Sample records for eif5a1 involves activation

  1. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  2. Involvement of Fathers in Primary School Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard; Silberberg, Simone

    2006-01-01

    A telephone survey investigated the level of father involvement in primary schools in a regional area of New South Wales. Hypotheses tested were: (a) that the level of mother involvement is higher than that of fathers, and (b) that fathers are primarily involved in gender stereotypical activities. The survey also aimed to provide a benchmark for…

  3. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  4. Caspase activation is involved in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Bantel, Heike; Beikler, Thomas; Flemmig, Thomas F; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2005-10-24

    Periodontitis, a common infectious disease, is initiated by various gram-negative bacteria and characterized by the destruction of the periodontal tissue. Here, we investigated the role of caspases, intracellular proteases that are the key mediators of apoptosis. We show that activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 is considerably enhanced in gingival tissue from patients with periodontitis. We also demonstrate in in vitro experiments that various periodontopathic bacteria exert a direct growth-suppressing effect and, moreover, can trigger a host-mediated cytotoxic activity involving the CD95 death receptor. Our data suggest that caspase activation is a prominent feature in periodontitis-associated tissue injury. PMID:16213496

  5. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  6. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  7. INVOLVING HISPANIC PARENTS IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RELATIONSHIPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Salinas Sosa

    This article is based on a literature review of school districts' successful practices in involving Hispanic parents, particularly migrant and immigrant parents, in their children's school activities. It presents a brief overview of the tradition of parental involvement, followed by a force field analysis of factors, which facilitate or hinder the involvement in education of this population. Finally, the author

  8. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  9. Promoting Physical Activity through Physical Education: Increasing Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Lisa; Beighle, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how quality physical education can promote lifelong physical activity. One strategy for motivating students to be active is to get parents involved. Of the many possible sources of social support for children, parents are the most powerful. And, this remains true regardless of the age. This article provides strategies and…

  10. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  11. Involvement in 12-step Activities and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, S. E.; Subbaraman, M.; Tonigan, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study addresses the relative importance of specific 12-step activities to recovery, and how treatment affects participation in those activities. Method Data were from a clinical trial testing a 12-step facilitation intervention called MAAEZ. Participants (N=508) were recruited at treatment entry. Analyses examined 8 activities measured at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results In simultaneous equations, meeting attendance and having a sponsor were the only strong and consistent predictors of abstinence across time points, though other activities (i.e., use of a home group, befriending members, service work, and reading the literature) were significant in some analyses. Treatment involvement had mixed effects on activity participation over time. Conclusions Contradicting research suggesting that meeting attendance contributes little beyond other 12-step activities, results highlight the importance of consistent meeting attendance and sponsorship in recovery. Results suggest a need for enhanced facilitation of key activities even in typical 12-step-oriented treatment. PMID:23327505

  12. Identifying Associations between Student Achievement and Parental Involvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddle, Ann R.

    2011-01-01

    The revision and renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 will likely expand its parental involvement component to engage educators, parents, and community partners in supporting public education for children. This revisions call for best practices, but current literature fails to identify specific activities associated…

  13. Does the activity involves Research: a systematic investigation

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    : Activity is not research. NO Determination of Human Subjects Research Chart Start here Does the research reasonably expect will not be made public (for example, a medical record). Private information must or commonly accepted educational settings, involving normal education practices? (Including but not limited

  14. Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements Yoram Gutfreund,1 Tamar, Stazione Zoologica "A. Dohrn," Naples 80121, Italy The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a tar- get in a stereotyped manner using

  15. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  16. Molecular determinants involved in activation of caspase 7

    PubMed Central

    BOUCHER, Dave; BLAIS, Véronique; DRAG, Marcin; DENAULT, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS During apoptosis, initiator caspases (8, 9, and 10) activate downstream executioner caspases (3, 6, and 7) by cleaving the interdomain connector (IDC) at two sites. Here, we demonstrate that both activation sites, site 1 and site 2, of caspase 7 are suboptimal for activation by initiator caspases 8 and 9 in cellulo, and in vitro using recombinant proteins and activation kinetics. Indeed, when both sites are replaced with the preferred motifs recognized by either caspases 8 and 9, we measured improvement in activation of up to 36 folds. Moreover, cleavage at site 1 is preferred over site 2 because of its location within the IDC since swapping sites does not lead to a more efficient activation. We also demonstrate the paramount role of Ile195 of site 1 involved in maintaining a network of contacts that preserves the proper conformation of the active enzyme. Finally, we show that the length of the IDC plays a crucial role in maintaining the need for proteolysis for activation. In fact, although we were unable to generate a caspase 7 that does not require proteolysis for activity, shortening the IDC of the initiator caspase 8 by four residues was sufficient to confer a requirement for proteolysis, a key feature of executioner caspases. Altogether, the results demonstrate the critical role of the primary structure of caspase 7’s IDC for its activation and proteolytic activity. PMID:20942802

  17. Involvement in 12-step activities and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zemore, Sarah E; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relative importance of specific 12-step activities to recovery, and how treatment affects participation in those activities. Data were from a clinical trial testing a 12-step facilitation intervention called MAAEZ (Making AA [Alcohol Anonymous] Easier). Participants (N = 508) were recruited at treatment entry. Analyses examined 8 activities measured at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. In simultaneous equations, meeting attendance and having a sponsor were the only strong and consistent predictors of abstinence across time points, though other activities (i.e., use of a home group, befriending members, service work, and reading the literature) were significant in some analyses. Treatment involvement had mixed effects on activity participation over time. Contradicting research suggesting that meeting attendance contributes little beyond other 12-step activities, the current results highlight the importance of consistent meeting attendance and sponsorship in recovery. The results suggest a need for enhanced facilitation of key activities even in typical 12-step-oriented treatment. PMID:23327505

  18. Regulation of ROMK1 K+ channel activity involves phosphorylation processes.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, C M; Wang, W; Ho, K; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G

    1994-01-01

    An inwardly rectifying, ATP-regulated K+ channel with a distinctive molecular architecture, ROMK1, was recently cloned from rat kidney. Using patch clamp techniques, we have investigated the regulation of ROMK1 with particular emphasis on phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes. Spontaneous channel rundown occurred after excision of membrane patches into ATP-free bath solutions in the presence of Mg2+. Channel rundown was almost completely abolished after excision of patches into either Mg(2+)-free bathing solutions or after preincubation with the broad-spectrum phosphatase inhibitor, orthovanadate, in the presence of Mg2+. MgATP preincubation also inhibited channel rundown in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of the specific phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid (1 microM) and calyculin A (1 microM) was also investigated. The presence of either okadaic acid or calyculin A failed to inhibit channel rundown. Taken together, these data suggest that rundown of ROMK1 involves a Mg(2+)-dependent dephosphorylation process. Channel activity was also partially restored after the addition of MgATP to the bath solution. Addition of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit led to a further increase in channel open probability. Addition of Na2ATP, in the absence of Mg2+, was ineffective, suggesting that restoration of channel activity is a Mg(2+)-dependent process. Addition of the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, to the bath solution led to a partial, reversible inhibition in channel activity. Thus, PKA-dependent phosphorylation processes are involved in the modulation of channel activity. This observation is consistent with the presence of potential PKA phosphorylation sites on ROMK1. Images PMID:8058760

  19. Involving Community Stakeholders to Increase Park Use and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Terry; Mariscal, Mark; Pina-Cortez, Sophia; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe implementation of a randomized controlled trial of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to increase park use and physical activity across 33 diverse neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Methods Fifty parks were randomly assigned based on park size, facilities and programs, and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics to: park director (PD, 17 parks); PD and park advisory board of interested community members (PD+PAB, 16 parks); and no-intervention control (17 parks) arms. Between 2007 and 2012, PDs and PABs from the 33 intervention parks participated in community engagement, baseline assessment, marketing training, intervention design and implementation, and follow-up assessment. Results Intervention parks (PD and PD+PAB) invested in new and diversified signage, promotional items, outreach or support for group activities like fitness classes and walking clubs, and various marketing strategies. Scaling up CBPR methods across parks in 33 diverse neighborhoods was challenging. Working with departmental management and established structures for community input (PABs) and park policy (PDs) facilitated implementation and sustainability. Conclusion Scaling up CBPR methods across diverse communities involved tradeoffs. CBPR is useful for tailoring research and enhancing community impact and sustainability, but more work is needed to understand how to conduct multi-site trials across diverse settings using CBPR. PMID:24674853

  20. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  1. Cell surface structures involved in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Lancki, D W; Ma, D I; Havran, W L; Fitch, F W

    1984-10-01

    We have discussed four specific models which provide different kinds of information about the requirements for T cell activation. The first utilized a CTL clone designated L3, which is reactive specifically with Ld alloantigen, to study the involvement of the associative recognition structure Lyt-2 in cytolysis. The apparent requirements for activation of this CTL clone differ depending on whether the target cells bear specific alloantigen or are hybridoma cells which express on their cell surface a clonotypic antibody which reacts specifically with the L3 T cell receptor for antigen. When the antigen receptor reacts with alloantigen on the allogeneic target cell, cytolysis is inhibited by anti-Lyt-2 antibody. However, when the clonotypic antibody of the target cell reacts with the antigen receptor of the T cell, cytolysis is much less inhibited by anti-Lyt-2 antibody. The antigen receptor seems to be responsible for the specificity of both these interactions but the avidity of the interaction between CTL and target cell seems to differ in the two situations. Evidence that participation of the L3T4 associative recognition structure on HTL is less important for cloned T cells which have higher affinity antigen receptors was provided by the second model system which used cloned HTL selected for optimal responses to different concentrations of nominal antigen. Proliferative responses of those clones which responded to lower antigen concentrations were less readily inhibited by anti-L3T4 mAb. Evidence provided by these two model systems is consistent with the concept that associative recognition structures are of lesser importance for T cell activation for those T cells which have higher affinity antigen receptors. In the third model system, we have identified several monoclonal antibodies which augment proliferative response of cloned T cells to sub-optimal amounts of IL-2, probably by reacting with the antigen receptor or with the associated Leu-4/T3 structure. The reactivity patterns of these antibodies indicate that several different epitopes are being recognized. Some appear to be clonotypic although they do not block functional activity of the clone with which they react. Others react with all T clones which we have tested. Several of these react with a cell surface antigen which is expressed at about the same level as the clonotypic structures: these antibodies may react with the murine equivalent of the human Leu-4/T3 molecular complex. One of the "pan-T cell" antibodies which augments IL-2-induced T cell proliferation appears to react with Thy-1; this antibody is similar to one described recently by Gunter et al. (1984).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6239820

  2. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  3. Involvement in 12-step Activities and Treatment Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Zemore; Meenakshi Subbaraman; J. Scott Tonigan

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the relative importance of specific 12-step activities to recovery, and how treatment affects participation in those activities.Method: Data were from a clinical trial testing a 12-step facilitation intervention called MAAEZ. Participants (N = 508) were recruited at treatment entry. Analyses examined 8 activities measured at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months.Results: In simultaneous equations,

  4. Office of Student Involvement A. Student Activities and Organizations

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    role in the total University life and must, therefore, exercise judgment and responsibility for rational and effective operation in the University community. 1. Student Organizations a. Benefits not to get involved. These benefits are even more enhanced for those students who take on leadership roles

  5. Overview of Corps of Engineers waste containment activities involving geosynthetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Jaros

    1996-01-01

    Containment has proven to be a viable option for remediating many hazardous waste sites. The US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has been involved in the design and\\/or construction of more than 40 landfill remediation projects for Superfund projects and military installations since 1982. Geosynthetics have played a major role in the success of these projects. This paper focuses on

  6. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT...indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or misuse...for prosecution. (b) Debts involving fraud, false, claims, or...

  7. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT...indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or misuse...for prosecution. (b) Debts involving fraud, false, claims, or...

  8. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT...indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or misuse...for prosecution. (b) Debts involving fraud, false, claims, or...

  9. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT...indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or misuse...for prosecution. (b) Debts involving fraud, false, claims, or...

  10. Antioxidant activity evaluation involving hemoglobin-related free radical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mot, Augustin C; Bischin, Cristina; Damian, Grigore; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Two methods for the measurement of antioxidant capacity are described: one based on a chronometric variation of a hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase assay and the other based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra collected upon alkaline treatment of ethanolic samples. The involved chemical mechanisms are discussed, alongside the most important benefits and shortcomings; the assays offer new qualitative and quantitative information on samples of biological as well as synthetic origin. PMID:25323512

  11. Human tracking studies involving an actively powered, augmented exoskeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Repperger; B. O. Hill; C. Hasser; M. Roark; C. A. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    An actively powered, augmented, exoskeleton system is studied within a speed-accuracy performance task framework with human subjects. This system has a dual use in military applications as well as for the rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders

  12. A discrete alcohol pocket involved in GIRK channel activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prafulla Aryal; Hay Dvir; Senyon Choe; Paul A Slesinger

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol modifies neural activity in the brain by modulating ion channels. Ethanol activates G protein–gated inwardly rectifying K+ channels, but the molecular mechanism is not well understood. Here, we used a crystal structure of a mouse inward rectifier containing a bound alcohol and structure-based mutagenesis to probe a putative alcohol-binding pocket located in the cytoplasmic domains of GIRK channels. Substitutions

  13. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-?-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to natural sex differentiation, during sex inversion treatments, androgens, either endogenous or exogenous, participate in inducing testicular differentiation. PMID:24815887

  14. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  15. Identification and Characterization of in Vitro Galactosyltransferase Activities Involved in

    E-print Network

    Showalter, Allan M.

    of [AO] repetitive units, specifically, a chemically synthesized [AO]7 acceptor and a transgenically]Gal monosaccharide and Hyp-[14 C]Gal disaccharide were identified in the base hydrolysates of the GalT reaction gradient centrifugation. The in vitro assay reported here to detect GalT activities using AGP peptide

  16. Patterns of Arm Muscle Activation Involved in Octopus Reaching Movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram Gutfreund; Tamar Flash; Graziano Fiorito; Binyamin Hochner

    1998-01-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a tar- get in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation (electromyogram (EMG))

  17. Support Staff Involvement in Library Planning: A Staff Development Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ruth H.; Davis, H. Scott

    In this report, the collective experience of non-professional support staff in academic libraries is suggested to be an invaluable--and often overlooked--human resource in long-range library planning. At Indiana State University Libraries, a special staff development activity was formulated to tap the creative energy of the library support staff…

  18. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid involved in endothelial activation and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Hua; He, Jinlong; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Zhizhen; Zhang, Youyi; Han, Jingyan; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in the process of coagulation and the function of platelets. We have previously reported that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, increased platelet aggregation and induced hemostasis. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether 20-HETE-mediated endothelial activation has effect on the coagulation and platelet aggregation. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with PBS or 20-HETE (20 ?g/kg) for 2 h, and then we performed a carotid artery or femoral artery thrombosis model by FeCl3. Detection of blood flow indicated that 20-HETE pretreatment accelerated formation of thrombus in both common carotid artery and femoral artery. In vitro, the secretion and expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with 20-HETE stimulation were increased, subsequently. The protein level of vWF in HUVECs was decreased at 1 h but increased with prolonged treatment with 20-HETE (>4 h). In contrast, vWF in the culture medium was increased under administration of 20-HETE at 1 h. As a result, adhesion of platelets on HUVECs was significantly increased by 20-HETE. In HUVECs, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was activated by 20-HETE in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitors of ERK and L-type Ca(2+) channel blocked the release of vWF mediated by 20-HETE. In conclusion, 20-HETE instigates endothelial activation and induces the expression and secretion of vWF via the activation of ERK and calcium channel and therefore triggers thrombosis. PMID:25820395

  19. Exercise and youth: Physical activity,sport involvement, and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Wigger

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes Plenary Session I, “Exercise and Youth,” at the 6th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (Cologne, 24–28 July 2001). The session provided a broad overview of current knowledge and progress in the field. Using the results of cross-sectional studies, Dietrich Kurz of Germany demonstrated associations between sport activity and personal attributes of psychosocial and

  20. Hemolysis-induced lethality involves inflammasome activation by heme.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fabianno F; Alves, Letícia S; Rodrigues, Danielle; Fernandez, Patricia L; de Oliveira, Rosane B; Golenbock, Douglas T; Zamboni, Dario S; Bozza, Marcelo T

    2014-09-30

    The increase of extracellular heme is a hallmark of hemolysis or extensive cell damage. Heme has prooxidant, cytotoxic, and inflammatory effects, playing a central role in the pathogenesis of malaria, sepsis, and sickle cell disease. However, the mechanisms by which heme is sensed by innate immune cells contributing to these diseases are not fully characterized. We found that heme, but not porphyrins without iron, activated LPS-primed macrophages promoting the processing of IL-1? dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). The activation of NLRP3 by heme required spleen tyrosine kinase, NADPH oxidase-2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and K(+) efflux, whereas it was independent of heme internalization, lysosomal damage, ATP release, the purinergic receptor P2X7, and cell death. Importantly, our results indicated the participation of macrophages, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and IL-1R in the lethality caused by sterile hemolysis. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways affected by heme in innate immune cells might prove useful to identify new therapeutic targets for diseases that have heme release. PMID:25225402

  1. Involving Low-Income Parents and Parents of Color in College Readiness Activities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Cheryl Holcomb

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory and descriptive study that examined the parental involvement beliefs, attitudes, and activities of 22 high school counselors who work in high-poverty and high-minority schools. More specifically, this study examined school counselors' beliefs and activities about involving parents in the college admission…

  2. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...research involving human subjects shall...of the research activity, and the contracting...covered research activities at intervals appropriate...to the degree of risk, but not less than...Covered research activities that are expected...Protection of Human Subjects:...

  3. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...standards development group for leadership positions. Staff's leadership role may involve helping the...regarding definitions, lists the types of activities that may comprise...voting member of, or in a leadership position on, a...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.501 - Who is involved in monitoring activities under NAHASDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Recipient Monitoring, Oversight and Accountability § 1000.501 Who is involved in...

  5. 75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...101103543-0543-02] Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...the impact that implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act...

  6. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  7. Understanding Threshold Effects of Organized Activity Involvement in Adolescents: Sex and Family Income as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Edin T.; Bohnert, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the curvilinear links between involvement in organized activities (OA) and sport activities specifically and various indicators of psychological and social development. Participants included 150 9th and 10th graders (57% females) from an urban, selective-enrollment high school. Eligibility for admission is based on city…

  8. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal in mice

    E-print Network

    Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal to stress responsivity during cocaine withdrawal (WD). Recent studies suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the CeA is a downstream effector protein for CRF after acute "binge" cocaine

  9. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round...

  10. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round...

  11. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round...

  12. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712...Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round...

  13. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to zero...

  14. An agent-based collaborative design system to facilitate active diemaker involvement in stamping part design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunbing Tang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative design environment to facilitate active die-maker involvement in metal stamping product development. First, the role of die-maker in the metal stamping development process chain is analyzed comprehensively. The author takes the view that the die-maker should be involved in new product development processes as early as possible to enable concurrent engineering practice in metal

  15. 814 Journal of Lipid Research Volume 41, 2000 Involvement of the peroxisome proliferator-activated

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    , it can be suppressed 90% by feeding a fat-free diet. These data demonstrate that the nutritional regulation of the thioesterases involves the PPAR and other signaling pathways responsible for activation and repression. Putative physiological functions for the acyl-CoA thioesterases are discussed.--Hunt, M. C., P. J

  16. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison M. Kirby; Lucie Lévesque; Virginia Wabano; Jennifer Robertson-Wilson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This

  17. Adult Work Motivation for Involvement in Shared Governance Activities among Faculty Senate Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.

    Higher education institutions rely increasingly on their faculty to create, implement, and validate administrative decisions. As a result, the position of faculty governance body leader provides a meaningful example of the type of faculty member who becomes involved in campus activities outside the normal workload. This study examined the work…

  18. 1 Introduction The occurrence of terrorism activities involves various social, political, and economic

    E-print Network

    1 Introduction The occurrence of terrorism activities involves various social, political of such terror acts, including the specific tactics, weapons, target types, or fatalities inflicted, also change that will assist analysts, policymakers, and practitioners who are attempting to understand the trends of terrorism

  19. Beyond Participation: The Association between School Extracurricular Activities and Involvement in Violence across Generations of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study…

  20. Student Activism -- and Involvement in the Educational Program. Federation AdHoc Committee Report, January, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Federation of District Boards of Education, Trenton.

    This report notes that (1) activism is preferable to apathy, (2) larger problems loom for schools that fail to involve parents and community, (3) board member and administrator rigidity can cause conflict, and (4) black and Spanish-speaking students have special problems. Recommendations for school administrators and teachers emphasize sincerity…

  1. Finding enzymes that are actively involved in cancer Matthew Bogyo1

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    -spectrum serine hydrolase probe to profile human pancreatic cancer tissues. These efforts ledFinding enzymes that are actively involved in cancer Matthew Bogyo1 Department of Pathology tu- morigenesis in many different types of human cancers. The large roadmaps of gene and protein

  2. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  3. Involvement of Macromolecule Biosynthesis in Auxin and Fusicoccin Enhancement of ?-Glucan Synthase Activity in Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    In pea stem segments whose cuticle has been made permeable by abrading it, actinomycin D (ActD) and 80S ribosomal protein synthesis inhibitors such as cycloheximide (CHI) inhibit enhancement by indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) of the activity of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme, glucan synthase I (GS). This supersedes earlier, negative results with inhibitors, obtained with segments having an intact cuticle, which prevents adequate inhibitor uptake. Since these inhibitors also block IAA-stimulated H+ extrusion, which according to earlier results is involved in the GS response, the significance of these inhibitions would be ambiguous without additional evidence. ActD does not inhibit fusicoccin (FC) enhancement of GS activity, which indicates existence of a post-transcriptional control mechanism for GS, but does not preclude involvement of transcription in the GS response to IAA. Although protein synthesis inhibitors such as CHI do not block FC-stimulated H+ extrusion, they do inhibit FC enhancement of GS activity, indicating an involvement of protein synthesis in the GS response to FC, and presumably also to IAA. However, protein synthesis inhibitors (but not ActD) by themselves paradoxically elevate GS activity, less strongly than IAA does but resembling the IAA enhancement in several characteristics. These results suggest that IAA may enhance GS activity at least in part by inhibiting the synthesis or action of a labile repressor of the transcription of, or a labile destabilizer of, mRNA for GS or some polypeptide that enhances GS activity. However, resemblances between the IAA and FC effects on GS suggest that IAA also has a posttranscriptional GS-enhancing action like that of FC. Lipid biosynthesis may be involved in this aspect of the response since both IAA and FC enhancements of GS activity are inhibited by cerulenin. PMID:16665730

  4. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  5. Calanquinone A induces anti-glioblastoma activity through glutathione-involved DNA damage and AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan-Lun; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Lee, Yean-Jang; Dong, Yu-Shun; Kung, Fan-Lu; Chen, Ching-Shih; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, a highly malignant glioma, is resistant to both radiation and chemotherapy and is an intractable problem in clinical treatment. New therapeutic approaches are in urgent need. Calanquinone A, an herbal constituent, displayed anti-proliferative activity against glioblastoma cells, including A172, T98 and U87. Flow cytometric analysis showed an S phase arrest and a subsequent apoptosis to calanquinone A action. Further identification demonstrated a rapid increase of ?H2A.X formation at S phase. The data together with comet tail formation and Chk1 activation indicated DNA damage response. N-acetyl cysteine (an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor) and exogenously applied glutathione, but not trolox (an antioxidant), completely abolished calanquinone A-induced effects. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that calanquinone A decreased the intracellular glutathione levels in both A172 and T98 cells. However, calanquinone A, by itself, did not conjugate glutathione. The data suggested that the decrease of cellular glutathione predominantly contributed to the anticancer mechanism. Furthermore, calanquinone A induced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the inhibition of p70S6K activity. Rhodamine efflux assay showed that calanquinone A did not block efflux activity, indicating that calanquinone A was not a P-glycoprotein substrate. In summary, the data suggest that calanquinone A displays anti-glioblastoma activity through a decrease of cellular glutathione levels that subsequently induces DNA damage stress and AMPK activation, leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, calanquinone A does not serve as a P-glycoprotein substrate, suggesting a potential for further development in anti-glioblastoma therapy. PMID:24607408

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saxifragin via Inhibition of NF-?B Involves Caspase-1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Se-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Jeon, Eunjin; Nugroho, Agung; Park, Hee-Jun; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-07-24

    Saxifragin, the 5-glucoside of the flavonoid quercetin, is found in plants and insects. It has been reported that saxifragin has peroxynitrite-scavenging effects. However, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of saxifragin has not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of saxifragin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and animal models of inflammation. We found that saxifragin suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by suppressing the level of protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. Furthermore, saxifragin inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1?. We studied the inhibitory effects of saxifragin on the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B, activation of caspase-1, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pretreatment with saxifragin increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced septic death. Collectively, these findings suggest that saxifragin exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-?B, caspase-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. PMID:26171782

  7. Mechanism of IL-1? Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Rana; Guo, Shuhong; Ye, Dongmei; Dokladny, Karol; Alhmoud, Tarik; Ereifej, Lisa; Said, Hamid M.

