitters or lower, which is expected to reduce efficiency roll-off at high driving voltages. Cu(I)-complexes often feature thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). As a consequence, they can make use of triplet and singlet excitons in a process called Singlet Harvesting, which paves the way for high efficiencies. Unlike Ir(III)-complexes such as Irppy3, triplet-triplet annihilation does not occur when using Cu(I), even in very high doping concentrations. The feasibility of NHetPHOS-type Cu(I)-complexes is demonstrated as well as strategies that enable a smart crosslinking process, where the Cu(I) emitters themselves play an important role. In addition, high-brightness devices, which were operated at medium voltages, yielding 50.000 cd m-2 are shown. In a showcase example, we recently presented a device with an external quantum efficiency greater than 20% with a solution processed Cu(I)-PyrPHOS-device without using outcoupling techniques.

  4. RCWA-EIS method for interlayer grating coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Congshan; Gaylord, Thomas K; Bakir, Muhannad S

    2016-08-01

    The grating coupling efficiencies for interlayer connection (overlaid chips) were previously calculated using the new rigorous coupled-wave analysis equivalent-index-slab (RCWA-EIS) method. The chip-to-chip coupling efficiencies were determined for rectangular-groove (binary) gratings. In the present work, the search algorithms used in the RCWA-EIS method are optimized giving rise to improved definition of equivalent indices. Further, the versatility of the RCWA-EIS method is demonstrated by extending it to (nonbinary) parallelogramic gratings, sawtooth gratings, and volume gratings. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to verify the results. This demonstrates the flexibility of the RCWA-EIS method in analyzing arbitrary 1D gratings. PMID:27505369

  5. Sorting of large-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotube and printed flexible driving circuit for organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenya; Zhao, Jianwen; Qian, Long; Han, Xianying; Wu, Liangzhuan; Wu, Weichen; Song, Minshun; Zhou, Lu; Su, Wenming; Wang, Chao; Nie, Shuhong; Cui, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving circuit, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix OLED applications.A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving

  6. Determining the Differential Emission Measure from EIS, XRT, and AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, H.P.; Schmelz, J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation determines the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), X Ray Telescope (XRT), and Atmospheric Imaging Array (AIA). Common observations with Fe, Si, and Ca EIS lines are shown along with observations with Al-mesh, Ti-poly Al-thick and Be-thick XRT filters. Results from these observations are shown to determine what lines and filters are important to better constrain the hot component.

  7. Evidence for mitotic recombination in W sup ei /+ heterozygous mice

    SciTech Connect

    Panthier, J.J.; Condamine, H.; Jacob, F. ); Guenet, J.L. )

    1990-05-01

    A number of alleles at coat color loci of the house mouse give rise to areas of wild-type pigmentation on the coats of otherwise mutant animals. Such unstable alleles include both recessive and dominant mutations. Among the latter are several alleles at the W locus. In this report, phenotypic reversions of the W{sup ei} allele at the W locus were studied. Mice heterozygous in repulsion for both W{sup ei} and buff (bf) (i.e. W{sup ei}+/+bf) were examined for the occurrence of phenotypic reversion events. Buff (bf) is a recessive mutation, which lies 21 cM from W on the telomeric side of chromosome 5 and is responsible for the khaki colored coat of nonagouti buff homozygotes (a/a; bf/bf). Two kinds of fully pigmented reversion spots were recovered on the coats of a/a; W{sup ei}+/+bf mice: either solid black or khaki colored. Furthermore phenotypic reversions of W{sup ei}/+ were enhanced significantly following X-irradiation of 9.25-day-old W{sup ei}/+ embryos (P < 0.04). These observations are consistent with the suggestion of a role for mitotic recombination in the origin of these phenotypic reversions. In addition these results raise the intriguing possibility that some W mutations may enhance mitotic recombination in the house mouse.

  8. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  9. Structure and Biochemical Properties of the Alkene Producing Cytochrome P450 OleTJE (CYP152L1) from the Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 Bacterium*

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, James; McLean, Kirsty J.; Matthews, Sarah; Woodward, Laura S.; Fisher, Karl; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Nelson, David R.; Potts, Donna; Baynham, Michael T.; Parker, David A.; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    The production of hydrocarbons in nature has been documented for only a limited set of organisms, with many of the molecular components underpinning these processes only recently identified. There is an obvious scope for application of these catalysts and engineered variants thereof in the future production of biofuels. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structures of a cytochrome P450 fatty acid peroxygenase: the terminal alkene forming OleTJE (CYP152L1) from Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456. OleTJE is stabilized at high ionic strength, but aggregation and precipitation of OleTJE in low salt buffer can be turned to advantage for purification, because resolubilized OleTJE is fully active and extensively dissociated from lipids. OleTJE binds avidly to a range of long chain fatty acids, and structures of both ligand-free and arachidic acid-bound OleTJE reveal that the P450 active site is preformed for fatty acid binding. OleTJE heme iron has an unusually positive redox potential (−103 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode), which is not significantly affected by substrate binding, despite extensive conversion of the heme iron to a high spin ferric state. Terminal alkenes are produced from a range of saturated fatty acids (C12–C20), and stopped-flow spectroscopy indicates a rapid reaction between peroxide and fatty acid-bound OleTJE (167 s−1 at 200 μm H2O2). Surprisingly, the active site is highly similar in structure to the related P450BSβ, which catalyzes hydroxylation of fatty acids as opposed to decarboxylation. Our data provide new insights into structural and mechanistic properties of a robust P450 with potential industrial applications. PMID:24443585

  10. Spirobifluorene-2,7-dicarbazole-4'-phosphine Oxide as Host for High-Performance Single-Layer Green Phosphorescent OLED Devices.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Sébastien; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jacques, Emmanuel; Robin, Malo; Métivier, Rémi; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-10-01

    A new host material based on the 2,7,4'-substituted spirobifluorene platform has been designed and used in single-layer phosphorescent OLED with very high efficiency (EQE = 13.2%) and low turn-on voltage (2.4 V). This performance is among the best reported for green single-layer PhOLEDs and may open new avenues in the design of host materials for single-layer devices. PMID:26371550

  11. Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipan; Zhang, Yuewei; Chen, Weiping; Wei, Jinbei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Achieving high power efficiencies at high-brightness levels is still an important issue for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism. Herein, enhanced electroluminescence efficiencies were achieved in fluorescent OLEDs using a TADF molecule, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), as a host and quinacridone derivatives (QA) as fluorescent dopants. PMID:26120606

  12. Multithermal Analysis of EIS Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Brian T.; Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-05-01

    Four separate active regions containing multiple coronal loops were selected for Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis from Hinode Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data. Each loop was chosen based on its location and our ability to find a clean nearby area for background subtraction. Our analysis uses iron lines with ionization stages from Fe VIII to Fe XVI in the wavelength ranges 170 - 210 and 250 - 290 A. The twelve selected loops were then analyzed to determine if their cross-field temperature was isothermal or multithermal. This was accomplished by averaging the intensities of ten individual pixels along the length of each loop and subtracting the average intensity of ten nearby background pixels. We then used these background-subtracted values, the density from a density-sensitive line ratio, and the atomic data from the CHIANTI database to create a DEM curve for each loop. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NSF ATM-0402729 as well as a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO.

  13. Technology and design of an active-matrix OLED on crystalline silicon direct-view display for a wristwatch computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, James L.; Schlig, Eugene S.; Prache, Olivier; Dove, Derek B.; Ali, Tariq A.; Howard, Webster E.

    2002-02-01

    The IBM Research Division and eMagin Corp. jointly have developed a low-power VGA direct view active matrix OLED display, fabricated on a crystalline silicon CMOS chip. The display is incorporated in IBM prototype wristwatch computers running the Linus operating system. IBM designed the silicon chip and eMagin developed the organic stack and performed the back-end-of line processing and packaging. Each pixel is driven by a constant current source controlled by a CMOS RAM cell, and the display receives its data from the processor memory bus. This paper describes the OLED technology and packaging, and outlines the design of the pixel and display electronics and the processor interface. Experimental results are presented.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of New Hybrid Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): Europium-picrate-triethylene oxide Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjidan, M. A. Mohd; Abu Zakaria, N. Z. A.; Abd. Majid, W. H.; Kusrini, Eny; Saleh, M. I.

    2009-07-07

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have attracted vast interest in applications such as light emitting diode (LED) and flat-panel display. The organic material can be attached with inorganic material to enhance the performance of the light emitting device. A hybrid OLED based on a new complex of europium picrate (Eu-pic) with triethylene oxide (EO3) ligand is fabricated. The OLED is fabricated by using spin coating technique with acetone as the solvent and aluminum as the top electrode. The optical, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of the sample are carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy (Jasco V-750), luminescence spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer LS-500) and source measure unit (SMU)(Keithly), respectively.

  15. Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device (OLED)-based multianalyte sensing through analyte-oxidase interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Ruth; Qian, Chengliang; Cai, Yuankun; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Shinar, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The development of a compact structurally integrated platform for detection of multianalytes that consume oxygen in the presence of specific oxidase enzymes is described. The detection is based on monitoring the photoluminescence (PL) intensity or lifetime of a sensing element based on the oxygen sensitive dye Pt octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP). The excitation source for the PL is an array of individually addressable green OLED pixels. The analytes are gas- phase and dissolved oxygen, glucose, lactate, and alcohol. The sensing element for each analyte includes a layer of PtOEP-doped polystyrene, whose PL lifetime decreases with increasing O II level, and a film or solution containing the oxidase enzyme specific to the analyte. Each sensing element is associated with two addressable ~2x2 mm2 OLED pixels. The operation and performance metrics of the sensor under various conditions are described and discussed.

  16. Ga-doped TiZnO transparent conductive oxide used as an alternative anode in blue, green, and red phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Wu, Shen-Yu; Huang, Jun-Lin; Hung, Chao-Yu; Chang, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chih; Wu, Yi-Cheng

    2014-09-28

    X-ray diffraction was used to study the optoelectronic characteristics of Ga-doped TiZnO (GTZO) thin film and revealed increased crystallinity with annealing temperatures ranging from as-grown to 450 °C. The low thin film resistivity of 6.1 × 10(-4) Ω cm and the average high optical transmittance of 93% in the wavelength range between 350 and 800 nm make GTZO an alternative candidate for application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Both GTZO and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anodes are employed for the successful fabrication of blue, green, and red phosphorescent OLEDs. The similar device electrical characteristics observed could be interpreted as evidence of the effectiveness of doping Ga in TiZnO. The simplified tri-layer blue, green, and red phosphorescent OLEDs demonstrated high performance with respective maximum efficiencies of 19.0%, 14.5%, and 9.1%, representing an improvement over ITO-based OLEDs. Furthermore, the OLEDs with the GTZO anode exhibited superior performance at higher current densities, demonstrating high potential for OLED display and lighting applications. PMID:25109371

  17. Ole e 13 is the unique food allergen in olive: Structure-functional, substrates docking, and molecular allergenicity comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, J C; Robles-Bolivar, P; Lopez-Valverde, F J; Lima-Cabello, E; Kotchoni, S O; Alché, J D

    2016-05-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are enzymes with important functions in pathogens defense and in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Last identified olive allergen (Ole e 13) is a TLP, which may also importantly contribute to food allergy and cross-allergenicity to pollen allergen proteins. The goals of this study are the characterization of the structural-functionality of Ole e 13 with a focus in its catalytic mechanism, and its molecular allergenicity by extensive analysis using different molecular computer-aided approaches covering a) functional-regulatory motifs, b) comparative study of linear sequence, 2-D and 3D structural homology modeling, c) molecular docking with two different β-D-glucans, d) conservational and evolutionary analysis, e) catalytic mechanism modeling, and f) IgE-binding, B- and T-cell epitopes identification and comparison to other allergenic TLPs. Sequence comparison, structure-based features, and phylogenetic analysis identified Ole e 13 as a thaumatin-like protein. 3D structural characterization revealed a conserved overall folding among plants TLPs, with mayor differences in the acidic (catalytic) cleft. Molecular docking analysis using two β-(1,3)-glucans allowed to identify fundamental residues involved in the endo-1,3-β-glucanase activity, and defining E84 as one of the conserved residues of the TLPs responsible of the nucleophilic attack to initiate the enzymatic reaction and D107 as proton donor, thus proposing a catalytic mechanism for Ole e 13. Identification of IgE-binding, B- and T-cell epitopes may help designing strategies to improve diagnosis and immunotherapy to food allergy and cross-allergenic pollen TLPs. PMID:27017426

  18. Bridging the efficiency gap: fully bridged dinuclear Cu(I)-complexes for singlet harvesting in high-efficiency OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Volz, Daniel; Chen, Ying; Wallesch, Manuela; Liu, Rui; Fléchon, Charlotte; Zink, Daniel M; Friedrichs, Jana; Flügge, Harald; Steininger, Ralph; Göttlicher, Jörg; Heske, Clemens; Weinhardt, Lothar; Bräse, Stefan; So, Franky; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-17

    The substitution of rare metals such as iridium and platinum in light-emitting materials is a key step to enable low-cost mass-production of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, it is demonstrated that using a solution-processed, fully bridged dinuclear Cu(I)-complex can yield very high efficiencies. An optimized device gives a maximum external quantum efficiency of 23 ± 1% (73 ± 2 cd A(-1) ). PMID:25754022

  19. Therapeutic targets for olive pollen allergy defined by gene markers modulated by Ole e 1-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Calzada, David; Aguerri, Miriam; Baos, Selene; Montaner, David; Mata, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Quiralte, Joaquín; Florido, Fernando; Lahoz, Carlos; Cárdaba, Blanca

    2015-04-01

    Two regions of Ole e 1, the major olive-pollen allergen, have been characterized as T-cell epitopes, one as immunodominant region (aa91-130) and the other, as mainly recognized by non-allergic subjects (aa10-31). This report tries to characterize the specific relevance of these epitopes in the allergic response to olive pollen by analyzing the secreted cytokines and the gene expression profiles induced after specific stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from olive pollen-allergic and non-allergic control subjects were stimulated with olive-pollen extract and Ole e 1 dodecapeptides containing relevant T-cell epitopes. Levels of cytokines were measured in cellular supernatants and gene expression was determined by microarrays, on the RNAs extracted from PBMCs. One hundred eighty-nine differential genes (fold change >2 or <-2, P<0.05) were validated by qRT-PCR in a large population. It was not possible to define a pattern of response according the overall cytokine results but interesting differences were observed, mainly in the regulatory cytokines. Principal component (PCA) gene-expression analysis defined clusters that correlated with the experimental conditions in the group of allergic subjects. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed differential genes and pathways among the experimental conditions. A set of 51 genes (many essential to T-cell tolerance and homeostasis) correlated with the response to aa10-31 of Ole e 1. In conclusion, two peptides derived from Ole e 1 could regulate the immune response in allergic patients, by gene-expression modification of several regulation-related genes. These results open new research ways to the regulation of allergy by Oleaceae family members. PMID:25553522

  20. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Teng

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  1. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  2. The design of the multiple resonance microcavity by reflection phase manipulation of non-QWS DBR for OLED chromaticity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nien-Po; Chou, Meng-Hsian; Wang, Chao-Chen; Hsieh, Cheng-Jung; Chan, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Shu-Jin

    2009-08-01

    There have been many researches regarding to the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with microcavity structures, in order to enhance its output optical properties such as chromaticity and intensity. In the applications to the white-light OLED (WOLED) and full color displays, the difficulty remains in the design of the optical length of the microcavity for proper resonance. A typical microcavity structure consists of the dielectric quarter wave stacks (QWS) as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and the metal cathode to form a pair of mirrors. The organic and other material layers between the mirrors plays the role of the cavity. It can only have one major resonance peak in the perpendicular view angle and degrade the broad spectrum nature of the WOLED. Our study proposes the use of non-QWS mirror using thicker and higher-order (greater integral multiple of the quarter wavelength) of the dielectric layers. We can have the multiple resonance peak wavelengths to meet the WOLED requirement by introducing the reflection phase change of the dielectric stack mirror at certain wavelengths. The proposed microcavity structure yields a desired shift to the white point in CIE chromaticity for a typical green OLED. One of the potential applications of the microcavity with non-QWS mirror can be to make the WOLED even closer to the CIE white point without worrying the doping process variation, which is a typical problem in the WOLED. It greatly enhances the usability of the WOLED in various applications.

  3. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-08-09

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime {tau} decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. {tau} was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, {tau} increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of {approx}32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  4. Tunable white light emission in Parallel Tandem OLEDs made with silver metal as interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Jorge; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Zakhidov, Anvar; UT Dallas Team

    Parallel tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) which consisted in a top and bottom subunits, and joined with a thin layer of silver (interlayer) were fabricated. In this parallel tandem architecture the Ag metal is an active common anode, which permitted to inject holes into top and bottom subunits. Both subunits of the tandem can thus be connected functionally in a new geometry and addressed separately. Those Tandems had a yellow emitter (a mixture of MEH-PPV and TFB polymers) in the bottom subunit and a blue emitting molecule in the top subunit. The simultaneous combination of the emitted yellow and blue light when both subunits are operating produced white light. We could tune the white light from cool (CIE: 0.33, 0.25) to warm (CIE: 0.38, 0.39) by changing the intensity of the yellow light, that in turn depends on the ratio of MEH-PPV/TFB mixture used to make the emitting layer in the bottom subunit. We also compared the performance of the parallel tandem with these in series and we found additional advantages of the parallel architecture over the configuration for the series tandems such as: tunable chromaticity, lower turn on voltage (4V compared to 7V in the in-series tandem) and higher brightness. The best CIE coordinate we obtained for white light was (0.35, 0.35) which is near the ideal coordinate of (0.33,0.33).

  5. [Improved color purity of green OLED device based on Au thin film].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Au was used as anode in some kind of organic electroluminescent devices. Sometimes transparent Au electrodes are required, which means that the thickness of Au electrode should be as thin as possible. Therefore, two metals together forming an electrode become a choice. In the present paper, translucent Au/Al layer was inserted to anode side, and OLED device with the structure of ITO/Al (16 nm)/Au (10 nm)/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al was prepared. There is a spectral narrowing phenomenon on the device ITO/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al, and through analysis and experiment it was found that this phenomenon comes from selective permeability to light of Au thin film rather than the microcavity effect. The device maintains wide viewing angle, without the angular dependence. And the color purity of device with Au thin film is improved. PMID:25007596

  6. [Effect of mixed interface on the performance of solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs].

    PubMed

    Song, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Lu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Kong, Chao; Yan, Guang

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, in order to improve electron injection and transport at the interface of the hole blocking layer (HBL) and the electron transport layer (ETL) in the hole-domain solution processed phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PhOLEDs), the mixed interface layer (MIL) was fabricated by partially co-doping hole blocking material 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and electron transport material tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum (Alq3) between HBL/ ETL. The MIL thickness was kept at 10nm, while the doping ratio of these two materials varied. Under a given electric field, the devices with the MIL at any mixed ratios all show much higher luminance and current density than those with a typical interface. For example, the luminance power and current density at 10 V for a typical device are 1.03 microW and 5.13 mA x cm(-2), while in case of mixed interface are 3.64 microW and 18.1 mA x cm(-2), respectively. From data results and theoretical analysis, the possible derivation of these improvements is considered to be the reduced electron accumulation at the interface resulting from the reduced electron injection energy barrier and lowered transport mobility by BCP material, which leads to an increase in electron amount in the emission layer and therefore the higher luminance and current density. PMID:21847908

  7. A 5.4 MDOT OLED microdisplay for digital night vision and image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Gunther; Espuno, Laurent; Marcellin-Dibon, Eric; Prat, Christophe; Gohri, Vipul

    2012-06-01

    We developed a 0.61'' diagonal OLED microdisplay dedicated to electronic viewfinders for digital vision systems, e.g. for security or other professional applications. The microdisplay has a very high resolution of 5.4 million subpixels and combines excellent image quality with low power consumption and a 10bit per color digital input. Subpixel pitch is 4.7x4.7μm². Thanks to the versatile architecture of the underlying ASIC circuit, the device can be easily adapted to different applications and image formats: In the standard full color version, the resulting resolution is 1300 by 1044 pixels (SXGA). In a monochrome version, the resolution is 2600 by 2088 independent pixels, enabling e.g. digital night vision at full 2K by 2K resolution. In addition to this, we developed two- and three color versions of the display that allow to merge high resolution monochrome images e.g.in 2K by 2K resolution with lower resolution images e.g., from an infrared sensor for image fusion or for adding colored graphical overlays.

  8. Thermal Evaporation versus Spin-Coating: Electrical Performance in Columnar Liquid Crystal OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Juliana; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Faria, Gregório C; Bock, Harald; von Seggern, Heinz; Pisula, Wojciech; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-08-01

    The electrical responses of a columnar liquid crystal (a diimidodiester derivative of benzo[ghi]perylene) deposited either by spin-coating or by thermal evaporation into a typical OLED device are compared. For the spin-coated film, homeotropic alignment was induced by thermal annealing, which enhanced the charge carrier mobility significantly. For the evaporated films, homeotropic alignment could not be obtained by annealing. However, a degree of rectification higher than 3 orders of magnitude was achieved, even without annealing, with an electrical response similar to the response of the aligned spin-coated film. A trap-limited space-charge-limited current model was used to extract the charge carrier mobility directly from the current-voltage curves. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirmed the homeotropic alignment of the annealed spin-coated film, whereas the columns are mostly oriented parallel to the surface in the evaporated case. In a field-effect transistor with bottom-gate bottom-contact geometry, the evaporated film exhibited a typical behavior of an n-type transistor. The degree of intermolecular order is thereby strongly dependent on the deposition method where vacuum deposition leads to a higher order. This higher order, however, impedes reorientation by annealing of the evaporated film but leads to improved charge transport between the electrodes even without homeotropic alignment of columnar liquid crystal. PMID:26168313

  9. OLED-based DNA biochip for Campylobacter spp. detection in poultry meat samples.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Marisa; Cecchini, Francesca; Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Melpignano, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Integrated biochips are the ideal solution for producing portable diagnostic systems that uncouple diagnosis from centralized laboratories. These portable devices exploit a multi-disciplinary approach, are cost effective and have several advantages including broader accessibility, high sensitivity, quick test results and ease of use. The application of such a device in food safety is considered in this paper. Fluorescence detection of a specific biological probe excited by an optical source is one of the most commonly used methods for quantitative analysis on biochips. In this study, we designed and characterized a miniaturized, highly-sensitive DNA biochip based on a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode. The molecular design of the diode was optimized to excite a fluorophore-conjugated DNA probe and tested using real meat samples to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity against one of the most common poultry meat contaminants: Campylobacter spp. Real samples were analyzed also by classical plate methods and molecular methods to validate the results obtained by the new DNA-biochip. The high sensitivity obtained by the OLED based biochip (0.37ng/μl) and the short time required for the results (about 24h) indicate the usefulness of the system. PMID:25437363

  10. Design of new anchored p-dopants for high power efficiency OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Koech, Phillip K; Sapochak, Linda S; Rainbolt, James E; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S; Wang, Liang; Padmaperuma, Asanga B; Gaspar, Daniel J

    2009-08-27

    Conductivity doping of charge transporting layers is increasingly becoming attractive for improving power efficiency in OLEDs. However, the number of organic molecular p-dopants is limited for instance the electron acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is the most utilized p-dopant. F4-TCNQ can dope most hole transporting materials (HTL), but it is very volatility, and has a low sticking coefficient thus difficult to deposit. Here we present the design of anchored molecular dopants based on the TCNQ core. We first review how the reduction potential of TCNQ core is affected by substitution with alkyl groups of different electronic properties. Electron donating groups have negative effect on the reduction potential of the acceptor. However, attaching electron withdrawing groups such as halogens counteracts the effect of electron donating groups. Using gas phase theoretical calculations we determined that trifluorinated TCNQ can be anchored through a σ-coupled alkyl chain to an inert molecular anchor without sacrificing the electron affinity.

  11. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  12. MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL

    SciTech Connect

    DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

    2011-12-13

    Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost

  13. An olive pollen protein with allergenic activity, Ole e 10, defines a novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules and is potentially implicated in pollen germination

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. They have been frequently identified by amino acid sequence alignments, but only a few have been experimentally established to have a carbohydrate-binding activity. A small olive pollen protein, Ole e 10 (10 kDa), has been described as a major inducer of type I allergy in humans. In the present study, the ability of Ole e 10 to bind several polysaccharides has been analysed by affinity gel electrophoresis, which demonstrated that the protein bound 1,3-β-glucans preferentially. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed binding to laminarin, at a protein/ligand ratio of 1:1. The interaction of Ole e 10 with laminarin induced a conformational change in the protein, as detected by CD and fluorescence analyses, and an increase of 3.6 °C in the thermal denaturation temperature of Ole e 10 in the presence of the glycan. These results, and the absence of alignment of the sequence of Ole e 10 with that of any classified CBM, indicate that this pollen protein defines a novel family of CBMs, which we propose to name CBM43. Immunolocalization of Ole e 10 in mature and germinating pollen by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of Ole e 10 and callose (1,3-β-glucan) in the growing pollen tube, suggesting a role for this protein in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in pollen tube wall re-formation during germination. PMID:15882149

  14. The decision - identification tree: A new EIS scoping tool

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1997-04-02

    No single methodology has been developed or universally accepted for determining the scope of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Most typically, the scope is determined by first identifying actions and facilities to be analyzed. Yet, agencies sometimes complete an EIS, only to discover that the scope does not adequately address decisions that need to be made. Such discrepancies can often be traced to disconnects between the scoping process and the actual decision making that follows. A new tool, for use in a value engineering setting, provides an effective methodology for improving the EIS scoping process. Application of this tool is not limited to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) scoping efforts. This tool, could in fact, be used to map potential decision points for a range of diverse planning applications and exercises.

  15. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  16. 75 FR 81591 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Entry Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... EIS will address issues associated with ECPs and the on-base roadway network located in Area A of the installation. The EIS will address primary concerns related to the ECPs and existing roadway network...

  17. 78 FR 47048 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of Final EIS. SUMMARY:...

  18. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    SciTech Connect

    Jefri,; Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-30

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl{sub 3}) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  19. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefri, Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-01

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  20. Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    eMagin Corporation has recently developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. AMOLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. The new OLED-XL devices gave the promise of improvements in usable lifetime over 6X what the standard full color, white, and green devices could provide. The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC NVESD performed life tests on several standard and OLED-XL panels from eMagin under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Displays were tested at room temperature, utilizing eMagin's Design Reference Kit driver, allowing computer controlled optimization, brightness adjustment, and manual temperature compensation. The OLED Usable Lifetime Model, developed under a previous NVESD/eMagin SPIE paper presented at DSS 2005, has been adjusted based on the findings of these tests. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed.

  1. [Highly Efficient Bilayer-Structure Yellow-Green OLED with MADN Hole-Transport Layer and the Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-wen; Mo, Bing-jie; Liu, Li-ming; Wang, Hong-hang; Chen, Er-wei; Xu, Ji-wen; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Highly efficient bilayer-structure yellow-green organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been demonstrated based on MADN as hole-transport layer (HTL) and host-guest coped system of [Alq₃: 0.7 Wt% rubrene] as emitting and electron-trans- port layer. The device gives yellow-green emission through incomplete energy transfer from the host of Alq₃ to the guest of ru- brene. An electroluminescent peak of 560 nm, 1931 CIE color coordinates of (0.46, 0.52) and a maximum current efficiency of 7.63 cd · A⁻¹ (which has been enhanced by 30% in comparison with the counterpart having conventional NPB HTL) are ob- served. The hole-transporting characteristics of MADN and NPB have been systematically investigated by constructing hole-only devices and employing impedance spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicate that MADN can be served as an effective hole-trans- port material and its hole-transporting ability is slightly inferior to NPB. This overcomes the shortcoming of hole transporting more quickly than electron in OLED and improves carrier balance in the emitting layer. Consequently, the device current efficien- cy is promoted. In addition, the current efficiency of bilayer-structure OLED with MADN as HTL is comparable to that of conv- entinol trilayer-structure device with MADN as HTL and Alq₃ as electron-transport layer. This indicates that the simplified bi- layer-structure device can be achieved without sacrificing current efficiency. The emitting layer of [Alq: 0.7 Wt% rubrene possesses superior elecron-transporting ability. PMID:26964197

  2. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform—similar to the one used by Wikipedia—developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  3. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS combined with the report shall follow the format in 40 CFR 1502.10, follow the main report, use colored paper... in the last paragraph of 40 CFR 1502.10. Additional guidance on combining and integrating EISs...

  4. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS combined with the report shall follow the format in 40 CFR 1502.10, follow the main report, use colored paper... in the last paragraph of 40 CFR 1502.10. Additional guidance on combining and integrating EISs...

  5. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS combined with the report shall follow the format in 40 CFR 1502.10, follow the main report, use colored paper... in the last paragraph of 40 CFR 1502.10. Additional guidance on combining and integrating EISs...

  6. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS combined with the report shall follow the format in 40 CFR 1502.10, follow the main report, use colored paper... in the last paragraph of 40 CFR 1502.10. Additional guidance on combining and integrating EISs...

  7. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS combined with the report shall follow the format in 40 CFR 1502.10, follow the main report, use colored paper... in the last paragraph of 40 CFR 1502.10. Additional guidance on combining and integrating EISs...

  8. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform?similar to the one used by Wikipedia?developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  9. 7 CFR 1940.323 - Preparing supplements to EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Preparing supplements to EIS's. 1940.323 Section 1940.323 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.323 Preparing supplements...

  10. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  11. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M. A.; Liu, B.; Donoghue, E. P.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Kim, D. Y.; So, Franky; Rinzler, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-36)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-10

    The compliance checklist for this project was originally completed by the Burns Paiute Tribe in 2000, and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD), as well as the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Logan Valley Wildlife Mitigation Plan, now being implemented, continues to be consistent with the above mentioned EISs and RODs. Pursuant to its obligations under the Endangered Species Act, BPA has made a determination of whether its proposed project will have any effects on any listed species under the jurisdiction of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). A species list was obtained from USFWS on June 12, 2003, identifying bald eagles, Canada lynx, and bull trout as potentially occurring in the project area. A site assessment was conducted on July 15, 2003 to determine if these species were present and the potential effects of project activities. A ''No Effect'' determination was made for all ESA-listed species. There were no listed species under the jurisdiction of NOAA Fisheries present in the project area. As management activities proceed in the future, BPA will annually re-assess potential effects of planned activities on listed species. The Burns-Paiute Tribe conducted a literature search for historic and archaeological sites on the property on January 11, 1999. No known sites were identified. Further site-specific surveys will be conducted for individual ground disturbing activities. The results of these surveys will be sent to the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office and BPA. BPA will annually summarize and submit a report to the State Historic Preservation Office. On December 29, 1999, Fred Walasavage of BPA completed a Phase I Site Assessment and concluded that the site did not reveal any environmental factors that would pose a significant liability for remedial action or cleanup

  13. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  14. Approach of organic light-emitting displays (OLED) to technology status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Gurdial S.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    of organic LED technology with particular reference to its useful characteristics, and the technology challenges. The pace of research accomplishments indicate that it will be some years yet before OLEDs succeed in the market place as product components.

  15. Efficient Layers of Emitting Ternary Lanthanide Complexes for Fabricating Red, Green, and Yellow OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Iftikhar, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    A series of novel nona- and octacoordinate highly volatile and luminescent complexes, [Eu(hfaa)3(indazole)3] and [Ln(hfaa)3(indazole)2] (Ln = Tb, Dy, and Lu), were synthesized using a monoanionic bidentate hexafluoroacetylacetone (hfaa(-)) and a neutral monodentate indazole ligand. The X-ray diffraction analyses of their single-crystals indicate that the complexes are mononuclear. The Eu complex is nonacoordinate and has a distorted monocapped square antiprismatic structure whereas the terbium and dysprosium complexes are octacoordinate and possess a trigonal bicapped prism geometry. The indazole units are involved in π-π stacking interaction and N-H···F hydrogen bonding with the fluorine atoms of hfaa(-). The photophysical studies of indazole and the complexes show that the triplet states are at the appropriate positions and make ligand-to-metal energy transfer process efficient. A strong protective shield is provided by the coordination of three hfaa(-) moieties (which have low frequency C-F vibrational oscillators), and two/three ancillary indazole ligands around these metal ions ascribe higher quantum yields and longer radiative life times (ΦEu = 69% ± 10, 989 ± 1 μs, ΦTb = 33% ± 10, 546 ± 1 μs, and ΦDy = 2.5% ± 10, 13.6 ± 1 μs) to these novel compounds. The emission from europium, terbium, and dysprosium are, respectively, red, green, and yellow. Finally, these compounds were used, as emitting layers, to fabricate electroluminescent devices of their respective colors. The best devices are found with the following structure: ITO/CuPc (15 nm)/[Eu complex]:CBP or [Tb complex]:CBP or [Dy complex]:CBP (80 nm)/BCP (25 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), which indicates an improved EL performance for the Eu device over the Eu devices reported in the literature. The ligand, indazole, is a good sensitizer for trivalent europium, terbium, and dysprosium ions. It together with hfaa(-) plays an important role in fabricating OLEDs, especially

  16. Novel hole transporting materials based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine derivatives for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Pham Bao; Baek, Sueng Ji; Kim, Mi Jin; Shin, Na Young; Kim, Gyeong Woo; Choe, Dong Cheol; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) 3a-c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2',3'-h)quinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine/HTMs)/CBP (4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl): 5% Ir(ppy)3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al) resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE) as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3. PMID:25211005

  17. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Iridium(III) Complexes with Horizontal Orientation for Orange and White Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin-Song; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Two phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) were synthesized and characterized with emission ranged at 584/600 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 0.90/0.92, respectively. The angle-dependent PL spectra analysis reveals that the two orange iridium(III) complexes embodied horizontal orientation property. The high photoluminescence quantum yield and high horizontal dipoles ratio determine their excellent device performance. The devices based on Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) achieved efficiencies of 26.8% and 28.2%, respectively, which can be comparable to the best orange phosphorescent devices reported in the literature. Furthermore, with the introduction of FIrpic as sky-blue emitter, phosphorescent two-element white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been realized with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) as high as 25%, which are the highest values among the reported two-element white OLEDs. PMID:25943159

  19. Optimal scan strategy for mega-pixel and kilo-gray-level OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuan; Ran, Feng; Ji, Weigui; Xu, Meihua; Chen, Zhangjing; Jiang, Yuxi; Shen, Weixin

    2012-06-10

    The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V-6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye. PMID:22695650

  20. Theoretical rationalization of the singlet-triplet gap in OLEDs materials: impact of charge-transfer character.

    PubMed

    Moral, M; Muccioli, L; Son, W-J; Olivier, Y; Sancho-García, J C

    2015-01-13

    New materials for OLED applications with low singlet-triplet energy splitting have been recently synthesized in order to allow for the conversion of triplet into singlet excitons (emitting light) via a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) process, which involves excited-states with a non-negligible amount of Charge-Transfer (CT). The accurate modeling of these states with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), the most used method so far because of the favorable trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, is however particularly challenging. We carefully address this issue here by considering materials with small (high) singlet-triplet gap acting as emitter (host) in OLEDs and by comparing the accuracy of TD-DFT and the corresponding Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA), which is found to greatly reduce error bars with respect to experiments thanks to better estimates for the lowest singlet-triplet transition. Finally, we quantitatively correlate the singlet-triplet splitting values with the extent of CT, using for it a simple metric extracted from calculations with double-hybrid functionals, that might be applied in further molecular engineering studies. PMID:26574215

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-18)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-10-17

    BPA proposes to fund the acquisition and preservation of approximately 99 acres of native wet prairie and oak woodland habitat in Lane County, Oregon. Title to the land will be held by The Nature Conservancy, who will convey permanent mitigation rights to BPA in the form of a conservation easement. These newly acquired parcels will become part of the existing 330-acre Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Area. Passive management practices may take place on the land until a wildlife mitigation and management plan is developed and approved for the property. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Cathy MacDonald with The Nature Conservancy and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive wildlife mitigation and management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the proposed acquisition of the subject property. Through contact with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Oregon Natural Heritage Program, staff from The Nature Conservancy identified a number of federal and state listed species that have the potential to occur at the project site. ESA Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and The Nature Conservancy, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. A cultural resource survey was conducted at the Eugene Wetlands Phase II site on July 9, 2001. No prehistoric or historic cultural materials were observed during the survey and no landforms considered likely to be archaeological sites were noted. The nearest recorded archeological find consists of two prehistoric sites that are located within a mile of the project

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-17)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-09-13

    BPA proposes to partially fund the acquisition of 7,630 acres of shrub-steppe, riparian, and wetland habitat in northern Franklin County, Washington. Title to the land will be transferred initially to The Conservation Fund and ultimately for inclusion as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Passive management practices will take place on the land until an official management plan is developed and approved for the property. Some short-term control of invasive, exotic plant species may occur as necessary prior to the approval of a management plan. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Randy Hill with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the fee-title purchase of the subject property. Mark Miller with the Eastern Washington Ecological Services Office of USFWS concurred with this finding on August 3, 2001. Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and USFWS, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. In accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) and USFWS policy, the addition of the Eagle Lakes property to the National Wildlife Refuge System does not constitute an undertaking as defined by the NHPA, or require compliance with Section 106 of the NHPA. Anan Raymond, Regional Archaeologist with USFWS Region 1 Cultural Resource Team, concurred with this finding on May 4, 2001. Compliance with NHPA, including cultural resources surveys, will be implemented, as necessary, once specific management

  3. An Improved Procedure for EI Nino Forecasting: Implications for Predictability.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Zebiak, S E; Busalacchi, A J; Cane, M A

    1995-09-22

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere data assimilation procedure yields improved forecasts of El Niño for the 1980s compared with previous forecasting procedures. As in earlier forecasts with the same model, no oceanic data were used, and only wind information was assimilated. The improvement is attributed to the explicit consideration of air-sea interaction in the initialization. These results suggest that EI Niño is more predictable than previously estimated, but that predictability may vary on decadal or longer time scales. This procedure also eliminates the well-known spring barrier to EI Niño prediction, which implies that it may not be intrinsic to the real climate system. PMID:17821639

  4. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the OleC protein from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in head-to-head hydrocarbon biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Goblirsch, BR; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2010-08-28

    OleC, a biosynthetic enzyme involved in microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, has been crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.4 A resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.8, c = 141.0 A.