    2013-01-01

    The defective intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier has been postulated to be an important pathogenic factor contributing to intestinal inflammation. It has been shown that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? causes an increase in intestinal permeability; however, the signaling pathways and the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the p38 kinase pathway and the molecular processes involved. In these studies, the in vitro intestinal epithelial model system (Caco-2 monolayers) was used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and a complementary in vivo mouse model system (intestinal perfusion) was used to assess the in vivo relevance of the in vitro findings. Our data indicated that the IL-1? increase in Caco-2 TJ permeability correlated with an activation of p38 kinase. The activation of p38 kinase caused phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase substrate, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif on the myosin L chain kinase (MLCK) promoter region, leading to the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. Small interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation of the ATF-2 binding motif prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. Additionally, in vivo intestinal perfusion studies also indicated that the IL-1? increase in mouse intestinal permeability required p38 kinase–dependent activation of ATF-2. In conclusion, these studies show that the IL-1?–induced increase in intestinal TJ permeability in vitro and in vivo was regulated by p38 kinase activation of ATF-2 and by ATF-2 regulation of MLCK gene activity. PMID:23656735

  8. Oclacitinib (APOQUEL®) is a novel Janus kinase inhibitor with activity against cytokines involved in allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, A J; Bowman, J W; Fici, G J; Zhang, M; Mann, D W; Mitton-Fry, M

    2014-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) enzymes are involved in cell signaling pathways activated by various cytokines dysregulated in allergy. The objective of this study was to determine whether the novel JAK inhibitor oclacitinib could reduce the activity of cytokines implicated in canine allergic skin disease. Using isolated enzyme systems and in vitro human or canine cell models, potency and selectivity of oclacitinib was determined against JAK family members and cytokines that trigger JAK activation in cells. Oclacitinib inhibited JAK family members by 50% at concentrations (IC50's) ranging from 10 to 99 nm and did not inhibit a panel of 38 non-JAK kinases (IC50's > 1000 nm). Oclacitinib was most potent at inhibiting JAK1 (IC50 = 10 nm). Oclacitinib also inhibited the function of JAK1-dependent cytokines involved in allergy and inflammation (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13) as well as pruritus (IL-31) at IC50's ranging from 36 to 249 nm. Oclacitinib had minimal effects on cytokines that did not activate the JAK1 enzyme in cells (erythropoietin, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-12, IL-23; IC50's > 1000 nm). These results demonstrate that oclacitinib is a targeted therapy that selectively inhibits JAK1-dependent cytokines involved in allergy, inflammation, and pruritus and suggests these are the mechanisms by which oclacitinib effectively controls clinical signs associated with allergic skin disease in dogs. PMID:24495176

  9. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2014-09-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity. PMID:25204451

  10. Differential involvement of amygdala and cortical NMDA receptors activation upon encoding in odor fear memory.

    PubMed

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guillaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the BLA and olfactory cortex at discrete moments of an odor fear conditioning session. We showed that NMDA receptors in BLA are critically involved in odor fear acquisition during the first association but not during the next ones. In the cortex, NMDA receptor activation at encoding is not necessary for recent odor fear memory while its role in remote memory storage needs further investigation. PMID:25403452

  11. Signalling pathways involved in oocyte growth, acquisition of competence and activation.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cláudia; Silva, Joana Vieira; Silva, Vladimiro; Torgal, Isabel; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-06-01

    The oocyte's primary function is to be fertilised by a spermatozoon in order to create a viable embryo. Oocyte growth and development are initiated during embryogenesis and occur in parallel to follicular development. Factors produced by the oocyte bind to receptors on follicular cells, ensuring follicular development. Oocytes begin meiosis during foetal development and are arrested in prophase I by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases triggers degradation of cAMP, allowing oocyte maturation to proceed. The production of progesterone and prostaglandins during the ovulation process ultimately activates proteases, whose action helps to release the oocyte into the Fallopian tube. Oocyte activation depends on fertilisation and is induced by changes in intracellular calcium levels. Dysregulation of these pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including the syndrome of oocyte maturation failure. PMID:25738216

  12. UV-induced activation of AP-1 involves obligatory extranuclear steps including Raf-1 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Radler-Pohl, A; Sachsenmaier, C; Gebel, S; Auer, H P; Bruder, J T; Rapp, U; Angel, P; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation of cells with ultraviolet light (UV) leads to modifications of c-Jun resembling those elicited by phorbol esters or oncogenes, and to enhanced transcription of AP-1-dependent genes. The UV-induced signal also triggers activation of Raf-1 and MAP-2 kinases. A dominant-negative Raf-1 kinase mutant strongly interferes with both phorbol ester and UV-induced AP-1 activation, indicating obligatory involvement of identical components in cytoplasmic signal transduction. Thus, from a presumably nuclear site of energy absorption, a signal needs to be transmitted to the cytoplasm in order to achieve activation of a nuclear transcription factor. Further, signals elicited from different primary sites merge prior to or at the level of activation of Raf-1 kinase. Images PMID:8384549

  13. Direct evidence for involvement of dopaminergic inhibition and cholinergic activation in yawning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsushi Yamada; Tatsuo Furukawa

    1980-01-01

    A behavioral study was performed in an attempt to understand the neurological mechanism involved in yawning in rats. Intraperitoneal injections of low doses (0.25 mg\\/kg) of apomorphine, which preferentially activate presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors, elicited yawning. Whereas apomorphine, at a high dose of 2 mg\\/kg, produces stereotypy which has been thought to be mediated by stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors. The

  14. Acoustic input and efferent activity regulate the expression of molecules involved in cochlear micromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Veronica; Arévalo, Juan C.; Juiz, José M.; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Electromotile activity in auditory outer hair cells (OHCs) is essential for sound amplification. It relies on the highly specialized membrane motor protein prestin, and its interactions with the cytoskeleton. It is believed that the expression of prestin and related molecules involved in OHC electromotility may be dynamically regulated by signals from the acoustic environment. However little is known about the nature of such signals and how they affect the expression of molecules involved in electromotility in OHCs. We show evidence that prestin oligomerization is regulated, both at short and relatively long term, by acoustic input and descending efferent activity originating in the cortex, likely acting in concert. Unilateral removal of the middle ear ossicular chain reduces levels of trimeric prestin, particularly in the cochlea from the side of the lesion, whereas monomeric and dimeric forms are maintained or even increased in particular in the contralateral side, as shown in Western blots. Unilateral removal of the auditory cortex (AC), which likely causes an imbalance in descending efferent activity on the cochlea, also reduces levels of trimeric and tetrameric forms of prestin in the side ipsilateral to the lesion, whereas in the contralateral side prestin remains unaffected, or even increased in the case of trimeric and tetrameric forms. As far as efferent inputs are concerned, unilateral ablation of the AC up-regulates the expression of ?10 nicotinic Ach receptor (nAChR) transcripts in the cochlea, as shown by RT-Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This suggests that homeostatic synaptic scaling mechanisms may be involved in dynamically regulating OHC electromotility by medial olivocochlear efferents. Limited, unbalanced efferent activity after unilateral AC removal, also affects prestin and ?-actin mRNA levels. These findings support that the concerted action of acoustic and efferent inputs to the cochlea is needed to regulate the expression of major molecules involved in OHC electromotility, both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:25653600

  15. Enterobacter-Activated Mosquito Immune Responses to Plasmodium Involve Activation of SRPN6 in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Successful development of Plasmodium in the mosquito is essential for the transmission of malaria. A major bottleneck in parasite numbers occurs during midgut invasion, partly as a consequence of the complex interactions between the endogenous microbiota and the mosquito immune response. We previously identified SRPN6 as an immune component which restricts Plasmodium berghei development in the mosquito. Here we demonstrate that SRPN6 is differentially activated by bacteria in Anopheles stephensi, but only when bacteria exposure occurs on the lumenal surface of the midgut epithelium. Our data indicate that AsSRPN6 is strongly induced following exposure to Enterobacter cloacae, a common component of the mosquito midgut microbiota. We conclude that AsSRPN6 is a vital component of the E. cloacae-mediated immune response that restricts Plasmodium development in the mosquito An. stephensi. PMID:23658788

  16. Involvement of cannabinoid receptor-1 activation in mitochondrial depolarizing effect of lipopolysaccharide in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Costanzo, M; Battista, N; Maccarrone, M; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

    2014-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in urogenital tract infections release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS); its receptor, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), has been recently identified in human spermatozoa, and its direct activation has been suggested in mediating adverse effects of LPS on human spermatozoa. However, the underlying signal transduction remains to be clarified. In other cell types, LPS induces the generation of endocannabinoids, which are involved in mediating endotoxin effects. In human spermatozoa, which exhibit a completely functional endocannabinoid system, the activation of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inhibited sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a contribution of CB1 activation by sperm-generated endocannabinoids in the adverse effects exerted by LPS on human spermatozoa. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to E. coli LPS produced a significant decrease in sperm ??m, assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, similar to that induced by Metanandamide (Met-AEA), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of the endocannabinoid AEA. The LPS-induced inhibition of ??m was prevented by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716. However, the inhibition of ??m induced by either LPS or Met-AEA did not affect sperm motility. Consistent with this finding, the CB1-mediated inhibition of ??m was neither associated to mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species as evaluated by flow cytometry with MytoSox Red nor to apoptosis pathway activation as evaluated with cytoflorimetric assay for activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Any oxidative genomic damage was also ruled out with the cytoflorimetric quantification of the oxidized base adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In conclusion, E. coli LPS inhibited sperm ??m through the activation of CB1, but this effect was not accompanied to the activation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptotic/oxidative mechanisms, which could affect sperm motility and genomic integrity. PMID:24692267

  17. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

    PubMed Central

    Sani, M. H. Mohd.; Zakaria, Z. A.; Balan, T.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500?mg/kg) was administered orally 60?min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5?mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:22611437

  18. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved.

    PubMed

    Sani, M H Mohd; Zakaria, Z A; Balan, T; Teh, L K; Salleh, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500?mg/kg) was administered orally 60?min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5?mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:22611437

  19. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  20. Why is quercetin a better antioxidant than taxifolin? Theoretical study of mechanisms involving activated forms.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison; Pérez, Edwin G; Areche, Carlos; Ruiz, Lina María; Cassels, Bruce K; Flórez, Elizabeth; Tiznado, William

    2013-05-01

    The stronger antioxidant capacity of the flavonoid quercetin (Q) compared with taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, T) has been the subject of previous experimental and theoretical studies. Theoretical work has focused on the analysis of hydrogen bond dissociation energies (BDE) of the OH phenolic groups, but consider mechanisms that only involve the transfer of one hydrogen atom. In the present work we consider other mechanisms involving a second hydrogen transfer in reactions with free radicals. The relative stability of the radicals formed after the first hydrogen transfer reaction is considered in discussing the antioxidant activity of Q and T. In terms of global and local theoretical reactivity descriptors, we propose that the radical arising from Q should be more persistent in the environment and with the capability to react with a second radical by hydrogen transfer, proton transfer and electron transfer mechanisms. These mechanisms could be responsible of the stronger antioxidant capacity of Q. PMID:23283546

  1. Sp1/Sp3 involved in activation of GATA-1 Cell Research | Vol 18 No 2 | February 2008

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Sp1/Sp3 involved in activation of GATA-1 302 npg Cell Research | Vol 18 No 2 | February 2008 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Involvement of Sp1/Sp3 in the activation of the GATA-1 erythroid promoter in K562 cells August 2007; published online 15 January 2008 GATA-1 is a hematopoietic transcription factor

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Lung Injury Involves the Nitration-mediated Activation of RhoA*

    PubMed Central

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Kangath, Archana; Gross, Christine; Pardo, Daniel; Sharma, Shruti; Jezierska-Drutel, Agnieszka; Patel, Vijay; Snead, Connie; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander; Fulton, David; Catravas, John D.; Black, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by increased endothelial hyperpermeability. Protein nitration is involved in the endothelial barrier dysfunction in LPS-exposed mice. However, the nitrated proteins involved in this process have not been identified. The activation of the small GTPase RhoA is a critical event in the barrier disruption associated with LPS. Thus, in this study we evaluated the possible role of RhoA nitration in this process. Mass spectroscopy identified a single nitration site, located at Tyr34 in RhoA. Tyr34 is located within the switch I region adjacent to the nucleotide-binding site. Utilizing this structure, we developed a peptide designated NipR1 (nitration inhibitory peptide for RhoA 1) to shield Tyr34 against nitration. TAT-fused NipR1 attenuated RhoA nitration and barrier disruption in LPS-challenged human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Further, treatment of mice with NipR1 attenuated vessel leakage and inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved lung function in a mouse model of ALI. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the mechanism by which Tyr34 nitration stimulates RhoA activity was through a decrease in GDP binding to the protein caused by a conformational change within a region of Switch I, mimicking the conformational shift observed when RhoA is bound to a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Stopped flow kinetic analysis was used to confirm this prediction. Thus, we have identified a new mechanism of nitration-mediated RhoA activation involved in LPS-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction and show the potential utility of “shielding” peptides to prevent RhoA nitration in the management of ALI. PMID:24398689

  3. Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Allison M; Lévesque, Lucie; Wabano, Virgina; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1) from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages) were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking) included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA promotion in rural environments where Aboriginal people face many unique environmental features (e.g., bears, mosquitoes, extreme cold) are discussed. PMID:18053217

  4. Inhibition of fast axonal transport by pathogenic SOD1 involves activation of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Morfini, Gerardo A; Bosco, Daryl A; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J; Pigino, Gustavo F; Watterson, D Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H; Brady, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  5. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  6. Ca2+-calcineurin signaling is involved in norepinephrine-induced cardiac fibroblasts activation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chun-Jing; Pang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) activation plays a vital role in cardiac fibrosis. There are some studies demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE, an ?1-adrenoceptor agonist) induced CFs proliferation. But whether Ca2+-calcineurin, a signaling concerned with growth and differentiation in various cell types, is participated in NE-induced CFs activation is unclear. In present study, we determined NE-induced CFs proliferation and differentiation, synthesis of collagen, and calcineurin (CaN) activity, and the effects of phentolamine (Phen, an ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist), verapamil (Ver, a calcium channel blocker) and cyclosporine A (CsA, an inhibitor of CaN) on NE-induced CFs activation. The results showed that NE induced CFs proliferation and differentiation, increased ?-SMA protein expression, increased collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin production, promoted ECM expression, activated CaN and increased CaN protein expression, which were inhibited by Phen, Ver and CsA. In vivo, more collagen deposition could be observed and total collagen volume fraction (CVF) was significantly increased in NE group. Phen, Ver and CsA decreased NE-induced collagen deposition, reduced cardiac fibrosis. Thus, our results demonstrate that Ca2+/CaN is involved in NE-induced CFs proliferation and collagen synthesis.

  7. GSK3? signaling is involved in ultraviolet B-induced activation of autophagy in epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; WANG, HAIPING; WANG, SIYING; XU, MEI; LIU, MEI; LIAO, MINGJUN; FRANK, JACQUELINE A.; ADHIKARI, SABAL; BOWER, KIMBERLY A.; SHI, XIANGLIN; MA, CUILING; LUO, JIA

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes damage to skin and represents the primary etiological agent for skin cancer formation. UVB induces DNA damage and apoptosis in epidermal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB activated autophagy in JB6 epidermal cells, which was evident by the formation of LC3 puncta, the induction of LC3 lipidation, the increase in beclin 1 expression, and the decrease in the levels of p62. Autophagy appeared to be a protective response to UVB-induced damage because inhibition of autophagy exacerbated UVB-induced cell death, and stimulation of autophagy offered protection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) was involved in UVB-induced autophagy. UVB inhibited GSK3? activation by simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation at Ser9 and suppressing Tyr216 phosphorylation. GSK3? negatively regulated autophagy; overexpression of wild-type or S9A (constitutive-active) GSK3? mutant inhibited UVB-mediated autophagy, while overexpression of a dominant-negative K85R mutant enhanced UVB-mediated autophagy. Inhibition of GSK3? also offered protection against UVB-mediated damage. UVB activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of autophagy through the inhibition of GSK3?. Taken together, our results suggest that UVB-stimulated autophagy is a protective response for epidermal cells and is mediated by the GSK3?/AMPK pathway. PMID:22961228

  8. Involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in irinotecan-induced delayed-onset diarrhea in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Onoue; Akinobu Kurita; Shoichi Kado; Tsuneo Matsumoto; Norimasa Kaneda; Kazumi Uchida; Ikuo Kato; Teruo Yokokura

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity in episodes of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-induced\\u000a delayed-onset diarrhea using a mutant rat strain with an inherited deficiency of UGT1A (Gunn rats). Gunn rats exhibited severe\\u000a diarrhea after the intravenous administration of CPT-11 at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg, whereas Wistar rats did not. In the epithelium\\u000a of the small intestine and cecum in

  9. Activation of an AMP-activated protein kinase is involved in post-diapause development of Artemia franciscana encysted embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Dai, Jie-Qiong; Tan, Xin; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Background Cysts of Artemia can remain in a dormant state for long periods with a very low metabolic rate, and only resume their development with the approach of favorable conditions. The post-diapause development is a very complicated process involving a variety of metabolic and biochemical events. However, the intrinsic mechanisms that regulate this process are unclear. Results Herein we report the specific activation of an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the post-diapause developmental process of Artemia. Using a phospho-AMPK? antibody, AMPK was shown to be phosphorylated in the post-diapause developmental process. Results of kinase assay analysis showed that this phosphorylation is essential for AMPK activation. Using whole-mount immunohistochemistry, phosphorylated AMPK was shown to be predominantly located in the ectoderm of the early developed embryos in a ring shape; however, the location and shape of the activation region changed as development proceeded. Additionally, Western blotting analysis on different portions of the cyst extracts showed that phosphorylated AMPK? localized to the nuclei and this location was not affected by intracellular pH. Confocal microscopy analysis of immunofluorescent stained cyst nuclei further showed that AMPK? localized to the nuclei when activated. Moreover, cellular AMP, ADP, and ATP levels in developing cysts were determined by HPLC, and the results showed that the activation of Artemia AMPK may not be associated with cellular AMP:ATP ratios, suggesting other pathways for regulation of Artemia AMPK activity. Conclusion Together, we report evidence demonstrating the activation of AMPK in Artemia developing cysts and present an argument for its role in the development-related gene expression and energy control in certain cells during post-diapause development of Artemia. PMID:19284883

  10. Computational modeling of the main signaling pathways involved in mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Niarakis, Anna; Bounab, Yacine; Grieco, Luca; Roncagalli, Romain; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Garin, Jérôme; Malissen, Bernard; Daëron, Marc; Thieffry, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A global and rigorous understanding of the signaling pathways and cross-regulatory processes involved in mast cell activation requires the integration of published information with novel functional datasets into a comprehensive computational model. Based on an exhaustive curation of the existing literature and using the software CellDesigner, we have built and annotated a comprehensive molecular map for the Fc?RI signaling network. This map can be used to visualize and interpret high-throughput expression data. Furthermore, leaning on this map and using the logical modeling software GINsim, we have derived a qualitative dynamical model, which recapitulates the most salient features of mast cell activation. The resulting logical model can be used to explore the dynamical properties of the system and its responses to different stimuli, in normal or mutant conditions. PMID:25116096

  11. Possible involvement of ?? receptors in various emetogen-induced increases in salivary amylase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hideo; Suyama, Yoshimi; Iwachido, Takako; Miwa, Eri

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of ??- or ??-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists on salivary amylase secretion produced by various emetic agents, such as cisplatin, apomorphine, and lithium chloride (LiCl), or the non-emetic agent ?(½)-AR agonist isoprenaline in rats. We also determined the inhibitory effect of metoclopramide, a dopamine D?-receptor antagonist, on increases in the salivary amylase activity induced by apomorphine or granisetron, a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist, on LiCl-induced increased salivary amylase activity. Isoprenaline (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) produced an increase in salivary amylase and the increase was inhibited by the ?(½)-AR antagonist propranolol (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and ??-AR antagonist atenolol (2 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by the ??-AR antagonist butoxamine (8 mg/kg, s.c.). The increased amylase activity induced by cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.v.), apomorphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.), or LiCl (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was inhibited significantly by atenolol (2 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by butoxamine (8 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, increases in amylase activities induced by apomorphine and LiCl were inhibited significantly by metoclopramide (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and granisetron (3 mg/kg, i.v.), respectively. These results suggest that salivary amylase secretion induced by various emetogens is involved in ??-adrenoceptor activity and that salivary amylase activity is useful to detect emetogens with no direct ??-AR activation in rats, a species that does not exhibit vomiting. PMID:21173550

  12. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorelli, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University Hospital, AOUS, Siena (Italy); Bocci, Velio [Department of Physiology, University of Siena (Italy); Acquaviva, Alessandra [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Belmonte, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Gardi, Concetta [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Virgili, Fabio [INRAN, Rome (Italy); Ciccoli, Lucia [Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena (Italy); Valacchi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.valacchi@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 ?g/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ? Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ? This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ? 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ? Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ? Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  13. A review of two recent occurrences at the Advanced Test Reactor involving subcontractor activities

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlke, H.J.; Jensen, N.C.; Vail, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents the results of a brief, unofficial investigation into two incidents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility, reported on October 25 and 31, 1997. The first event was an unanticipated breach of confinement. The second involved reactor operation with an inoperable seismic scram subsystem, violating the reactor`s Technical Specifications. These two incidents have been found to be unrelated. A third event that occurred on December 16, 1996, is also discussed because of its similarities to the first event listed above. Both of these incidents were unanticipated breaches of confinement, and both involved the work of construction subcontractor personnel. The cause for the subcontractor related occurrences is a work control process that fails to effectively interface with LMITCO management. ATR Construction Project managers work sufficient close with construction subcontractor personnel to understand planned day-to-day activities. They also have sufficient training and understanding of reactor operations to ensure adherence to applicable administrative requirements. However, they may not be sufficiently involved in the work authorization and control process to bridge an apparent communications gap between subcontractor employees and Facility Operations/functional support personnel for work inside the reactor facility. The cause for the inoperable seismic scram switch (resulting from a disconnected lead) is still under investigation. It does not appear to be subcontractor related.

  14. Who's who in the crew? Exploring participant involvement in the Active Living Coalition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Schaefer, Samantha; Middlestadt, Susan; Knoblock, Heidi

    2015-06-01

    Health coalitions serve as an important "vehicle" to strengthen horizontal and vertical ties between organizations, community groups, and individuals whose intent and purpose is to improve wellness. Having a strong and diverse group of participants is essential for highly effective coalitions to carry out their mission in an organized and participatory manner. However, the extent that individuals become involved in coalition operations and activities remains ambiguous. A grounded theory approach was used to explore expressions of participant involvement of a local health coalition known as the Active Living Coalition (ALC). Open, axial, as well as domain and taxonomic coding were used to analyze transcripts from four focus groups (n=37 participants) in order to develop a participant continuum that captured six network aggregates within the coalition. Findings suggest that participation, for the most part, was heterogeneous and ever-changing given the expectations of the level of partnership that best individuals' personal and professional interests. Differentiating the type of participants in health coalitions can help coalition leaders more successfully "manage" new and existing relationships. Findings imply that health coalitions can maximize coalition capacity by drawing upon the full range of potential human and material resources by further understanding the types of individuals that make up their network. PMID:25812479

  15. Activities of ICP0 involved in the reversal of silencing of quiescent herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, Michael W; Ranayhossaini, Daniel J; Deluca, Neal A

    2011-05-01

    ICP0 is a transcriptional activating protein required for the efficient replication and reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Multiple regions of ICP0 contribute its activity, the most prominent of which appears to be the RING finger, which confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. A region in the C terminus of ICP0 has also been implicated in several activities, including the disruption of a cellular repressor complex, REST/CoREST/HDAC1/2/LSD1. We used quiescent infection of MRC-5 cells with a virus that does not express immediate-early proteins, followed by superinfection with various viral mutants to quantify the ability of ICP0 variants to reactivate gene expression and alter chromatin structure. Superinfection with wild-type virus resulted in a 400-fold increase in expression from the previously quiescent d109 genome, the removal of heterochromatin and histones from the viral genome, and an increase in histone marks associated with activated transcription. RING finger mutants were unable to reactivate transcription or remove heterochromatin from d109, while mutants that are unable to bind CoREST activate gene expression from quiescent d109, albeit to a lesser degree than the wild-type virus. One such mutant, R8507, resulted in the partial removal of heterochromatin. Infection with R8507 did not result in the hyperacetylation of H3 and H4. The results demonstrate that (i) consistent with previous findings, the RING finger domain of ICP0 is required for the activation of quiescent genomes, (ii) the RF domain is also crucial for the ultimate removal of repressive chromatin, (iii) activities or interactions specified by the carboxy-terminal region of ICP0 significantly contribute to activation, and (iv) while the effects of the R8507 on chromatin are consistent with a role for REST/CoREST/HDAC1/2/LSD1 in the repression of quiescent genomes, the mutation may also affect other activities involved in derepression. PMID:21411540

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Involved in the Toxic Activity of Boric Acid against Saprolegnia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shimaa E.; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Gamil, Amr A. A.; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the incidence of Saprolegnia infections over the past decades, especially after the banning of malachite green. Very often these infections are associated with high economic losses in salmonid farms and hatcheries. The use of boric acid to control the disease has been investigated recently both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, however its possible mode of action against fish pathogenic Saprolegnia is not known. In this study, we have explored the transformation in Saprolegnia spores/hyphae after exposure to boric acid (1 g/L) over a period 4–24 h post treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), early changes in Saprolegnia spores were detected. Mitochondrial degeneration was the most obvious sign observed following 4 h treatment in about 20% of randomly selected spores. We also investigated the effect of the treatment on nuclear division, mitochondrial activity and function using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence microscopy was also used to test the effect of treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the viability and proliferation of treated spores that correlated to mitochondrial enzymatic activity were tested using an MTS assay. All obtained data pointed towards changes in the mitochondrial structure, membrane potential and enzymatic activity following treatment. We have found that boric acid has no effect on the integrity of membranes of Saprolegnia spores at concentrations tested. It is therefore likely that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia spp. PMID:25354209

  17. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Kukkonen, Sami; Vapalahti, Olli; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2004-11-01

    Hantaviruses are known to cause two severe human diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of these two diseases are progressively becoming understood. Recently, two hantaviruses, Hantaan and Prospect Hill were reported to cause programmed cell death of Vero E6 cells. This study shows that Tula hantavirus (TULV) infection efficiently triggers an apoptotic programme in infected Vero E6 cells, and that the replication of TULV is required for the activation of caspase 3 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, two molecular hallmarks of apoptosis. The enforced treatment of infected Vero E6 cells with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), but not interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), advanced the time course of apoptosis. Furthermore, caspase 8 was activated on day 4 post-infection, the same day when caspase 3 was activated. TNF receptor 1 was induced during a late stage of TULV infection. These data suggest that, unlike during influenza A virus infection, TNF-alpha, but not type I IFN-alpha/beta, may contribute significantly to apoptosis in a synergistic manner with TULV propagation. Interestingly, pretreatment with a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, efficiently inhibited apoptosis of TULV-infected Vero E6 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that TULV replication initiates a typical apoptotic programme involving caspase 8 activation. PMID:15483239

  18. Functional characterization of an antigen involved in an early step of T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Cosulich, M E; Rubartelli, A; Risso, A; Cozzolino, F; Bargellesi, A