  5. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well.

  6. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well. PMID:25942084

  7. HINODE-EIS: Thermal and Density Analysis of Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rightmire, L. A.; Schmelz, J. T.; Scott, J.

    2008-05-01

    Data was obtained using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument on Hinode. The loop being analyzed was observed by EIS on 2007 May 1. The goal of this project is to analyze the data obtained by the EIS instrument in order to determine the temperature and density of the coronal loop. The background intensity was subtracted from the loop pixel intensity in order to isolate the emission from the loop. The spectral line intensities of each loop pixel were analyzed to determine which spectral lines had any significant contribution to the loop intensity. The observed intensities of these significant lines were then used to create a differential emission measure (DEM) curve to best fit the loop pixel emission. Density analysis was done using the CHIANTI atomic physics database along with the measured intensity ratios of density-sensitive lines. The DEM curves and density analysis for the loop pixel indicate a multi-thermal temperature profile. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NSF ATM-0402729 with Hinode subcontracted from NASA/SAO.

  8. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  9. Clinical consequences of the EI/MCS "diagnosis": two paths.

    PubMed

    Staudenmayer, H

    1996-08-01

    There are two distinct paths down which patients "diagnosed" with environmental illness/multiple chemical sensitivities (EI/MCS) can travel. Along the first path, beliefs about low-level, multiple chemical sensitivities as the cause of physical and psychological symptoms are instilled and reinforced by a host of factors including toxicogenic speculation, iatrogenic influence mediated by unsubstantiated diagnostic and treatment practices, patient support/advocacy networks, and social contagion. Intrapsychic factors also reinforce this path through the motivational mechanism of factitious malingering, or unconscious primary and secondary gain, mediated through psychological defenses, particularly projection of cause of illness onto the physical environment. The second path involves restructuring distorted beliefs about chemical sensitivities. Explanations of the placebo effect, the physiology of the stress response, and the symptoms of anxiety and panic facilitate the direction of EI/MCS patients onto this path. A decision model is presented to discriminate among toxicogenic and psychogenic explanations of the EI/MCS phenomenon, based on appraisal of reaction and physiologic and cognitive responses during provocation chamber challenges under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. These studies have been helpful therapeutically for some patients in selecting the path that leads to wellness. This paper suggests how various therapeutic techniques can be employed with difficult patients. Often, supportive psychotherapy establishes a therapeutic alliance which facilitates cognitive therapy to restructure distorted beliefs. In the process of finding alternative explanations to chemical sensitivities, the etiology of symptoms is related to stressful life events, including childhood experiences which may have disrupted normal personality development and coping capacity. Furthermore, biological and physiological sequelae stemming from early, chronic trauma have been

  10. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). Purpose To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Methods Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Results Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Conclusions Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR. PMID:26229619

  12. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. PMID:26391288

  13. 75 FR 81709 - Mississippi Division; Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison, George, Greene, Jackson, Perry, and Stone Counties, Mississippi AGENCY..., Harrison, George, Greene, Jackson, Perry, and Stone Counties, Mississippi. The original Notice of...

  14. Recommendations for an Executive Information System (EIS) for the NASA Accounting and Financial Information System (NAFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, Ernest Preston

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) survey state-of-the-art computing architectures, tools, and technologies for implementing an Executive Information System (EIS); (2) review MSFC capabilities and efforts in developing an EIS for Shuttle Projects Office and the Payloads Project Office; (3) review management reporting requirements for the NASA Accounting and Financial Information System (NAFIS) Project in the areas of cost, schedule, and technical performance, and insure that the EIS fully supports these requirements; and (4) develop and implement a pilot concept for a NAFIS EIS. A summary of the findings of this work is presented.

  15. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly

  16. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117

  17. Draft Executive Summary Hawaii Geothermal Project - EIS Scoping Meetings

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    After introductions by the facilitator and the program director from DOE, process questions were entertained. It was also sometimes necessary to make clarifications as to process throughout the meetings. Topics covered federal involvement in the HGP-EIS; NEPA compliance; public awareness, review, and access to information; Native Hawaiian concerns; the record of decision, responsibility with respect to international issues; the impacts of prior and on-going geothermal development activities; project definition; alternatives to the proposed action; necessary studies; Section 7 consultations; socioeconomic impacts; and risk analysis. Presentations followed, in ten meetings, 163 people presented issues and concerns, 1 additional person raised process questions only.

  18. Second Language Acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…

  19. Coping Mediates the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…

  20. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period July 2001 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  1. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period through June 2001, Phase C/D, Detailed Design and Development Through Launch Plus Thirty Days, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  2. Solar-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2002-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period August 2002 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  3. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  5. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  7. 76 FR 78916 - Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Area Power Administration Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439) AGENCY: Western... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 34073). After considering the environmental impacts... June 2011.\\2\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 66078 (October 10, 2010). \\2\\ The Final EIS can be found on Western's Web...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  10. Invited Reaction: Developing Emotional Intelligence (EI) Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimbach, Michael P.; Maringka, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The preceding article (Clarke, 2010) examines an important and interesting question; that is, under what conditions can learning contribute to the development of emotional intelligence (EI)? Despite the controversy surrounding the definition and construct of EI, its prevalence for the human resources development (HRD) field and its implications…

  11. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... conducted by the preparer of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... conducted by the preparer of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... conducted by the preparer of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... conducted by the preparer of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... conducted by the preparer of the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 environmental...

  17. 24 CFR 50.42 - Cases when an EIS is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cases when an EIS is required. 50.42 Section 50.42 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Impact Statements § 50.42 Cases when an EIS is required. (a) An...

  18. Hinode XRT and EIS Multithermal Analysis of a Coronal Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.; Saar, S.; Kashyap, V.

    2010-05-01

    Data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode were used to investigate the spatial and thermal properties of an isolated quiescent coronal loop. We constructed Differential Emission Measure (DEM) curves using Monte Carlo based reconstruction algorithms. We studied the loop as a whole, in segments, in transverse cuts, and point-by-point, always with some form of background subtraction, and find that the loop DEM is neither isothermal nor extremely broad, with 96% of the EM between 6.2 < log T < 6.7, and an EM weighted average temperature of log T = 6.48 +/- 0.16. We find evidence for a gradual change in temperature along the loop, with log T increasing by 0.1 from the footpoints to the peak. The combined XRT-EIS data can do a good job of constraining the temperature distribution for coronal loop plasma, but strong high- and low- temperature constraints are crucial. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.

  19. Temperature and Density Analysis of a Coronal Loop Using EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garst, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    The temperature analysis of coronal loops has produced contradictory results. Image ratios from TRACE show substantially smaller temperature gradients than predicted by standard models for loops in hydrodynamic equilibrium. TRACE has state-of-the-art spatial resolution but limited temperature coverage. On the other hand, the pixels of the Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO are larger but its temperature resolution is state-of-the-art. Loop results from differential emission measure analyses from CDS data have been questioned due to the resolving power. Loop analysis could benefit greatly from observations by an instrument with the spatial resolution of TRACE and the temperature coverage of CDS. A spectrometer with (almost) these characteristics was launched in September 2006 on the Japanese/USA/UK Hinode mission. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) is similar to CDS, observing emission lines originating from the solar corona and upper transition region at wavelength intervals in the extreme ultraviolet, but with a spatial resolution that is almost as good as TRACE. Differential emission measure and density analysis is done on the coronal loop data observed by EIS on 01 June 2007. Results from CDS and TRACE analysis are compared and discussed qualitatively. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.

  20. An EIS study of the corrosive behavior of propellant hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R.C.; Davis, D.D.; Baker, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Corrosion behavior of iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and titanium (Ti) alloys in hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and CO{sub 2}-contaminated N{sub 2}H{sub 4} were studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion rate of Fe and Ti alloys increased in hydrazine and CO{sub 2}-contaminated hydrazine as a function of time and CO{sub 2} concentration; however, the corrosion rate of Ni and Co alloy decreased as a function of time in contaminated hydrazine. The corrosion rate of Ni and Co alloys were significantly higher when compared with corrosion rates of Fe and Ti alloys in CO{sub 2}-contaminated hydrazine. The effects of CO{sub 2} concentration on corrosion rate has been explained in terms of alloy composition and the role of CO{sub 2} in forming carbazic acid and its metal complexes. The polarization values obtained from EIS studies were used to calculate the exchange current density and decomposition rate of hydrazine.

  1. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  2. In vivo EIS characterization of tumour tissue properties is dominated by excess extracellular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourou, Christina; Rohr, Andreas; Hoopes, P. Jack; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a non-ionizing, non-invasive technique which can be used to detect the presence of malignant tumours based on their electrical properties. Although it has been suggested that the edema which accompanies tumours strongly influences EIS tumour characterization, such information has not, until now, been documented in the literature. Growing intramuscular rodent tumours were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and EIS at several time points post-tumour implantation. The amount of edema associated with the tumours was calculated from the MRI images. Electrical parameters (resistivity, permittivity, fluid index ratio and peak frequency) were extracted from the EIS spectra. Taken together, the resulting electrical parameters strongly indicate that edema is the dominating pathological feature in EIS characterization and can at times conceal the presence of the tumour. Receiver operating characteristic analysis supports these findings.

  3. High-Performance Blue OLEDs Based on Phenanthroimidazole Emitters via Substitutions at the C6- and C9-Positions for Improving Exciton Utilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Yi; He, Dan; Huang, De-Yue; Luo, Cheng-Yuan; Zhu, Ze-Lin; Lu, Feng; Tong, Qing-Xiao; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-16

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) molecular architecture has been shown to be an effective strategy for obtaining high-performance electroluminescent materials. In this work, two D-A molecules, Ph-BPA-BPI and Py-BPA-BPI, have been synthesized by attaching highly fluorescent phenanthrene or pyrene groups to the C6- and C9-positions of a locally excited-state emitting phenylamine-phenanthroimidazole moiety. Equipped with good physical and hybridized local and charge-transfer properties, both molecules show high performances as blue emitters in nondoped organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). An OLED using Ph-BPA-BPI as the emitting layer exhibits deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE), current efficiency (CE), and power efficiency (PE) of 4.56 %, 3.60 cd A(-1) , and 3.66 lm W(-1) , respectively. On the other hand, a Py-BPA-BPI-based, sky-blue OLED delivers the best results among nondoped OLEDs with CIEy values of < 0.3 reported so far, for which a very low turn-on voltage of 2.15 V, CIE coordinates of (0.17, 0.29), and maximum CE, PE, and EQE values of 10.9 cd A(-1) , 10.5 lm W(-1) , and 5.64 %, were achieved, respectively. More importantly, both devices show little or even no efficiency roll-off and high singlet exciton-utilizing efficiencies of 36.2 % for Ph-BPA-BPI and 39.2 % for Py-BPA-BPI. PMID:27412733

  4. 77 FR 52108 - Notice of Withdrawal of the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Register Vol. 72, No. 214; FR Doc. 07-5518) to prepare an EIS for the proposed Sheep Mountain Parkway... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Proposed Sheep Mountain Parkway Multimodal Transportation Project, Clark... Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS for Sheep Mountain Parkway Multimodal Transportation Project,...

  5. De Novo Design of Boron-Based Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue and White Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Efficiency Roll-Off.

    PubMed

    Xue, Miao-Miao; Huang, Chen-Chao; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Lin-Song; Li, Yong-Xi; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Fung, Man-Keung; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-08-10

    Borane is an excellent electron-accepting species, and its derivatives have been widely used in a variety of fields. However, the use of borane derivatives as host materials in OLEDs has rarely reported because the device performance is generally not satisfactory. In this work, two novel spiro-bipolar hosts with incorporated borane were designed and synthesized. The strategies used in preparing these materials were to increase the spatial separation of the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) in the molecules, tune the connecting positions of functional groups, and incorporate specific functional groups with desirable thermal stability. Based on these designs, phosphorescent OLEDs with borane derivatives as hosts and with outstanding device performances were obtained. In particular, devices based on SAF-3-DMB/FIrpic exhibited an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of >25%. More encouragingly, the device was found to have quite a low efficiency roll-off, giving an efficiency of >20% even at a high brightness of 10000 cd/m(2). Furthermore, the EQE of the three-color-based (R + G + B) white OLED employing SAF-3-DMB as a host was also as high as 22.9% with CIE coordinates of (x, y) = (0.40, 0.48). At a brightness of 5000 cd/m(2), there was only a 3% decrease in EQE from its maximum value, implying a very low efficiency roll-off. PMID:27438586

  6. A solar tornado observed by EIS. Plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Fletcher, L.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The term "solar tornadoes" has been used to describe apparently rotating magnetic structures above the solar limb, as seen in high resolution images and movies from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). These often form part of the larger magnetic structure of a prominence, however the links between them remain unclear. Here we present plasma diagnostics on a tornado-like structure and its surroundings, seen above the limb by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard the Hinode satellite. Aims: We aim to extend our view of the velocity patterns seen in tornado-like structures with EIS to a wider range of temperatures and to use density diagnostics, non-thermal line widths, and differential emission measures to provide insight into the physical characteristics of the plasma. Methods: Using Gaussian fitting to fit and de-blend the spectral lines seen by EIS, we calculated line-of-sight velocities and non-thermal line widths. Along with information from the CHIANTI database, we used line intensity ratios to calculate electron densities at each pixel. Using a regularised inversion code we also calculated the differential emission measure (DEM) at different locations in the prominence. Results: The split Doppler-shift pattern is found to be visible down to a temperature of around log T = 6.0. At temperatures lower than this, the pattern is unclear in this data set. We obtain an electron density of log ne = 8.5 when looking towards the centre of the tornado structure at a plasma temperature of log T = 6.2, as compared to the surroundings of the tornado structure where we find log ne to be nearer 9. Non-thermal line widths show broader profiles at the tornado location when compared to the surrounding corona. We discuss the differential emission measure in both the tornado and the prominence body, which suggests that there is more contribution in the tornado at temperatures below log T = 6.0 than in the

  7. Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-03-01

    Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. PMID:25243996

  8. AIE-Active Fluorene Derivatives for Solution-Processable Nondoped Blue Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin Jiang; Peng, Jinghong; Xu, Zheng; Fang, Renren; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Xu, Xinjun; Li, Lidong; Gao, Jianhua; Wong, Man Shing

    2015-12-30

    A series of fluorene derivatives end-capped with diphenylamino and oxadiazolyl were synthesized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are reported. Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effects were observed for the materials, and bipolar characteristics of the molecules are favored with measurement of carrier mobility and calculation of molecular orbitals using density functional theory (DFT). Using the fluorene derivatives as emitting-layer, nondoped organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been fabricated by spin-coating in the configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS(35 nm)/PVK(15 nm)/PhN-OF(n)-Oxa(80 nm)/SPPO13(30 nm)/Ca(8 nm)/Al(100 nm) (n = 2-4). The best device with PhN-OF(2)-Oxa exhibits a maximum luminance of 14 747 cd/m(2), a maximum current efficiency of 4.61 cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.09% in the blue region. Investigation of the correlation between structures and properties indicates that there is no intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) increase in these molecules with the increase of conjugation length. The device using material of the shortest conjugation length as emitting-layer gives the best electroluminescent (EL) performances in this series of oligofluorenes. PMID:26647284

  9. Triplet harvesting with 100% efficiency by way of thermally activated delayed fluorescence in charge transfer OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando B; Bourdakos, Konstantinos N; Jankus, Vygintas; Moss, Kathryn C; Kamtekar, Kiran T; Bhalla, Vandana; Santos, José; Bryce, Martin R; Monkman, Andrew P

    2013-07-19

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have their performance limited by the number of emissive singlet states created upon charge recombination (25%). Recently, a novel strategy has been proposed, based on thermally activated up-conversion of triplet to singlet states, yielding delayed fluorescence (TADF), which greatly enhances electroluminescence. The energy barrier for this reverse intersystem crossing mechanism is proportional to the exchange energy (ΔEST ) between the singlet and triplet states; therefore, materials with intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states, where it is known that the exchange energy is small, are perfect candidates. However, here it is shown that triplet states can be harvested with 100% efficiency via TADF, even in materials with ΔEST of more than 20 kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature) at room temperature. The key role played by lone pair electrons in achieving this high efficiency in a series of ICT molecules is elucidated. The results show the complex photophysics of efficient TADF materials and give clear guidelines for designing new emitters. PMID:23703877

  10. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Katchman, Benjamin A; Smith, Joseph T; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O'Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm(2). Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers. PMID:27374875

  11. Organic vertical field effect transistors: Achieving high on-off ratio and vertical integration with OLEDs (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukyun; Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Hyunsu; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2015-10-01

    Organic vertical field effect transistors (VFETs) have been explored to enhance the output current level and device operation speed due to the inherent low carrier mobility of organic semiconductors. However, most of VFETs reported to date involve a complex source electrode patterning process owing to their operation mechanism. Here, we investigate on VFETs based on C60 that do not require complex source electrode patterning process by insulting the top surface of a source electrode embedded in C60 layer [1]. In a VFET structure studied in this work, current flow is controlled by the electric field between a gate and a source electrode embedded within an active layer which is called bottom active layer. Based on its operation mechanism, several geometrical parameters such as (i) bottom active layer thickness; (ii) presence of a charge blocking layer and its thickness ensuring insulating properties; and (iii) the width of electrodes are identified as key factors influencing device performance. Through the device optimization with these parameters, the proposed organic VFETs exhibit a large on/off ratio of 6×10^5 and output current that is greater than that of a conventional C60 based OTFT with a similar device dimension. In order to show the benefit of VFETs, a single-pixel organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is integrated vertically with the VFETs under study.

  12. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane based molecular dopants for p-type doping of OLEDs: A theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2011-11-15

    The array of organic conductivity dopants used for organic light emitting devices (OLED) to reduce the operating voltage and improve power efficiency is extremely limited. Here we report a comparative theoretical study between newly proposed analogs and the standard state-of-the-art conductivity dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). We used density functional theory to determine the bond lengths, bond angles and electronic properties, such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E{sub HOMO}) and lowest occupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) states, as well as the triplet energies of the novel structures (ET). The ground state structures of the proposed molecules were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The results show that substitution of one or two fluorine groups in the F4-TCNQ core with a substituted phenyl ring or other electron withdrawing moieties, will not substantially affect the geometry of the molecule or its electronic ability to accept electrons. The most significant finding was that the phenyl substitutions onto the TCNQ core are nearly perpendicular to the TCNQ plane, and thus there is no electronic communication between the two rings. This is extremely important, as such extension of the {pi} conjugated system would negatively affect the E{sub LUMO} and thus the electron affinity of the molecule.