    1987-01-01

    An activation antigen, identified by the monoclonal antibody MLR3, is described that is present on activated T lymphocytes and thymocytes but not on resting T lymphocytes. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled membranes from an activated T-cell line showed that the MLR3-binding molecule has a molecular size of 28-34 kDa. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the appearance of the MLR3 antigen is an early event and precedes that of the interleukin 2 receptor both in T lymphocytes and thymocytes. The proliferative response of resting T cells to OKT3-Sepharose and interleukin 1 or accessory cells, but not the interleukin 2-dependent proliferation, was inhibited by the addition of MLR3 monoclonal antibodies. Similar results wer also obtained in an interleukin 1-dependent human thymocyte proliferation assay. In addition when MLR3-positive cells were cultured with purified interleukin 1, MLR3 surface antigen expression was not observed. Thus MLR3 monoclonal antibody appears to recognize an antigen involved in an early step of T-cell activation related to interleukin 1-dependent functions and on both T lymphocytes and thymocytes. Images PMID:3295878

  19. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  20. Vimentin Is Involved in Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2-Induced Apoptosis of Activated Jurkat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Chen; Liao, Ya-Fan; Lin, Chin-Li; Lin, Wen-Hao; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) deiminates (or citrullinates) arginine residues in protein to citrulline residues in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and is found in lymphocytes and macrophages. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and a well-known substrate of PADI2. Citrullinated vimentin is found in ionomycin-induced macrophage apoptosis. Citrullinated vimentin is the target of anti-Sa antibodies, which are specific to rheumatoid arthritis, and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate the role of PADI2 in apoptosis, we generated a Jurkat cell line that overexpressed the PADI2 transgene from a tetracycline-inducible promoter, and used a combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ionomycin to activate Jurkat cells. We found that PADI2 overexpression reduced the cell viability of activated Jurkat cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PADI2-overexpressed and -activated Jurkat cells presented typical manifestations of apoptosis, and exhibited greater levels of citrullinated proteins, including citrullinated vimentin. Vimentin overexpression rescued a portion of the cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, PADI2 overexpression induces apoptosis in activated Jurkat cells. Vimentin is involved in PADI2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PADI2-overexpressed Jurkat cells secreted greater levels of vimentin after activation, and expressed more vimentin on their cell surfaces when undergoing apoptosis. Through artificially highlighting PADI2 and vimentin, we demonstrated that PADI2 and vimentin participate in the apoptotic mechanisms of activated T lymphocytes. The secretion and surface expression of vimentin are possible ways of autoantigen presentation to the immune system. PMID:24850148

  1. Vimentin is involved in peptidylarginine deiminase 2-induced apoptosis of activated Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-Chen; Liao, Ya-Fan; Lin, Chin-Li; Lin, Wen-Hao; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-05-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) deiminates (or citrullinates) arginine residues in protein to citrulline residues in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and is found in lymphocytes and macrophages. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and a well-known substrate of PADI2. Citrullinated vimentin is found in ionomycin-induced macrophage apoptosis. Citrullinated vimentin is the target of anti-Sa antibodies, which are specific to rheumatoid arthritis, and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate the role of PADI2 in apoptosis, we generated a Jurkat cell line that overexpressed the PADI2 transgene from a tetracycline-inducible promoter, and used a combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ionomycin to activate Jurkat cells. We found that PADI2 overexpression reduced the cell viability of activated Jurkat cells in1a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PADI2-overexpressed and -activated Jurkat cells presented typical manifestations of apoptosis, and exhibited greater levels of citrullinated proteins, including citrullinated vimentin. Vimentin overexpression rescued a portion of the cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, PADI2 overexpression induces apoptosis in activated Jurkat cells. Vimentin is involved in PADI2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PADI2-overexpressed Jurkat cells secreted greater levels of vimentin after activation, and expressed more vimentin on their cell surfaces when undergoing apoptosis. Through artificially highlighting PADI2 and vimentin, we demonstrated that PADI2 and vimentin participate in the apoptotic mechanisms of activated T lymphocytes. The secretion and surface expression of vimentin are possible ways of autoantigen presentation to the immune system. PMID:24850148

  2. A? and NMDAR activation cause mitochondrial dysfunction involving ER calcium release.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ildete Luísa; Ferreiro, Elisabete; Schmidt, Jeannette; Cardoso, João M; Pereira, Cláudia M F; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Oliveira, Catarina R; Rego, A Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Early cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) seem to be correlated to dysregulation of glutamate receptors evoked by amyloid-beta (A?) peptide. A? interference with the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may be a relevant factor for A?-induced mitochondrial toxicity and neuronal dysfunction. To evaluate the role of mitochondria in NMDARs activation mediated by A?, we followed in situ single-cell simultaneous measurement of cytosolic free Ca(2+)(Cai(2+)) and mitochondrial membrane potential in primary cortical neurons. Our results show that direct exposure to A? + NMDA largely increased Cai(2+) and induced immediate mitochondrial depolarization, compared with A? or NMDA alone. Mitochondrial depolarization induced by rotenone strongly inhibited the rise in Cai(2+) evoked by A? or NMDA, suggesting that mitochondria control Ca(2+) entry through NMDARs. However, incubation with rotenone did not preclude mitochondrial Ca(2+) (mitCa(2+)) retention in cells treated with A?. A?-induced Cai(2+) and mitCa(2+) rise were inhibited by ifenprodil, an antagonist of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Exposure to A? + NMDA further evoked a higher mitCa(2+) retention, which was ameliorated in GluN2B(-/-) cortical neurons, largely implicating the involvement of this NMDAR subunit. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and mitCa(2+) uniporter (MCU) evidenced that A? + NMDA-induced mitCa(2+) rise involves ER Ca(2+) release through IP3R and mitochondrial entry by the MCU. Altogether, data highlight mitCa(2+) dyshomeostasis and subsequent dysfunction as mechanisms relevant for early neuronal dysfunction in AD linked to A?-mediated GluN2B-composed NMDARs activation. PMID:25442114

  3. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D – mediated macrophage de-activation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gemelli, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.gemelli@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Gottardi 100, 41125 Modena (Italy); Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1 kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3 – VDR – ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. - Highlights: • ORM1 is a Vitamin D primary response gene. • VD and its receptor VDR are involved in the de-activation process mediated by human resident macrophages. • The signaling pathway VD-VDR-ORM1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage de-activation process. • ORM1 may be defined as a signaling molecule implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling.

  4. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  5. atRA-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells involves activation of MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zengli [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, No. 40 Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)]. E-mail: yuzengli@263.net; Xing Ying [Stem Cell Research Center, Zhengzhou University, 40 Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)]. E-mail: xingy@zzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    Our previous studies have shown that atRA treatment resulted in cell-cycle block and growth inhibition in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM). In the current study, gestation day (GD) 13 MEPM cells were used to test the hypothesis that the growth inhibition by atRA is due to apoptosis. The effects of atRA on apoptosis were assessed by performing MTT assay, Cell Death Detection ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Data analysis confirmed that atRA treatment induced apoptosis-like cell death, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased fragmented DNA and sub-G1 fraction. atRA-induced apoptosis was associated with upregulation of bcl-2, translocation of bax protein to the mitochondria from the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release into cytosol. atRA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, and z-VAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the atRA-induced cell death of MEPM cells occurs through the cytochrome c- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. In addition, atRA treatment caused a strong and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), as well as an early but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, atRA-induced DNA fragmentation and capase-3 activation were prevented by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitor (U0126). From these results, we suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways is involved in the atRA-induced apoptosis of MEPM cells.

  6. Transglutaminase 2 is involved in homocysteine-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Currò, M; Gangemi, C; Gugliandolo, A; Risitano, R; Ferlazzo, N; Ientile, R; Caccamo, D

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression and protein cross-linking activity have been associated with several chronic neurodegenerative disorders in which inflammatory processes triggered by activated microglia and monocytes play a key role, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), corresponding to increased plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations in the range 16-60 ?M, have recently been associated with the above-cited diseases. Using THP-1 monocytes, here we investigated the role of TG2 in cell response to mildly elevated Hcy concentrations. A five-day incubation with Hcy (?25 ?M) increased reactive oxygen species, peroxide lipids, as well as 8-hydroxyguanosine levels by twofold, and decreased the endogenous cell antioxidant defenses, that is reduced glutathione, by 50% in Hcy-exposed cultures compared with controls (p < 0.01). Hcy-induced oxidative stress was associated with increases in TG2 expression and activity, as well as nuclear factor kappa B activation. Notably, the latter was reduced in the presence of the TG-specific inhibitor R283. Hcy exposure also significantly increased the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1?, as well as the level of Hcy-inducible endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein, a marker of ER stress, in Hcy-exposed cultures compared with controls. Notably, these effects were dramatically reduced by R283. These preliminary findings indicate that TG2 plays a key role in Hcy-induced activation of THP-1 monocytes, involving oxidative as well as ER stress and inflammation. This underlines the potential of TG2 inhibition in the therapeutic management of inflammatory processes contributing to neurodegenerative disorders associated with mild HHcy. PMID:25547897

  7. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Waechtershaeuser, A. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Loitsch, S. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Knethen, A. von [1st Department of Biochemistry-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bruene, B. [1st Department of Biochemistry-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Stein, J. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  8. Regulation of retinoid mediated cholesterol efflux involves liver X receptor activation in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manna, Pulak R; Sennoune, Souad R; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Slominski, Andrzej T; Pruitt, Kevin

    2015-08-14

    Removal of cholesterol from macrophage-derived foam cells is a critical step to the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions. We have recently demonstrated the functional importance of retinoids in the regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that predominantly mediates the intramitochondrial transport of cholesterol in target tissues. In the present study, treatment of mouse macrophages with retinoids, particularly all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and 9-cis RA, resulted in increases in cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI (Apo-A1). Activation of the PKA pathway by a cAMP analog, (Bu)2cAMP, markedly augmented retinoid mediated cholesterol efflux. Macrophages overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase increased the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and concomitantly enhanced the efficacy of retinoic acid receptor and liver X receptor (LXR) ligands on StAR and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein levels. RAs elevated StAR promoter activity in macrophages, and an increase in StAR levels augmented cholesterol efflux to Apo-A1, suggesting retinoid-mediated efflux of cholesterol involves enhanced oxysterol production. Further studies revealed that retinoids activate the LXR regulated genes, sterol receptor-element binding protein-1c and ABCA1. These findings provide insights into the regulatory events in which retinoid signaling effectively enhances macrophage cholesterol efflux and indicate that retinoid therapy may have important implications in limiting and/or regressing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:26119689

  9. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1?, TNSF10 and TNF?) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNF? in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF? are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling is Involved in IgA-Stimulated Mesangial Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Beom Jin; Lee, Dahye; Hong, Soon Won

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Deposition of polymeric IgA1 in the kidney mesangium is the hallmark of IgA nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms of IgA-mediated mesangial responses and inflammatory injuries remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in IgA-induced mesangial cell activation. Materials and Methods Mouse mesangial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/mL), IgA (20 µg/mL), or both, and TLR4 expression was measured by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Intracellular responses to LPS or IgA were assessed by Western blot for ERK1/2, JNK, p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs), I?-B? degradation and fibronectin secretion. MCP-1 secretion was assessed by ELISA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of TLR4 was used to confirm that the effects were caused by TLR4 activity. Results LPS- or IgA-treatment upregulated the levels of TLR4 mRNA and protein in cultured MMC at 24 h. LPS and IgA induced rapid phosphorylation of MAPKs, but degradation of I?-B? was observed only in LPS-treated MMC. LPS, but not IgA, induced increased secretion of MCP-1 and fibronectin at 24 h or 48 h. Combined LPS and IgA treatment did not cause additional increases in TLR4 mRNA and protein levels or I?-B? degradation, and MCP-1 and fibronectin secretions were less than with LPS alone. LPS- or IgA-induced TLR4 protein levels and MAPK activation were inhibited by transfection with TLR4 siRNA. Conclusion These results indicate that the activation of MAPKs and MCP-1 secretion are mediated by TLR4, at least in part, in IgA-treated mesangial cells. TLR4 is involved in mesangial cell injury by induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in IgA nephropathy. PMID:21623603

  11. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  12. Dark-induced senescence of barley leaves involves activation of plastid transglutaminases.

    PubMed

    Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, E; Zmienko, A; Samelak-Czajka, A; ?uczak, M; Pietrowska-Borek, M; Iorio, R; Del Duca, S; Figlerowicz, M; Legocka, J

    2015-04-01

    Transglutaminases (E.C. 2.3.2.13) catalyze the post-translational modification of proteins by establishing ?-(?-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bonds and by the covalent conjugation of polyamines to endo-glutamyl residues of proteins. In light of the confirmed role of transglutaminases in animal cell apoptosis and only limited information on the role of these enzymes in plant senescence, we decided to investigate the activity of chloroplast transglutaminases (ChlTGases) and the fate of chloroplast-associated polyamines in Hordeum vulgare L. 'Nagrad' leaves, where the senescence process was induced by darkness (day 0) and continued until chloroplast degradation (day 12). Using an anti-TGase antibody, we detected on a subcellular level, the ChlTGases that were associated with destacked/degraded thylakoid membranes, and beginning on day 5, were also found in the stroma. Colorimetric and radiometric assays revealed during senescence an increase in ChlTGases enzymatic activity. The MS/MS identification of plastid proteins conjugated with exogenous polyamines had shown that the ChlTGases are engaged in the post-translational modification of proteins involved in photosystem organization, stress response, and oxidation processes. We also computationally identified the cDNA of Hv-Png1-like, a barley homologue of the Arabidopsis AtPng1 gene. Its mRNA level was raised from days 3 to 10, indicating that transcriptional regulation controls the activity of barley ChlTGases. Together, the presented results deepen our knowledge of the mechanisms of the events happened in dark-induced senescence of barley leaves that might be activation of plastid transglutaminases. PMID:25583605

  13. The liver angiotensin receptor involved in the activation of glycogen phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Keppens, S; De Wulf, H; Clauser, P; Jard, S; Morgat, J L

    1982-12-15

    Specific angiotensin binding to rat hepatocytes and purified liver plasma membranes was measured by using biologically active [(3)H]angiotensin (sp. radioactivity 14Ci/mmol). The kinetic parameters for angiotensin binding to hepatocytes are: K(+1) (association rate constant). 100mum(-1).min(-1); K(-1) (dissociation rate constant), 2min(-1); K(d) (dissociation constant). 30nm; maximal binding capacity, 0.42pmol/10(6) cells or 260000 sites/cell. Angiotensin binding to membranes is profoundly affected by GTP (0.1mm) and NaCl (100mm); these regulatory compounds greatly enhance both the rate of association and of dissociation and also the extent of dissociation. K(d) amounts to 10nm in the presence of GTP+NaCl and to 1.5nm in their absence; maximal binding capacity is 0.70pmol/mg of protein, both with or without GTP+NaCl. The relative affinities of 11 angiotensin structural analogues were deduced from competition experiments for [(3)H]angiotensin binding to hepatocytes and to membranes (in the latter case, GTP + NaCl were not included, in order to study the higher affinity state of the receptor). These are highly correlated with their biological activity (activation of glycogen phosphorylase in hepatocytes). Binding to membranes occurs in the same concentration range as the biological effect. On the other hand, the existence of numerous spare receptors is suggested by the observation that binding of the agonists to hepatocytes requires 25-fold higher concentrations than those needed for their biological activity. These data clearly suggest that the detected binding sites correspond to the physiological receptors involved in the glycogenolytic action of angiotensin on rat liver. PMID:6299280

  14. Tryptophan 110, a residue involved in the toxic activity but not in the enzymatic activity of notexin.

    PubMed

    Mollier, P; Chwetzoff, S; Bouet, F; Harvey, A L; Ménez, A

    1989-11-01

    We prepared two derivatives of notexin, a phospholipase A2 from Notechis scutatus scutatus venom, by modifying the protein with 2-nitrophenylsulfenylchloride, a tryptophan-specific reagent. One derivative was modified at both tryptophans 20 and 110 whereas the other was modified at tryptophan 20. Evidence based on circular dichroic analysis and antigenicity towards a notexin-specific monoclonal antibody indicated that derivatization at both tryptophans did not affect the tertiary structure of notexin. Concomitant modification of tryptophans 20 and 110 induced a marked decrease in the capacity of notexin to kill mice and to block neuromuscular transmission in the chick biventer cervicis preparation, whereas selective modification at tryptophan 20 had no effect on the lethal properties of notexin. This implies that the decrease in the lethal properties of notexin after derivatization was due to modification at tryptophan 110. However, the diderivatized notexin retained full enzymatic activity, implying that neither tryptophan 20 and tryptophan 110 are involved in the catalytic function of the molecule. We conclude that notexin harbours two functional sites. One of them corresponds to the enzymatic site, whereas the other, which includes tryptophan 110, provides specific toxic characteristics to notexin. By reference to previous crystallographic studies, the relative spatial positions of elements involved in toxicity and the catalytic site, we propose a possible orientation of notexin with respect to its putative membrane-bound target. PMID:2583182

  15. Differential involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome P450 activity, and active transport in the toxicity of structurally related NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda S; Unlü, Betül; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Vos, J Chris

    2012-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. However, this group of drugs is associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Previously, we studied the mechanisms underlying toxicity of the NSAID diclofenac using Saccharomycescerevisiae as model system. We identified the involvement of several mitochondrial proteins, a transporter and cytochrome P450 activity in diclofenac toxicity. In this study, we investigated if these processes are also involved in the toxicity of other NSAIDs. We divided the NSAIDs into three classes based on their toxicity mechanisms. Class I consists of diclofenac, indomethacin and ketoprofen. Mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in the toxicity of this class. Metabolism by cytochrome P450s further increases their toxicity, while ABC-transporters decrease the toxicity. Mitochondria and oxidative metabolism also contribute to toxicity of class II drugs ibuprofen and naproxen, but another cellular target dominates their toxicity. Interestingly, ibuprofen was the only NSAID that was unable to induce upregulation of the multidrug resistance response. The class III NSAIDs sulindac, ketorolac and zomepirac were relatively non-toxic in yeast. In conclusion, we demonstrate the use of yeast to investigate the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of structurally related drugs. PMID:22138569

  16. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Streptozotocin-Induced Bone Loss in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1–deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice but not in male mice. PAI-1 deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by the diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the current study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23715621

  17. Involvement of both PKS and NRPS in antibacterial activity in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan; Xu, Feifei; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Polyketides and nonribosomal peptides represent two large families of natural products (NPs) with diverse structures and important functions. They are synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), respectively. Lysobacter enzymogenes is emerging as a novel biocontrol agent against pathogens of crop plants and a new source of bioactive NPs, such as antibacterial antibiotic WAP-8294A2 and antifungal antibiotic HSAF. Genome survey of strain OH11, a Chinese L. enzymogenes isolate, detected four novel PKS, NRPS or hybrid gene clusters, designed as cluster A to D. We further individually mutated five genes (PKS or NRPS) located in these four gene clusters, and showed that a PKS gene in cluster A and an NRPS gene in cluster D were involved in the antibacterial activity via a WAP-8294A2 dependent way. The data also showed that none of the five genes was associated with antifungal activity and the regulation of HSAF biosynthesis. Our results reveal the unusual regulatory role of these PKS and NRPS genes that were discovered from genome mining in L. enzymogenes. PMID:24801439

  18. Monitoring methods and dose assessment for internal exposures involving mixed fission and activation products containing actinides.

    PubMed

    Thind, K S

    2001-01-01

    Internal dose assessment for intakes of radionuclide mixtures is a difficult task. When the radionuclide mixture contains both the easy to detect gamma emitters, e.g., 60Co and 95Zr, and difficult to detect alpha emitters such as 239Pu and 241Am, a single monitoring method, such as in-vivo counting, is inadequate for detection and dose assessment. Recent experience with task related monitoring for such radionuclide mixtures at Ontario Power Generation CANDU nuclear power plants has offered an opportunity to review this topic and suggest a strategy for monitoring that involves a combination of in-vivo and in-vitro methods. Using the radionuclide composition data in a mixture from an actual case as an example, this paper describes a monitoring strategy for mixed fission and activation products, including the advantages and pitfalls of reliance on surrogate radionuclides for signaling the presence of actinides in the mixture. The described monitoring strategy is consistent with the recommendations of ICRP Publication 78, which advocates a "combination of techniques so as to make the best possible evaluation of an unusual situation, for example, a programme of both body activity and excreta measurements." The use of experience and professional judgement for interpreting the combined in-vivo and in-vitro data for interim and ultimate intake and dose assessment is discussed and emphasized. PMID:11204117

  19. Involvement of autophagy in antitumor activity of folate-appended methyl-?-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Risako; Motoyama, Keiichi; Tanaka, Nao; Ohyama, Ayumu; Okamatsu, Ayaka; Higashi, Taishi; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for recycling intracellular components including organelles, is emerging as a key process regulating tumorigenesis and cancer therapy. Most recently, we newly synthesized folate-appended methyl-?-cyclodextrin (FA-M-?-CyD), and demonstrated the potential of FA-M-?-CyD as a new antitumor drug. In this study, we investigated whether anticancer activity of FA-M-?-CyD in folate receptor-? (FR-?)-positive tumor cells is involved in autophagy. In contrast to methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M-?-CyD), FA-M-?-CyD entered KB cells (FR-? (+)) through CLIC/GEEC endocytosis. No significant depression in the DNA content was observed in KB cells after treatment with FA-M-?-CyD. Additionally, the transmembrane potential of mitochondria after treatment with FA-M-?-CyD was drastically elevated. Meanwhile, FA-M-?-CyD induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, which were partially colocalized with mitochondria, in KB cells. Taken together, these results suggest that FR-?-expressing cell-selective cytotoxic activity of FA-M-?-CyD could be mediated by the regulation of autophagy, rather than the induction of apoptosis. PMID:24646866

  20. Involvement of both PKS and NRPS in antibacterial activity in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan; Xu, Feifei; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang

    2014-06-01

    Polyketides and nonribosomal peptides represent two large families of natural products (NPs) with diverse structures and important functions. They are synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), respectively. Lysobacter enzymogenes is emerging as a novel biocontrol agent against pathogens of crop plants and a new source of bioactive NPs, such as antibacterial antibiotic WAP-8294A2 and antifungal antibiotic HSAF. Genome survey of strain OH11, a Chinese L. enzymogenes isolate, detected four novel PKS, NRPS or hybrid gene clusters, designed as cluster A to D. We further individually mutated five genes (PKS or NRPS) located in these four gene clusters and showed that a PKS gene in cluster A and an NRPS gene in cluster D were involved in the antibacterial activity via a WAP-8294A2 dependent way. The data also showed that none of the five genes was associated with antifungal activity and the regulation of HSAF biosynthesis. Our results reveal the unusual regulatory role of these PKS and NRPS genes that were discovered from genome mining in L. enzymogenes. PMID:24801439

  1. Nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors in cancer: mechanisms involved in anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Koltai, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the mechanisms of anti-cancer activity of nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors (PIs) based on evidences reported in the published literature. Methods: We extensively reviewed the literature concerning nelfinavir (NFV) as an off target anti-cancer drug and other PIs. A classification of PIs based on anti-cancer mode of action was proposed. Controversies regarding nelfinavir mode of action were also addressed. Conclusions: The two main mechanisms involved in anti-cancer activity are endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response pathway and Akt inhibition. However there are many other effects, partially dependent and independent of those mentioned, that may be useful in cancer treatment, including MMP-9 and MMP-2 inhibition, down-regulation of CDK-2, VEGF, bFGF, NF-kB, STAT-3, HIF-1 alfa, IGF, EGFR, survivin, BCRP, androgen receptor, proteasome, fatty acid synthase (FAS), decrease in cellular ATP concentration and upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, Bax, increased radiosensitivity, and autophagy. The end result of all these effects is slower growth, decreased angiogenesis, decreased invasion and increased apoptosis, which means reduced proliferation and increased cancer cells death. PIs may be classified according to their anticancer activity at clinically achievable doses, in AKT inhibitors, ER stressors and Akt inhibitors/ER stressors. Beyond the phase I trials that have been recently completed, adequately powered and well-designed clinical trials are needed in the various cancer type settings, and specific trials where NFV is tested in association with other known anti-cancer pharmaceuticals should be sought, in order to find an appropriate place for NFV in cancer treatment. The analysis of controversies on the molecular mechanisms of NFV hints to the possibility that NFV works in a different way in tumor cells and in hepatocytes and adipocytes. PMID:26097685

  2. Pathogenesis of aortic dilatation in mucopolysaccharidosis VII mice may involve complement activation

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Guilherme; Wu, Susan; Howe, Ruth A.; Ramamoothy, Meera; Knutsen, Russell H.; Fang, Jiali; Mecham, Robert P.; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Xiaobo; Atkinson, John P.; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to mutations within the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme ?-glucuronidase, and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. MPS VII causes aortic dilatation and elastin fragmentation, which is associated with upregulation of the elastases cathepsin S (CtsS) and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12). To test the role of these enzymes, MPS VII mice were crossed with mice deficient in CtsS or MMP12, and the effect upon aortic dilatation was determined. CtsS deficiency did not protect against aortic dilatation in MPS VII mice, but also failed to prevent an upregulation of cathepsin enzyme activity. Further analysis with substrates and inhibitors specific for particular cathepsins suggests that this enzyme activity was due to CtsB, which could contribute to elastin fragmentation. Similarly, MMP12 deficiency and deficiency of both MMP12 and CtsS could not prevent aortic dilatation in MPS VII mice. Microarray and reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR were performed to look for upregulation of other elastases. This demonstrated that mRNA for complement component D was elevated in MPS VII mice, while immunostaining demonstrated high levels of complement component C3 on surfaces within the aortic media. Finally, we demonstrate that neonatal intravenous injection of a retroviral vector encoding ?-glucuronidase reduced aortic dilatation. We conclude that neither CtsS nor MMP12 are necessary for elastin fragmentation in MPS VII mouse aorta, and propose that CtsB and/or complement component D may be involved. Complement may be activated by the GAGs that accumulate, and may play a role in signal transduction pathways that upregulate elastases. PMID:21944884

  3. Cardioprotection by mild hypothermia during ischemia involves preservation of ERK activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiulan; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xi-Ming; Hu, Fangdi; Cui, Lin; Swingle, Mark R; Honkanen, Richard E; Soltani, Peyman; Tissier, Renaud; Cohen, Michael V; Downey, James M

    2011-05-01

    Cooling the ischemic heart by just a few degrees protects it from infarction without affecting its mechanical function, but the mechanism of this protection is unknown. We investigated whether signal transduction pathways might be involved in the anti-infarct effect of mild hypothermia (35°C). Isolated rabbit hearts underwent 30 min of coronary artery occlusion/2 h of reperfusion. They were either maintained at 38.5°C or cooled to 35°C just before and only during ischemia. Infarct size was measured. The effects of the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (?)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester (L: -NAME), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antagonist wortmannin, or either of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitors PD98059 or U0126 on cooling's protection were examined. Myocardial ATP assays were performed and the level of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and MEK was examined by western blotting. To investigate an effect of cooling on protein phosphatase (PPase), a PPase inhibitor cantharidin was tested in the infarct model and the effect of mild hypothermia on PP2A activity in vitro was measured. Infarct size was 34.4 ± 2.2% of the ischemic zone in normothermic (38.5°C) hearts, but only 15.6 ± 8.7% in hearts cooled to 35°C during ischemia. Mechanical function was unaffected. Neither chelerythrine, L: -NAME, nor wortmannin had any effect, but both PD98059 and U0126 completely eliminated protection. Ischemia rather than reperfusion was the critical time when ERK had to be active to realize protection. Phosphorylation of ERK and MEK fell during normothermic ischemia, but during hypothermic ischemia phosphorylation of ERK remained high while that of MEK was increased. Cooling only slightly delayed the rate at which ATP fell during ischemia, and ERK inhibition did not affect that attenuation suggesting ATP preservation was unrelated to protection. Cantharidin, like cooling, also protected during ischemia but not at reperfusion, and its protection was dependent on ERK phosphorylation. However, mild hypothermia had a negligible effect on PP2A activity in an in vitro assay. Hence, mild hypothermia preserves ERK and MEK activity during ischemia which somehow protects the heart. While a PPase inhibitor mimicked cooling's protection, a direct effect of cooling on PP2A could not be demonstrated. PMID:21399968

  4. Notice to Suppliers: Fraudulent Purchase Order Email Activity We want to alert you to an active email scam involving purchase orders and request for product

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    Notice to Suppliers: Fraudulent Purchase Order Email Activity We want to alert you to an active email scam involving purchase orders and request for product quotations that purport to originate from, we are actively working with law enforcement to investigate these fraudulent email contacts. We can

  5. Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gounarides, John; Cobb, Jennifer S.; Zhou, Jing; Cook, Frank; Yang, Xuemei; Yin, Hong; Meredith, Erik; Rao, Chang; Huang, Qian; Xu, YongYao; Anderson, Karen; De Erkenez, Andrea; Liao, Sha-Mei; Crowley, Maura; Buchanan, Natasha; Poor, Stephen; Qiu, Yubin; Fassbender, Elizabeth; Shen, Siyuan; Woolfenden, Amber; Jensen, Amy; Cepeda, Rosemarie; Etemad-Gilbertson, Bijan; Giza, Shelby; Mogi, Muneto; Jaffee, Bruce; Azarian, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(?-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others. PMID:25343517

  6. Deregulated Cdk5 Activity Is Involved in Inducing Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Varsha; Skuntz, Susan; Pant, Harish C.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most devastating chronic neurodegenerative disease in adults, causes dementia and eventually, death of the affected individuals. Clinically, AD is characterized as late-onset, age-dependent cognitive decline due to loss of neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The pathologic corollary of these symptoms is the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are formed due to accumulation of oligomeric amyloid beta (A?) forming fibrillary plaques. This occurs due to the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by various secretases. On the other hand, neurofibrillary tangles are formed due to hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton proteins like tau and neurofilament. Both are hyperphosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) and are part of the paired helical filament (PHF), an integral part of neurofibrillary tangles. Unlike other cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk5 plays a very important role in the neuronal development. Cdk5 gets activated by its neuronal activators p35 and p39. Upon stress, p35 and p39 are cleaved by calpain resulting in truncated products as p25 and p29. Association of Cdk5/p25 is longer and uncontrolled causing aberrant hyperphosphorylation of various substrates of Cdk5 like APP, tau and neurofilament, leading to neurodegenerative pathology like AD. Additionally recent evidence has shown increased levels of p25, A?, hyperactivity of Cdk5, phosphorylated tau and neurofilament in human AD brains. This review briefly describes the above-mentioned aspects of involvement of Cdk5 in the pathology of AD and at the end summarizes the advances in Cdk5 as a therapeutic target. PMID:23142263

  7. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus (?=?Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  8. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-07-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  9. Involvement of activation of C-met signaling pathway in CD151-induced HUVECs angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing-Hui; Liu, Zhao-Yu; Zuo, Hou-Juan; Liu, Zheng-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    CD151 is a member of the tetraspanin family that is implicated as a promoter of pathological or physiological angiogenesis. C-Met is expressed on a variety of cells including vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and up-regulated during angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether CD151 regulated migration, proliferation, tube formation and angiogenesis of human umbilical VECs (HUVECs) with activation of C-Met. Moreover, we studied whether CD151 could affect the angiogenic molecules such as nitric oxide (NO), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of CD151 was determined by Western blotting. The cell proliferation assay was performed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method and cell migration was assessed in microchemotaxis chambers by using fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the chemotactic stimulus. The angiogenic molecules were evaluated using ELISA. The NO level was detected using NO detection kit. The potential involvement of various signaling pathways was explored using relevant antibodies. We found that proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were promoted by CD151 with activation of C-Met, FAK and CDC42, while they were suppressed with CD151 knockdown by RNAi. Similarly, the levels of NO, VCAM-1 and VEGF in HUVECs were increased by CD151, but they were inhibited with CD151 knockdown by RNAi. These data suggested that CD151 could promote migration, proliferation, tube formation and angiogenesis of HUVECs, which was possibly related to the C-Met signaling pathways. PMID:25673190

  10. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Results Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Conclusions Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production. PMID:24460926

  11. Residual NADPH Oxidase Activity and Isolated Lung Involvement in X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria J.; McSherry, George D.; Ishmael, Faoud T.; Horwitz, Alexandra A.; Nino, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by inherited immune defects resulting from mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex genes. The X-linked type of CGD is caused by defects in the CYBB gene that encodes gp91-phox, a fundamental component of the NADPH oxidase complex. This mutation originates the most common and severe form of CGD, which typically has absence of NADPH oxidase function and aggressive multisystemic infections. We present the case of a 9-year-old child with a rare CYBB mutation that preserves some NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in an atypical mild form of X-linked CGD with isolated lung involvement. Although the clinical picture and partially preserved oxidase function suggested an autosomal recessive form of CGD, genetic testing demonstrated a mutation in the exon 3 of CYBB gene (c.252 G>A, p.Ala84Ala), an uncommon X-linked CGD variant that affects splicing. Atypical presentation and diagnostic difficulties are discussed. This case highlights that the diagnosis of mild forms of X-linked CGD caused by rare CYBB mutations and partially preserved NADPH function should be considered early in the evaluation of atypical and recurrent lung infections. PMID:23193493

  12. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles' heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  13. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D - mediated macrophage de-activation process.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Claudia; Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis

    2013-12-10

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3--VDR--ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. PMID:23973664

  14. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L.; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool, 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as “low” or “middle” had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as “high” were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  15. PPAR  and its activator PGI2 are reduced in diabetic embryopathy: involvement of PPAR  activation in lipid metabolic and signalling pathways in rat embryo early organogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Higa; E. Gonzalez; M. C. Pustovrh; V. White; E. Capobianco; N. Martinez; A. Jawerbaum

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes significantly increases the risk of congenital malformations, and the mechanisms involved are not yet clarified. This study was designed to address peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor d (PPARd) involvement in diabetic embryopathy. We investigated the concentrations of PPARd and its endogenous agonist prostaglandin (PG)I2, as well as the effect of PPARd activation on lipid metabolism and PGE2 concentrations in embryos

  16. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Perdigón, G; Vintiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M

    1999-06-01

    The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secretory immunity, and others will enhance the gut inflammatory immune response. The aim of this work was to establish the reason for these different behaviors and to define possible mechanisms involved in the interaction of lactic acid bacteria at the intestinal level. We studied IgA+ and IgM+ B cells comparatively in bronchus and intestine and CD4+ T cells and IgA anti-lactic acid bacteria antibodies in the intestinal fluid, induced by oral administration of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The increase in the IgA+ B cells in the bronchus means that these lactic acid bacteria were able to induce the IgA cycle by interaction with M cells from Peyer's patches or intestinal epithelial cells. The IgM+ cells increased when the stimulus did not induce the switch from IgM+ to IgA+. The increase in the CD4+ cells suggests interaction of Peyer's patches and enhancement of the B- and T-cell migration. The anti-lactic acid bacteria antibody is related to the processing and presentation of the microorganisms to the immune cells. We demonstrated that Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were able to interact with Peyer's patch cells and showed an increase in IgA-, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific for the stimulating strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus induced gut mucosal activation by interaction with the epithelial cells without increase in the immune cells associated with the bronchus. Although Lb. rhamnosus and Strep. salivarius ssp. thermophilus interact with epithelial cells, they also induced an immune response against their epitopes. Lactococcus lactis and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus induced an increase of IgA+ cells entering the IgA cycle but not CD4+ cells; thus, these bacteria would have been bound to epithelial cells that activated B lymphocytes without processing and presenting of their epitopes. We did not determine specific antibodies against Lc. lactis or Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:10386296

  17. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  18. The theory of active involvement: processes underlying interventions that engage adolescents in message planning and/or production.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk taking, and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing antirisk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. This article articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory's notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This article provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  19. Identification and functions of amino acid residues in PotB and PotC involved in spermidine uptake activity.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kyohei; Sakamaki, Yoshiharu; Herai, Emiko; Demizu, Risa; Uemura, Takeshi; Saroj, Sunil D; Zenda, Risa; Terui, Yusuke; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2010-12-10

    Amino acid residues on PotB and PotC involved in spermidine uptake were identified by random and site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that Trp(8), Tyr(43), Trp(100), Leu(110), and Tyr(261) in PotB and Trp(46), Asp(108), Glu(169), Ser(196), Asp(198), and Asp(199) in PotC were strongly involved in spermidine uptake and that Tyr(160), Glu(172), and Leu(274) in PotB and Tyr(19), Tyr(88), Tyr(148), Glu(160), Leu(195), and Tyr(211) in PotC were moderately involved in spermidine uptake. Among 11 amino acid residues that were strongly involved in spermidine uptake, Trp(8) in PotB was important for insertion of PotB and PotC into membranes. Tyr(43), Trp(100), and Leu(110) in PotB and Trp(46), Asp(108), Ser(196), and Asp(198) in PotC were found to be involved in the interaction with PotD. Leu(110) and Tyr(261) in PotB and Asp(108), Asp(198), and Asp(199) in PotC were involved in the recognition of spermidine, and Trp(100) and Tyr(261) in PotB and Asp(108), Glu(169), and Asp(198) in PotC were involved in ATPase activity of PotA. Accordingly, Trp(100) in PotB was involved in both PotD recognition and ATPase activity, Leu(110) in PotB was involved in both PotD and spermidine recognition, and Tyr(261) in PotB was involved in both spermidine recognition and ATPase activity. Asp(108) and Asp(198) in PotC were involved in PotD and spermidine recognition as well as ATPase activity. These results suggest that spermidine passage from PotD to the cytoplasm is coupled to the ATPase activity of PotA through a structural change of PotA by its ATPase activity. PMID:20937813

  20. Residues involved in the pore-forming activity of the Clostridium perfringens iota toxin.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Oliver; Maier, Elke; Waltenberger, Eva; Mazuet, Christelle; Benz, Roland; Popoff, Michel R

    2015-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin that is organized into enzyme (Ia) and binding (Ib) components. Ib forms channels in lipid bilayers and mediates the transport of Ia into the target cells. Here we show that Ib residues 334-359 contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues forming two amphipathic ?-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. This stretch of amino acids shows remarkable structural and functional analogies with the ?-pore-forming domain of C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Several mutations within the two amphipathic ?-strands affected pore formation, single-channel conductance and ion selectivity (S339E-S341E, Q345H N346E) confirming their involvement in channel formation. F454 of Ib corresponds to the ?-clamp F427 of anthrax protective antigen and F428 of C2II binary toxins. The mutation F454A resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity and strong increase in single-channel conductance (500 pS as compared with 85?pS in 1 M KCl) with a slight decrease in cation selectivity, indicating that the ?-clamp is highly conserved and crucial for binary toxin activity. In contrast, the mutants Q367D, N430D, L443E had no or only minor effects on Ib properties, while T360I, T360A and T360W caused a dramatic effect on ion selectivity and single-channel conductance, indicating gross disturbance of the oligomer structure. This suggests that, at least in the iota toxin family, T360 has a structural role in the pore organization. Moreover, introduction of charged residues within the channel (S339E-S341E) or in the vestibule (Q367D, N430D and L443E) had virtually no effect on chloroquine or Ia binding, whereas F454A, T360I, T360A and T360W strongly decreased the chloroquine and Ia affinity to Ib. These results support that distinct residues within the vestibule interact with chloroquine and Ia or are responsible for channel structure, while the channel lining amino acids play a less important role. PMID:25266274

  1. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product. PMID:25859200

  2. Differential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators on the mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Cubero; Anna Planavila; Marta Alegret; Juan Carlos Laguna

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of macrophage lipid metabolism. We compared the effects of three PPAR activators (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and troglitazone) on the mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in primary human macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells. Treatment of human macrophages for 24 hours with 100 [mu ]mol\\/L bezafibrate, a nonselective drug that activates the 3

  3. Involvement of MAPK Activation in Bacterial Endotoxin-Inducible Tissue Factor Upregulation in Human Monocytic THP1 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Chu; Zhen-Guo Wang; Melissa A. Walton; Ann Seto

    2001-01-01

    Background. Monocytic tissue factor (mTF) hypercoagulation leading to thrombotic complications is commonly observed following sepsis.Objective. We herein study the intracellular mechanism of mTF upregulation in human model monocytic THP-1 cells in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; Escherichia coli O111:B04), determining if mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is involved in the signaling.Methods. We assessed mTF upregulation by its cell surface

  4. Parent Involvement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To be successful, a 4-H program must have parent involvement. Although 4-H leaders and Extension agents may interest young people in becoming members, they need the parents' goodwill and support to keep them interested, enthusiastic and active. Here...

  5. Inflammatory mediators are involved in the Candida albicans killing activity of human epidermal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Csato; A. Sz. Kenderessy; R. Judfik; A. Dobozy

    1990-01-01

    Table 1. The effects of UV irradiation, platelet-activating factor (PAF), recombinant human IL-lc~ (rh IL-le) and PGE2 on the Candida albicans killing activity of human epidermal cells (ECs) in vitro a

  6. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbin69@yahoo.com; Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-?-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  7. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  8. Possible involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in obesity resistance induced by respiratory uncoupling in white fat

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    Possible involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in obesity resistance induced by respiratory (ACC-1) and hormone-sensitive lipase [15­ 17]; (b) stimulation of glucose uptake into adipocytes [18 of this study was to verify whether changes in the energy charge of adipocytes in vivo, due to respiratory uncou

  9. Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Atmospheric science is the study of short-term weather and long-term climate, involving activities such as weather forecasting, climate projections, air quality modeling, data analysis, and basic and applied. The program maintains strong ties with regional employers in both the private sector and the National Weather

  10. To provide guidelines for the presence of children in the work place for other than official University activities involving children.

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Purpose To provide guidelines for the presence of children in the work place for other than official University activities involving children. Policy Employees with dependent children are expected to make regular arrangements for proper care of their children while at work. The University must consider

  11. 77 FR 49835 - Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities; In the Matter of Mr. Joseph Quintanilla

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities; In the Matter of Mr. Joseph Quintanilla I Mr. Joseph Quintanilla is a radiographer...Quintanilla indicated that he was aware the camera was outside of the dark room and did not contest that apparent violation. Mr....

  12. 162 Electrical and Computer Engineering 163 Courses and projects that actively involve them in their own education and

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    162 Electrical and Computer Engineering 163 · Courses and projects that actively involve them of technology Graduate and undergraduate programs in electrical and computer engineering offer concentrations in electrical and computer engineering that the student can build upon to construct a custom program. Because

  13. Predicting Adolescents' Organized Activity Involvement: The Role of Maternal Depression History, Family Relationship Quality, and Adolescent Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Martin, Nina C.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Although the potential benefits of organized activity involvement during high school have been documented, little is known about what familial and individual characteristics are associated with higher levels of participation. Using structural equation modeling, this longitudinal study examined the extent to which maternal depression history (i.e.,…

  14. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  15. Participation in Leisure Activities and Involvement in Delinquency by Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Zenong; Katims, David S.; Zapata, Jesse T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 2,651 low-income Mexican-American middle- and senior-high school students in Texas found higher levels of delinquency associated with increased participation in unsupervised socialization with friends and less frequent participation in home activities and organized leisure and sport activities. Associations of leisure activities and…

  16. In vitro and vivo antioxidant activities of daylily flowers and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Que, Fei; Mao, Linchun; Zheng, Xiaojie

    2007-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts prepared from these dried flowers were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity. Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Ethanol was more efficiency to extract antioxidants than water, and freeze-drying preserved higher activities than air-drying. Rutin, (+)-catechin, and gallic acid were identified in the extracts by HPLC, and were highly related to the antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity was further evaluated by feeding mice with ethanol extract from freeze-dried daylily flowers for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the extract at dosage of 40-225 mg/100 g significantly increased the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and reduced the lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver of rat. PMID:17392104

  17. Proinflammatory actions of visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) involve regulation of insulin signaling pathway and Nampt enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Claire; Holzenberger, Martin; Mladenovic, Zvezdana; Salvat, Colette; Pecchi, Emilie; Berenbaum, Francis; Gosset, Marjolaine

    2012-04-27

    Visfatin (also termed pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) or nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt)) is a pleiotropic mediator acting on many inflammatory processes including osteoarthritis. Visfatin exhibits both an intracellular enzymatic activity (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, Nampt) leading to NAD synthesis and a cytokine function via the binding to its hypothetical receptor. We recently reported the role of visfatin in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in chondrocytes. Here, our aim was to characterize the signaling pathways involved in this response in exploring both the insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway and Nampt activity. IR was expressed in human and murine chondrocytes, and visfatin triggered Akt phosphorylation in murine chondrocytes. Blocking IR expression with siRNA or activity using the hydroxy-2-naphthalenyl methyl phosphonic acid tris acetoxymethyl ester (HNMPA-(AM)(3)) inhibitor diminished visfatin-induced PGE(2) release in chondrocytes. Moreover, visfatin-induced IGF-1R(-/-) chondrocytes released higher concentration of PGE(2) than IGF-1R(+/+) cells, a finding confirmed with an antibody that blocked IGF-1R. Using RT-PCR, we found that visfatin did not regulate IR expression and that an increased insulin release was also unlikely to be involved because insulin was unable to increase PGE(2) release. Inhibition of Nampt activity using the APO866 inhibitor gradually decreased PGE(2) release, whereas the addition of exogenous nicotinamide increased it. We conclude that the proinflammatory actions of visfatin in chondrocytes involve regulation of IR signaling pathways, possibly through the control of Nampt enzymatic activity. PMID:22399297

  18. Activation of STIM1-Orai1 involves an intramolecular switching mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, Marek K; Manjarrés, Isabel Martín; Varnai, Peter; Balla, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) stimulates calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry through plasma membrane Orai1 channels in response to decreased Ca(2+) concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. We identified an acidic motif within the STIM1 coiled-coil region that keeps its Ca(2+) activation domain [Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) activation domain/STIM1-Orai activating region (CAD/SOAR)]-a cytoplasmic region required for its activation of Orai1-inactive. The sequence of the STIM1 acidic motif shows substantial similarity to that of the carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil segment of Orai1, which is the postulated site of interaction with STIM1. Mutations within this acidic region rendered STIM1 constitutively active, whereas mutations within a short basic segment of CAD/SOAR prevented Orai1 activation. We propose that the CAD/SOAR domain is released from an intramolecular clamp during STIM1 activation, allowing the basic segment to activate Orai1 channels. This evolutionarily conserved mechanism of STIM1 activation resembles the regulation of protein kinases by intramolecular silencing through pseudosubstrate binding. PMID:21081754

  19. In vitro and vivo antioxidant activities of daylily flowers and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Que MB; Linchun Mao; Xiaojie Zheng

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Antioxidant proper- ties of water and ethanol extracts prepared from these dried flowers were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity. Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxi- dant activity. Ethanol was more efficiency to extract antioxidants than water, and freeze-drying preserved

  20. Interrogating Signaling Nodes Involved in Cellular Transformations Using Kinase Activity Probes

    E-print Network

    Stains, Cliff I.

    Protein kinases catalyze protein phosphorylation and thereby control the flow of information through signaling cascades. Currently available methods for concomitant assessment of the enzymatic activities of multiple kinases ...

  1. High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria and Mammalian Cells: Identification of the Enzymes Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lakaye, Bernard; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Scholer, Georges; Fillet, Marianne; Elias, Benjamin; Derochette, Jean-Michel; Crommen, Jacques; Wins, Pierre; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPPi) is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPPi but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. Conclusions and General Significance We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPPi in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPPi, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca2+, thereby interfering with Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22984449

  2. Menadione triggers cell death through ROS-dependent mechanisms involving PARP activation without requiring apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Loor; Jyothisri Kondapalli; Jacqueline M. Schriewer; Navdeep S. Chandel; Terry L. Vanden Hoek; Paul T. Schumacker

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, whereas other studies implicate the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore as the mediator of

  3. The Role of Disease Activity Score 28 in the Evaluation of Articular Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Laura; Pacucci, Viviana Antonella; Cipriano, Enrica; Truglia, Simona; Miranda, Francesca; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the application of Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) to assess joint involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Methods. Sixty-nine SLE patients, complaining of joint symptoms, and 44 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were enrolled. In SLE patients disease activity was assessed with SLEDAI-2K. DAS28 was calculated in all the patients. Results. Thirty SLE patients (43.5%) showed clinical signs of arthritis. Mean DAS28 was 4.0 ± 1.4, 22 patients (31.9%) had low disease activity, 29 (42.0%) moderate, and 18 (26.1%) high. We dichotomized SLE patients according to the presence (Group 1) or absence (Group 2) of articular involvement according to SLEDAI-2K: 56.3% of the patients of the second group had a moderate/high activity according to DAS28. We compared SLE patients with 44 RA patients (M/F 9/35, mean age 55.6 ± 14.5 years; mean disease duration 140.4 ± 105.6 months). No significant differences were found regarding the values of DAS28 between SLE and RA patients. On the contrary, the values of tender and swollen joint count were significantly higher in RA compared to SLE patients (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0001, resp.). Conclusions. We suggest the use of the DAS28 in the assessment of joint involvement in SLE patients. PMID:25530992

  4. NIK is involved in constitutive activation of the alternative NF-{kappa}B pathway and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishina, Takashi [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Noritaka [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan) [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Gohda, Jin [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan) [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Inoue, Jun-ichiro, E-mail: jun-i@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-10-09

    Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among human neoplasms. Constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B is frequently observed in pancreatic cancer cells and is involved in their malignancy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation. Here, we show that the alternative pathway is constitutively activated and NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK), a mediator of the alternative pathway, is significantly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of NIK expression followed by subcellular fractionation revealed that NIK is constitutively involved in the processing of p100 and nuclear transport of p52 and RelB in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, NIK silencing significantly suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. These results clearly indicate that NIK is involved in the constitutive activation of the alternative pathway and controls cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, NIK might be a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Cla4p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p-activated kinase involved in cytokinesis, is activated at mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Benton, B K; Tinkelenberg, A; Gonzalez, I; Cross, F R

    1997-01-01

    Yeasts have three functionally redundant G1 cyclins required for cell cycle progression through G1. Mutations in GIN4 and CLA4 were isolated in a screen for mutants that are inviable with deletions in the G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2. cln1 cln2 cla4 and cln1 cln2 gin4 cells arrest with a cytokinesis defect; this defect was efficiently rescued by CLN1 or CLN2 expression. GIN4 encodes a protein with strong homology to the Snflp serine/threonine kinase. Cla4p is homologous to mammalian p21-activated kinases (PAKs) (kinases activated by the rho-class GTPase Rac or Cdc42). We developed a kinase assay for Cla4p. Cla4p kinase was activated in vivo by the GTP-bound form of Cdc42p. The specific activity of Cla4p was cell cycle regulated, peaking near mitosis. Deletion of the Cla4p pleckstrin domain diminished kinase activity nearly threefold and eliminated in vivo activity. Deletion of the Cla4p Cdc42-binding domain increased kinase activity nearly threefold, but the mutant only weakly rescued cla4 function in vivo. This suggests that kinase activity alone is not sufficient for full function in vivo. Deletion of the Cdc42-binding domain also altered the cell cycle regulation of kinase activity. Instead of peaking at mitosis, the mutant kinase activity exhibited reduced cell cycle regulation and peaked at the G1/S border. Cla4p kinase activity was not reduced by mutational inactivation of gin4, suggesting that Gin4p may be downstream or parallel to Cla4p in the regulation of cytokinesis. PMID:9271384

  6. S-nitrosohaemoglobin: a dynamic activity of blood involved in vascular control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Jia; Celia Bonaventura; Joseph Bonaventura; Jonathan S. Stamler

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic cycle exists in which haemoglobin is S-nitrosylated in the lung when red blood cells are oxygenated, and the NO group is released during arterial-venous transit. The vasoactivity of S-nitrosohaemoglobin is promoted by the erythrocytic export of S-nitrosothiols. These findings highlight newly discovered allosteric and electronic properties of haemoglobin that appear to be involved in the control of blood

  7. Purinergic receptors are involved in tooth-pulp evoked nocifensive behavior and brainstem neuronal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Adachi; Kohei Shimizu; James W Hu; Ikuko Suzuki; Hiroshi Sakagami; Noriaki Koshikawa; Barry J Sessle; Masamichi Shinoda; Makiko Miyamoto; Kuniya Honda; Koichi Iwata

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether P2X receptors are involved in responses to noxious pulp stimulation, the P2X3 and P2X2\\/3 receptor agonist ?,?-methyleneATP (?,?-meATP) was applied to the molar tooth pulp and nocifensive behavior and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris (Vi), upper cervical spinal cord (C1\\/C2) and paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) neurons were

  8. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...111130706-1686-01] Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities...the impact that implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act...