  13. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shafura, A. K.; Affendi, I. H. H.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Saurdi, I.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. The optical and electrical of nanocomposite films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured of various deposition layers (1 to 3 layers) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films were deposited using spin-coating technique. The surface morphology nanocomposite films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope. From surface profiler measurement, we found that the thickness of nanocomposite films increased as deposition time increased. The optical properties were measured using photoluminescence spectroscope. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that two deposition layers is the highest intensity at visible region (green emission) due to high energy transfer from particles to the polymer. The current density for two layers sample is due to aggregation of conjugated polymer chain hence form excited interchain exciton for optical excitation. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  14. Combinatorial fabrication and studies of 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl) biphenyl (CBP)-based UV-violet OLED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Savvate'ev, Vadim; Booher, J.; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Shinar, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    Arrays of UV-violet [indium tin oxide (ITO)]/[copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)]/[4,4'-bis(9- carbazolyl)biphenyl(CBP)]/[2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert- butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole(Bu-PBD)]/CsF/Al organic light- emitting devices (OLEDs), fabricated combinatorially using a sliding shutter technique, are described. Comparison of the electroluminescence spectrum with the photoluminescence spectrum of CBP indicates that the emission originates from the bulk of that layer. However, due to the high gap of CBP and the strong hole capture cross section of perylene contaminants, it was difficult to completely eliminate the emission from the latter. In arrays of devices in which the thickness of the CuPc and Bu-PBD were varied, but that of CBP was fixed at 50 nm, the optimal radiance R was obtained at CuPc and Bu-PBD thicknesses of 15 and 18 nm, respectively. At 10 mA/Cm2, R was 0.38 mW/cm2, i.e., the external quantum efficiency was 1.25%; R increased to ~1.2 mW/cm2 at 100 mA/cm2.

  15. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Katchman, Benjamin A.; Smith, Joseph T.; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O’Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm2. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers. PMID:27374875

  16. A CMOS Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensor Array.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Arun; Chevalier, Aaron; McDermott, Mark; Ellington, Andrew D; Hassibi, Arjang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated biosensor 10 × 10 array in a standard complementary metal-oxide semiconducor process, which takes advantage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We also show that this system is able to detect various biological analytes, such as DNA and proteins, in real time and without the need for molecular labels. In each pixel of this array, we implement a biocompatible Au electrode transducer and embedded sensor circuitry which takes advantage of the coherent detector to measure the impedance of the associated electrode-electrolyte interface. This chip is capable of concurrently measuring admittance values as small as 10(-8) Ω(-1) within the array with the detection dynamic range of more than 90 dB in the frequency range of 10 Hz-50 MHz. PMID:23850755

  17. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  19. Coronal Loop Temperatures Obtained with Hinode EIS and XRT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    Data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to investigate the thermal properties of coronal loops. For background subtraction, we take a cut across the loop in areas where the background is relatively simple. EIS gives us density-sensitive line ratios, some of which give statistically different answers for the same background-subtracted plasma. In many cases, emission measure loci plots indicate that the loop plasma in not isothermal. Therefore, we have used two methods of differential emission measure analysis on these data. The first uses a forward folding method with a manual manipulation of the curve to evaluate the DEM based. Although this method is time-consuming, it forces the user to understand both the limitations of the data as well as the assumptions going into the analysis. The user has control of the final DEM shape and no smoothing is required beyond that imposed by the resolution of the G(T) functions (0.1 dex). The second method uses the automatic inversion technique where the DEM curve is represented with a series of spline knots that are repositioned interactively for more control over the smoothness of the DEM curve. This method represents the best of both worlds: the quickness of automatic inversion and the control of manual manipulation. In both cases, the best fit is determined from a chi-sq minimization of the differences between the observed and predicted intensities. We test three different models and compare the results: (1) an isothermal model; (2) a two-spike model; and (3) a broad DEM. When available, we also use TRACE images to help distinguish among these models. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.

  20. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  1. Velocity Characteristics of Evaporated Plasma using Hinode/EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of chromospheric evaporation using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode in conjunction with HXR observat,ions from RHESSI. The advanced capabilities of EIS were used to measure Doppler shifts in 15 emission lines covering the temperature range T=0.05-16 MK during the impulsive phase of a C-class flare on 2007 December 14. Blueshifts indicative of the evaporated material were observed in six emission lines from Fe XIV-XXIV (2-16 MK). Upflow velocity was found to scale with temperature as v(sub up) (kilometers per second) approximately equal to 5-17 T (MK). Although the hottest emission lines, Fe XXIII and Fe XXIV, exhibited upflows of greater than 200 kilometers per second, their line profiles were found to be dominated by a stationary component in stark contrast to the predictions of the standard flare model. Emission from O VI-Fe XIII lines (0.5-1.5 MK) was found to be redshifted by v(sub down) (kilometers per second) approximately equal to 60-17 T (MK) and was interpreted as the downward-moving 'plug' characteristic of explosive evaporation. These downflows occur at temperatures significantly higher than previously expected. Both upflows and downflows were spatially and temporally correlated with HXR emission observed by RHESSI that provided the properties of the electron beam deemed to be the driver of the evaporation. The energy contained in the electron beam was found to be greater than or equal to 10(sup 11) ergs per square centimeter per second consistent with the value required to drive explosive chromospheric evaporation from hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. High performance OLED panels for Sony CLIE PDA: development of red emitter and super top emission structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Mari; Noh, Seong-Hee; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Ueda, Naoyuki; Tamura, Shin-ichiro

    2005-10-01

    Sony has commercialized a full-color OLED comprising a new red emissive material, which provides high performance and long operation lifetime. We have carried out systematic research and developed a promising material that has excellent properties for practical applications. This compound shows an absorption peak and a luminescence peak at 483 nm and 644 nm, respectively. The molar absorption coefficient is large (ɛ = 38,100 M-1cm-1 in 1,4-dioxane) and the fluorescence quantum yield is also very high (QYf =0.82 in 1,4-dioxane). The glass transition temperature is as high as 135 °C. This compound offers thermally stable amorphous state in vacuum coating and is emissive even in single component films. We incorporated the new styryl compound in Sony's proprietary Super Top Emission technology and achieved outstanding brightness and wide color gamut comparable to the NTSC standard. The Super Top Emission consists of a top emitting device structure and color filters, which realize sufficient brightness and pure color at the same time without impairing the wide viewing angles. We obtained suitable device performance for practical use by tuning the layered structures. The emitting color is adjusted by optimizing the doping concentration of the styryl compound in the emitting layer and each thickness of the organic layers. We achieved the chromaticity (0.65, 0.35) in the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system. The device operation lifetime exceeds 64,000 hours at the initial luminance 500 cd/m2. We would also like to discuss the advantages over the conventional red emissive materials.

  3. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ5 (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, I. M.; Painuly, Deepshikha; Rabanal, Maria Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    The various composition of ZnAlQ5 such as Zn1.5A10.5Q5, Zn1Al1Q5, Zn0.5Al1.5Q5 organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ2 and AlQ3 were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ5. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ5,in which Zn1.5Al0.5Q5 shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ2 was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ3 at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn2+ and Al3+. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn2+ and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  4. OpenEI: Datasets in the OpenEnergyInfo Data Repository

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open Energy Information initiative (OpenEI) is a platform to connect the world's energy data. It is a linked open data platform bringing together energy information to provide improved analyses, unique visualizations, and real-time access to data. OpenEI follows guidelines set by the White House Open Government Initiative , which is focused on transparency, collaboration, and participation. OpenEI strives to provide open access to this energy information, with the ultimate goal of spurring creativity and driving innovation in the energy sector.[Copied from the OpenEI Wiki main page]. It features a wiki, a blog, a list of information gateways, and a browsing list of deposited data sets.

  5. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning area. Consistent with the Forest Service travel planning regulations, the resulting available public...

  6. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  7. Potent Inhibitors of Acetyltransferase Eis Overcome Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-06-17

    A major cause of tuberculosis (TB) resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin (KAN) is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase Eis. Upregulation of this enzyme is responsible for inactivation of KAN through acetylation of its amino groups. A 123 000-compound high-throughput screen (HTS) yielded several small-molecule Eis inhibitors that share an isothiazole S,S-dioxide heterocyclic core. These were investigated for their structure-activity relationships. Crystal structures of Eis in complex with two potent inhibitors show that these molecules are bound in the conformationally adaptable aminoglycoside binding site of the enzyme, thereby obstructing binding of KAN for acetylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that several Eis inhibitors, when used in combination with KAN against resistant Mtb, efficiently overcome KAN resistance. This approach paves the way toward development of novel combination therapies against aminoglycoside-resistant TB. PMID:27010218

  8. Comparison of Printed Bibliographic Descriptions Distributed by BIOSIS, CAS, and Ei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Julian R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Printed bibliographic descriptions of journal articles cited by BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), and Engineering Index (Ei) were compared to identify similarities and differences in form, format, and data content. (Author)

  9. 78 FR 20169 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Hancock County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Routes 43 and 603 in the vicinity of Kiln Mississippi. The original Notice of Intent for this EIS process... the intersection of State Routes 43 and 603 just north of Kiln, Mississippi, a distance...

  10. Computer graphics for management: An abstract of capabilities and applications of the EIS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solem, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Executive Information Services (EIS) system, developed as a computer-based, time-sharing tool for making and implementing management decisions, and including computer graphics capabilities, was described. The following resources are available through the EIS languages: centralized corporate/gov't data base, customized and working data bases, report writing, general computational capability, specialized routines, modeling/programming capability, and graphics. Nearly all EIS graphs can be created by a single, on-line instruction. A large number of options are available, such as selection of graphic form, line control, shading, placement on the page, multiple images on a page, control of scaling and labeling, plotting of cum data sets, optical grid lines, and stack charts. The following are examples of areas in which the EIS system may be used: research, estimating services, planning, budgeting, and performance measurement, national computer hook-up negotiations.

  11. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  12. Subcellular Localization of the Intracellular Survival-Enhancing Eis Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, John L.; Wei, Jun; Moulder, James W.; Laal, Suman; Friedman, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has evolved the ability to survive and multiply within human macrophages. It is not clear how M. tuberculosis avoids the destructive action of macrophages, but this ability is fundamental in the pathogenicity of tuberculosis. A gene previously identified in M. tuberculosis, designated eis, was found to enhance intracellular survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in the human macrophage-like cell line U-937 (J. Wei et al., J. Bacteriol. 182:377–384, 2000). When eis was introduced into M. smegmatis on a multicopy vector, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the appearance of a unique 42-kDa protein band corresponding to the predicted molecular weight of the eis gene product. This band was electroeluted from the gel with a purity of >90% and subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, which demonstrated that the 42-kDa band was indeed the protein product of eis. The Eis protein produced by M. tuberculosis H37Ra had an identical N-terminal amino acid sequence. A synthetic polypeptide corresponding to a carboxyl-terminal region of the deduced eis protein sequence was used to generate affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies that reacted with the 42-kDa protein in Western blot analysis. Hydropathy profile analysis showed the Eis protein to be predominantly hydrophilic with a potential hydrophobic amino terminus. Phase separation of M. tuberculosis H37Ra lysates by the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 revealed the Eis protein in both the aqueous and detergent phases. After fractionation of M. tuberculosis by differential centrifugation, Eis protein appeared mainly in the cytoplasmic fraction but also in the membrane, cell wall, and culture supernatant fractions as well. Forty percent of the sera from pulmonary tuberculosis patients tested for anti-Eis antibody gave positive reactions in Western blot analysis. Although the function of Eis remains unknown, evidence

  13. The role of data in the EIS process: Evidence from the BLM wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, C.; Mohai, P. )

    1993-03-01

    Various propositions have been offered about the role of the environmental impact statement (EIS) in agency decision making. These include statements that agencies are (1) using the information collected in the EIS to make rational decisions; (2) justifying decisions made a priori; (3) using the EIS to gain support or consensus for projects; or (4) simply fulfilling a legal mandate, with the EIS having no substantive impact on decisions. Previous studies regarding the role of EIS data have focused on the quality of the data in the EIS and whether or not the data are related to decisions. The role of site-specific information in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) wilderness EIS process is analyzed and the results are used to reflect on the impact of the EIS in agency decision making. These results are compared with an earlier analysis of the Forest Service's Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II). The results of the statistical analyses of three sets of BLM wilderness EISs indicate that although some of the site-specific information about resource potential is statistically related to agency wilderness recommendations, the vast majority of the information is not. In addition, in some cases, the information was related to wilderness recommendations in a counterintuitive direction. Overall, of the 190 measures of resource potential found in these documents, only 17 (9%) were statistically related to BLM recommendations in an intuitive direction. The fact that most of the information in these EISs is not statistically related to decisions lends support to the proposition that the agency was primarily fulfilling the legally mandated procedure of the National Environmental Policy Act in producing these EISs, rather than achieving the spirit of the law. Results from the analysis of the Forest Service's RARE II wilderness review are similar.

  14. Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device (OLED)-based sensors for industrial and environmental security: sensors for hydrazine and anthrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqun; Shinar, Ruth; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Liao, Chuxiong; Shinar, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The application of the new compact platform of structurally integrated, photoluminescent (bio)chemical sensors, where the photoluminescence (PL) excitation source is an OLED, to the detection of hydrazine and anthrax, is described. The hydrazine sensor is based on the reaction between nonluminescent anthracene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and hydrazine or hydrazine sulfate, which generates a luminescent product. The anthrax sensor is based on a Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, where the anthrax-secreted lethal factor enzyme cleaves certain labeled peptides at a specific site. The cleaving separates the FRET donor-acceptor pair, resulting in an increase in the PL of the donor, which was previously absorbed by the acceptor.

  15. EIS Data on the Chandra Deep Field South Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to announce that the ESO Imaging Survey programme has released a full set of optical/infrared data covering the socalled Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) rapidly becoming a favoured target for cosmological studies in the southern hemisphere. The field was originally selected for deep X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM. The former have already been completed producing the deepest high-resolution X-ray image ever taken with a total integration time of one million seconds. The data obtained by EIS include J and Ks infrared observations of an area of 0.1 square degree nearly matching the Chandra image down to JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6 and UU'BVRI optical observations over 0.25 square degree, matching the XMM field of view, reaching 5 s limiting magnitudes of U'AB = 26.0, UAB = 25.7, BAB = 26.4, VAB = 25.4, RA B = 25.5 and IA B = 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 ´ FWHM aperture.

  16. Measuring Elemental Abundances in Impulsive Heating Events with EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry; Doschek, George A.; Young, Peter

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that elemental abundances vary in the solar atmosphere and that this variation is organized by first ionization potential (FIP). Previous studies have indicated that in the solar corona low FIP elements, such as Fe, Si, and Mg, are enriched relative to high FIP elements, such as H, He, C, N, and O. In this paper we report on measurements of plasma composition made during transient heating events observed at transition region temperatures with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. During these events the intensities of O IV, V, and VI emission lines are enhanced relative to emission lines from Mg V, VI, and VII and indicate a composition close to that of the photosphere. Differential emission measure calculations show a broad distribution of temperatures in these events. Long-lived coronal structures, in contrast, show an enrichment of low FIP elements and relatively narrow temperature distributions. We conjecture that plasma composition is an important signature of the coronal heating process, with impulsive heating leading to the evaporation of unfractionated material from the lower layers of the solar atmosphere and higher frequency heating leading to the accumulation of low-FIP elements in the corona.

  17. Helicenes as All-in-One Organic Materials for Application in OLEDs: Synthesis and Diverse Applications of Carbo- and Aza[5]helical Diamines.

    PubMed

    Jhulki, Samik; Mishra, Abhaya Kumar; Chow, Tahsin J; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2016-06-27

    A set of eight helical diamines were designed and synthesized to demonstrate their relevance as all-in-one materials for multifarious applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), that is, as hole-transporting materials (HTMs), EMs, bifunctional hole transporting + emissive materials, and host materials. Azahelical diamines function very well as HTMs. Indeed, with high Tg values (127-214 °C), they are superior alternatives to popular N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). All the helical diamines exhibit emissive properties when employed in nondoped as well as doped devices, the performance characteristics being superior in the latter. One of the carbohelical diamines (CHTPA) serves the dual function of hole transport as well as emission in simple double-layer devices; the efficiencies observed were better by quite some margin than those of other emissive helicenes reported. The twisting endows helical diamines with significantly high triplet energies such that they also function as host materials for red and green phosphors, that is, [Ir(btp)2 acac] (btp=2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridine; acac=acetylacetonate) and [Ir(ppy)3 ] (ppy=2-phenylpyridine), respectively. The results of device fabrications demonstrate how helicity/ helical scaffold may be diligently exploited to create molecular systems for maneuvering diverse applications in OLEDs. PMID:27244223

  18. Injection, transport, absorption and phosphorescence properties of a series of blue-emitting Ir(III) emitters in OLEDs: a DFT and time-dependent DFT study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Na; Wu, Zhi-Jian; Si, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Juan

    2009-08-17

    Quantum-chemistry methods were explored to investigate the electronic structures, injection and transport properties, absorption and phosphorescence mechanism of a series of blue-emitting Ir(III) complexes {[(F(2)-ppy)(2)Ir(pta -X/pyN4)], where F(2)-ppy = (2,4-difluoro)phenylpyridine; pta = pyridine-1,2,4-triazole; X = phenyl(1); p-tolyl (2); 2,6-difluororophenyl (3); -CF(3) (4), and pyN4 = pyridine-1,2,4-tetrazolate (5)}, which are used as emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The mobility of hole and electron were studied computationally based on the Marcus theory. Calculations of Ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) were used to evaluate the injection abilities of holes and electrons into these complexes. The reasons for the lower EL efficiency and phosphorescence quantum yields in 3-5 than in 1and 2 have been investigated. These new structure-property relationships can guide an improved design and optimization of OLED devices based on blue-emitting phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes. PMID:19591441

  19. UNDERFLIGHT CALIBRATION OF SOHO/CDS AND HINODE/EIS WITH EUNIS-07

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tongjiang; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, Roger J.; Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Young, Peter R.; Del Zanna, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Flights of Goddard Space Flight Center's Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket in 2006 and 2007 provided updated radiometric calibrations for Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (Hinode/EIS). EUNIS carried two independent imaging spectrographs covering wavebands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order. After each flight, end-to-end radiometric calibrations of the rocket payload were carried out in the same facility used for pre-launch calibrations of CDS and EIS. During the 2007 flight, EUNIS, SOHO/CDS, and Hinode/EIS observed the same solar locations, allowing the EUNIS calibrations to be directly applied to both CDS and EIS. The measured CDS NIS 1 line intensities calibrated with the standard (version 4) responsivities with the standard long-term corrections are found to be too low by a factor of 1.5 due to the decrease in responsivity. The EIS calibration update is performed in two ways. One uses the direct calibration transfer of the calibrated EUNIS-07 short wavelength (SW) channel. The other uses the insensitive line pairs, in which one member was observed by the EUNIS-07 long wavelength (LW) channel and the other by EIS in either the LW or SW waveband. Measurements from both methods are in good agreement, and confirm (within the measurement uncertainties) the EIS responsivity measured directly before the instrument's launch. The measurements also suggest that the EIS responsivity decreased by a factor of about 1.2 after the first year of operation (although the size of the measurement uncertainties is comparable to this decrease). The shape of the EIS SW response curve obtained by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the one measured in laboratory prior to launch. The absolute value of the quiet-Sun He II 304 A intensity measured by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the radiance measured by CDS NIS in quiet regions near the

  20. Consensus structure elucidation combining GC/EI-MS, structure generation, and calculated properties.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Emma L; Gallampois, Christine M J; Krauss, Martin; Meringer, Markus; Neumann, Steffen; Schulze, Tobias; Wolf, Sebastian; Brack, Werner

    2012-04-01

    This article explores consensus structure elucidation on the basis of GC/EI-MS, structure generation, and calculated properties for unknown compounds. Candidate structures were generated using the molecular formula and substructure information obtained from GC/EI-MS spectra. Calculated properties were then used to score candidates according to a consensus approach, rather than filtering or exclusion. Two mass spectral match calculations (MOLGEN-MS and MetFrag), retention behavior (Lee retention index/boiling point correlation, NIST Kovat's retention index), octanol-water partitioning behavior (log K(ow)), and finally steric energy calculations were used to select candidates. A simple consensus scoring function was developed and tested on two unknown spectra detected in a mutagenic subfraction of a water sample from the Elbe River using GC/EI-MS. The top candidates proposed using the consensus scoring technique were purchased and confirmed analytically using GC/EI-MS and LC/MS/MS. Although the compounds identified were not responsible for the sample mutagenicity, the structure-generation-based identification for GC/EI-MS using calculated properties and consensus scoring was demonstrated to be applicable to real-world unknowns and suggests that the development of a similar strategy for multidimensional high-resolution MS could improve the outcomes of environmental and metabolomics studies. PMID:22414024

  1. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitor film persistency by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.J.

    1996-08-01

    Film persistency of commercially available oilfield corrosion inhibitors has been evaluated in CO{sub 2}-saturated 5% sodium chloride solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of inhibitor concentration and contact time on inhibitor film persistency was also investigated. This study demonstrates that EIS is a feasible method for evaluating and ranking inhibitor film persistency and can be used to monitor inhibitor film life. EIS can provide the corrosion rate and characteristics of the inhibited film and generate the parameters related to the specific inhibitor film. It was found that there is an excellent correlation between an EIS parameter, namely the high breakpoint frequency at a 45{degree} phase angle and inhibitor film persistency. The identification of this correlation, for which Chevron has been granted a patent, is significant because there are advantages associated with measuring this parameter. This discovery enables EIS to be used in the field to monitor and optimize corrosion inhibition programs, thus reducing the chemical and operation costs.

  2. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  3. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  4. Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Arun; Johnson, Christopher Andrew; Kavusi, Sam; Hassibi, Arjang

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful electrochemical technique to detect biomolecules. EIS has the potential of carrying out label-free and real-time detection, and in addition, can be easily implemented using electronic integrated circuits (ICs) that are built through standard semiconductor fabrication processes. This paper focuses on the various design and optimization aspects of EIS ICs, particularly the bio-to-semiconductor interface design. We discuss, in detail, considerations such as the choice of the electrode surface in view of IC manufacturing, surface linkers, and development of optimal bio-molecular detection protocols. We also report experimental results, using both macro- and micro-electrodes to demonstrate the design trade-offs and ultimately validate our optimization procedures. PMID:23202170

  5. Tunable fluorophores based on 2-(N-arylimino)pyrrolyl chelates of diphenylboron: synthesis, structure, photophysical characterization, and application in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D; Lopes, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Bruno; Figueira, Cláudia A; Gomes, Clara S B; Gomes, Pedro T; Di Paolo, Roberto E; Maçanita, António L; Duarte, M Teresa; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge; Calhorda, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    Reactions of 2-(N-arylimino)pyrroles (HNC4H3C(H)=N-Ar) with triphenylboron (BPh3) in boiling toluene afford the respective highly emissive N,N'-boron chelate complexes, [BPh2 {κ(2)N,N'-NC4H3C(H)=N-Ar}] (Ar=C6H5 (12), 2,6-Me2-C6H3 (13), 2,6-iPr2-C6H3 (14), 4-OMe-C6H4 (15), 3,4-Me2-C6 H3 (16), 4-F-C6H4 (17), 4-NO2-C6H4 (18), 4-CN-C6H4 (19), 3,4,5-F3-C6H2 (20), and C6F5 (21)) in moderate to high yields. The photophysical properties of these new boron complexes largely depend on the substituents present on the aryl rings of their N-arylimino moieties. The complexes bearing electron-withdrawing aniline substituents 17-20 show more intense (e.g., ϕf =0.71 for Ar=4-CN-C6H4 (19) in THF), higher-energy (blue) fluorescent emission compared to those bearing electron-donating substituents, for which the emission is redshifted at the expense of lower quantum yields (ϕf=0.13 and 0.14 for Ar=4-OMe-C6H4 (15) and 3,4-Me2-C6H3 (16), respectively, in THF). The presence of substituents bulkier than a hydrogen atom at the 2,6-positions of the aryl groups strongly restricts rotation of this moiety towards coplanarity with the iminopyrrolyl ligand framework, inducing a shift in the emission to the violet region (λmax =410-465 nm) and a significant decrease in quantum yield (ϕf=0.005, 0.023, and 0.20 for Ar=2,6-Me2-C6H3 (13), 2,6-iPr2-C6H3 (14), and C6F5 (21), respectively, in THF), even when electron-withdrawing groups are also present. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have indicated that the excited singlet state has a planar aryliminopyrrolyl ligand, except when prevented by steric hindrance (ortho substituents). Calculated absorption maxima reproduce the experimental values, but the error is higher for the emission wavelengths. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been fabricated with the new boron complexes, with luminances of the order of 3000 cd m(-2) being achieved for a green-emitting device. PMID:24634317

  6. The Feasibility of Training and Development of EI: An Exploratory Study in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chi-Sum; Foo, Maw-Der; Wang, Cheng-Wen; Wong, Ping-Man

    2007-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been an emerging topic for psychological, educational, and management researchers and consultants in recent years. However, existing literature has concentrated on demonstrating the effects of EI on either the mental health or on job outcomes such as job attitudes and performance. There is relatively little…

  7. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Framework in the Selection of an Enterprise Integration (EI) Approach That Best Satisfies Organizational Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngeru, James

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, adoption of Enterprise Integration (EI) through initiatives such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has consistently dominated most of organizations' top strategic priorities. Additionally, the field of EI has generated a vast amount…

  8. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3. Alternatives. The EIS will address an array of... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC...

  9. 77 FR 64097 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the 2011 Final EIS for the Leasing and Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...The Manti-La Sal and Fishlake National Forests along with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Price Field Office as joint lead agencies announce their intent to prepare a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision to the 2011 Final EIS For the Leasing and Undeground Mining of the Greens Hollow Federal Coal Lease Tract UTU-84102. Supplemental analyses are required......

  10. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. 230.7 Section 230.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters....7 Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. Actions.... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were...

  11. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. 230.7 Section 230.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters....7 Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. Actions.... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were...

  12. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. 230.7 Section 230.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters....7 Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. Actions.... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were...

  13. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. 230.7 Section 230.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters....7 Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. Actions.... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were...

  14. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. 230.7 Section 230.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters....7 Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS. Actions.... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were...

  15. The Addition of EI/CI Capability to the Mattauch-herzog Spectrograph with EOID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fergusson, G. J.; Koslin, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    A modification was made to the Mattauch-Herzog Spectrograph with an electro-optical ion detector (EOID) previously designed and constructed, so that it would be capable of operating not only in the electron-impact (EI) mode of ionization, but also in the chemical ionization (CI) mode. This modification necessitated an effort in three specific design areas: (1) sample inlet; (2) ion source and analyzer regions; and (3) the pumping system. In addition, an appropriate electronics package had to be designed to control and operate the combined EI/CI source.

  16. Inter-Calibration of EIS, XRT and AIA using Active Region and Bright Point Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Farid, Samaiyah I.

    2012-01-01

    Certain limitations in our solar instruments have created the need to use several instruments together for long term and/or large field of view studies. We will, therefore, present an intercalibration study of the EIS, XRT and AIA instruments using active region and bright point data. We will use the DEMs calculated from EIS bright point observations to determine the expected AIA and XRT intensities. We will them compare to the observed intensities and calculate a correction factor. We will consider data taken over a year to see if there is a time dependence to the correction factor. We will then determine if the correction factors are valid for active region observations.

  17. Synthesis and application of pyridine-based ambipolar hosts: control of charge balance in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by chemical structure modification

    SciTech Connect

    Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Swensen, James S.; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-11-05

    Pyridine-based host materials were synthesized via Grignard metathesis of bromopyridines to provide the required organometallic reagent. The isomeric hosts (4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)(pyridin-3-yl)phosphine oxide (HM-A4), (5-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridin-2-yl)diphenylphosphine oxide (HM-A5), and (5-(diphenylamino)pyridin-2-yl)diphenylphosphine oxide (HM-A6), (4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)(phenyl)(pyridin-3-yl)phosphine oxide (HM-A8) have similar frontier orbital energies. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated using the series of the host materials demonstrate that small structural modification of the host results in significant change in charge transporting ability.

  18. Luminescent properties of a di-hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis agent isoniazid: Potentiality as an emitting layer constituent for OLED fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Rafaela S.; Aderne, Rian E.; Cremona, Marco; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrazones constitute a class of compounds presenting azomethine R‧R″Nsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd R hydrogens, which show diverse properties and a wide range of applications. A hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis drug isoniazid, namely, N,N‧-diisonicotinoyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylisophthalaldehyde hydrazone (DMD) was synthesized and chemically characterized. Its luminescent properties were also investigated, as well as the possibility of using this compound as a constituent of the emitting layer for the fabrication of OLEDs. Co-deposited devices were fabricated using the organic molecule BSBF as matrix and DMD as dopant. All the devices presented a broad electroluminescence band, in which it was possible to recognize the DMD emission along with emissions of some of the other organic layers. The best results were obtained with 35% DMD doping, achieving a luminance of about 35 cd/m2.

  19. Preparation of CaO as OLED getter material through control of crystal growth of CaCO{sub 3} by block copolymers in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2009-01-08

    As the starting materials of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) getter, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles with various shapes and crystal structures have been successfully prepared with additives (L64 or PEGPG), which contain blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). These CaCO{sub 3} particles were calcinated into highly crystalline calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles with high capacity of water adsorption up to 14.23 wt.%. The CaCO{sub 3} and CaO particles prepared at various conditions were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method.

  20. Rational design of aggregation-induced emission luminogen with weak electron donor-acceptor interaction to achieve highly efficient undoped bilayer OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Yibin; Nie, Han; Hu, Rongrong; Kwok, Hoi Sing; Huang, Fei; Qin, Anjun; Zhao, Zujin; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-10-01

    In this work, two tailored luminogens (TPE-NB and TPE-PNPB) consisting of tetraphenylethene (TPE), diphenylamino, and dimesitylboryl as a π-conjugated linkage, electron donor, and electron acceptor, respectively, are synthesized and characterized. Their thermal stabilities, photophysical properties, solvachromism, fluorescence decays, electronic structures, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescence (EL) properties are investigated systematically, and the impacts of electron donor-acceptor (D-A) interaction on optoelectronic properties are discussed. Due to the presence of a TPE unit, both luminogens show aggregation-induced emission, but strong D-A interaction causes a decrease in emission efficiency and red-shifts in photoluminescence and EL emissions. The luminogen, TPE-PNPB, with a weak D-A interaction fluoresces strongly in solid film with a high fluorescence quantum yield of 94%. The trilayer OLED [ITO/NPB (60 nm)/TPE-PNPB (20 nm)/TPBi (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm)] utilizing TPE-PNPB as a light emitter shows a peak luminance of 49 993 cd m(-2) and high EL efficiencies up to 15.7 cd A(-1), 12.9 lm W(-1), and 5.12%. The bilayer OLED [ITO/TPE-PNPB (80 nm)/TPBi (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm)] adopting TPE-PNPB as a light emitter and hole transporter simultaneously affords even better EL efficiencies of 16.2 cd A(-1), 14.4 lm W(-1), and 5.35% in ambient air, revealing that TPE-PNPB is an eximious p-type light emitter. PMID:25254940

  1. Studies on high power ultrasonic microembossing and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for the creation of lab-on-CD devices for sensor related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengasandra, Srikanth G.

    This study demonstrates the application of High Power Ultrasonic Microembossing Technology (HPUMT) in producing microfeatures on polymer substrates. The work reviews a novel method of obtaining flash free and precise microfeatures by manipulating the material density through microcellular foaming. The microfeatures created on the polymer substrates were further characterized by analyzing the feature depth with respect to the critical ultrasonic embossing operating parameters such as embossing heating times (s), embossing amplitude (microm) at a constant embossing trigger force (N). An experiment design was constructed and performed to characterize the parameters on foamed and unfoamed (or regular) versions of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) sample materials. Results indicated feature depth was proportional to heating times, amplitude and force. It was also seen the maximum depth was achieved in the shortest cycle times with higher amplitudes and forces of operation. HPUMT was further studied to create functional network of microchannels functioned as reservoirs, reaction chamber and burst or gate valves to form a centrifugal biosensing platform that is also referred to as a lab-on-CD or a bio-CD device. The surface energy of the polymer substrates was increased to enable fluid flow by using a surfactant based organic coating to facilitate hydrophilicity. Using an organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) as an electroluminescence source provided luminescence decay results in good agreement with stern-volmer relationship. The functionality of the OLED-coupled lab-on-CD device was further tested in measuring unknown concentrations of a particular analyte in corn slurry sample which contained numerous contaminants. Combinatorial multianalyte sensing was also made possible on a single bio-CD using a four photodetector (PD) quad preamp disk sensor.

  2. 77 FR 33390 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest; Montana; Supplemental EIS for the Beaverhead-Deerlodge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest; Montana; Supplemental EIS for the Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan To Comply With District of Montana Court Order AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental environmental...

  3. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... listed or proposed to be listed on the List of Endangered or Threatened Species, or have adverse effects... individuals of species that are not threatened or endangered which pose dangers to visitors, residents, or... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40...

  4. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana; Warren, Harry P.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  5. 78 FR 28842 - Searchlight Wind Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0413)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 74479). The U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management... published in the Federal Register on December 16, 2008 (73 FR 76377). The BLM published a Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Draft EIS in the Federal Register on January 12, 2012 (77 FR 2999). The NOA...

  6. 76 FR 2881 - Fishlake National Forest; Utah; Oil and Gas Leasing EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Forest Service Fishlake National Forest; Utah; Oil and Gas Leasing EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement for the Oil and Gas... proposal to make lands administered by the FNF available for oil and gas leasing, and to determine...

  7. 76 FR 55643 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Divide travel planning area for wheeled and over-snow motorized vehicles. Consistent with Forest Service travel...

  8. 75 FR 72784 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2010, FR Doc. 2010- 27353 (75 FR 66718-66719... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Blackfoot...

  9. A critical description of the permutation of EIS data points technique for corrosion measurements and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been proven to be a rapid and accurate technique for measuring corrosion rates in the most difficult situations and for yielding precious information concerning the occurrence of localized corrosion. But routine monitoring with EIS requires that certain assumptions be made and the data be processed automatically. To achieve these goals, a method was developed which consists in finding the geometric center of an arc formed by three successive data points on a complex impedance diagram. The three point analysis technique was further developed by permuting the data points involved in the projection of centers in order to obtain a population of projected centers. This last improvement permitted automation of the data analysis while providing some necessary statistical information concerning the adherence of the results with the resistive-capacitive (RC) behavior which is assumed for the evaluation of the parameters related to the general and localized corrosion rates. This paper illustrates the efficiency of EIS in a field situation with results obtained during the evaluation of organic corrosion inhibitors against sour media and reviews the mathematical principles of the projection/permutation (ProPer) technique for routine analysis of EIS data points.

  10. Comparative Study of Eis-like Enzymes from Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Pricer, Rachel E; Stewart, Megan N; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-06-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. Of particular importance is the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to currently available antibiotics used in the treatment of infected patients. Up-regulation of an aminoglycoside (AG) acetyltransferase, the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein of Mtb (Eis_Mtb), is responsible for resistance to the second-line injectable drug kanamycin A in a number of Mtb clinical isolates. This acetyltransferase is known to modify AGs, not at a single position, as usual for this type of enzyme, but at multiple amine sites. We identified, using in silico techniques, 22 homologues from a wide variety of bacteria, that we then cloned, purified, and biochemically studied. From the selected Eis homologues, 7 showed the ability to modify AGs to various degrees and displayed both similarities and differences when compared to Eis_Mtb. In addition, an inhibitor proved to be active against all homologues tested. Our findings show that this family of acetyltransferase enzymes exists in both mycobacteria and non-mycobacteria and in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. The bacterial strains described herein should be monitored for rising resistance rates to AGs. PMID:27622743

  11. 76 FR 56145 - Clearwater National Forest; ID; Upper Lochsa Land Exchange EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Clearwater National Forest; ID; Upper Lochsa Land Exchange EIS ACTION: Notice of Intent To... is: Rick Brazell, Forest Supervisor, Clearwater National Forest, 12730 HWY 12, Orofino, ID 83544....

  12. 77 FR 40144 - Adoption of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Participation in the Section 106...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ..., 64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999. First, FRA's review concluded that the action encompassed by the MTA RRIF... Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Participation in... Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of adoption and recirculation of...

  13. 76 FR 31933 - Tonto National Forest; AZ; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...The Tonto National Forest will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve ecological conditions within the project area using tools such as fire and grazing management and to authorize continued livestock grazing on National Forest System (NFS) lands within the Globe and Tonto Basin Ranger Districts. The Project Area is located along the Salt River in Gila County,......

  14. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... CFR part 68 and that would have no or only minimal environmental impact; (22) Rehabilitation... of the Interior's “Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties” at 36 CFR part 68,...

  15. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... CFR part 68 and that would have no or only minimal environmental impact; (22) Rehabilitation... of the Interior's “Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties” at 36 CFR part 68,...

  16. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... financing authority, minor boundary changes and land transactions; or having primarily economic, social... CFR part 68 and that would have no or only minimal environmental impact; (22)...