  9. Regions Involved in the Oligomerization and Activity of the Spiral Forming Nitrilase Cyanide Dihydratase

    E-print Network

    Park, Jason M

    2014-05-22

    . Currently no spiral forming nitrilase has been amenable to crystallization, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of these enzymes. Crystal structures from the larger nitrilase-superfamily reveal a conserved dimer structure and active site. Three...

  10. Helminth 2Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Donnelly; Colin M. Stack; Sandra M. O'Neill; Ahmed A. Sayed; David L. Williams; John P. Dalton

    2008-01-01

    During helminth infections, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) are key to promoting Th2 responses and suppressing Th1-driven inflamma- tory pathology. Th2 cytokines IL-4 and\\/or IL-13 are believed to be important in the induction and activation of AAMacs. Using murine models for the helminth infections caused by Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Schisto- soma mansoni (Sm), we show that a secreted antioxidant, peroxiredoxin

  11. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoko Suzuki; Shinya Yanagita; Seiichiro Amemiya; Yumi Kato; Natsuko Kubota; Tomoo Ryushi; Ichiro Kita

    2008-01-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still\\u000a unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart\\u000a rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus\\u000a (LC), nucleus ambiguus

  12. Activation of the IL1?-Processing Inflammasome Is Involved in Contact Hypersensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Watanabe; Olivier Gaide; Virginie Pétrilli; Fabio Martinon; Emmanuel Contassot; Stéphanie Roques; Jean A Kummer; Jürg Tschopp; Lars E French

    2007-01-01

    The inflammasome is a cytosolic protein complex regulating the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 into their active form. The inflammasome is composed of a NACHT-, LRR- and pyrin (NALP) family member that acts as a sensor for danger signals and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC), which allows the

  13. Functional dissection of Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase structural domains and analysis of key compounds involved in activity regulation.

    PubMed

    Campos-Bermudez, Valeria Alina; Bologna, Federico Pablo; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Drincovich, María Fabiana

    2010-04-01

    Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetyl phosphate. Both compounds are critical in E. coli metabolism, and acetyl phosphate is also involved in the regulation of certain signal transduction pathways. Along with acetate kinase, Pta plays an important role in acetate production when E. coli grows on rich medium; alternatively, it is involved in acetate utilization at high acetate concentrations. E. coli Pta is composed of three different domains, but only the C-terminal one, called PTA_PTB, is specific for all Ptas. In the present work, the characterization of E. coli Pta and deletions from the N-terminal region were performed. E. coli Pta acetyl phosphate-forming and acetyl phosphate-consuming reactions display different maximum activities, and are differentially regulated by pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate. These compounds activate acetyl phosphate production, but inhibit acetyl-CoA production, thus playing a critical role in defining the rates of the two Pta reactions. The characterization of three truncated Ptas, which all display Pta activity, indicates that the substrate-binding site is located at the C-terminal PTA_PTB domain. However, the N-terminal P-loop NTPase domain is involved in expression of the maximal catalytic activity, stabilization of the hexameric native state, and Pta activity regulation by NADH, ATP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate. The truncated protein Pta-F3 was able to complement the growth on acetate of an E. coli mutant defective in acetyl-CoA synthetase and Pta, indicating that, although not regulated by metabolites, the Pta C-terminal domain is active in vivo. PMID:20236319

  14. Facilitation handlings induce increase in electromyographic activity of muscles involved in head control of cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anelise de Saldanha; do Pinho, Alexandre Severo; Grazziotin Dos Santos, Camila; Pagnussat, Aline de Souza

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activation of the main cervical muscles involved in the head control during two postures widely used for the facilitation of head control in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). A crossover trial involving 31 children with clinical diagnosis of CP and spastic quadriplegia was conducted. Electromyography was used to measure muscular activity in randomized postures. Three positions were at rest: (a) lateral decubitus, (b) ventral decubitus on the floor and (c) ventral decubitus on the wedge. Handlings for facilitating the head control were performed using the hip joint as key point of control in two postures: (a) lateral decubitus and (b) ventral decubitus on wedge. All children underwent standardized handlings, performed by the same researcher with experience in the neurodevelopmental treatment. EMG signal was recorded from muscles involved in the head control (paraspinal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) in sagittal, frontal and transverse planes, at the fourth cervical vertebra (C4), tenth thoracic vertebra (T10) and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) levels. The results showed a significant increase in muscle activation when handling was performed in the lateral decubitus at C4 (P<0.001), T10 (P<0.001) and SCM (P=0.02) levels. A significant higher muscle activation was observed when handling was performed in lateral decubitus when compared to ventral decubitus at C4 level (P<0.001). Handling in ventral decubitus also induced an increase in EMG activation at T10 (P=0.018) and SCM (P=0.004) levels but not at C4 level (P=0.38). In conclusion, handlings performed in both positions may induce the facilitation of head control, as evaluated by the activity of cervical and upper trunk muscles. Handling performed in lateral decubitus may induce a slightly better facilitation of head control. These findings contribute to evidence-based physiotherapy practice for the rehabilitation of severely spastic quadriplegic CP children. PMID:25010566

  15. Oncogene activation in human benign tumors of the skin (keratoacanthomas): Is HRAS involved in differentiation as well as proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Corominas, M.; Kamino, Hideko; Leon, J.; Pellicer, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-08-01

    In vitro DNA amplification followed by oligonucleotide mismatch hybridization was used to study the frequency of HRAS mutations in the benign self-regressing skin tumors keratoacanthomas and in squamous cell carcinomas. The authors used freshly obtained keratoacanthomas as well as Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from both types of tumors. DNA from 50 samples of each tumor type was analyzed for activating mutations involving codons 12 and 61. A relatively high percentage (30%) of HRAS mutations was found in the keratoacanthomas compared with 13% in the squamous cell carcinomas. The most frequent mutation identified is the A{center dot}T-to-T{center dot}A transversion in the second position of codon 61. The present findings demonstrate the involvement of the HRAS oncogene in human benign tumors. Moreover, they indicate that an activated HRAS oncogene is not sufficient to maintain a neoplastic phenotype and argue against a role of HRAS in the progression of skin tumorigenesis.

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil (neroli): involvment of the GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Azanchi, Taravat; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2014-11-01

    Citrus aurantium L. blossoms are an important medicinal plant part in Iran and some other countries. It is used in traditional medicine as an antiseizure and anticonvulsant natural agent. Early in vitro research of the anticonvulsant activity of the blossom extracts were done but there has been no investigation focused on the blossom essential oil and its anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of C. aurantium blossoms (neroli) was investigated. The anticonvulsant activity of neroli was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion by i.v. and i.p. methods and maximal electroshock (MES) in mice, with diazepam as the standard drug. While mechanistic studies were conducted using flumazenil, a GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist. Neroli produced protection against clonic by i.v adminiatration of PTZ at 20 and 40 mg/kg, compared with protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in neroli-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil. Intraperitonaeal PTZ also decreased the latency of clonic seizure in the neroli (40 mg/kg) treated group. We also showed that neroli (20 and 40 mg/kg), exhibited inhibition of the tonic convulsion induced by MES and decreased the mortality rate. Neroli was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and twenty three constituents, representing 91.0 % of the chromatographical oil were identified. The major components of neroli were characterized as linalool (28.5%), linalyl acetate (19.6%), nerolidol (9.1%) E,E-farnesol (9.1%), ?-terpineol (4.9%) and limonene (4.6%) which might be responsible for the anticonvulsant activity. The results suggest that neroli possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of seizure. PMID:25532295

  17. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation. PMID:12062184

  18. Changes in activities of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism during the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorn, J; Valkenburg, J A; Scholte, M E; Oehlen, L J; Van Driel, R; Postma, P W; Nanninga, N; Van Dam, K

    1988-01-01

    Activity changes of a number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were determined in cell extracts of fractionated exponential-phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under excess glucose. Cell-size fractionation was achieved by an improved centrifugal elutriation procedure. Evidence that the yeast populations had been fractionated according to age in the cell cycle was obtained by examining the various cell fractions for their volume distribution and their microscopic appearance and by flow cytometric analysis of the distribution patterns of cellular DNA and protein contents. Trehalase, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphofructokinase 1, and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase showed changes in specific activities throughout the cell cycle, whereas the specific activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase remained constant. The basal trehalase activity increased substantially (about 20-fold) with bud emergence and decreased again in binucleated cells. However, when the enzyme was activated by pretreatment of the cell extracts with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, no significant fluctuations in activity were seen. These observations strongly favor posttranslational modification through phosphorylation-dephosphorylation as the mechanism underlying the periodic changes in trehalase activity during the cell cycle. As observed for trehalase, the specific activities of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase 1 rose from the beginning of bud formation onward, finally leading to more than eightfold higher values at the end of the S phase. Subsequently, the enzyme activities dropped markedly at later stages of the cycle. Pyruvate kinase activity was relatively low during the G1 phase and the S phase, but increased dramatically (more than 50-fold) during G2. In contrast to the three glycolytic enzymes investigated, the highest specific activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase 1 was found in fractions enriched in either unbudded cells with a single nucleus or binucleated cells. The observed changes in enzyme activities most likely underlie pronounced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism during the cell cycle. PMID:2844728

  19. Flumazenil reverses the decrease in the hypnotic activity of pentobarbital by social isolation stress: are endogenous benzodiazepine receptor ligands involved?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuma Ojima; Kinzo Matsumoto; Hiroshi Watanabe

    1997-01-01

    Long-term social isolation stress has been shown to cause a decrease in pentobarbital (PB)-induced sleeping time in mice. In the present study, to clarify whether the GABAA\\/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor system is involved in the decrease in the hypnotic activity of PB by social isolation stress, we examined the effects of BZD receptor ligands on the PB-induced sleep in group-housed and

  20. Regulation of ERK1/2 activity by ghrelin-activated growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A involves a PLC/PKC? pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mousseaux, Delphine; Le Gallic, Lionel; Ryan, Joanne; Oiry, Catherine; Gagne, Didier; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Martinez, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) is a G-protein coupled receptor, involved in the biological actions of ghrelin by triggering inositol phosphates and calcium intracellular second messengers. It has also been reported that ghrelin could activate the 44- and 42-kDa extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) in different cell lines, but it is not clear whether this regulation is GHSR-1a dependent or not. To provide direct evidence for the coupling of GHSR-1a to ERK1/2 activation, this pathway has been studied in a heterologous expression system. Thus, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells we showed that ghrelin induced, via the human GHSR-1a, a transient and dose-dep endent activation of ERK1/2 leading to activation of the transcriptional factor Elk1. We then investigated the precise mechanisms involved in GHSR-1a-mediated ERK1/2 activation using various specific inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants and found that internalization of GHSR-1a was not necessary. Our results also indicate that phospholipase C (PLC) was involved in GHSR-1a-mediated ERK1/2 activation, however, pathways like tyrosine kinases, including Src, and phosphoinositide 3-kinases were not found to be involved. GHSR-1a-mediated ERK1/2 activation was abolished both by a general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, Gö6983, and by PKC depletion using overnight pretreatment with phorbol ester. Moreover, the calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, and the inhibitor of conventional PKCs, Gö6976, had no effect on the GHSR-1a-mediated ERK1/2 activation, suggesting the involvement of novel PKC isoforms (?, ?), but not conventional or atypical PKCs. Further analyses suggest that PKC? is required for the activation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these data suggest that ghrelin, through GHSR-1a, activates the Elk1 transcriptional factor and ERK1/2 by a PLC- and PKC?-dependent pathway. PMID:16582936

  1. Complement activation is involved in the hepatic injury caused by high-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Salomé Calado; Saghafian, Maryam; Pavlova, Svetlana; Hassan, Moustapha; DePierre, Joseph W; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr

    2015-06-01

    High-dose exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) induces both hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Here, we characterized the effects of 10-day dietary treatment with PFOA (0.002-0.02%, w/w) on the liver and complement system of male C57BL/6 mice. At all four doses, this compound caused hepatomegaly and reduced the serum level of triglycerides (an indicator for activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?)). At the highest dose (0.02%, w/w), this hepatomegaly was associated with the hepatic injury, as reflected in increased activity of alanine aminotranferase (ALAT) in the serum, severe hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocellular necrosis. PFOA-induced hepatic injury was associated with in vivo activation of the complement system as indicated by (i) significant attenuation of the serum activities of both the classical and alternative pathways; (ii) a marked reduction in the serum level of the complement factor C3; and (iii) deposition of the complement factor C3 fragment (C3a) in the hepatic parenchyma. PFOA did not activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. At doses lower than 0.02%, PFOA induced hepatocyte hypertrophy without causing liver injury or activating complement. These results reveal substantial involvement of activation of complement in the pathogenesis of PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25108893

  2. Phosphatidylcholine-derived phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol are involved in the signaling pathways activated by docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Nicolas; Bezombes, Christine; Plo, Isabelle; Levade, Thierry; Lavelle, François; Laurent, Guy; Jaffrézou, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Taxanes are known to activate several cellular signals including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, and serine phosphorylation of Bcl-2. However, the mediators of these signaling pathways are unknown. Using U937 leukemic cells, we evaluated the effect of docetaxel on phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its metabolites, phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG), and their impact on MAPK and NF-kappa B activation, as well as on Raf-1 and Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Metabolic labeling studies showed that docetaxel (10 nM) induced two waves of PA production (130-140%), which were detected at 1 and 10 min. Docetaxel also stimulated DAG production (130%), which followed the first PA wave. The initial PA burst was due to phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated PC hydrolysis. Subsequent DAG production was inhibited by the phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor, propranolol. R59949, a DAG kinase inhibitor, increased DAG accumulation and blocked the second PA wave. These results suggest that docetaxel triggers a metabolic cascade consisting in PLD-mediated PC hydrolysis, PA release, PAP-dependent DAG production, and DAG kinase stimulation, leading to DAG conversion back to PA. Neither R59949 nor propranolol influenced docetaxel-induced Raf-1/ERK activation. However, R59949 abrogated both NF-kappa B activation and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, suggesting that DAG and/or DAG-derived PA contribute in regulating these events. PMID:12724857

  3. Novel orexigenic pathway prostaglandin D2-NPY system--involvement in orally active orexigenic ? opioid peptide.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2012-12-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D(2), the most abundant PG in the central nervous system (CNS), is a bioactive lipid having various central actions including sleep induction, hypothermia and modulation of the pain response. We found that centrally administered PGD(2) stimulates food intake via the DP(1) among the two receptor subtypes for PGD(2) in mice. Hypothalamic mRNA expression of lipocalin-type PGD synthase (L-PGDS), which catalyzes production of PGD(2) from arachidonic acid via PGH(2) in the CNS, was increased after fasting. Central administration of antagonist and antisense ODN for the DP(1) receptor remarkably decreased food intake, body weight and fat mass. The orexigenic activity of PGD(2) was also blocked by an antagonist of Y(1) receptor for NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the hypothalamus. Thus, the central PGD(2)-NPY system may play a critical role in food intake regulation under normal physiological conditions. We also found that orally active orexigenic peptide derived from food protein activates the PGD(2)-NPY system, downstream of ? opioid receptor. We revealed that the ? agonist peptide, rubiscolin-6-induced orexigenic activity was mediated by L-PGDS in the leptomeninges but not parenchyma using conditional knockout mice. In this review, we discuss the PGD(2)-NPY system itself, and orexigenic signals to activate it. PMID:23141054

  4. A Second Operator Is Involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase (lasB) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ronda M.; Zimprich, Chad A.; Rust, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB elastase gene (lasB) transcription is controlled by the two-component quorum-sensing system of LasR, and the autoinducer, 3OC12-HSL (N-3-[oxododecanoyl]homoserine lactone). LasR and 3OC12-HSL-mediated lasB activation requires a functional operator sequence (OP1) in the lasB promoter region. Optimal activation of lasB, however, requires a second sequence of 70% identity to OP1, named OP2, located 43 bp upstream of OP1. In this study, we used sequence substitutions and insertion mutations in lasBp-lacZ fusion plasmids to explore the role of OP2 in lasB activation. Our results demonstrate that (i) OP1 and OP2 synergistically mediate lasB activation; (ii) OP2, like OP1, responds to LasR and 3OC12-HSL; and (iii) the putative autoinducer-binding domain of LasR is not required for synergistic activation from OP1 and OP2. PMID:10515913

  5. Hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis involved in volatile phenol production: relationship with cell viability.

    PubMed

    Laforgue, R; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2012-12-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis populations have been correlated with an increase in phenolic off-flavors in wine. The volatile phenols causing the olfactory defect result from the successive decarboxylation and reduction of hydroxycinnamic acids that are normal components of red wines. The growth of B. bruxellensis is preventable by adding sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), with variable effectiveness. Moreover, it was hypothesized that SO(2) was responsible for the entry of B. bruxellensis into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of SO(2) on the remaining enzyme activities of B. bruxellensis populations according to their viability and cultivability, focusing on the hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase enzyme, the first enzyme needed, rather than the metabolites produced. Enzyme activity was determined both in cell-free extracts and resting cells after various SO(2) treatments in synthetic media. After slight sulfiting (around 50 mg/L total SO(2)), the yeasts had lost part of their enzyme activity but not their cultivability. At higher doses (at least 75 mg/L total SO(2)) the majority of yeasts had lost their cultivability but still retained part of their enzyme activity. These results suggested that non culturable cells retained some enzyme activity. PMID:22986185

  6. Functional domains of the human orphan receptor ARP-1/COUP-TFII involved in active repression and transrepression.

    PubMed Central

    Achatz, G; Hölzl, B; Speckmayer, R; Hauser, C; Sandhofer, F; Paulweber, B

    1997-01-01

    The orphan receptor ARP-1/COUP-TFII, a member of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of nuclear receptors, strongly represses transcriptional activity of numerous genes, including several apolipoprotein-encoding genes. Recently it has been demonstrated that the mechanism by which COUP-TFs reduce transcriptional activity involves active repression and transrepression. To map the domains of ARP-1/COUP-TFII required for repressor activity, a detailed deletion analysis of the protein was performed. Chimeric proteins in which various segments of the ARP-1/COUP-TFII carboxy terminus were fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain were used to characterize its active repression domain. The smallest segment confering active repressor activity to a heterologous DNA binding domain was found to comprise residues 210 to 414. This domain encompasses the region of ARP-1/COUP-TFII corresponding to helices 3 to 12 in the recently published crystal structure of other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It includes the AF-2 AD core domain formed by helix 12 but not the hinge region, which is essential for interaction with a corepressor in the case of the thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptor. Attachment of the nuclear localization signal from the simian virus 40 large T antigen (Flu tag) to the amino terminus of ARP-1/COUP-TFII abolished its ability to bind to DNA without affecting its repressor activity. By using a series of Flu-tagged mutants, the domains required for transrepressor activity of the protein were mapped. They include the DNA binding domain and the segment spanning residues 193 to 399. Transcriptional activity induced by liver-enriched transactivators such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3), C/EBP, or HNF-4 was repressed by ARP-1/COUP-TFII independent of the presence of its cognate binding site, while basal transcription or transcriptional activity induced by ATF or Sp1 was not perturbed by the protein. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the domains of ARP-1/COUP-TFII required for active repression and transrepression do not coincide. Moreover, they strongly suggest that transrepression is the predominant mechanism underlying repressor activity of ARP-1/COUP-TFII. This mechanism most likely involves interaction of the protein with one or several transcriptional coactivator proteins which are employed by various liver-enriched transactivators but not by ubiquitous factors such as Sp1 or ATF. PMID:9271371

  7. Specificity of MAP Kinase Signaling in Yeast Differentiation Involves Transient versus Sustained MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Walid; Flatauer, Laura J.; Bardwell, A. Jane; Bardwell, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Signals transmitted by common components often elicit distinct (yet appropriate) outcomes. In yeast, two developmental options—mating and invasive growth—are both regulated by the same MAP kinase cascade. Specificity has been thought to result from specialized roles for the two MAP kinases, Kss1 and Fus3, and because Fus3 prevents Kss1 from gaining access to the mating pathway. Kss1 has been thought to participate in mating only when Fus3 is absent. Instead, we show that Kss1 is rapidly phosphorylated and potently activated by mating pheromone in wild-type cells, and that this is required for normal pheromone-induced gene expression. Signal identity is apparently maintained because active Fus3 limits the extent of Kss1 activation, thereby preventing inappropriate signal crossover. PMID:11583629

  8. Blue light irradiation affects anthocyanin content and enzyme activities involved in postharvest strawberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Cao, Shifeng; Shi, Liyu; Chen, Wei; Su, Xinguo; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2014-05-21

    Blue light irradiation was applied to postharvest strawberry fruit to explore its influence on anthocyanin content and anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme activities. Strawberry fruit was irradiated with blue light at 40 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) for 12 days at 5 °C. The results indicated that blue light treatment improved total anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit during storage. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activities of glucose-6-phosphate, shikimate dehydrogenase, tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate/coenzyme A ligase, dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, chalcone synthase, flavanone-3-?-hydroxylase, anthocyanin synthase, and UDP-glycose flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltranferase, which suggested that the enhancement of anthocyanin concentration by blue light might result from the activation of its related enzymes. Blue light might be proposed as a supplemental light source in the storage of strawberry fruit to improve its anthocyanin content. PMID:24783962

  9. Involvement of Ca2+ in the inhibition by crocetin of platelet activity and thrombosis formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Qian, Zhiyu; Yang, Yun; Sheng, Liang; Ji, Hui; Zhou, Chenghua; Kazi, Hamid Ali

    2008-10-22

    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, is a major ingredient of saffron used as an important spice and food colorant in various parts of the world. In the present study, the effects of crocetin on platelet activity and thrombosis formation were systematically investigated. Crocetin showed a dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, but not by arachidonic acid (AA). Crocetin significantly attenuated dense granule release, while neither platelets adhesion to collagen nor cyclic AMP level was altered by crocetin. Pretreatment with crocetin was confirmed to partially inhibit Ca (2+) mobilization via reducing both intracellular Ca (2+) release and extracellular Ca (2+) influx. Besides that, crocetin prolonged the occlusive time in electrical stimulation-induced carotid arterial thrombosis. These findings suggest that the favorable impacts of crocetin on platelet activity and thrombosis formation may be related to the inhibition of Ca (2+) elevation in stimulated platelets. PMID:18817408

  10. ERK6, a mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in C2C12 myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, C; Zahalka, M A; Giot, J F; Møller, N P; Ullrich, A

    1996-01-01

    ERK6, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-related serine/threonine kinase, is highly expressed in human skeletal muscle and appears to function as a signal transducer during differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. In transfected 293 cells, activation of the 45-kDa enzyme results in tyrosine-phosphorylated 46- and 56-kDa forms, which phosphorylate myelin basic protein. Overexpression of wild-type ERK6 or the inactive mutant Y185F has no effect on fibroblast and myoblast proliferation, but it enhances or inhibits C2C12 cell differentiation to myotubes, respectively. Our findings suggest ERK6 to be a tissue-specific, differentiation signal-transducing factor that is connected to phosphotyrosine-mediated signaling pathways distinct from those activating other members of the MAP kinase family such as LRK1 and ERK2. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8633070

  11. Involvement of a membrane potassium channel in heparan sulphate-induced activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Dong; Fan, Li; Tian, Fu-Zhou; Fan, Kai-Hua; Yu, Bo-Tao; Jin, Wei-Hua; Tan, Yong-Hong; Cheng, Long

    2014-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) -mediated systemic inflammatory response syndrome accompanied by multiple organ failure, is one of the most common causes of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Recent reports have revealed that heparan sulphate (HS) proteoglycan, a component of extracellular matrices, potentiates the activation of intracellular pro-inflammatory responses via TLR4, contributing to the aggravation of acute pancreatitis. However, little is known about the participants in the HS/TLR4-mediated inflammatory cascades. Our previous work provided a clue that a membrane potassium channel (MaxiK) is responsible for HS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, in this report we attempted to reveal the roles of MaxiK in the activation of macrophages stimulated by HS. Our results showed that incubation of RAW264.7 cells with HS up-regulated MaxiK and TLR4 expression levels. HS could also activate MaxiK channels to promote the efflux of potassium ions from cells, as measured by the elevated activity of caspase-1, whereas this was significantly abolished by treatment with paxilline, a specific blocker of the MaxiK channel. Moreover, it was found that paxilline substantially inhibited HS-induced activation of several different transcription factors in macrophages, including nuclear factor-?B, p38 and interferon regulatory factor-3, followed by decreased production of tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?. Taken together, our investigation provides evidence that the HS/TLR4-mediated intracellular inflammatory cascade depends on the activation of MaxiK, which may offer an important opportunity for a new approach in therapeutic strategies of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:24138091

  12. Calcitriol mediates the activity of SGLT1 through an extranuclear initiated mechanism that involves intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Castaneda, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    The present study explored whether calcitriol plays a role in the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1) activity. For this purpose, alpha-methyl glucoside (AMG) uptake in stable transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-G6D3) cells expressing rabbit SGLT1 (rbSGLT1) was used. The involvement of second messengers, intracellular signaling pathways, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined using specific inhibitors before incubation with calcitriol for 15 min. The present study demonstrated the involvement of second messengers produced by phospholipase A(2), phospholipase C, calmodulin, diacylglycerol kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase on calcitriol-regulated AMG uptake. Pretreatment with inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway increased calcitriol-induced AMG uptake. In contrast, inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the effect of calcitriol on AMG uptake. These findings suggest that calcitriol regulates rbSGLT1 activity through a rapid, extranuclear initiated mechanism of action stimulated by MAPK and inhibited by PI3K/Akt/mTOR. Another important finding was the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on calcitriol-induced AMG uptake. Interleukin-6 increased while tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased calcitriol-induced AMG uptake. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the involvement of calcitriol in the regulation of rbSGLT1 activity. This is due to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways triggered by second messenger molecules and cytokines after a short time (15 min) exposure to calcitriol. PMID:20428992

  13. Antiulcer activity of Muntingia calabura leaves involves the modulation of endogenous nitric oxide and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Balan, Tavamani; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Suppaiah, Velan; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Suhaili, Zarizal; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) is a native plant species of the American continent and is widely cultivated in warm areas in Asia, including Malaysia. The plant is traditionally used to relieve pain from gastric ulcers. Objective: This study was designed to determine the antiulcer activity of a methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and the possible mechanisms of action involved. Materials and methods: An acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 2000?mg/kg MEMC. The antiulcer activity of MEMC was evaluated in absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat models. MEMC was administered orally (dose range 25-500?mg/kg) to rats fasted for 24?h. The animals were pretreated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME) or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prior to MEMC treatment to assess the possible involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMC. Results: As the administered dose did not cause toxicity in the rats, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of MEMC was >2000?mg/kg in rats. MEMC exerted significant (p?activity in the ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcer models dose-dependently. Histological evaluation supported the observed antiulcer activity of MEMC. l-NAME and NEM pretreatment significantly (p?activity that might involve the participation of endogenous NO and NP-SH compounds. These findings provide new pharmacological information regarding the potential use of M. calabura. PMID:24192248

  14. Glutamate Neurotransmission in the Cerebellar Interposed Nuclei: Involvement in Classically Conditioned Eyeblinks and Neuronal Activity

    E-print Network

    Bracha, Vlastislav

    and on cerebellar nuclear neuronal activity were examined. Surpris- ingly, blocking fast glutamate receptors, identical amounts of DGG applied to the cerebellar cortex abolished CRs. Similar to the behavioral effects, DGG had unexpect- edly mild effects on IN neurons. At the population level, the baseline firing

  15. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  16. Carboxy-Terminal Region Involved in Activity of Escherichia coli TolC

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Izawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2001-01-01

    The Escherichia coli TolC acts as a channel tunnel in the transport of various molecules across the outer membrane. Partial-deletion studies of tolC revealed that the region extending from the 50th to the 60th amino acid residue from the carboxy terminus plays an important role in this transport activity of TolC. PMID:11698388

  17. Fantasy Activity and the Televiewing Event: Considerations for an Information Processing Construct of Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindlof, Thomas R.