  17. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  18. Robust axonal regeneration occurs in the injured CAST/Ei mouse central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Takao; Omura, Kumiko; Tedeschi, Andrea; Riva, Priscilla; Painter, Michio W; Rojas, Leticia; Martin, Joshua; Lisi, Véronique; Huebner, Eric A; Latremoliere, Alban; Yin, Yuqin; Barrett, Lee; Singh, Bhagat; Lee, Stella; Crisman, Tom; Gao, Fuying; Li, Songlin; Kapur, Kush; Geschwind, Daniel H; Kosik, Kenneth S; Coppola, Giovanni; He, Zhigang; Carmichael, S Thomas; Benowitz, Larry I; Costigan, Michael; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) requires reactivating injured neurons’ intrinsic growth state and enabling growth in an inhibitory environment. Using an inbred mouse neuronal phenotypic screen, we find that CAST/Ei mouse adult dorsal root ganglion neurons extend axons more on CNS myelin than the other eight strains tested, especially when pre-injured. Injury-primed CAST/Ei neurons also regenerate markedly in the spinal cord and optic nerve more than those from C57BL/6 mice and show greater spouting following ischemic stroke. Heritability estimates indicate that extended growth in CAST/Ei neurons on myelin is genetically determined, and two whole-genome expression screens yield the Activin transcript Inhba as most correlated with this ability. Inhibition of Activin signaling in CAST/Ei mice diminishes their CNS regenerative capacity whereas its activation in C57BL/6 animals boosts regeneration. This screen demonstrates that mammalian CNS regeneration can occur and reveals a molecular pathway that contributes to this ability. PMID:26004914

  19. 78 FR 28841 - Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Area Power Administration Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440) AGENCY... Project was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 75632). After considering the environmental impacts... which was released on December 21, 2012 (77 FR 76477).\\1\\ The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the...

  20. 76 FR 43994 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Proposed Regional Watershed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Prepare an EIS was published in the Federal Register on Friday, March 20, 2009 (74 FR 11920), with subsequent amended announcements on May 8, 2009 (74 FR 21665) and August 11, 2009 (74 FR 40171). FOR FURTHER... Proposed Regional Watershed Supply Project in Wyoming and Colorado AGENCY: Department of the Army,...

  1. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and notice of floodplain and wetlands involvement. SUMMARY: BPA intends to... reinforcements of five existing BPA substations, placement of new conductor on sections of an existing...

  2. 78 FR 15039 - Extending Scoping Period To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...: The BIA published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register on January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) and... 20, 2013. Please refer to the January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) Notice of Intent for project details and... Statement (EIS) for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan Within Coconino, Navajo, and...

  3. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 68 and that would have no or only minimal environmental impact; (22) Rehabilitation... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... of the Interior's “Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties” at 36 CFR part 68,...

  4. Robust Axonal Regeneration Occurs in the Injured CAST/Ei Mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Omura, Takao; Omura, Kumiko; Tedeschi, Andrea; Riva, Priscilla; Painter, Michio W; Rojas, Leticia; Martin, Joshua; Lisi, Véronique; Huebner, Eric A; Latremoliere, Alban; Yin, Yuqin; Barrett, Lee B; Singh, Bhagat; Lee, Stella; Crisman, Tom; Gao, Fuying; Li, Songlin; Kapur, Kush; Geschwind, Daniel H; Kosik, Kenneth S; Coppola, Giovanni; He, Zhigang; Carmichael, S Thomas; Benowitz, Larry I; Costigan, Michael; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-06-01

    Axon regeneration in the CNS requires reactivating injured neurons' intrinsic growth state and enabling growth in an inhibitory environment. Using an inbred mouse neuronal phenotypic screen, we find that CAST/Ei mouse adult dorsal root ganglion neurons extend axons more on CNS myelin than the other eight strains tested, especially when pre-injured. Injury-primed CAST/Ei neurons also regenerate markedly in the spinal cord and optic nerve more than those from C57BL/6 mice and show greater sprouting following ischemic stroke. Heritability estimates indicate that extended growth in CAST/Ei neurons on myelin is genetically determined, and two whole-genome expression screens yield the Activin transcript Inhba as most correlated with this ability. Inhibition of Activin signaling in CAST/Ei mice diminishes their CNS regenerative capacity, whereas its activation in C57BL/6 animals boosts regeneration. This screen demonstrates that mammalian CNS regeneration can occur and reveals a molecular pathway that contributes to this ability. PMID:26004914

  5. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  6. The Iterative Use of Single Case Research Designs to Advance the Science of EI/ECSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Decker, Jessica; Germansky, Sara E.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research in early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is focused on identifying effective practices related to positive outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. Individual responses to evidence-based practices are often variable, and non-responders are common. Single case research (SCR) might be…

  7. Transferable green fluorescence-tagged pEI2 in Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pEI2 plasmid of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate, I49, was tagged using a Tn10-GFP-kan cassette to create the green fluorescence-expressing derivative I49-gfp. The Tn10-GFP-kan insertion site was mapped by plasmid sequencing to 663 bp upstream of orf2 and appeared to be at a neutral site in the pla...

  8. Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Early Intervention (EI) Personnel. Practice Brief. Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of qualified early intervention (EI) personnel remains a challenge throughout many regions of the nation. In response to this challenge, states and localities are employing a range of innovative strategies. Based on examples drawn from around the country, including examples provided by the National Early Childhood…

  9. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources of the Presidio Trust Area or the integrity of the setting; and (4) Approval or amendment of a general land use or resource management plan for the entire Presidio Trust Area. ... CFR 1508.27. (c) Categories of action. The following categories of action normally require an EIS:...

  10. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources of the Presidio Trust Area or the integrity of the setting; and (4) Approval or amendment of a general land use or resource management plan for the entire Presidio Trust Area. ... CFR 1508.27. (c) Categories of action. The following categories of action normally require an EIS:...

  11. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources of the Presidio Trust Area or the integrity of the setting; and (4) Approval or amendment of a general land use or resource management plan for the entire Presidio Trust Area. ... CFR 1508.27. (c) Categories of action. The following categories of action normally require an EIS:...

  12. 75 FR 41452 - Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Development Process for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Development... Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. ] SUMMARY: On January 22, 2009, the Alaska District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) published a notice of intent to prepare a...

  13. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resources of the Presidio Trust Area or the integrity of the setting; and (4) Approval or amendment of a general land use or resource management plan for the entire Presidio Trust Area. ... CFR 1508.27. (c) Categories of action. The following categories of action normally require an EIS:...

  14. An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

  15. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  16. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  17. 32 CFR 651.45 - Steps in preparing and processing an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steps in preparing and processing an EIS. 651.45 Section 651.45 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.45 Steps in preparing and processing...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an...

  19. 78 FR 20883 - Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Availability of the Draft EIS (78 FR 12310) for more detailed information related to the Salt River Allotments...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative... that it is extending the public comment period for the Salt River Allotments Vegetative...

  20. 36 CFR 907.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are described in 40 CFR 1508.27 of the CEQ Regulations and as follows: (1) Buildings or facades... decision, plan, or program adopted by the Board of Directors of the Corporation for which an environmental assessment or an assessment and an EIS has been prepared. (3) Legislative proposals made to Congress....

  1. 76 FR 29218 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Alaska Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... agencies in the DEIS development process. The Corps will be evaluating a permit application for work under... of alternatives will be identified and evaluated through scoping and the EIS process. The DOT&PF has... area, including a preferred corridor that goes from Galbraith Lake at milepost 278 on the...

  2. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... readily available. Field office technical guides, soil surveys, field investigation reports, and other... future use considered in the EIS? (3) Provisions for soil and water conservation management measures on... soil and water practices are to be installed and maintained? (4) The effect of water discharges...

  3. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... readily available. Field office technical guides, soil surveys, field investigation reports, and other... future use considered in the EIS? (3) Provisions for soil and water conservation management measures on... soil and water practices are to be installed and maintained? (4) The effect of water discharges...

  4. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... readily available. Field office technical guides, soil surveys, field investigation reports, and other... future use considered in the EIS? (3) Provisions for soil and water conservation managment measures on... soil and water practices are to be installed and maintained? (4) The effect of water discharges...

  5. The influence of minimum time between rain events (MTE) on the daily rainfall and EI30 erosivity index relation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuso-Ruiz, P.; Ayuso-Muñoz, J. L.; Taguas, E. V.; García-Marín, A.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of rain registered between two consecutives dry time intervals can be defined as a downpour or rain event. The length of these dry periods is known as minimum time between events (MTE). This work analyses the influence of the MTE value on the daily rainfall and EI30 erosivity index relationship. Using a potential equation like , the relation between daily EI30 index and daily precipitation, P, was obtained for Malaga. Hourly rainfall data from 1981 to 2007 were used. Rain events of at least 10 mm were identified four each rainy day and several MTE were used (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours). Due to hourly resolution of the data, the EI60 index was then obtained by multiplying the kinetic energy and the maximum hourly rainfall. Ten minutes resolution data were also available in Malaga from 1999 to 2002. Using these records the lineal correlation between EI30 and EI60 indexes was obtained, allowing the conversion of the EI60 indexes previously obtained. The results showed that no significant differences appear when varying the MTE value. The R2 coefficient had values of 0.7192 when working with a 2 hour MTE and 0.7503 for 6 hour MTE. Thus, it can be concluded that the best relation was obtained for the last MTE, though a slightly dependency between daily rainfall and EI30 index was found.

  6. Comprehensive Summary and Analysis of Oral and Written Scoping Comments on the Hawaii Geothermal Project EIS (DOE Review Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-18

    This report contains summaries of the oral and written comments received during the scoping process for the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Oral comments were presented during public scoping meetings; written comments were solicited at the public scoping meetings and in the ''Advance Notice of Intent'' and ''Notice of Intent'' (published in the ''Federal Register'') to prepare the HGP EIS. This comprehensive summary of scoping inputs provides an overview of the issues that have been suggested for inclusion in the HGP EIS.

  7. Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping Contributions of Variable-Speed Wind Generators in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R,; King, Jr, Thomas J.; Liu, Yilu

    2014-05-16

    The U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest electric power grids in the world and is expected to have difficulties in dealing with frequency regulation and oscillation damping issues caused by the increasing wind power. On the other side, variable-speed wind generators can actively engage in frequency regulation or oscillation damping with supplementary control loops. This paper creates a 5% wind power penetration simulation scenario based on the 16 000-bus EI system dynamic model and developed the user-defined wind electrical control model in PSS (R) E that incorporates additional frequency regulation and oscillation damping control loops. We evaluated the potential contributions of variable-speed wind generations to the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping, and simulation results demonstrate that current and future penetrations of wind power are promising in the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping.

  8. Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping Contributions of Variable-Speed Wind Generators in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R,; King, Jr, Thomas J.; Liu, Yilu

    2014-05-16

    The U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest electric power grids in the world and is expected to have difficulties in dealing with frequency regulation and oscillation damping issues caused by the increasing wind power. On the other side, variable-speed wind generators can actively engage in frequency regulation or oscillation damping with supplementary control loops. This paper creates a 5% wind power penetration simulation scenario based on the 16 000-bus EI system dynamic model and developed the user-defined wind electrical control model in PSS (R) E that incorporates additional frequency regulation and oscillation damping control loops. We evaluatedmore » the potential contributions of variable-speed wind generations to the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping, and simulation results demonstrate that current and future penetrations of wind power are promising in the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping.« less

  9. A correlation between EIS and salt spray proof tests for the corrosion resistance of conversion coated aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.; Cunningham, M.; Jensen, H.; Kendig, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, 33 different conversion coatings were applied to 5 different Al alloy substrates. Salt spray exposure testing and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were conducted for comparison. A relation was developed.

  10. 75 FR 74128 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone Counties, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT....

  11. 75 FR 71180 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone Counties, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind...

  12. Effect of the substituents on the photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence properties of OLED dopant Iridium bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato- N,C2')(acetylacetonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of two substituents: clorine and 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, placed on different position in the molecule of Iridium (III) bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')- (acetylacetonate) (bt)2Ir(acac), on its electrochemical behaviour, photophysical and electroluminescence properties were investigated. Three complexes (bt)2Ir(acac), Iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2']-acetylacetonate (Clbt)2Ir(acac), in which the Cl atom was introduced on the 4-position in the benzothiazole ring, and the new Iridium (Ill) bis[2 -phenylbenzothiazolato -N,C2'] -(1,3 -diphenylpropane-1,3 -dionate) (bt)2Ir(dbm), where ancillary acetylacetonate ligand was replaced by 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, were synthesized and characterised by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The HOMO/LUMO energy levels of the complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and their properties were established by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The application of (Clbt)2Ir(acac), (bt)2Ir(bsm) and (bt)2Ir(acac) as dopants in hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light- emitting diodes(OLEDs). It was found that with respect to the reference (bt)2Ir(acac): both LUMO and HOMO of the substituted complexes were shifted to more positive values accordingly with 0.23 and 0.19 eV for (Clbt)2Ir(acac) and 0.14 and 0.12 eV for (bt)2Ir(dbm). OLEDs doped with 1 w% of the complexes irradiated the warm white light with Commission internationale de l'eclairage (CIE) coordinates: 0.24;0.38 for (Clbt)2Ir(acac), 0.30;0.44 for (bt)2Ir(acac) and 0.28;0.46 for (bt)2Ir(dbm). Devices doped with 10 w% of all complexes irradiated in the yellow orange region of the spectrum.

  13. Information on SOR Draft EIS Technical Appendices : A Guide to Contents of the Appendices and How to Order Them.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    This brochure provides information on the various appendices to the System Operation Review (SOR) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This information should help you decide which of the 19 appendices to request for review and comment. The appendices collectively are approximately 3500 pages long and as such represent a significant amount of information. They are the raw materials from which the summary and Draft EIS are prepared.

  14. Comparison of solar spectra from the Hinode extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (EIS) to preflight calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, John; Feldman, Uri; Brown, Charles; Doschek, George; Hara, H.

    2007-09-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode satellite records high-resolution solar spectra in the 170-210 Å and 246-290 Å wavelength ranges. The EIS optics operate at near normal incidence and consist of an off-axis parabolic mirror, a toroidal diffraction grating, two CCD detectors, and two thin aluminum filters. To increase the normal incidence efficiency, high-reflectance multilayer interference coatings were deposited on the mirror and the grating. Prior to launch, each of the optical components was calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and the spectral and spatial resolution of the complete instrument were measured. In this paper, we compare the preflight calibrations with the first-light spectra recorded in space.

  15. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  16. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF AN EIT WAVE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS AND SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M.; Goemoery, P.; Vrsnak, B.; Warren, H. P.

    2011-12-10

    We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T Almost-Equal-To 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20 km s{sup -1}. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5 km s{sup -1} indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few km s{sup -1} up to 20 km s{sup -1} and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 A line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no H{alpha} Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a Almost-Equal-To -540 m s{sup -2} and a start velocity of v{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 590 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base.

  17. Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Warm Pool EI Nino Events in the GEOS CCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Song, In-Sun; Oman, Luke D.; Newman, Paul A.; Molod, Andrea M.; Frith, Stacey M.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new type of EI Nino event has been identified in the last decade. During "warm pool" EI Nino (WPEN) events, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central equatorial Pacific are warmer than average. The EI Nino signal propagates poleward and upward as large-scale atmospheric waves, causing unusual weather patterns and warming the polar stratosphere. In austral summer, observations show that the Antarctic lower stratosphere is several degrees (K) warmer during WPEN events than during the neutral phase of EI Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Furthermore, the stratospheric response to WPEN events depends of the direction of tropical stratospheric winds: the Antarctic warming is largest when WPEN events are coincident with westward winds in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere i.e., the westward phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Westward winds are associated with enhanced convection in the subtropics, and with increased poleward wave activity. In this paper, a new formulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, Version 2 (GEOS V2 CCM) is used to substantiate the observed stratospheric response to WPEN events. One simulation is driven by SSTs typical of a WPEN event, while another simulation is driven by ENSO neutral SSTs; both represent a present-day climate. Differences between the two simulations can be directly attributed to the anomalous WPEN SSTs. During WPEN events, relative to ENSO neutral, the model simulates the observed increase in poleward planetary wave activity in the South Pacific during austral spring, as well as the relative warming of the Antarctic lower stratosphere in austral summer. However, the modeled response to WPEN does not depend on the phase of the QBO. The modeled tropical wind oscillation does not extend far enough into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, likely explaining the model's insensitivity to the phase of the QBO during WPEN events.

  18. Temperature And Density Analysis Of A Coronal Loop Observed By Eis And Aia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plowman, Joseph; Martens, P.; Kankelborg, C.; Ritchie, M.; Scott, J.; Sharma, R.

    2012-05-01

    We present a combined DEM and density-sensitive line ratio analysis of a loop observed simultaneously by EIS and AIA. The DEMs are calculated using a fast new method which we also describe. The temperature and density profiles of the loop are compared to and isolated from those of the surrounding material, and these properties are fit to an analytic strand heating model developed by Martens (2010). Supported by an AIA subcontract to Montana State University.

  19. NEPA meets government reinvention: Bonneville Power Administration`s business plan E.I.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.V.; Alton, C.; Linehan, A.O.

    1995-12-01

    During the early 1990`s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) found its role as the Pacific Northwest`s largest wholesale marketer of electric power challenged by energy market deregulation, increasing competition from utilities and non-utility power sources, and uncertainty about future costs. Moreover, the rapid decline of endangered salmon stocks appeared to be leading to significant changes in the operations of the Columbia River hydroelectric system and limitations in the amount of hydro power BPA could sell its utility customers. In response, BPA began a fundamental review of all of its power and transmission products, rates, organization, and administrative procedures. BPA`s reinvention was clearly a major Federal action subject to NEPA, and the Business Plan EIS quickly became the focus of both BPA`s effort to question the fundamental mechanisms of its operations, and of the many customers, environmental organizations, and interest groups that watchdog BPA`s activities. In developing the Business Plan EIS, BPA faced multiple challenges: (1) complex, interrelated issues, including power sales contract terms, power rates, hydroelectric operations and salmon survival, transmission system deregulation, energy resource choices, conservation program reinvention, and fish and wildlife program management reform; (2) drawing appropriate boundaries around the subject of analysis instead of letting the EIS become the {open_quotes}black hole{close_quotes} for every regional environmental issue; (3) framing and evaluating broad policy choices in an understandable and useful manner without getting lost in the detail of the myriad decisions BPA faces; (4) keeping pace with evolving management thinking about BPA`s new direction; (5) linking Business Plan choices to market responses and ultimately to environmental impacts. The Business Plan EIS is an innovative effort to address broad policy directions, marketing relationships, and environmental impacts.