    The similarities between television viewing and fantasy activity (daydreaming, reverie, mind-wandering, internal dialogue) more than warrant the building of a theoretical construct, especially in the context of recent empirical research on television viewing consequences. A construct of the television viewing process, based on cognitive theories…

  18. Regrouping: Organized Activity Involvement and Social Adjustment across the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Arola, Nicole T.

    2013-01-01

    Although organized activities (OAs) have been established as important contexts of development, limited work has examined the role of OAs across the high school transition in buffering adolescents' social adjustment by providing opportunities for visibility and peer affiliation. The transition to high school is characterized by numerous…

  19. Cultural Variation in Young Children's Opportunities for Involvement in Adult Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Gilda A.; And Others

    This study gathered information on the extent to which children participate in the mature routines of their community, and the extent to which elders participate in child-centered activities. Subjects were children ranging in age from 30 to 45 months from the four societies of: (1) Mayan Indians living in a rural Guatemalan town; (2) the Efe…

  20. How Curriculum Leaders Can Involve the Right Brain in Active Reading and Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Stahl-Gemake, Josephine

    Curriculum leaders, program specialists, and teachers can intentionally arouse the activation of one hemisphere of the brain over the other through the use of right brain strategies in language learning. While most functions of the left hemisphere are concerned with convergent production (getting the right answer), functions of the right…

  1. From Resistance to Involvement: Examining Agency and Control in a Playworld Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainio, Anna Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    In the recent sociocultural literature, it is possible to identify at least three ways of understanding the development of individual agency in social practices: (a) through transforming the object of activity and through self-change, (b) through responsible and intentional membership, and (c) through resistance and transformation of the dominant…

  2. ACEII, a novel transcriptional activator involved in regulation of cellulase and xylanase genes of Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Aro, N; Saloheimo, A; Ilmén, M; Penttilä, M

    2001-06-29

    A novel yeast-based method to isolate transcriptional activators was applied to clone regulators binding to the cellulase promoter cbh1 of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina). This led to the isolation of the cellulase activator ace2 encoding for a protein belonging to the class of zinc binuclear cluster proteins found exclusively in fungi. The DNA-binding domain of ACEII was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and ACEII was shown to bind in vitro to the 5'-GGCTAATAA site present in the cbh1 promoter. This site also contains the proposed binding sequence of the xylanase activator XlnR of Aspergillus niger. Mutation of the GGC triplet abolished ACEII binding. The function of ACEII was studied by analyzing the effects of ace2 deletion in the hypercellulolytic T. reesei strain ALKO2221. Deletion of the ace2 gene led to lowered induction kinetics of mRNAs encoding the major cellulases cellobiohydrolases I and II and endoglucanases I and II and to 30-70% reduced cellulase activity when the fungus was grown on medium containing Solka floc cellulose. The expression level of the gene encoding xylanase was also affected. ace2 deletion led to lowered xyn2 expression in cellulose-induced cultivation. Cellulase induction by sophorose was not affected by ace2 deletion. PMID:11304525

  3. Predictors of condom use among sexually active persons involved in compulsory national service in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adegbenga M. Sunmola; Benjamin O. Olley; Grace E. Oso

    2006-01-01

    Migration is known to increase the risk of heterosexual transmission of human immuno- deficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, but little attention has been paid to fresh graduates of tertiary institutions who are on migration for compulsory national assignment in Nigeria. In July and August 2004, a survey was conducted on sexually active men (n 5 344) and women (n

  4. Vav3 oncogene activates estrogen receptor and its overexpression may be involved in human breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiwon Lee; Yin Liu; Jun Qin Mo; Jinsong Zhang; Zhongyun Dong; Shan Lu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, activates androgen receptor, and stimulates growth in prostate cancer cells. The current study is to determine a potential role of Vav3 oncogene in human breast cancer and impact on estrogen receptor a (ER?)-mediated signaling axis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 43 breast cancer specimens and

  5. Improving image quality in reflection confocal microscopy involving gold nanoparticles and osmotically active immersion liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Veksler; A. Lemelle; I. S. Kozhevnikov; G. G. Akchurin; I. V. Meglinski

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility of using gold nanoparticles to improve the image contrast of biotissue structures in reflection\\u000a confocal laser microscopy. We present the results of experimental studies using gold nanospheres with a diameter of 60 nm\\u000a compared to osmotically active immersion contrast agents based on glycerol.

  6. Study of the Possible Mechanisms Involved in the Mucosal Immune System Activation by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Perdigón; E. Vintiñi; S. Alvarez; M. Medina; M. Medici

    1999-01-01

    The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this im- mune system. Antigens administered orally can inter- act with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secre-

  7. Hypnosis Modulates Activity in Brain Structures Involved in the Regulation of Consciousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Rainville; Robert K. Hofbauer; M. Catherine Bushnell; Gary H. Duncan; Donald D. Price

    2002-01-01

    The notion of consciousness is at the core of an ongoing debate on the existence and nature of hypnotic states. Previously, we have described changes in brain activity associated with hypnosis (Rainville, Hofbauer, Paus, Duncan, Bushnell, & Price, 1999). Here, we replicate and extend those findings using positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 normal volunteers. Immediately after each of 8

  8. Department of Energy interest and involvement in nuclear plant license renewal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Harrison, D.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of LWR Safety and Technology)

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear license renewal to the nation's energy strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plant lifetime improvement program during 1985 to determine the feasibility of the license renewal option for US nuclear plants. Initial activities of the DOE program focused on determining whether there were technical and economic obstacles that might preclude or limit the successful implementation of the license renewal option. To make this determination, DOE cosponsored with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pilot-plant efforts by Virginia Electric Power and Northern States Power. Both pilot-plant efforts concluded that life extension is technically and economically feasible. In parallel with the pilot-plant activities, DOE performed national economic studies that demonstrated the economic desirability of life extension. Having demonstrated the feasibility of life extension, DOE, in conjunction with EPRI, selected two lead plants to demonstrate the license renewal process. These lead plants are Yankee Atomic's Yankee Rowe facility and Northern States Power's Monticello facility. DOE also initiated activities to develop the technical and regulatory bases to support the license renewal process in the United States. DOE has recently identified nuclear plant license renewal to be an important element of its National Energy Strategy. This paper summarizes the significant results, conclusions, and ongoing activities of the DOE effort. 18 refs.

  9. Structural Determinants Involved in the Formation and Activation of G Protein ?? Dimers

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins, composed of an ?, ? and ? subunit, represent one of the most important and dynamic families of signaling proteins. As a testament to the significance of G protein signaling, the hundreds of seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors that interact with G proteins are estimated to occupy 1–2% of the human genome. This broad diversity of receptors is echoed in the number of potential heterotrimer combinations that can arise from the 23 ? subunit, 7 ? subunit and 12 ? subunit isoforms that have been identified. The potential for such vast complexity implies that the receptor G protein interface is the site of much regulation. The historical model for the activation of a G protein holds that activated receptor catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the ? subunit, inducing a conformational change that substantially lowers the affinity of ? for ??. This decreased affinity enables dissociation of ?? from ? and receptor. The free form of ?? is thought to activate effectors, until the hydrolysis of GTP by G ? (aided by RGS proteins) allows the subunits to re-associate, effectively deactivating the G protein until another interaction with activated receptor. PMID:19212142

  10. Physical Activity Based Professional Development for Teachers: The Importance of Whole School Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Jude; Ferkins, Lesley; Handcock, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate teachers' perceptions of a physical activity-related professional development intervention. Design: Interview-based qualitative approach founded on the interpretive paradigm. Setting: Purposive selection of one high-rated independent, and one low-rated public primary school from Auckland, New Zealand.…

  11. GBA2-Encoded ?-Glucosidase Activity Is Involved in the Inflammatory Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Marchetti, Nicola; Aureli, Massimo; Bassi, Rosaria; Giri, Maria Grazia; Bezzerri, Valentino; Lovato, Valentina; Cantù, Cinzia; Munari, Silvia; Cheng, Seng H.; Cavazzini, Alberto; Gambari, Roberto; Sonnino, Sandro; Cabrini, Giulio; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Current anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) are limited; thus, there is continued interest in identifying additional molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Given the emerging role of sphingolipids (SLs) in various respiratory disorders, including CF, drugs that selectively target the enzymes associated with SL metabolism are under development. Miglustat, a well-characterized iminosugar-based inhibitor of ?-glucosidase 2 (GBA2), has shown promise in CF treatment because it reduces the inflammatory response to infection by P. aeruginosa and restores F508del-CFTR chloride channel activity. This study aimed to probe the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory activity of miglustat by examining specifically the role of GBA2 following the infection of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa. We also report the anti-inflammatory activity of another potent inhibitor of GBA2 activity, namely N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy)pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (Genz-529648). In CF bronchial cells, inhibition of GBA2 by miglustat or Genz-529648 significantly reduced the induction of IL-8 mRNA levels and protein release following infection by P. aeruginosa. Hence, the present data demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of miglustat and Genz-529648 are likely exerted through inhibition of GBA2. PMID:25141135

  12. C1q complement component and -antibodies reflect SLE activity and kidney involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Horák; Z. He?manová; J. Zadražil; H. Ciferská; M. Ordeltová; L. Kusá; M. Žurek; T. Tichý

    2006-01-01

    The role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of systemic diseases is very ambivalent. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), many abnormalities in the activation of the complement system have been reported. The most important antibodies formed against the complement system in SLE are the ones associated with the C1q component. The aim of this study was to assess separately

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: are they involved in atherosclerosis progression?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Puddu; Giovanni M. Puddu; Antonio Muscari

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors present in several organs and cell types. They are subdivided into PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma and PPAR delta (or beta). PPAR alpha and gamma are the two main categories of these receptors, which are both characterized by their ability to influence lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as

  14. Rat mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: amino acid positions involved in covalent modifications, activity, and heat stability.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Cecere, Francesca; De Vendittis, Alberto; Cotugno, Roberta; Chambery, Angela; Di Maro, Antimo; Michniewicz, Andzelika; Parlato, Giuseppe; Masullo, Mariorosario; Avvedimento, Enrico Vittorio; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria

    2009-12-01

    The role of three amino acid residues (Q143, Y34, S82) of rat mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (ratSOD2) in the enzymatic activity, thermostability, and post-translational modification of the enzyme was investigated through site-directed mutagenesis studies. Six recombinant forms of the enzyme were produced, carrying the Q143 or H143 residue with or without the Y34F or S82A replacement. All proteins bound manganese as active cofactor and were organized as homotetramers. The greatest effect on the activity (sixfold reduction) was observed in ratSOD2 forms containing the H143 variant, whereas Y34F and S82A substitutions moderately reduced the enzymatic activity compared to the Q143 form. Heat inactivation studies showed the high thermo-tolerance of ratSOD2 and allowed an evaluation of the related activation parameters of the heat inactivation process. Compared to Q143, the H143 variant was significantly less heat stable and displayed moderately lower enthalpic and entropic factors; the Y34F substitution caused a moderate reduction of heat stability, whereas the S82A replacement slightly improved the thermo-tolerance of the Q143 variant; both substitutions significantly increased enthalpic and entropic factors of heat inactivation, the greatest effect being observed with S82A substitution. All recombinant forms of ratSOD2 were glutathionylated in Escherichia coli, a feature pointing to the high reactivity of ratSOD2 toward glutathione. Moreover, the S82 position of the enzyme was phosphorylated in an in vitro system containing human mitochondrial protein extracts as source of protein kinases. These data highlight the role played by some residues in ratSOD2 and suggest a fine regulation of the enzyme occurring in vivo. PMID:19384983

  15. Activism and Leadership Development: Examining the Relationship between College Student Activism Involvement and Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jeremy Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in student activism and leadership development among college students. This study applied the social change model of leadership development (SCM) as the theoretical model used to measure socially responsible leadership capacity in students. The study utilized data…

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced preconditioning in primary cortical neurons involves activation of MCL-1.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Ujval; Weisová, Petronela; Düssmann, Heiko; Concannon, Caoimhín G; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2013-03-01

    Neuronal preconditioning is a phenomenon where a previous exposure to a sub-lethal stress stimulus increases the resistance of neurons towards a second, normally lethal stress stimulus. Activation of the energy stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to contribute to the protective effects of ischaemic and mitochondrial uncoupling-induced preconditioning in neurons, however, the molecular basis of AMPK-mediated preconditioning has been less well characterized. We investigated the effect of AMPK preconditioning using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in a model of NMDA-mediated excitotoxic injury in primary mouse cortical neurons. Activation of AMPK with low concentrations of AICAR (0.1 mM for 2 h) induced a transient increase in AMPK phosphorylation, protecting neurons against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Analysing potential targets of AMPK activation, demonstrated a marked increase in mRNA expression and protein levels of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein myeloid cell leukaemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) in AICAR-preconditioned neurons. Interestingly, over-expression of MCL-1 protected neurons against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity while MCL-1 gene silencing abolished the effect of AICAR preconditioning. Monitored intracellular Ca²? levels during NMDA excitation revealed that MCL-1 over-expressing neurons exhibited improved bioenergetics and markedly reduced Ca²? elevations, suggesting a potential mechanism through which MCL-1 confers neuroprotection. This study identifies MCL-1 as a key effector of AMPK-induced preconditioning in neurons. PMID:23199202

  17. Intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori is an ATPase involved in multifunctional biological activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-yi; Chen, Cheng; Shao, Chen; Wang, Shao-bo; Wang, Ai-chu; Yang, Ya-chao; Yuan, Xiao-yan; Shao, Shi-he

    2015-04-01

    The function of intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori was analyzed using immunoblotting and molecular biology techniques in the study. After cloning, expression and purification, ATPase activity of DupA protein was detected. Antibody was produced for localization and interaction proteins analysis. The dupA-deleted mutant was generated for adhesion and CagA protein translocation assay, susceptibility to different pH, IL-8 secretion assay, cytotoxicity to MKN-45 cells and proteins-involved apoptosis analysis. DupA protein exhibited an ATPase activity (129.5±17.8 U/mgprot) and located in bacterial membrane, while it did not involve the adhesion and CagA protein delivery of H. pylori. DupA protein involved the urease secretion as the interaction proteins. The wild type strain had a stronger growth in low pH than the dupA-deleted mutant (p < 0.001). IL-8 productions from GES-1 cells infected with the wild type strain were significantly higher than from those with the mutant (p < 0.001). The amounts of vital MKN-45 cells were decreased and the numbers of apoptotic cells were increased with the wild type strain, compared to those with the mutant after 12 h (p < 0.05). The increase of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was significantly higher and the decrease of Bcl-2 was more obvious in MKN-45 cells exposed to the wild type strain than that exposed to the mutant after 6 h. We demonstrate that intact long-type DupA protein located in membrane as ATPase is a true virulence factor associated with duodenal ulcer development involving the IL-8 induction and urease secretion, while it inhibits gastric cancer cell growth in vitro by activating the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. PMID:25745877

  18. Prefrontal electroencephalographic activity during the working memory processes involved in a sexually motivated task in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Guevara, Miguel Angel

    2012-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex is involved in working memory functions, and several studies using food or drink as rewards have demonstrated that the rat is capable of performing tasks that involve working memory. Sexual activity is another highly-rewarding, motivated behaviour that has proven to be an efficient incentive in classical operant tasks. The objective of this study was to determine whether the functional activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) changes in relation to the working memory processes involved in a sexually motivated task performed in male rats. Thus, male Wistar rats implanted in the mPFC were subjected to a nonmatching-to-sample task in a T-maze using sexual interaction as a reinforcer during a 4-day training period. On the basis of their performance during training, the rats were classified as 'good-learners' or 'bad-learners'. Only the good-learner rats showed an increase in the absolute power of the 8-13 Hz band during both the sample and test runs; a finding that could be related to learning of the working memory elements entailed in the task. During the maintenance phase only (i.e., once the rule had been learned well), the good-learner rats also showed an increased correlation of the 8-13 Hz band during the sample run, indicating that a high degree of coupling between the prefrontal cortices is necessary for the processing required to allow the rats to make correct decisions in the maintenance phase. Taken together, these data show that mPFC activity changes in relation to the working memory processes involved in a sexually motivated task in male rats. PMID:22766846

  19. Involvement of endothelium-derived factors in controlling the active tone of smooth muscle in aorta from hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, F; Matsuda, K; Shimamura, K; Takeuchi, K; Sunano, S

    1998-01-01

    Control of the active tone by endothelium in aortae from various strains of spontaneously hypertensive rats was studied. The active tone was negligibly observed in endothelium-intact preparation. The application of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10(-4) M) induced slowly developed active tone in the preparations from hypertensive rats but no active tone was induced in the preparation from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The developed tension was stronger in preparations from rats with higher blood pressure as observed in endothelium denuded preparations. The developed active tone in the presence of L-NNA was greater than that observed in endothelium denuded preparations. The active tone was abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+ or by the application of Ca-antagonists. L-arginine counteracted the effects of L-NNA and depressed the developed active tone in the presence of the latter drug. The application of indomethacin (10(-5) M) depressed the active tone of the preparations from SHRSP by 25.5+/-5.2%. Increasing extracellular K+ concentration or application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) could not be used to observe the effect of endothelium-derived factors on the active tone, because of their strong contractile effect. Simultaneous application of apamin and charybdotoxin induced an elevation of tension which was often associated with spontaneous tension oscillation. It is concluded that the active tone, which is smooth muscle origin, is depressed by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) strongly and potentiated by a product of arachidonic acid cascade through cyclooxygenase pathway. The involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the depressing effect of endothelium is thought to be small. PMID:10379930

  20. A case of renal involvement in persistent immune activation caused by chlamydial salpingitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Ohsawa; Hiroyuki Ohi; Morito Endo; Takayuki Fujita; Mutsuko Hidaka; Atsushi Satomura; Yutaka Yamaguchi

    2001-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with renal insufficiency, macrohematuria, and mild urinary protein. Polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia, thrombocytosis, increased concentration of serum, and urinary interleukin (IL)-6 all indicated persistent immune activation caused by a Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the fallopian tube. Gynecological treatment with levofloxacin was effective both for the renal symptoms and other immunological parameters. First and second renal biopsy specimens showed

  1. Involvement of an Active Efflux System in the Natural Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Aminoglycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIO RAMOS AIRES; THILO KOHLER; HIROSHI NIKAIDO; PATRICK PLESIAT

    A mutant, named 11B, hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and erythromycin was isolated after Tn501 insertion mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Cloning and sequencing experiments showed that 11B was deficient in an, at that time, unknown active efflux system that contains homologs of MexAB. This locus also contained a putative regulatory gene, mexZ, transcribed divergently from the efflux operon. Introduction of

  2. Regions Involved in the Oligomerization and Activity of the Spiral Forming Nitrilase Cyanide Dihydratase 

    E-print Network

    Park, Jason M

    2014-05-22

    nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis, pure (R)-(-)-mandelic acid can be produced from (R, S)-mandelonitrile (Xue et al. 2011). Waste remediation The use of nitrile chemicals raises significant safety and environmental concerns, as many are highly toxic.... Saturation mutagenesis at these sites revealed mutants with 7.3 fold improved specific activity towards 3-hydroxyvaleronitrile (Wu et al. 2007), and others with 15.3 fold improvements towards glycolonitrile (Wu et al. 2008). In a nitrilase from Alcaligenes...

  3. (?)Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: Probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra T. Peana; Stefania Marzocco; Ada Popolo; Aldo Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies performed in our laboratory have shown that (?)-linalool, the natural occurring enantiomer in essential oils, possesses anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects in different animal models. The antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effect of (?)-linalool has been ascribed to the stimulation of the cholinergic, opioidergic and dopaminergic systems, to its local anaesthetic activity and to the blockade of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA).

  4. Nalidixic Acid Resistance: A Second Genetic Character Involved in DNA Gyrase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Gellert; Kiyoshi Mizuuchi; Mary H. O'Dea; Tateo Itoh; Jun-Ichi Tomizawa

    1977-01-01

    ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling catalyzed by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase was inhibited by oxolinic acid, a compound similar to but more potent than nalidixic acid and a known inhibitor of DNA replication in E. coli. The supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase purified from nalidixic acid-resistant mutant (nalAR) bacteria was resistant to oxolinic acid. Thus, the nalA locus is responsible for a

  5. Identification of a Second Arcanobacterium pyogenes Neuraminidase and Involvement of Neuraminidase Activity in Host Cell Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Helen Jost; J. Glenn Songer; Stephen J. Billington

    2002-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory and urogenital tracts of econom- ically important animals, such as cattle and swine, is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with suppu- rative infections in these animals. A. pyogenes expresses neuraminidase activity encoded by the nanH gene, and previously, construction of a nanH mutant of A. pyogenes BBR1 indicated that a second

  6. Structural organization of ultrarapidly frozen barley aleurone cells actively involved in protein secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Fernandez; L. A. Staehelin

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of actively secreting barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) aleurone cells was examined using ultrarapid-freezing (-1) followed by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution. Our analysis indicates that much of the evidence supporting a direct pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (i.e. bypassing the Golgi apparatus) for the secretion of a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) may not be

  7. Protease-activated receptor 1-dependent neuronal damage involves NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Cecily E.; Mannaioni, Guido; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Sastre, Aristide A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed throughout the central nervous system. PAR1 activation by brain-derived as well as blood-derived proteases has been shown to have variable and complex effects in a variety of animal models of neuronal injury and inflammation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of PAR1 on lesion volume in wild-type or PAR1?/? C57Bl/6 mice subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or injected with NMDA in the striatum. We found that removal of PAR1 reduced infarct volume following transient focal ischemia to 57% of control. Removal of PAR1 or application of a PAR1 antagonist also reduced the neuronal injury associated with intrastriatal injection of NMDA to 60% of control. To explore whether NMDA receptor potentiation by PAR1 activation contributes to the harmful effects of PAR1, we investigated the effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on the neuroprotective phenotype of PAR1?/? mice. We found that MK801 reduced penumbral but not core neuronal injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or intrastriatal NMDA injection. Lesion volumes in both models were not significantly different between PAR1?/? mice treated with and without MK801. Use of the NMDA receptor antagonist and dissociative anesthetic ketamine also renders NMDA-induced lesion volumes identical in PAR1?/? mice and wild-type mice. These data suggest that the ability of PAR1 activation to potentiate NMDA receptor function may underlie its harmful actions during injury. PMID:19416668

  8. Lactobacillus fermentum 3872 genome sequencing reveals plasmid and chromosomal genes potentially involved in a probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Lehri, B; Seddon, A M; Karlyshev, A V

    2015-06-01

    In this report we describe a Lactobacillus fermentum 3872 plasmid (pLF3872) not previously found in any other strain of this species. The analysis of the complete sequence of this plasmid revealed the presence of a gene encoding a large collagen-binding protein (CBP), as well as the genes responsible for plasmid maintenance and conjugation. Potential roles of CBP and a chromosomally encoded fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) in probiotic activity are discussed. PMID:25908870

  9. Involvement of IL32 in activation-induced cell death in T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiho God; Taisuke Kanaji; Sachiko Kanaji; Go Tanaka; Kazuhiko Arima; Shigeaki Ohno; Kenji Izuhara

    2006-01-01

    NK cell transcript 4 (NK4), now denoted as IL-32, was originally identified as a transcript whose expression was increased in activated NK cells. It has been very recently demonstrated that NK4 is secreted from several cells upon the stimulation of some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-18, IL-1b, IFN-c and IL-12. Furthermore, NK4 induces production of tumor necrosis factor, macrophage inflammatory

  10. TLR9-mediated ARF6 activation is involved in advancing CpG ODN cellular uptake

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Yiing; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acid cellular uptake into endosomes is critical in eliciting nucleotide-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) innate immune responses. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is a member of the Ras superfamily, which is critical to a wide variety of cellular events including endocytosis. Our previous report indicated that ARF6 plays a critical role in CpG ODN/TLR9-mediated responses. Here, we further explored that the basal level of active ARF6 is nonspecifically responsible for initiation of ODNs uptake, which is relatively CpG motif independent. While the initiation of CpG ODN uptake but not GpC ODN uptake can promote TLR9 responses thereby enhancing ARF6 activation which may lead to further nonspecifically increase of cellular uptake of stimulatory CpG ODN as well as nonstimulatory GpC ODN. Because nucleotide-sensing TLR9 plays a role in contributing to immune diseases, selective activation or inhibition of ARF6 might be useful in certain immunological or therapeutic applications. PMID:23060951