  20. Erwinia amylovora Novel Plasmid pEI70: Complete Sequence, Biogeography, and Role in Aggressiveness in the Fire Blight Phytopathogen

    PubMed Central

    Llop, Pablo; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Smits, Theo H. M.; Dreo, Tanja; Barbé, Silvia; Pulawska, Joanna; Bultreys, Alain; Blom, Jochen; Duffy, Brion; Montesinos, Emilio; López, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomics of several strains of Erwinia amylovora, a plant pathogenic bacterium causal agent of fire blight disease, revealed that its diversity is primarily attributable to the flexible genome comprised of plasmids. We recently identified and sequenced in full a novel 65.8 kb plasmid, called pEI70. Annotation revealed a lack of known virulence-related genes, but found evidence for a unique integrative conjugative element related to that of other plant and human pathogens. Comparative analyses using BLASTN showed that pEI70 is almost entirely included in plasmid pEB102 from E. billingiae, an epiphytic Erwinia of pome fruits, with sequence identities superior to 98%. A duplex PCR assay was developed to survey the prevalence of plasmid pEI70 and also that of pEA29, which had previously been described in several E. amylovora strains. Plasmid pEI70 was found widely dispersed across Europe with frequencies of 5–92%, but it was absent in E. amylovora analyzed populations from outside of Europe. Restriction analysis and hybridization demonstrated that this plasmid was identical in at least 13 strains. Curing E. amylovora strains of pEI70 reduced their aggressiveness on pear, and introducing pEI70 into low-aggressiveness strains lacking this plasmid increased symptoms development in this host. Discovery of this novel plasmid offers new insights into the biogeography, evolution and virulence determinants in E. amylovora. PMID:22174857

  1. Macrophages in Injured Skeletal Muscle: A Perpetuum Mobile Causing and Limiting Fibrosis, Prompting or Restricting Resolution and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bosurgi, Lidia; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages are present in regenerating skeletal muscles and participate in the repair process. This is due to a unique feature of macrophages, i.e., their ability to perceive signals heralding ongoing tissue injury and to broadcast the news to cells suited at regenerating the tissue such as stem and progenitor cells. Macrophages play a complex role in the skeletal muscle, probably conveying information on the pattern of healing which is appropriate to ensure an effective healing of the tissue, yielding novel functional fibers. Conversely, they are likely to be involved in limiting the efficacy of regeneration, with formation of fibrotic scars and fat replacement of the tissue when the original insult persists. In this review we consider the beneficial versus the detrimental actions of macrophages during the response to muscle injury, with attention to the available information on the molecular code macrophages rely on to guide, throughout the various phases of muscle healing, the function of conventional and unconventional stem cells. Decrypting this code would represent a major step forward toward the establishment of novel targeted therapies for muscle diseases. PMID:22566851

  2. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's) for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are commonly seen in various neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Current models of visual processing and studies in diseases including Parkinsons Disease and Lewy Body Dementia propose that Acetylcholine (Ach) plays a pivotal role in our ability to accurately interpret visual stimuli. Depletion of Ach is thought to be associated with visual hallucination generation. AchEI's have been used in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in dementia and Parkinson's Disease patients. In Schizophrenia, it is thought that a similar Ach depletion leads to visual hallucinations and may provide a target for drug treatment Case Presentation We present a case of a patient with Schizophrenia presenting with treatment resistant and significantly distressing visual hallucinations. After optimising treatment for schizophrenia we used Rivastigmine, an AchEI, as an adjunct to treat her symptoms successfully. Conclusions This case is the first to illustrate this novel use of an AchEI in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in a patient with Schizophrenia. Targeted therapy of this kind can be considered in challenging cases although more evidence is required in this field. PMID:20822516

  3. Novel multipotent AChEI-CCB attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced memory deficits and Neuropathologies in rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yiyuan; Liu, Rong; Chen, Rong; Tian, Qing; Zeng, Kuan; Hu, Jichang; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Qun; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has multiple etiopathogenic factors, yet the definitive cause remains unclear and the therapeutic strategies have been elusive. Combination therapy, as one of the promising treatments, has been studied for years and may exert synergistic beneficial effects on AD through polytherapeutic targets. In this study, we tested the effects of a synthesized juxtaposition (named SCR1693) composed of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and a calcium channel blocker (CCB) on the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced AD rat model, and found that SCR1693 remarkably improved the HHcy-induced memory deficits and preserved dendrite morphologies as well as spine density by upregulating synapse-associated proteins PSD95 and synapsin-1. In addition, SCR1693 attenuated HHcy-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-associated sites by regulating the activity of protein phosphatase-2A and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, SCR1693 was more effective than individual administration of both donepezil and nilvadipine which were used as AChEI and CCB, respectively, in the clinical practice. In conclusion, our data suggest that the polytherapeutic targeting juxtaposition SCR1693 (AChEI-CCB) is a promising therapeutic candidate for AD. PMID:25024319

  4. The impact of trough geometry on film shape. A theoretical study of droplets containing polymer, for P-OLED display applications.

    PubMed

    Eales, Adam D; Dartnell, Nick; Goddard, Simon; Routh, Alexander F

    2015-11-15

    For P-OLED display fabrication, it is important to control the final film shape, arising from drying of volatile droplets containing polymer. Due to peripheral pinning and subsequent outward capillary flow, a coffee-ring typically develops. This is inconvenient since a spatially uniform height, above the substrate, is required to ensure uniform current across the device. Typically the droplets are deposited inside a trough-like structure on the substrate. We present a thin-film lubrication model that tracks the drying dynamics through to the final film shape. The governing equations are derived and solved numerically. We investigate the effect of the trough's depth and the slope of the walls. Increasing the depth or the wall's gradient increases coffee-ring formation. This is due to an increase in horizontal velocity, caused by the substrate's shape as well as delayed gelation of the polymer. The latter allows the outward capillary flow to act for a longer time, before the height becomes fixed. PMID:26203592

  5. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  6. EPR and ab initio calculation study on the EI4 center in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, P.; Son, N. T.; Janzen, E.; Gali, A.; Isoya, J.; Morishita, N.; Ohshima, T.; Magnusson, B.

    2010-12-15

    We present results from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the EI4 EPR center in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The EPR signal of the EI4 center was found to be drastically enhanced in electron-irradiated high-purity semi-insulating materials after annealing at 700-750 deg. C. Strong EPR signals of the EI4 center with minimal interferences from other radiation-induced defects in irradiated high-purity semi-insulating materials allowed our more detailed study of the hyperfine (hf) structures. An additional large-splitting {sup 29}Si hf structure and {sup 13}C hf lines of the EI4 defect were observed. Comparing the data on the hf interactions and the annealing behavior obtained from EPR experiments and from ab initio supercell calculations of different carbon-vacancy-related complexes, we suggest a complex between a carbon vacancy-carbon antisite and a carbon vacancy at the third-neighbor site of the antisite in the neutral charge state, (V{sub C}-C{sub Si}V{sub C}){sup 0}, as a new defect model for the EI4 center.

  7. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  8. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  9. Analyzing sediment impacts for the Glen Canyon Long-term Experimental and Management Plan EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K.; Huang, V.; Varyu, D.; Greimann, B. P.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of the Interior is currently evaluating alternatives in the Glen Canyon Dam Long-term Experimental and Management Plan (LTEMP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The purpose of the EIS to evaluate dam operations and identify management actions and experimental options that will provide a framework for adaptively managing operations of Glen Canyon Dam over the next 15 to 20 years. Sediment and sandbars along the Colorado River are important downstream resources in Grand Canyon National Park. Sediment is one of the resources being analyzed for impacts in Marble and Grand Canyon. Since 1963, Glen Canyon Dam has regulated the flow in the Colorado River by decreasing the magnitude of annual flood flows and increasing the magnitude of base flows, and has nearly eliminated main-channel sand supply from the upper Colorado River Basin. These changes disrupted the natural ability of the river to build and maintain sandbars. Grand Canyon sandbars provide camping beaches for river runners and hikers, generate habitat for native fish and vegetation, and supply sediment to protect archaeological resources. In order to measure the impacts of the different alternatives on the sediment resource, several different models are being utilized. A sand budget numerical model that tracks the storage and transport of sand in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam developed by the USGS is utilized. The model uses empirically based rating curves for specific particle sizes. The decision criteria for the high flow experiment environmental assessment is applied to the sand budget model as well as other flow changes incorporated in the alternatives. An empirically based sandbar volume model was also developed for the LTEMP EIS process to address the sandbar resource impacts. Based on the model results, performance criteria have been established to allow for comparisons between the alternatives. The criteria include the changes in the sand mass balance of the system, the

  10. A comparative EIS study on cermet and platinum anodes for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu cermet anodes in alumina-saturated molten cryolite at anodic potentials above the decomposition potentials above the decomposition potential of alumina exhibited a loop with a characteristic frequency of about 1 Hz. A similar feature was observed using platinum anodes under the same experimental conditions. Analysis of these data suggests the loop was due to gas bubbling. Features associated with charge-transfer processes were not sufficiently resolved to determine the corrosion properties of the cermet anode.

  11. Shape-based Particle Separation via Elasto-Inertia Pinched Flow Fractionation (eiPFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-11-01

    We report in this talk a continuous-flow shape-based separation of spherical and peanut-shaped rigid particles of equal volume via elasto-inertial pinched flow fractionation (eiPFF). This separation exploits the shape-dependence of the cross-stream particle migration induced by the elaso-inertial lift force in viscoelastic fluids. The parametric effects on this separation are systematically investigated in terms of dimensionless numbers. It is found that this separation is strongly affected by the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number and channel aspect ratio. Interestingly, the elasto-inertial deflection of peanut particles can be either greater or smaller than that of spherical particles.

  12. Detecting Corrosion Resistance of Coated Steel Rebars by Electrochemical Technique (eis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, J.; Shah, S.

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is one of the electrochemical techniques used in materials science. The present measurements are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of new types of coated steel rebar used in reinforced concrete. In this study, Si-based coating materials are used and evaluated, because adding Si to metals and alloys, including steel, generally increases their corrosion, oxidation, and erosion resistance. The result suggests that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy may be useful for monitoring corrosion activity on coated steel rebars. Based upon impedance changes, it appears that the silicon powder coating bonds well to the steel, and that the coating has a good performance.

  13. Constraining the Coronal Heating Mechanism Using Data from AIA, EIS, and Hi-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; Plowman, J.; Kankelborg, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an ultra-fast DEM inversion code that computes over 1000 DEMs/sec for a sample active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on SDO, and achieves reduced chi-squareds of order unity with no negative emission in all but a few test cases (Plowman et al. 2013 ApJ). Applying the code to simultaneous Hinode/EIS data we find good agreement, and of course much less uncertainty in the EIS DEMs. For the short interval that we have Hi-C data we can estimate filling factors from those. We are using this new tool to constrain the still elusive mechanism of coronal heating. In one approach we use simultaneous AIA and EIS data of loops that are mostly north-south oriented, and hence do not require a broad EIS raster. We derive the density in these loops from density sensitive line pairs, and the DEMs from AIA data. In many cases the background subtracted DEMs indicate a single temperature at many points in the loop, and hence we have a measurement of both density and temperature along a good part of the loop. Combining these results with analytical (Martens 2010) models for loop heating we find that the heating is concentrated at the footpoints, consistent with, for example, Ohmic heating, but inconsistent with several other popular models for coronal heating. In the second approach we use the remarkable speed of our DEM inversion code to measure the occurrence of heating events in Active Regions (AR). We have determined that with the cadence of about ten seconds of the combined AIA channels, our code can detect heating events roughly down to the energy of nano-flares, about 10^24 ergs. By analyzing the DEMs sequences per pixel of target ARs we derive statistics on the heating events, in particular their frequency and energy distribution. Therefrom we can determine whether the energy input from nano-flares and more energetic events provides the energy required to sustain the AR corona.

  14. Broad spectrum drug screening using electron-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GCMS).

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of drugs and internal standard (promazine) is performed by mixing urine at basic pH with 1-chlorobutane. There are no hydrolysis or derivatization steps. After centrifugation the organic (upper) layer is transferred to another tube and evaporated. The dried extract is reconstituted with ethyl acetate and 1 microL is injected onto the GCMS. Drugs are volatilized in the GC inlet and separated on a capillary column. In the EI source drugs become positively charged and fragment. Mass analysis of ionized fragments occurs with a single quadrupole. The resulting full scan mass spectra are automatically searched against three libraries. PMID:20077071

  15. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  16. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. PMID:26489966

  17. Identification of an interaction between EI and a histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Ma, Yushu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-02-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans may contain an incomplete phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system consisting of three components - EI, HPr and EIIA, while the function of individual members of the system remains unknown. In this research, a specific interaction between EI and a histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein was screened by yeast two-hybrid assay, and the interaction was further identified with GST pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in vitro and in vivo, respectively. As the histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein serves as a member of two-component system in G. oxydans, its interaction with EI implied that PTS may play certain roles in bacteria under stress. PMID:26792729

  18. Pt(II) metal complexes tailored with a newly designed spiro-arranged tetradentate ligand; harnessing of charge-transfer phosphorescence and fabrication of sky blue and white OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chi, Yun; Hsu, Ming-Kuan; Wu, Szu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao; Liu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil

    2015-04-20

    Tetradentate bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates are assembled by connecting two bidentate 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl)azoles at the six position of pyridyl fragment with the tailored spiro-arranged fluorene and/or acridine functionalities. These new chelates were then utilized in synthesizing a series of Pt(II) metal complexes [Pt(Ln)], n = 1-5, from respective chelates L1-L5 and [PtCl2(DMSO)2] in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The single-crystal X-ray structural analyses were executed on 1, 3, and 5 to reveal the generalized structures and packing arrangement in crystal lattices. Their photophysical properties were measured in both solution and solid state and are discussed in the context of computational analysis. These L1-L5 coordinated Pt(II) species exhibit intense emission, among which complex 5 shows remarkable solvatochromic phosphorescence due to the dominant intraligand charge transfer transition induced by the new bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates. Moreover, because of the higher-lying highest occupied molecular orbital of acridine, complex 5 can be considered as a novel bipolar phosphor. Successful fabrication of blue and white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using Pt(II) complexes 3 and 5 as the phosphorescent dopants are reported. In particular, blue OLEDs with 5 demonstrated peak efficiencies of 15.3% (36.3 cd/A, 38.0 lm/W), and CIE values of (0.190, 0.342) in a double-emitting layer structure. Furthermore, a red-emitting Os(II) complex and 5 were used to fabricate warm-white OLEDs to achieve peak external quantum efficiency, luminance efficiency, and power efficiency values as high as 12.7%, 22.5 cd/A, and 22.1 lm/W, respectively. PMID:25848710

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis EIS gene inhibits macrophage autophagy through up-regulation of IL-10 by increasing the acetylation of histone H3.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Yi, Min; Chen, Juan; Li, Shengjin; Chen, Weixian

    2016-05-13

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in the progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Recently, MTB enhanced intracellular survival (EIS) protein was reported to be secreted from MTB cells and linked to the inhibition of autophagy and the intracellular persistence of the pathogen. Here, we investigated the mechanism of EIS-mediated inhibition of autophagy in a human phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cell line as well as in murine macrophages. We confirmed that the presence of EIS led to the inhibition of rapamycin (Rapa)-induced autophagy, while IL-10 gene expression was increased and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated during the process. IL-10 gene silencing led to a significant recovery of EIS-mediated autophagy suppression and decreased activity of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. IL-10 promoter activity was unaffected by EIS. Remarkably, EIS increased the acetylation level of histone H3 (Ac-H3), which binds to the SP1 and STAT3 region of the human IL-10 gene promoter sequence. Thus, EIS protein possibly increased IL-10 expression through the regulation of Ac-H3 of its promoter. Our data demonstrated that one possible mechanism of the MTB evasion of autophagy is that the EIS protein up-regulates IL-10 via Ac-H3 and thus activates Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. PMID:27079235

  20. The Impact of Engineering Integrated Science (EIS) Curricula on First-Year Technical High School Students' Attitudes toward Science and Perceptions of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Lee, Sun-Ju; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how engineering integrated science (EIS) curricula affect first-year technical high school students' attitudes toward science and perceptions of engineering. The effect of the EIS participation period on students' attitudes toward science was also investigated via experimental study design. Two engineering integrated…

  1. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  2. Analysis of cyanolipids from Sapindaceae seed oils by gas chromatography-EI-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa

    2014-04-01

    As a continuation of our investigation on unusual lipids, in the present work we describe a method based on GC-FID and GC-EI-MS to analyze the molecular composition of intact cyanolipids (CL) from selected Sapindaceae plants. We applied our method to the study of CL of type I (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-2-en-1-ol-diester) from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis and Allophylus dregeanus and CL type III (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-1-en-3-ol-diester) from A. natalensis and Nephelium lappaceum. Our analytical approach allowed us to obtain useful mass spectra to identify individual isomeric molecular species composing the CL mixtures and resulted in the very sensitive detection and identification of minor CL. Defined CL mass spectra resulted in suitable detection of these phytochemicals in complex plant oil mixtures containing acylglycerols. To the best of our knowledge GC-EI-MS spectra of cyanolipids have never been reported before. Moreover, this study improved previous knowledge of the lipid chemistry of Sapindaceae plants. PMID:24549633

  3. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  4. E/I corrected paleolatitudes for the sedimentary rocks of the Baja British Columbia hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Tauxe, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations from sediments of the western terranes of Canada are consistently too shallow for their reconstructed paleogeographic positions. Two contradicting explanations for these discrepancies are: (1) terranes have been displaced northward with respect to the stable American craton by several thousands of kilometres between the Late Cretaceous (˜ 75 Ma) and the Eocene (˜50 Ma) and (2) sedimentary inclination error has caused a shallow bias in the paleomagnetic directions. Here, we apply the elongation/inclination (E/I) method to paleomagnetic data sets from sedimentary rocks of supposedly allochtonous terranes of western North America to correct for inclination flattening. Our results indicate that the paleomagnetic directions from the continental Silverquick sediments (95-92 Ma) of southern British Colombia are not seriously affected by inclination error, because the magnetic signal most likely concerns a chemical remanent magnetisation (CRM). In contrast, the marine sediments of the Nanaimo Group (84-72 Ma) of Vancouver Island region appear seriously affected by inclination flattening ( f = 0.7) and the E/I corrected mean inclinations are about 9° steeper than the original data. We arrive at corrected inclinations/paleolatitudes of I** = 57°/ λ = 38°N for the Silverquick and I** = 55°/ λ = 36°N for the Nanaimo sediments. Our corrected paleolatitudes indicate that the Canadian terranes were indeed located adjacent to the Baja Californian margin during the Late Cretaceous, thus supporting the Baja BC hypothesis.

  5. Lessons learnt from post EIS evaluations of national road schemes in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    King, E.A.; O'Malley, V.P.

    2012-01-15

    The Irish National Roads Authority (NRA) recently completed over twenty post environmental impact assessment evaluations of noise chapters prepared as part of Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) for new national road schemes in Ireland. The study focused on a range of issues including a review of noise monitoring procedures, noise prediction methodologies and an assessment of the effectiveness of noise mitigation measures currently in use on national road schemes. This review was carried out taking cognisance of best international practices for noise assessment and methodologies used to mitigate road traffic noise. The primary focus of the study was to assess the actual noise impacts of national road scheme developments and to revise, where necessary, methodologies recommended in the current NRA guidance document describing the treatment of noise on national road schemes. This paper presents a summary of the study and identifies a number of key areas that should be considered prior to the development of future guidance documents. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presents a post-EIS evaluation of noise assessments for national roads in Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of some noise mitigation measures is critically evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Issues related to the current EIS noise assessment methodologies are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implications for alterations to the NRA noise guidelines.