  11. Production of lysophosphatidic acid in blister fluid: involvement of a lysophospholipase D activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Gres, Sandra; Fanguin, Madie; Cariven, Clotilde; Fauvel, Josette; Perret, Bertrand; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is present in abundance in serum resulting from platelet activation and is also found in other biological fluids. LPA controls numerous cellular responses and plays a role in specific functions such as wound healing, especially in the skin. Nevertheless, its presence in the skin has never been investigated during wound healing, or in other situations. Since re-epithelialization occurs after blister rupture, the presence of LPA in blister fluids was investigated. Using a radioenzymatic assay, LPA was detected in 33 blister fluids originating from 24 bullous dermatoses, and at higher concentrations than in plasma. LPA concentration was independent of the type of dermatoses. In parallel, blister fluids contained a lysophospholipase D (LPLD) activity but no detectable phospholipase A2 activity. The expression of the LPLD autotaxin (ATX) and of LPA1-receptor were greatly increased in blister skin when compared to normal skin. Finally, LPA was found to have a positive effect on the migration of cultured keratinocytes. These results show that LPA is present in blister fluid synthesized by the LPLD ATX. Due to its ability to enhance keratinocyte migration, LPA in blister fluid could, via the LPA1-receptor, play an important role in re-epithelialization occuring after blister rupture. PMID:16117781

  12. The Gastroprotective Effect of Menthol: Involvement of Anti-Apoptotic, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Meira de Faria, Felipe; Souza Brito, Alba Regina; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg) or menthol (50 mg/kg) and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:24466200

  13. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Activation of Rho Involves Filamin and Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIN PI; ROBERT F. SPURNEY; QISHENG TU; TODD HINSON; L. DARRYL QUARLES

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the role of Gq, filamin, Rho, the RhoGEF Lbc, and the C terminus of calcium-sensing receptor (CasR) in CasR signaling. We found that Ca2 ,M g 2, or the calcimimetic R iso- mer of N-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)propyl)-(R)--methyl-3-methoxy- benzylamine (NPS-R568) stimulated serum response element (SRE) activity human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with CasR and an SRE-luciferase reporter construct. Coexpres- sion

  14. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 is involved in insect defense against Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Alexander, Cynthia; Villaseñor, Roberto; Pacheco, Sabino; Porta, Helena; Pauchet, Yannick; Soberón, Mario; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. In this work we analyzed the response of two different insect orders, the Lepidopteran Manduca sexta and Dipteran Aedes aegypti to highly specific Cry toxins, Cry1Ab and Cry11Aa, respectively. One pathway activated in different organisms in response to a variety of pore-forming toxins is the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway (MAPK p38) that activates a complex defense response. We analyzed the MAPK p38 activation by immunodetection of its phosphorylated isoform, and the induction of p38 by RT-PCR, real-time PCR quantitative assays and immunodetection. We show that MAPK p38 is activated at postraductional level after Cry toxin intoxication in both insect orders. We detected the p38 induction at the transcriptional and traductional level, and observed a different response. In these three levels, we found that both insects respond to Cry toxin action but M. sexta responses more strongly than A. aegypti. Gene silencing of MAPK p38 in vivo, resulted in both insect species becoming hypersensitive to Cry toxin action, suggesting that the MAPK p38 pathway is involved in insect defense against Bt Cry toxins. This finding may have biotechnological applications for enhancing the activity of some Bt Cry toxins against specific insect pests. PMID:20040372

  15. Phage Orf Family Recombinases: Conservation of Activities and Involvement of the Central Channel in DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Fiona A.; Malay, Ali D.; Trotter, Alexander J.; Wilson, Lindsay A.; Barradell-Black, Michael M. H.; Bowers, Laura Y.; Reed, Patricia; Hillyar, Christopher R. T.; Yeo, Robert P.; Sanderson, John M.; Heddle, Jonathan G.; Sharples, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that ? Orf is a recombination mediator, promoting nucleation of either bacterial RecA or phage Red? recombinases onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound by SSB protein. We have identified a diverse family of Orf proteins that includes representatives implicated in DNA base flipping and those fused to an HNH endonuclease domain. To confirm a functional relationship with the Orf family, a distantly-related homolog, YbcN, from Escherichia coli cryptic prophage DLP12 was purified and characterized. As with its ? relative, YbcN showed a preference for binding ssDNA over duplex. Neither Orf nor YbcN displayed a significant preference for duplex DNA containing mismatches or 1-3 nucleotide bulges. YbcN also bound E. coli SSB, although unlike Orf, it failed to associate with an SSB mutant lacking the flexible C-terminal tail involved in coordinating heterologous protein-protein interactions. Residues conserved in the Orf family that flank the central cavity in the ? Orf crystal structure were targeted for mutagenesis to help determine the mode of DNA binding. Several of these mutant proteins showed significant defects in DNA binding consistent with the central aperture being important for substrate recognition. The widespread conservation of Orf-like proteins highlights the importance of targeting SSB coated ssDNA during lambdoid phage recombination. PMID:25083707

  16. Two-step mechanism involving active-site conformational changes regulates human telomerase DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Christopher G; Moye, Aaron L; Holien, Jessica K; Parker, Michael W; Cohen, Scott B; Bryan, Tracy M

    2015-01-15

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase maintains telomeres and is essential for cellular immortality in most cancers. Insight into the telomerase mechanism can be gained from syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita, in which mutation of telomerase components manifests in telomere dysfunction. We carried out detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of wild-type telomerase and two disease-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase domain. Differences in dissociation rates between primers with different 3' ends were independent of DNA affinities, revealing that initial binding of telomerase to telomeric DNA occurs through a previously undescribed two-step mechanism involving enzyme conformational changes. Both mutations affected DNA binding, but through different mechanisms: P704S specifically affected protein conformational changes during DNA binding, whereas R865H showed defects in binding to the 3' region of the DNA. To gain further insight at the structural level, we generated the first homology model of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase domain; the positions of P704S and R865H corroborate their observed mechanistic defects, providing validation for the structural model. Our data reveal the importance of protein interactions with the 3' end of telomeric DNA and the role of protein conformational change in telomerase DNA binding, and highlight naturally occurring disease mutations as a rich source of mechanistic insight. PMID:25365545

  17. Involvement of an active efflux system in the natural resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Aires, J R; Köhler, T; Nikaido, H; Plésiat, P

    1999-11-01

    A mutant, named 11B, hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and erythromycin was isolated after Tn501 insertion mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Cloning and sequencing experiments showed that 11B was deficient in an, at that time, unknown active efflux system that contains homologs of MexAB. This locus also contained a putative regulatory gene, mexZ, transcribed divergently from the efflux operon. Introduction of a recombinant plasmid that carries the genes of the efflux system restored the resistance of 11B to parental levels, whereas overexpression of these genes strongly increased the MICs of substrate antibiotics for the PAO1 host. Antibiotic accumulation studies confirmed that this new system is an energy-dependent active efflux system that pumps out aminoglycosides. Furthermore, this system appeared to function with an outer membrane protein, OprM. While the present paper was being written and reviewed, genes with a sequence identical to our pump genes, mexXY of P. aeruginosa, have been reported to increase resistance to erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, and organic cations in Escherichia coli hosts, although efflux of aminoglycosides was not examined (Mine et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:415-417, 1999). Our study thus shows that the MexXY system plays an important role in the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa to aminoglycosides. Although overexpression of MexXY increased the level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, disruption of the mexXY operon in P. aeruginosa had no detectable effect on susceptibility to these agents. PMID:10543738

  18. Efavirenz Stimulates HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase RNase H Activity by a Mechanism Involving Increased Substrate Binding and Secondary Cleavage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Muchiri, John M; Li, Dongge; Dykes, Carrie; Bambara, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for treating HIV/AIDS. We found that polymerization activity of a reverse transcriptase (RT) with the E478Q mutation that inactivates the RNase H catalytic site is much more sensitive to efavirenz than the wild type RT, indicating that a functional RNase H attenuates the effectiveness of efavirenz. Moreover, efavirenz actually stimulated wild type RNase H binding and catalytic functions, indicating another link between efavirenz action and RNase H function. During reverse transcription in vivo, the RT that is extending the DNA primer also periodically cleaves the genomic RNA. The RNase H makes primary template cuts about 18 nucleotides from the growing DNA 3? end and, when the RT pauses synthesis, it shifts to make secondary cuts about 9 nucleotides from the DNA 3? end. After synthesis, RTs return to bind remaining template RNA segments at their 5? ends, and make primary and secondary cuts, 18 and 9 nucleotides in, respectively. We found that efavirenz stimulates both 3? and 5?-directed RNase H activity. Use of specific substrates revealed a particular acceleration of secondary cuts. Efavirenz specifically promoted binding of the RT to RNase H substrates, suggesting that it stabilizes the shifting of RTs to make the secondary cuts. We further showed that efavirenz similarly stimulates the RNase H of an RT from a patient-derived virus that is highly resistant and grows more rapidly in the presence of low concentrations of efavirenz. We suggest that for efavirenz resistant RTs, stimulated RNase H activity contributes to increased viral fitness. PMID:23806074

  19. Efavirenz stimulates HIV-1 reverse transcriptase RNase H activity by a mechanism involving increased substrate binding and secondary cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Muchiri, John M; Li, Dongge; Dykes, Carrie; Bambara, Robert A

    2013-07-23

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for treating HIV/AIDS. We found that polymerization activity of a reverse transcriptase (RT) with the E478Q mutation that inactivates the RNase H catalytic site is much more sensitive to efavirenz than wild-type RT, indicating that a functional RNase H attenuates the effectiveness of efavirenz. Moreover, efavirenz actually stimulated wild-type RNase H binding and catalytic functions, indicating another link between efavirenz action and RNase H function. During reverse transcription in vivo, the RT that is extending the DNA primer also periodically cleaves the genomic RNA. The RNase H makes primary template cuts ~18 nucleotides from the growing DNA 3'-end, and when the RT pauses synthesis, it shifts to make secondary cuts ~9 nucleotides from the DNA 3'-end. After synthesis, RTs return to bind the remaining template RNA segments at their 5'-ends and make primary and secondary cuts, 18 and 9 nucleotides in, respectively. We found that efavirenz stimulates both 3'- and 5'-directed RNase H activity. Use of specific substrates revealed a particular acceleration of secondary cuts. Efavirenz specifically promoted binding of the RT to RNase H substrates, suggesting that it stabilizes the shifting of RTs to make the secondary cuts. We further showed that efavirenz similarly stimulates the RNase H of an RT from a patient-derived virus that is highly resistant and grows more rapidly in the presence of low concentrations of efavirenz. We suggest that for efavirenz-resistant RTs, stimulated RNase H activity contributes to increased viral fitness. PMID:23806074

  20. Characterization of streptococcal platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase variants that are involved in innate immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Mengyao; Xie, Gang; Lei, Benfang

    2013-09-01

    Human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) has developed mechanisms to subvert innate immunity. We recently reported that the secreted esterase produced by serotype M1 GAS (SsE(M1)) reduces neutrophil recruitment by targeting platelet-activating factor (PAF). SsE(M1) and SsE produced by serotype M28 GAS (SsE(M28)) have a 37% sequence difference. This study aims at determining whether SsE(M28) is also a PAF acetylhydrolase and participates in innate immune evasion. We also examined whether SsE evolved to target PAF by characterizing the PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity and substrate specificity of SsE(M1), SsE(M28), SeE, the SsE homologue in Streptococcus equi, and human plasma PAF-AH (hpPAF-AH). PAF incubated with SsE(M28) or SeE was converted into lyso-PAF. SsE(M1) and SsE(M28) had kcat values of 373 s(-1) and 467 s(-1), respectively, that were ? 30-fold greater than that of hpPAF-AH (12 s(-1)). The comparison of SsE(M1), SsE(M28), and hpPAF-AH in kcat and Km in hydrolyzing triglycerides, acetyl esters, and PAF indicates that the SsE proteins are more potent hydrolases against PAF and have high affinity for PAF. SsE(M28) possesses much lower esterase activities against triglycerides and other esters than SsE(M1) but have similar potency with SsE(M1) in PAF hydrolysis. Deletion of sse(M28) in a covS deletion mutant of GAS increased neutrophil recruitment and reduced skin infection, whereas in trans expression of SsE(M28) in GAS reduced neutrophil infiltration and increased skin invasion in subcutaneous infection of mice. These results suggest that the SsE proteins evolved to target PAF for enhancing innate immune evasion and skin invasion. PMID:23774595

  1. Activation and Costimulation of Intestinal T Cells: Independent and Collaborative Involvement of CD43, OX40, and Ly-6C

    PubMed Central

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Klein, John R.

    2008-01-01

    T cells are present in large numbers in the epithelial lining of the small and large intestine of humans and mice. Those cells, referred to as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), are critical for maintaining an effective mucosal immune response against the onslaught of enteric infectious agents and intestinal neoplasia. However, because intestinal immunity must by necessity occur rapidly and efficiently, it is concomitantly important that the local intestinal immune response be curtailed so as not to result in conditions that lead to a destructive inflammatory environment as occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although many aspects of the IEL activation process remain to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that costimulatory molecules on IELs are critical for activation and that they hold the key to regulating intestinal immunity across many levels. In this article, the involvement of three IEL costimulatory molecules (CD43, OX40, and Ly-6C) — working independently or in collaboration—will be discussed in the context of immunity and disease in the human and mouse intestine, and the involvement of those in sustaining the IELs in a uniquely precarious but effective state of activation readiness will be explored. PMID:19081760

  2. De Novo Sequencing of Hypericum perforatum Transcriptome to Identify Potential Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Active Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    He, Miao; Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhezhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort) is a medicinal plant with pharmacological properties that are antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-cancer, and antibacterial. Its major active metabolites are hypericins, hyperforins, and melatonin. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially that concerning the biosynthetic pathways for active ingredients. Methodology/Principal Findings Using de novo transcriptome analysis, we obtained 59,184 unigenes covering the entire life cycle of these plants. In all, 40,813 unigenes (68.86%) were annotated and 2,359 were assigned to secondary metabolic pathways. Among them, 260 unigenes are involved in the production of hypericin, hyperforin, and melatonin. Another 2,291 unigenes are classified as potential Type III polyketide synthase. Our BlastX search against the AGRIS database reveals 1,772 unigenes that are homologous to 47 known Arabidopsis transcription factor families. Further analysis shows that 10.61% (6,277) of these unigenes contain 7,643 SSRs. Conclusion We have identified a set of putative genes involved in several secondary metabolism pathways, especially those related to the synthesis of its active ingredients. Our results will serve as an important platform for public information about gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in H. perforatum. PMID:22860059

  3. Hydroxy-? sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-? sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-? sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. PMID:25634809

  4. Involvement of SLC17A9-dependent Vesicular Exocytosis in the Mechanism of ATP Release during T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Akihiro; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Harada, Hitoshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Kojima, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ATP release from T cells is involved in production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) through activation of P2 receptors. Stimulation of TCR induces ATP release from T cells through gap junction hemichannels and maxianion channels, at least in part. However, the mechanisms of ATP release from activated T cells are not fully understood. Here, we studied the mechanisms of ATP release during TCR-dependent T cell activation by investigating the effects of various inhibitors on TCR-dependent ATP release from murine T cells. We found that not only anion channel and gap junction hemichannel inhibitors, but also exocytosis inhibitors suppressed the ATP release. These results suggest that ATP release from murine T cells is regulated by various mechanisms, including exocytosis. An inhibitor of exocytosis, bafilomycin A, significantly blocked TCR signaling, such as Ca2+ elevation and IL-2 production. Furthermore, bafilomycin A, ectonucleotidase, and P2Y6 receptor antagonist significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from external antigen-restimulated splenocytes, indicating that vesicular exocytosis-mediated purinergic signaling has a significant role in TCR-dependent cytokine production. We also detected vesicular ATP in murine T cells and human T lymphoma Jurkat cells, both of which also expressed mRNA of SLC17A9, a vesicular nucleotide transporter. Knockdown of SLC17A9 in Jurkat cells markedly reduced ATP release and cytosolic Ca2+ elevation after TCR stimulation, suggesting involvement of SLC17A9-dependent vesicular exocytosis in ATP release and T cell activation. In conclusion, vesicular exocytosis of ATP appears to play a role in T cell activation and immune responses. PMID:20382737

  5. Contractile activity regulates isoform expression and polysialylation of NCAM in cultured myotubes: involvement of Ca2+ and protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Muscle development involves a series of complex cell-cell interactions that are mediated, at least in part, by several different cell adhesion molecules. Previous work from this lab showed that the different isoforms of NCAM and its level of polysialylation are developmentally regulated during chick myogenesis in vivo and that this regulation is important for normal muscle development. Using developing chick secondary myotubes grown in culture, we show here that both the polysialylation of NCAM and the developmental switch in isoform expression are regulated by activity and that Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated channels and the subsequent activation of protein kinase C are required for the developmental changes in NCAM isoform synthesis. Specifically, PSA expression was shown to be developmentally regulated with high expression being temporally correlated with the onset of spontaneous contractile activity. Furthermore, blocking contractile activity caused a decrease in PSA expression, while increasing activity with electrical stimulation resulted in its up-regulation. Immunoblot and metabolic labeling studies indicated that dividing myoblasts synthesize primarily 145-kD NCAM, newly formed, spontaneously contracting myotubes synthesize 130-, 145-, and 155-kD NCAM isoforms, while older, more mature myotubes primarily synthesize the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 130-kD isoform which, in contrast to the other three isoforms, had a high rate of turnover. This developmental switch in NCAM isoform expression could be inhibited with Ca2+ channel blockers and inhibitors of protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ ions and protein kinase C are involved in a second messenger cascade coupling membrane depolarization with transcriptional factors that regulate NCAM isoform synthesis and polysialylation. PMID:8603927

  6. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid relaxing effects involve Ca2+-activated K+ channel activation and CPI-17 dephosphorylation in human bronchi.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Sirois, Marco; Echave, Vincent; Gomes, Marcio M; Rousseau, Eric

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a mechanistic insight into how 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) relaxes organ-cultured human bronchi. Tension measurements, performed on either fresh or 3-d-cultured bronchi, revealed that the contractile responses to 1 microM methacholine and 10 microM arachidonic acid were largely relaxed by the eicosanoid regioisomer in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-10 microM). Pretreatments with 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, a specific 14,15-EET antagonist, prevented the relaxing effect, whereas iberitoxin pretreatments (10 nM) partially abolished EET-induced relaxations. In contrast, pretreatments with 1 microM indomethacin amplified relaxations in explants and membrane hyperpolarizations triggered by 14,15-EET on airway smooth muscle cells. The relaxing responses induced by 14,15-EET were likely related to reduced Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, because free Ca2+ concentration-response curves performed on beta-escin-permeabilized cultured explants were shifted toward higher [Ca2+] (lower pCa2+ values). 14,15-EET also abolished the tonic responses induced by phorbol-ester-dybutyrate (PDBu) (a protein kinase C [PKC]-sensitizing agent), on both fresh (intact) and beta-escin-permeabilized explants. Western blot analyses, using two specific primary antibodies against CPI-17 and its PKC-dependent phosphorylated isoform (p-CPI-17), confirmed that the eicosanoid interferes with this intracellular process. These data indicate that 14,15-EET hyperpolarizes airway smooth muscle cells and relaxes precontracted human bronchi while reducing Ca2+ sensitivity of fresh and cultured explants. The intracellular effects are related to a PKC-dependent process involving a lower phosphorylation level of CPI-17. PMID:17237191

  7. Calcitriol mediates the activity of SGLT1 through an extranuclear initiated mechanism that involves intracellular signaling pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa; Francisco Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored whether calcitriol plays a role in the regulation of sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein\\u000a 1 (SGLT1) activity. For this purpose, alpha-methyl glucoside (AMG) uptake in stable transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-G6D3)\\u000a cells expressing rabbit SGLT1 (rbSGLT1) was used. The involvement of second messengers, intracellular signaling pathways,\\u000a and pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined using specific inhibitors before incubation with

  8. Peroxidase Activity and Involvement in the Oxidative Stress Response of Roseobacter denitrificans Truncated Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaya; Barbeau, Xavier; Bilimoria, Astha; Lagüe, Patrick; Couture, Manon; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Roseobacter denitrificans is a member of the widespread marine Roseobacter genus. We report the first characterization of a truncated hemoglobin from R. denitrificans (Rd. trHb) that was purified in the heme-bound form from heterologous expression of the protein in Escherichia coli. Rd. trHb exhibits predominantly alpha-helical secondary structure and absorbs light at 412, 538 and 572 nm. The phylogenetic classification suggests that Rd. trHb falls into group II trHbs, whereas sequence alignments indicate that it shares certain important heme pocket residues with group I trHbs in addition to those of group II trHbs. The resonance Raman spectra indicate that the isolated Rd. trHb contains a ferric heme that is mostly 6-coordinate low-spin and that the heme of the ferrous form displays a mixture of 5- and 6-coordinate states. Two Fe-His stretching modes were detected, notably one at 248 cm-1, which has been reported in peroxidases and some flavohemoglobins that contain an Fe-His-Asp (or Glu) catalytic triad, but was never reported before in a trHb. We show that Rd. trHb exhibits a significant peroxidase activity with a (kcat/Km) value three orders of magnitude higher than that of bovine Hb and only one order lower than that of horseradish peroxidase. This enzymatic activity is pH-dependent with a pKa value ~6.8. Homology modeling suggests that residues known to be important for interactions with heme-bound ligands in group II trHbs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus subtilis are pointing toward to heme in Rd. trHb. Genomic organization and gene expression profiles imply possible functions for detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in vivo. Altogether, Rd. trHb exhibits some distinctive features and appears equipped to help the bacterium to cope with reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and/or to operate redox biochemistry. PMID:25658318

  9. Antidepressant activity of fluoxetine in the zinc deficiency model in rats involves the NMDA receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Doboszewska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Ku?ma, Magdalena; M?yniec, Katarzyna; Rafa?o, Anna; Ostachowicz, Beata; Lankosz, Marek; Nowak, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    The zinc deficiency animal model of depression has been proposed; however, it has not been validated in a detailed manner. We have recently shown that depression-like behavior induced by dietary zinc restriction is associated with up-regulation of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Here we examined the effects of chronic administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (FLX), on behavioral and biochemical alterations (within NMDAR signaling pathway) induced by zinc deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a zinc adequate diet (ZnA, 50mg Zn/kg) or a zinc deficient diet (ZnD, 3mg Zn/kg) for 4 weeks. Then, FLX treatment (10mg/kg, i.p.) begun. Following 2 weeks of FLX administration the behavior of the rats was examined in the forced swim test (FST) and the spontaneous locomotor activity test. Twenty four hours later tissue was harvested. The proteins of NMDAR (GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B) or AMPAR (GluA1) subunits, p-CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus (Western blot) and serum zinc level (TXRF) were examined. Depression-like behavior induced by ZnD in the FST was sensitive to chronic treatment with FLX. ZnD increased levels of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B and decreased pS485-GluA1, p-CREB and BDNF proteins. Administration of FLX counteracted the zinc restriction-induced changes in serum zinc level and hippocampal GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B and p-CREB but not BDNF or pS845-GluA1 protein levels. This finding adds new evidence to the predictive validity of the proposed zinc deficiency model of depression. Antidepressant-like activity of FLX in the zinc deficiency model is associated with NMDAR complex. PMID:25845739

  10. Involvement of lectin pathway activation in the complement killing of Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A; Inal, Jameel M; Ramirez, Marcel I

    2010-05-01

    Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is a flagellated unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that commonly causes diarrheal disease throughout the world. In humans, the clinical effects of Giardia infection range from the asymptomatic carrier state to a severe malabsorption syndrome possibly due to different virulence of the Giardia strain, the number of cysts ingested, the age of the host, and the state of the host immune system at the time of infection. The question about how G. intestinalis is controlled by the organism remains unanswered. Here, we investigated the role of the complement system and in particular, the lectin pathway during Giardia infections. We present the first evidence that G. intestinalis activate the complement lectin pathway and in doing so participate in eradication of the parasite. We detected rapid binding of mannan-binding lectin, H-ficolin and L-ficolin to the surface of G. intestinalis trophozoites and normal human serum depleted of these molecules failed to kill the parasites. Our finding provides insight into the role of lectin pathway in the control of G. intestinalis and about the nature of surface components of parasite. PMID:20382117

  11. Fluid involvement in the active Helike normal Fault, Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouvelas, Ioannis K.; Papoulis, Dimitris

    2009-03-01

    Rock fabric and mineralogical composition from the fault core and the unaffected protolith have been used to define the role of the segmented Helike Fault to fluid flow. Sixty samples were investigated by XRD, SEM observation and SEM-EDS microanalyses. Detrital smectite, calcite, and quartz represent the mineral assemblage at the crest of the footwall block in Foniskaria sampling site. In this site smectite is enriched at the rims of the fault core. All other sampling sites located at the base of the fault scarp are characterized by detrital and newly formed minerals. Detrital minerals include plagioclase, quartz, calcite and illite in Nikolaiika sampling site, and smectite, illite, kaolinite, quartz, calcite in Selinous sampling site. In the latter sampling site erionite and cerussite are newly formed minerals with erionite considered as the hydrothermal alteration product of fluids at 80-100 °C. At the eastern fault segment illite, quartz and calcite (T13 site) corresponds to detrital minerals. Mineralogy in the fault core reflects its high permeability to down-flowing meteoric water and weak hydrothermal alteration. The rock fabric suggests mineral alignment parallel to the fault plane. Mineralogy indicates that the Aigion, Helike and Pyrgaki Faults in the Gulf of Corinth host hydrothermal activity at shallow levels.