  6. TADF for singlet harvesting: next generation OLED materials based on brightly green and blue emitting Cu(I) and Ag(I) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersin, Hartmut; Leitl, Markus J.; Czerwieniec, Rafal

    2014-10-01

    Detailed photophysical studies are presented for Cu2Cl2(dppb)2 and Ag2Cl2(dppb)2. Both compounds show very effective thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) at ambient temperature with an emission quantum yield of the Ag(I) complex of ΦPL(300 K) = 93 %. This emission is blue shifted by 65 nm (2500 cm-1) with respect to the emission of the Cu(I) complex, demonstrating a valuable strategy for engineering blue light emitters. Potentially, these materials are well suited for taking advantage of the singlet harvesting effect in an OLED device. Moreover, both compounds do not show effects of concentration quenching at high emitter concentration, a property which might be attractive for reducing the efficiency roll-off at higher current densities. Investigations down to T = 1.6 K show that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is particularly weak. This is displayed in the very long emission decay times of the triplet states (T1 states) of metal-toligand charge transfer (3MLCT) character, amounting to τ(Ag2Cl2(dppb)2) = 1.1 ms and τ(Cu2Cl2(dppb)2) = 2.2 ms. According to the TADF mechanism, which leads to the additional decay channel at ambient temperature via the S1 state (of 1MLCT character), an increase of the radiative rate by a factor of 70 and almost 500 for Ag2Cl2(dppb)2 and Cu2Cl2(dppb)2, respectively, is induced. This results in radiative rates at ambient temperature of kr = 6.2 • 104 s-1 (τr = 16 μs, Ag(I) complex) and 11.7 • 104 s-1 (τr = 8.5 μs, Cu(I) complex). Simple approaches are presented that allow us to understand the weakness of SOC on the basis of results from DFT and TD-DFT calculations. Investigations of the emission decay properties down to T = 1.6 K further support the conclusions with respect to the SOC strength.

  7. 75 FR 23253 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Central Palm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Jacksonville District, intends to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to address potential impacts associated with the construction of groins and segmented emergent breakwaters and placement of truck hauled sand along the coastline of the Towns of Palm Beach, South Palm Beach, Lantana, and Manalapan. The Corps will be evaluating a......

  8. 75 FR 17756 - Availability of the Final General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Supplemental Draft GMP/EIS evaluated alternatives to guide the development and future management of the park over the next 20 years. Alternative A (No Action) provides a baseline... in resources management, visitor programs, or facilities. Alternative B would minimize development...

  9. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

  10. 78 FR 18325 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft AGENCY... Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft. The EIS... infrastructure and manpower of the FTU and MOB 1 at existing active duty Air Force installations within...

  11. Application of nano-FIA-Direct-EI-MS to determine diethylene glycol in produced formation water discharges and seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Pierini, Elisabetta; Trufelli, Helga; Maggi, Chiara; Manfra, Loredana; Mannozzi, Michela

    2007-09-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is extensively used on offshore gas platforms to prevent the hydrate formation during the gas-water separation process and to inhibit corrosion events. This chemical might enter in the marine environment via the produced formation water (PFW) discharge. In this study, a new approach was applied to the investigation of the DEG content in PFW discharges and seawater samples from four gas installation platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). The method includes an off-line solid-phase extraction/pre-concentration technique, followed by a nanoscale flow injection/direct-electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometric analysis. Direct-EI is a novel and miniaturized interface for directly coupling a liquid chromatograph with an electron ionization mass spectrometer. The capability to acquire EI spectra, and to operate in selected ion monitoring mode during actual sample analyses, allowed a precise quantification of DEG with a method limit of detection of 31microg/l. In addition, a careful evaluation of the matrix effect showed that, as opposed to electrospray ionization, the response of the Direct-EI interface was not affected by sample interferences. PMID:17499336

  12. 75 FR 16828 - Notice of Intent To Prepare and Scope an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... received in response to the January 21, 2009 Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS (74 FR 3631) and the August 2008 Request for Comments on the preparation of a new 5-year program (73 FR 45065), and the comments... Minerals Management Service Notice of Intent To Prepare and Scope an Environmental Impact Statement...

  13. 78 FR 64265 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Statement (EIS): State Route 71, South Knoxville Boulevard (James White Parkway), From Governor John Sevier..., South Knoxville Boulevard (James White Parkway), from Governor John Sevier Highway (State Route 168) to... the existing Chapman Highway/ Governor John Sevier Highway interchange to Moody Avenue. The...

  14. 78 FR 45277 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Development of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... of Prisons Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Development of a United States Penitentiary (USP) and Federal Prison Camp (FPC) by the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) on Land Under Consideration for Development Located in Letcher...

  15. 78 FR 32240 - Notice of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar Project at..., California to evaluate potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Oro Verde Solar Project (OVSP) on Edwards AFB. The OVSP is a solar photovoltaic (PV) facility that involves the lease...

  16. 77 FR 26025 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Development at Potrero Terrace and Potrero Annex Public Housing Development, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Office... Prepare an EIS and to Conduct Public Scoping Meeting. SUMMARY: This provides notice to the public... Terrace and Potrero Annex Public Housing Development (Potrero HOPE SF Master Plan Project). The...

  17. 78 FR 2685 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Navajo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...) for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan Within Coconino, Navajo, and Apache Counties... Department of Transportation serving as cooperating agencies, intends to prepare an EIS for a proposed weed... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The BIA is proposing to develop a ten-year integrated weed management plan for...

  18. 77 FR 37092 - Notice of Withdrawal of the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... 69, No. 156; FR Doc 04-18584) to prepare an EIS for the proposed improvements to I-515 in the cities...: 775-687-1231, email: Abdelmoez.Abdalla@fhwa.dot.gov . For the Nevada Department of Transportation... Transportation, 1263 South Stewart Street, Carson City, Nevada 89712; telephone: (775) 888-7013; email:...

  19. 76 FR 53705 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Ada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... 13, 2004, at 69 FR 2040, to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed highway... the Federal Register on January 18, 2008, at 73 FR 3464. A public hearing was held on February 13..., Garden City, ID 83714, telephone (208) 387-6100. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FHWA,...

  20. 77 FR 67345 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Clearwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Clearwater Program AGENCY: U.S... (Sanitation Districts) has completed a Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

  1. 78 FR 54871 - Notice of Amendment to the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... on August 14, 2013 (78 FR 49484) by providing additional and updated information on a separate but... Rule for Losses of Aquatic Resources, 33 CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals- Longview Shipping Facility...

  2. 77 FR 58531 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Gateway Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Gateway Pacific Terminals Bulk Dry Goods Shipping Facility and the Custer... Pacific International Terminal, Inc.'s Gateway Pacific Terminal (GPT) and Burlington Northern Santa Fe..., northwest of Ferndale and south of Birch Bay in an area called Cherry Point. Pacific International...

  3. 75 FR 26739 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Airfield Operations at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West, FL and To Announce Public Scoping Meetings AGENCY: Department... questions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: NAS Key West EIS Project Manager, Naval Facilities Engineering... to support the rapid deployment of naval units; achieve and sustain readiness of squadrons to...

  4. 77 FR 39322 - Notice to Rescind the Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., economic, and natural environment were minimal. After receiving minor comments during the public review... result in significant impacts on the human or natural environment. The NOI is being rescinded due to the... have a significant impact on the environment, a new NOI to prepare an EIS will be published. To...

  5. 77 FR 68807 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Halletts Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Halletts Point Rezoning Project, Queens, NY AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... of City Planning (DCP) serving as lead agency on behalf of the City Planning Commission (CPC)...

  6. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408) AGENCIES: Western Area... Service (Service), have, as joint lead agencies, prepared the Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft... wind energy development within Western's Upper Great Plains Customer Service Region (UGP Region),...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) (Arnouts+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Vandame, B.; Benoist, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; da Costa, L.; Schirmer, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Slijkhuis, R.

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at RA=03h32m, Dec=-27{deg}48'. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out as a part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. The paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. Image processing has been performed using multi-resolution image decomposition techniques adapted to the EIS pipeline. The automatic processing steps include standard de-bias and flat-field, automatic removal of satellite tracks, de-fringing/sky-subtraction, image stacking/mosaicking and astrometry. Stacking of dithered images is carried out using pixel-based astrometry which enables the efficient removal of cosmic rays and image defects, yielding remarkably clean final images. The final astrometric calibration is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an estimated intrinsic accuracy of la 0.10 arcsec, with all passbands sharing the same solution. The data are taken in six different filters (U'UBVRI), cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees, and reach the 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of U'AB=26.0, UAB=25.7, BAB=26.4, VAB=25.4, RAB=25.5 and IAB=24.7 mag, as measured within a 2xFWHM aperture. The optical data covers an area of ~0.1 square degree for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared bands are also available, reaching 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of JAB~23.4 and KAB~22.6. The current optical/infrared data also fully encompass the region of the deep X-ray observations recently completed by the Chandra telescope. The optical data presented here, as well as the infrared data released earlier, are publicly

  8. Differential Emission Measure Analysis of Coronal Loop Data From AIA, EIS, and XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garst, Jennifer W.

    2011-05-01

    Last year's launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has provided additional data to constrain the temperature of coronal loops, allowing for a more detailed analysis of the nature of the heating. Specifically, the high temperature constraints that have been missing from prior analyses are now available to be considered. Images from a coronal loop on the solar disk on December 10, 2010 from both the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) instruments onboard SDO are analyzed along with data from the same date taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode. Differential emission measure techniques are used to consider whether the loops are isothermal or multithermal in nature. Conclusions regarding the comparison of this data will be presented. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NSF ATM-0402729 as well as a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO.

  9. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  10. Photoelectric photometry of the RS CVn binary EI Eridani = HD 26337

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooten, J. T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Hall, D. S.; Barksdale, W. S., Jr.; Bertoglio, A.

    1989-01-01

    Differential UBV(RI)sub KC and UBVRI photometry of the RS CVn binary EI Eridani obtained during December 1987 and January 1988 at fourteen different observatories is presented. A combined visual bandpass light curve, corrected for systematic errors of different observatories, utilizes the photometric period of 1,945 days to produce useful results. The analysis shows the visual light curve to have twin maxima, separated by about 0.4 phase, and a full amplitude of approximately 0.06 mag for the period of observation, a smaller amplitude than reported in the past. The decrease in amplitude may be due to a decrease or homogenization of spot coverage. To fit the asymmetrical light curve, a starspot model would have to employ at least two spotted regions separated in longitude.

  11. Inner zone electron radial diffusion coefficients - An update with Van Allen Probes MagEIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Fennell, Joseph; Guild, Timothy; Mazur, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bernard; Roeder, James

    2016-07-01

    Using MagEIS data from NASA's recent Van Allen Probes mission, we estimate the quiet-time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt and slot, for energies up to ~700 keV. We provide observational evidence that energy diffusion is negligible. The main dynamic processes, then, are radial diffusion and elastic pitch angle scattering. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate over pitch angle to obtain a field line content whose dynamics consist of radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere. We estimate the loss timescale from periods of exponential decay in the time series. We then estimate the radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the field line content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values. Our coefficients are consistent with diffusion by electrostatic impulses, whereas outer zone radial diffusion is thought to be dominated by electromagnetic fluctuations.

  12. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2015-03-03

    Optoelectronic devices that have enhanced internal outcoupling are disclosed. The devices include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and a hole injecting layer. The hole injecting layer includes inorganic nanoparticles that have a bimodal particle size distribution and which are dispersed in an organic matrix.

  13. Measurements of outflow velocities in on-disk plumes from EIS/Hinode observations

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hui; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Huang, Zhenghua; Jiao, Fangran; Mou, Chaozhou

    2014-10-20

    The contribution of plumes to the solar wind has been subject to hot debate in the past decades. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode provides a unique means to deduce outflow velocities at coronal heights via direct Doppler shift measurements of coronal emission lines. Such direct Doppler shift measurements were not possible with previous spectrometers. We measure the outflow velocity at coronal heights in several on-disk long-duration plumes, which are located in coronal holes (CHs) and show significant blueshifts throughout the entire observational period. In one case, a plume is measured four hours apart. The deduced outflow velocities are consistent, suggesting that the flows are quasi-steady. Furthermore, we provide an outflow velocity profile along the plumes, finding that the velocity corrected for the line-of-sight effect can reach 10 km s{sup –1} at 1.02 R {sub ☉}, 15 km s{sup –1} at 1.03 R {sub ☉}, and 25 km s{sup –1} at 1.05 R {sub ☉}. This clear signature of steady acceleration, combined with the fact that there is no significant blueshift at the base of plumes, provides an important constraint on plume models. At the height of 1.03 R {sub ☉}, EIS also deduced a density of 1.3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, resulting in a proton flux of about 4.2 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} scaled to 1 AU, which is an order of magnitude higher than the proton input to a typical solar wind if a radial expansion is assumed. This suggests that CH plumes may be an important source of the solar wind.

  14. Role of EIS in Materials and Coatings Selection for NASA's Launch Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion studies began at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966, during the Gemini/Apollo Programs, with the evaluation of long-term anti-corrosion coatings for carbon steel structures. NASAIKSC's Atmospheric Exposure Test Site was established at that time on the beach near the launch pad. In the years that followed, numerous studies at the site have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. The atmosphere at the launch pad is highly corrosive due to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean, high heat from rocket exhaust, and since the introduction of the Space Shuttle, the acidic combustion products of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). Currently, NASAIKSC maintains about $2 billion worth of unique equipment and facilities, not including the orbiters, each valued at about $1.8 billion. Among the items: two launch complexes, two crawler transporters, three mobile launch platforms, and specialized testing equipment. Atmospheric exposure provides very valuable data but it takes a long time and relies on human visual inspection. NASA Technical Standard for Protective Coatings requires 18 months of good performance at the Atmospheric Exposure Test Site for preliminary approval and continued good performance for 5 years for final approval of a coating system. The use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was introduced at KSC in 1989 as a supplement to the traditional dc electrochemical techniques and atmospheric exposure studies. This paper presents and overview of several projects in which EIS was used in order to select materials and coatings to be used at NASA's launch facilities [1-2].

  15. THE ELECTRON TEMPERATURE OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION AS DERIVED FROM EIS AND SUMER

    SciTech Connect

    Muglach, K.; Landi, E.; Doschek, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    We use UV and extreme-UV emission lines observed in quiet regions on the solar disk with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) to determine the electron temperature in solar transition region plasmas. Prominent emission lines of O IV and O VI are present in the solar spectrum, and the measured intensity line ratios provide electron temperatures in the range of log T = 5.6-6.1. We find that the theoretical O IV and O VI ion formation temperatures are considerably lower than our derived temperatures. The line ratios expected from a plasma in ionization equilibrium are larger by a factor of about 2-5 than the measured line ratios. A careful cross-calibration of SUMER and EIS has been carried out, which excludes errors in the relative calibration of the two instruments. We checked for other instrumental and observational effects, as well as line blending, and can exclude them as a possible source of the discrepancy between theoretical and observed line ratios. Using a multi-thermal quiet-Sun differential emission measure changes the theoretical line ratio by up to 28% which is not sufficient as an explanation. We also explored additional excitation mechanisms. Photoexcitation from photospheric blackbody radiation, self-absorption, and recombination into excited levels cannot be a possible solution. Adding a second Maxwellian to simulate the presence of non-thermal, high-energy electrons in the plasma distribution of velocities also did not solve the discrepancy.

  16. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, M.

    grupos españoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas débilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidrógeno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosféricos como interestelares.

  17. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Clemmons, J. H.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Schlemm, C. E.; Brown, L. E.; Cooper, S. A.; Craft, J. V.; Fennell, J. F.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hammock, C. M.; Hayes, J. R.; Hill, P. A.; Ho, G. C.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Jacques, A. D.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M. R.; Westlake, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for oxygen ions, up to >0.5 MeV (with capabilities to measure up to >1 MeV). FEEPS measures instantaneous all sky images of energetic electrons from 25 keV to >0.5 MeV, and also measures total ion energy distributions from 45 keV to >0.5 MeV to be used in conjunction with EIS to measure all sky ion distributions. In this report we describe the EPD investigation and the details of the EIS sensor. Specifically we describe EPD-level science objectives, the science and measurement requirements, and the challenges that the EPD team had in meeting these requirements. Here we also describe the design and operation of the EIS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the EIS in-flight and ground operations. Blake et al. (The Flys Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) contribution to the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation of the Magnetospheric Magnetoscale (MMS) Mission, this issue) describe the design and operation of the FEEPS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the FEEPS in-flight and ground operations. The MMS spacecraft will launch in early 2015, and over its 2-year mission will provide comprehensive measurements of magnetic reconnection at Earth

  18. Performance of New Pb-Bi Alloys for Pb-Acid Battery Applications: EIS and Polarization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Bortolozo, Ausdinir D.; Garcia, Amauri; Osório, Wislei R.

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is focused on the evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization results, associated with resulting microstructural features of two distinct as-cast Pb-Bi alloys (i.e., 1 and 2.5 wt.% Bi). EIS, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and equivalent circuits are used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The electrochemical parameters show that the corrosion resistance increases when the matrix microstructure is characterized by coarser cells when compared with finer ones. However, when a coarse cellular array is associated with increase in Bi content caused by macrosegregation during casting, the corrosion resistance decreases significantly. Bismuth modifies the anode/cathode area ratio increasing drastically the corrosion action.

  19. Performance of New Pb-Bi Alloys for Pb-Acid Battery Applications: EIS and Polarization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Bortolozo, Ausdinir D.; Garcia, Amauri; Osório, Wislei R.

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation is focused on the evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization results, associated with resulting microstructural features of two distinct as-cast Pb-Bi alloys (i.e., 1 and 2.5 wt.% Bi). EIS, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and equivalent circuits are used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The electrochemical parameters show that the corrosion resistance increases when the matrix microstructure is characterized by coarser cells when compared with finer ones. However, when a coarse cellular array is associated with increase in Bi content caused by macrosegregation during casting, the corrosion resistance decreases significantly. Bismuth modifies the anode/cathode area ratio increasing drastically the corrosion action.

  20. Effect of Different Degrees of Sensitization on the EIS Response of 316L and 316 SS in Transpassive Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed Behbahani, K.; Pakshir, M.

    2014-06-01

    Different heat treatments were conducted on 316L and 316 stainless steels, and the sensitized specimens were characterized using anodic polarization and EIS tests in 0.5 M H2SO4 containing 0.01 molar KSCN. The potential ranges related to the transpassive region related to each specimen were determined. The EIS experiments were conducted at different potentials in that region, and the results showed the presence of three different regions, namely the anodic dissolution of the passive layer, dissolution of the grain boundaries, and the occurrence of pitting corrosion owing to the variations in the anodic potential. The higher the applied sensitization temperature, the lower the obtained charge-transfer resistance ( R ct) values, but healing effect was observed at the temperatures above 600 °C for these alloys.