  12. Growth hormone activity in mitochondria depends on GH receptor Box 1 and involves caveolar pathway targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Perret-Vivancos, Cecile [CNRS UMR 5123, Bat. R. Dubois, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abbate, Aude [CNRS UMR 5123, Bat. R. Dubois, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ardail, Dominique [INSERM U189-Faculte de medecine Lyon Sud, 69921 Oullins cedex (France); Raccurt, Mireille [CNRS UMR 5123, Bat. R. Dubois, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Usson, Yves [UMR 5525 CNRS, Institut de l'Ingenierie de l'Information de Sante (IN3S) Domaine de la Merci, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38706 La Tronche cedex (France); Lobie, Peter E. [Liggins Institute, University of Aukland, 2-6 Park Avenue, Private Bag, Aukland 92019 (New Zealand); Morel, Gerard [CNRS UMR 5123, Bat. R. Dubois, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)]. E-mail: gerard.morel@univ-lyon1.fr

    2006-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) binding to its receptor (GHR) initiates GH-dependent signal transduction and internalization pathways to generate the biological effects. The precise role and way of action of GH on mitochondrial function are not yet fully understood. We show here that GH can stimulate cellular oxygen consumption in CHO cells transfected with cDNA coding for the full-length GHR. By using different GHR cDNA constructs, we succeeded in determining the different parts of the GHR implicated in the mitochondrial response to GH. Polarography and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that the Box 1 of the GHR intracellular domain was required for an activation of the mitochondrial respiration in response to a GH exposure. However, confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that cells lacking the GHR Box 1 could efficiently internalize the hormone. We demonstrated that internalization mediated either by clathrin-coated pits or by caveolae was able to regulate GH mitochondrial effect: these two pathways are both essential to obtain the GH stimulatory action on mitochondrial function. Moreover, electron microscopic and biochemical approaches allowed us to identify the caveolar pathway as essential for targeting GH and GHR to mitochondria.

  13. Renal allograft rejection: possible involvement of lymphokine-activated killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, J A; Forsythe, J L; Proud, G; Taylor, R M

    1989-01-01

    Human renal allograft tissue was recovered at transplant nephrectomy from three patients with irreversible loss of graft function. This tissue was disaggregated and separated into two fractions on the basis of particle size. Fraction 1 contained glomeruli and developed a mixed outgrowth containing adherent epithelial and mesangial cells after a limited period of culture. Fraction 2 contained fragments of renal tubules and produced monolayers of tubular epithelial cells during culture. A population of lymphoid cells was observed to grow from the primary disaggregate into medium supplemented with recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2). After culture for 5 days these lymphoid cells were predominantly CD3-positive and carried both class II major histocompatibility antigens (MHC) and the CD25 IL-2 receptor. Culture of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells with IL-2 caused the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; these cells were able to lyse both glomerular and tubular cells grown from nephrectomy tissue without showing MHC antigen restriction. The lymphoid cells grown from renal allograft tissue showed a similar lytic potential for both renal cells prepared from the same nephrectomy specimen and from third party renal tissue. It is possible that any LAK cells formed within a renal allograft by the action of IL-2 may contribute to the tissue destruction observed during graft rejection. Images Figure 2 PMID:2661417

  14. Biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the Lewis Chessmen.

    PubMed

    Pinzari, Flavia; Tate, James; Bicchieri, Marina; Rhee, Young Joon; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess. The experiments have shown that the possibility of damage to ivory being caused by fungi is realistic. Scanning electron microscopy revealed penetration of fungal hyphae within cracks in the walrus tusk that showed also widespread tunnelling by fungal hyphae as well as 'fungal footprints' where the surface was etched as a consequence of mycelial colonization. Similar phenomena were observed with boar tusk ivory, while production of metabolites could lead to complete dissolution of the sample. Colonization of ivory and/or exposure to fungal activity lead to extensive secondary biomineral formation, and this was identified as calcium oxalate, mainly as the monohydrate, whewellite. PMID:23157656

  15. A short lived protein involved in the heat shock sensing mechanism responsible for stress-activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2/p38) activation.

    PubMed

    Dorion, S; Bérubé, J; Huot, J; Landry, J

    1999-12-31

    The stress-activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2/p38) is activated by various environmental stresses and also by a vast array of agonists including growth factors and cytokines. This implies the existence of multiple proximal signaling pathways converging to the SAPK2/p38 activation cascade. Here, we show that there is a sensing mechanism highly specific to heat shock for activation of SAPK2/p38. After mild heat shock, cells became refractory to reinduction of the SAPK2/p38 pathway by a second heat shock. This was not the result of a toxic effect because the cells remained fully responsive to reinduction by other stresses, cytokines, or growth factors. Neither the activity of SAPK2/p38 itself nor the accumulation of the heat shock proteins was essential in the desensitization process. The cells were not desensitized to heat shock by other treatments that activated SAPK2/p38. Moreover, inhibiting SAPK2/p38 activity during heat shock did not block desensitization. Also, overexpression of HSP70, HSP27, or HSP90 by gene transfection did not cause desensitization, and inhibiting their synthesis after heat shock did not prevent desensitization. Desensitization rather appeared to be linked closely to the turnover of a putative upstream activator of SAPK2/p38. Cycloheximide induced a progressive and eventually complete desensitization. The effect was specific to heat shock and minimally affected activation by other stress inducers. Inhibiting protein degradation with MG132 caused the constitutive activation of SAPK2/p38, which was blocked by a pretreatment with either cycloheximide or heat shock. The results thus indicate that there is a sensing pathway highly specific to heat shock upstream of SAPK2/p38 activation. The pathway appears to involve a short lived protein that is the target of rapid successive up- and down-regulation by heat shock. PMID:10608813

  16. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.; Dürr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs). First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC) analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs ‘coding-space’ because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This reveals the versatility of the framework for modelling a complete descending neural pathway. PMID:26158851

  17. The Beyond Einstein Explorers' Program (BEEP) Getting Astronomers Involved in Afterschool Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthi, Anita; Barbier, B.; Mitchell, S.; Lochner, J.

    2006-12-01

    There is tremendous potential for astronomers to engage afterschool programs in their local areas. Afterschool programs reach a diverse population of students and allow for learning experiences different from those in a classroom. We offer an astronomy afterschool program that scientists can easily adopt, adapt, and run in their local areas. BEEP is targeted at middle school students and introduces basic astronomical tools and the Universe beyond the solar system. The primary goal of the program is to spark curiosity and excitement about the Universe in both program leaders (who often don’t have a science background) and students. A promising model for training leaders and maintaining oversight of the programs is to have a team consisting of a scientist and 1-2 astronomy graduate students partnering with local afterschool program(s). BEEP’s structure is flexible enough to be split into modules and run in a variety of settings, from “astronomy days” to summer camps to year-long afterschool programming. We also welcome the opportunity to work with astronomers running this program to add new modules. This program was developed in close collaboration with afterschool programs in the Washington, DC area. The sessions were developed by adapting well-tested existing formal education materials and activities for the afterschool environment. The program was piloted in summer 2006 and evaluations showed that it was successful and met our primary goal of engaging the students (and preparing the leaders). We are currently refining this program to reflect feedback from the pilot, and it will be ready for wider dissemination by summer 2007.

  18. An assessment of drug information sheets for diabetic patients: only active involvement by patients is helpful.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Ma, J T; Kung, A; Kou, M; Lauder, I

    1988-09-01

    Insulin/sulphonylurea-treated diabetics attending a busy university diabetic clinic were studied to determine whether issuing drug information sheets and/or age influenced understanding and behaviour regarding their disease and its treatment, especially with respect to avoiding hypoglycaemia. Patients were each asked 10 basic questions (each correct answer scoring 1), stratified by age (20 were less than or equal to 45 years and 91 greater than 45 years). According to a single-blind randomised protocol, they were issued or not issued with drug information sheets (providing information to correctly answer all 10 questions). After 2-3 months, 107 (88 aged greater than 45 years) were retested and asked whether they recalled an information sheet, read it themselves or had it read to them. Whether or not patients received sheets, corresponding mean aggregate scores were very similar in both age groups and there was no correlation with age. Second test scores yielded clinically and statistically significant increments in both the sheet and no sheet groups, respective mean aggregate scores increasing from 4.48 to 5.80 and 5.14 to 6.27 (P less than 0.001). Among patients issued with sheets, 32 who recalled reading them achieved the greatest improvement in mean scores (4.53 to 6.16, P less than 0.001). Active interaction/communication (participation in first test, recall and reading of information sheet) had a favourable educational impact irrespective of age, but merely issuing drug information sheets had no benefit. PMID:3219992

  19. The involvement of heme oxygenase-1 activity in the therapeutic actions of 5-aminosalicylic acid in rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Krisztina; Varga, Csaba; Berkó, Anikó; Pósa, Anikó; László, Ferenc; Whittle, Brendan J R

    2008-03-10

    The mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the active therapeutic moiety of a number of clinically used anti-colitic agents, is unclear. The present study investigates whether the beneficial effects in vivo could involve induction of the heat shock protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), known to provide endogenous anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory moieties which can modulate colonic inflammation. The effects of 5-ASA on the colonic expression and activity of HO-1 along with its effect on the inflammatory damage have been evaluated in the colitis provoked by instillation of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) over 48 h in the rat. Intracolonic administration of 5-ASA (8, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day) dose-dependently reduced the TNBS-provoked macroscopic colonic inflammatory injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and TNF-alpha levels, while also dose-dependently increasing colonic heme oxygenase enzyme activity. Colonic HO-1 protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis in this colitis model, was likewise further induced by 5-ASA. Intracolonic administration of 5-ASA alone under unchallenged conditions also induced colonic HO-1 protein expression and stimulated heme oxygenase enzyme activity. Administration of zinc protoporphyrin (50 micromol/kg/day, s.c.), which prevented the increase in colonic heme oxygenase activity, abolished the anti-colitic effect of 5-ASA. These results suggest that 5-ASA may exert its colonic anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in part through the up-regulation of HO-1 enzyme expression and activity. PMID:18215658

  20. Ginseng gintonin activates the human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel: involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Ha, Tal Soo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Hana; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca(2+)]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) (I(Ks)) channel is a cardiac K(+) channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating I(Ks) channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human I(Ks) channel activity by expressing human I(Ks) channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the I(Ks) channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 ?g/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the I(Ks) channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the I(Ks) channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca(2+)]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on I(Ks) channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K(+) channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of I(Ks) channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca(2+)]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit. PMID:25234465

  1. Ginseng Gintonin Activates the Human Cardiac Delayed Rectifier K+ Channel: Involvement of Ca2+/Calmodulin Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Ha, Tal soo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Hana; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca2+]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ (IKs) channel is a cardiac K+ channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating IKs channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human IKs channel activity by expressing human IKs channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the IKs channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 ?g/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the IKs channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the IKs channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca2+]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on IKs channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K+ channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of IKs channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca2+]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit. PMID:25234465

  2. Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system against arsenic trioxide cardiotoxicity involves ubiquitin ligase Parkin for mitochondrial homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the elimination of damaged mitochondria. Ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates by Parkin results in proteasomal as well as lysosomal degradation of mitochondria, the latter of which is executed by the autophagy machinery and is called as mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy). The aim of this study is to examine the possible role of Parkin against cardiotoxicity elicited by arsenic trioxide (ATO) exposure in HL-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocytes. HL-1 cells were administered 1-10?M ATO for up to 24h, and the involvements of apoptosis, and the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems (UPS and ALS) were examined. ATO dose-dependently reduced mitochondrial membrane potentials (??m) in HL-1 cells, indicating that ATO works as a mitochondrial toxin in these cells. Apoptosis was evident in cells exposed to more than 6?M ATO for 24h. Levels of Parkin in mitochondria-rich fractions were increased, suggesting the recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria. Ubiquitination of the voltage-dependent anion channel1 (VDAC1), a substrate of Parkin, was also proved by immunoprecipitation. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins including both K48- and K63-lineages was observed in HL-1 cells after ATO exposure, implying an increased demand for proteasomal as well as lysosomal degradation of cellular proteins. Although UPS was activated by ATO as proved by increased proteasomal activity, only slight activation of the ALS marker LC3 was observed, suggesting differential reactions of UPS and ALS to ATO toxicity. The abrogation of UPS by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib significantly sensitized HL-1 cells to ATO toxicity, showing the contribution of UPS to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis during ATO exposure. Taken together, our results reveal the activation of Parkin as well as UPS during ATO exposure in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, which contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial as well as cellular homeostasis. PMID:24801902

  3. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  4. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Barbro; Mårtensson, Ulla; Weintraub, Andrej; Holmström, Eva; Matsushita, Misao; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens C.; Truedsson, Lennart; Sjöholm, Anders G.

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen–specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S. thompson, and S. enteritidis corresponding to serogroups B, C, and D (BO, CO, and DO). MBL bound to CO, but not to BO and DO, and efficiently supported C3 deposition in the absence of C2, C4, or MASP-2. The existence of an MBL-dependent C2 bypass mechanism for alternative pathway–mediated C3 activation was clearly demonstrated using CO, solid-phase mannan, and E. coli LPS. MASP-1 might contribute, but was not required for C3 deposition in the model used. Independent of MBL, specific antibodies to CO supported C3 deposition through classical and alternative pathways. MBL-dependent C2 bypass activation could be particularly important in various inherited and acquired complement deficiency states. PMID:16670774

  5. Involvement of PKA, PKC, and Ca2+ in LPS-activated expression of the chicken lysozyme gene.

    PubMed

    Regenhard, P; Goethe, R; Phi-van, L

    2001-04-01

    The lysozyme gene is activated in myelomonocytic HD11 cells in response to LPS. In this study, we described the involvement of LPS-activated signal transduction pathways in activation of the lysozyme gene. Pre-treatment of HD 11 cells with H-89, H-7, TMB-8, or KN-93 resulted in inhibition of the LPS-enhanced lysozyme expression, suggesting that PKA, PKC, and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases participate in the LPS activation. CaMKII seems to be required for the processing of lysozyme transcripts. TPA and calcium ionophore A23187, when separately added to HD11 cells, stimulated the lysozyme expression effectively, and forskolin was ineffective. It is interesting that simultaneous treatment of cells with forskolin and calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in a potentiated increase in lysozyme mRNA expression, indicating a synergistic cooperation of PKA and Ca2+. This synergistic effect of PKA and Ca2+ was observed on the expression of a stably integrated CAT construct, controlled by the lysozyme promoter and the -6.1-kb enhancer containing binding sites for C/EBP and NF-kappaB/Rel. Therefore, we discussed the role of C/EBPbeta(NF-M), CREB, and NF-kappaB/Rel as possible targets for phosphorylation mediated by PKA, PKC, and Ca2+. PMID:11310853

  6. Direct evidence for the involvement of capsular polysaccharide in the immunoprotective activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae ribosomal preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Riottot, M M; Fournier, J M; Jouin, H

    1981-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the capsular serotypic specificity of the protection conferred on mice by Klebsiella pneumoniae ribosomal preparations. The data in these studies support the hypothesis that capsular polysaccharide plays at least some role in the specificity of the protection conferred by ribosomal preparations. In this investigation, the presence of capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide in K. pneumoniae ribosomal preparations was demonstrated by using immunodiffusion tests. Lipopolysaccharide content was determined for mice treated with actinomycin D. The serotype of O antigen did not play a role in the orientation of the specificity of the protection. The possibility that lipopolysaccharide might act as an adjuvant was not unlikely since the ribosomal preparations which contained the greatest amounts of lipopolysaccharide appeared to be the most immunoprotective preparations. Ribosomal preparations extracted from a noncapsulated mutant of K. pneumoniae did not protect mice. This finding suggested that capsular polysaccharide might play a role in the immunoprotective activity of ribosomes. This hypothesis was tested by using K. pneumoniae K2 bacteriophage-associated-glycanase, which specifically hydrolyzed K. pneumoniae K2 capsular polysaccharide and thereby suppressed the immunoprotective activity of K. pneumoniae K2 ribosomal preparations. In contrast, the K2 bacteriophage-associated glycanase did not interfere with the immunoprotective activity of K. pneumoniae K1 ribosomal preparations. These results clearly demonstrate that capsular polysaccharide, which is an extraribosomal antigen, is involved in the immunoprotective activity of K. pneumoniae ribosomal preparations. Images PMID:7012008

  7. The reinforcing effects of ethanol within the nucleus accumbens shell involve activation of local GABA and serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol is reinforcing within the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Ethanol can potentiate the function of the GABAA, GABAB, and serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that activation of these receptors would be involved in the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh. An intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure was used to assess the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh of alcohol preferring (P) rats. The ICSA consisted of seven sessions: four sessions to establish 150 mg% ethanol self-infusion into the NACsh; sessions 5 and 6 with co-infusion of ethanol plus one concentration of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (10 or 100 µM), the GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 (50, 75 or 100 µM), or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist zacopride (10 or 100 µM); and session 7 with 150 mg% ethanol alone. All groups self-infused ethanol into the NACsh and readily discriminated the active from inactive lever during the acquisition sessions. Co-infusion of 100 µM, but not 10 µM, bicuculline or zacopride significantly decreased active responses during sessions 5 and 6. Co-infusion of 75 µM, but not 50 or 100 µM, SCH 50911 significantly attenuated responses for ethanol. Overall, the results suggest that the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh may be modulated by activation of local GABAA, GABAB and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25922425

  8. PmPPAF is a pro-phenoloxidase activating factor involved in innate immunity response of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracy H T; Benzie, John A H; He, Jian-Guo; Sun, Cheng-Bo; Chan, Siuming F

    2014-05-01

    One of the major steps in the innate immune response of shrimp includes the activation of serine proteinases of the pro-phenoloxidase pathway by the prophenoloxidase activation enzyme (PPAF). In this study, the cDNA encoding a serine proteinase homologue (SPH) with prophenoloxidase activating activity of Penaeus monodon (PmPPAF) was cloned and characterized. PmPPAF cDNA consists of 1444 nucleotides encoding a protein with 394 amino acid residues. The estimated molecular weight of PmPPAF is 43.5 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.19. PmPPAF consists of a signal peptide, a CLIP domain and a carboxyl-terminal trypsin-like serine protease domain. It is highly similar to the masquerade-like protein 2A (61% similarity) of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, other serine proteases (42.9-67% identity) of P. monodon, and the PPAF of the crab (61% similarity). Unlike other SPH of P. monodon, which express mainly in the hemocytes, PmPPAF transcripts were detected in the hemocytes, eyestalk, hypodermis, gill, swimming leg and brain. Similar to the crab PPAF, PmPPAF transcript level is high in shrimp at the premolt stages and PmPPAF expression is up-regulated in shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmPPAF decreased expression of a prophenoloxidase-like gene and injection of Anti-PmPPAF antibody causes a decrease in PO activity. Taken together, these results provided evidence that PmPPAF is a serine proteinase homologue, and is involved in the pro-PO activation pathway of the shrimp innate immune system. PMID:24345607

  9. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon L; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Copeland, Anna Maria; Jahrling, Peter B; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC) display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK), and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL) and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK). Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS), we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation during hantavirus infection and could have profound implications for treatment of hantavirus infections. PMID:23874198

  10. Leishmania donovani Suppresses Activated Protein 1 and NF-?B Activation in Host Macrophages via Ceramide Generation: Involvement of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjukta; Bhattacharyya, Sandip; Sirkar, Madhumita; Shankar Sa, Gouri; Das, Tanya; Majumdar, Debashis; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2002-01-01

    In vitro infection of murine peritoneal macrophages with the protozoan Leishmania donovani has been found to alter the signaling parameters of the host. The present study indicates that the enhancement of intracellular ceramide level in macrophages after infection is a major event relating to macrophage dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated that increased ceramide synthesis in host macrophages was involved in the dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In the present study, we further show that downregulation of ERK by ceramide was found to be associated with the inhibition of activated protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-?B transactivation. Pharmacological inhibition of ceramide synthesis by Fumonisin B1 restored the induction of AP-1 and NF-?B DNA-binding activities in infected BALB/c macrophages. On the contrary, in the case of macrophages from the leishmaniasis-resistant C.D2 mice, L. donovani failed to induce sustained ceramide synthesis. Enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, AP-1 and NF-?B DNA-binding activity, and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) were observed in L. donovani-infected C.D2 macrophages. ERK activation was necessary for the activation of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-?B, NO generation, and restriction of the parasite burden in the resistant murine host macrophages. Hence, the induction of ceramide synthesis in host macrophages appears to be instrumental and one of the turning points leading to silencing of the macrophage antileishmanial responses. PMID:12438359

  11. IDH1 p.R132 mutations may not be actively involved in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Zou, Yang; Xu, Ling; Yang, Run-Xiang; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Dandan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified prevalent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) codon 132 mutations (p.R132) in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The IDH1 mutations lead to a loss of its normal enzymatic activity and acquisition of neomorphic activity in production of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which finally cause alterations of multiple gene expression of tumorigenesis-associated ?-KG-dependent enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether IDH1 p.R132 mutations are involved in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Material/Methods A total of 87 Han Chinese patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing for IDH1 p.R132 mutations. The expression levels of multiple ?-KG-dependent enzymes and associated genes were quantified in HepG2 cells overexpressing IDH1 p.R132 mutants by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results None of 87 Han Chinese patients with HCC harbored any IDH1 p.R132 mutations. The protein levels of HIF-1? and histone methylation marker (H3K4me3 and H3K79me2) were determined in HepG2 cells overexpressing IDH1 p.R132 mutants, but we discerned no difference. Measurement of mRNA expression levels of VEGF, GLUT1, and HOXA genes also showed no significant difference between cells overexpressing IDH1 wild-type and p.R132 mutants. Conclusions Our negative results, together with some previous reports of the absence of IDH1 p.R132 mutations in HCC tissues, suggests that IDH1 p.R132 mutations are not actively involved in the development of HCC. PMID:24531386

  12. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 activation is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Han, Jing; DU, Zhao-Jiang; Wang, Ping; Guo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study used a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of diabetes to investigate whether Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) was involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The effects of Rac1 inhibition on vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and ?-catenin expression in high glucose-induced rat retinal endothelial cells (RRECs) were additionally examined. Rac1 activation in the retinas from STZ-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose-induced RRECs was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The expression levels of VE-cadherin and ?-catenin were also examined with or without Rac1 inhibition through small interfering (si)RNA transfection. STZ-induced diabetes was associated with an increase in the vascular permeability of the retina. Furthermore, Rac1 activation was increased in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose-induced RRECs compared with that in the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that immunostaining of Rac1 was localized in the outer plexiform, inner nuclear, inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers and in the retinal microvasculature of rats. The expression of ?-catenin was increased in the retinas of the diabetic rats at four, eight and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes compared with that in the controls. Additionally, Rac1 activation was required for the high glucose-induced VE-cadherin expression decrease and for ?-catenin expression in high glucose-induced RRECs. Rac1 inhibition by Rac1-siRNA transfection effectively prevented hyperpermeability, ?-catenin expression and the VE-cadherin expression decrease in high glucose-induced RRECs. In conclusion, diabetes affects the expression of Rac1 in the retina. Rac1 may be involved in the diabetes-induced damage and/or alterations to the blood-retinal barrier through changes in VE-cadherin and ?-catenin expression. PMID:25452781

  13. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brîndu?a-Elena; Dr?cea, Nicoleta Olgu?a; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Dr?gulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Lumini?a; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codi??, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  14. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 is involved in cardiac noradrenergic activity observed during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Romecín, Paola; Atucha, Noemí M; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF1 receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptors. Experimental Approach Wild-type and CRF1 receptor-knockout mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, the expression of myocardial Hsp27, Hsp27 phosphorylated at Ser82, membrane (MB)- COMT, soluble (S)-COMT protein and NA turnover were evaluated by RIA, immunoblotting and HPLC. Key Results During morphine withdrawal we observed an enhancement of NA turnover in parallel with an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in wild-type mice. In addition, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced an activation of HPA axis and Hsp27. The principal finding of the present study was that plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, MB-COMT, S-COMT, NA turnover, and Hsp27 expression and activation observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in the CRF1 receptor-knockout mice. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1 receptor activation may contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways could contribute to cardiovascular disease associated with opioid addiction. PMID:24490859

  15. How Many Water Molecules Are Actively Involved in the Neutral Hydration of Carbon Minh Tho Nguyen,* Greet Raspoet, and Luc G. Vanquickenborne

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    How Many Water Molecules Are Actively Involved in the Neutral Hydration of Carbon Dioxide? Minh Tho, 1997; In Final Form: May 23, 1997X The detailed reaction pathways for the hydration of carbon dioxide constitutes a case of active solvent catalysis where solvent molecules actively participate as a catalyst

  16. Increase in Anthraquinone Content in Rubia cordifolia Cells Transformed by rol Genes Does Not Involve Activation of the NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Bulgakov; G. K. Tchernoded; N. P. Mischenko; Yu. N. Shkryl; V. P. Glazunov; S. A. Fedoreyev; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that rol plant oncogenes located in Ri-plasmids of Agrobacterium rhizogenes activated synthesis of secondary metabolites in the transformed plant cells. The activator mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we studied whether the NADPH oxidase-signaling pathway, which regulates the synthesis of defense metabolites in plants, is involved in the activator function of the rol genes. It

  17. A short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein from the silkworm: expression, characterization and involvement in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kangkang; Liu, Chen; He, Yan; Jiang, Haobo; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Recognition of invading microbes as non-self is the first step of immune responses. In insects, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) detect peptidoglycans (PGs) of bacterial cell wall, leading to the activation of defense responses. Twelve PGRPs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, through bioinformatics analysis. However, their biochemical functions are mostly uncharacterized. In this study, we found PGRP-S5 transcript levels were up-regulated in fat body and midgut after bacterial infection. Using recombinant protein isolated from Escherichia coli, we showed that PGRP-S5 binds to PGs from certain bacterial strains and induces bacteria agglutination. Enzyme activity assay confirmed PGRP-S5 is an amidase; we also showed it is an antibacterial protein effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific recognition of PGs by PGRP-S5 is involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Together, these data suggest the silkworm PGRP-S5 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for the prophenoloxidase pathway initiation and as an effecter to inhibit bacterial growth as well. We finally discussed possible roles of PGRP-S5 as a receptor for antimicrobial peptide gene induction and as an immune modulator in the midgut. PMID:24508981

  18. ASTROGLIOSIS INVOLVES ACTIVATION OF RIG-LIKE SIGNALING IN THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Minkiewicz, Julia; Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Carlos; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Keane, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a glial response in which astrocytes become activated and produce inflammatory mediators. The molecular basis for regulation of glial-innate immune responses remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the activation of retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-like receptors (RLRs) and their involvement in regulating inflammation following SCI. We show that astrocytes express two intracellular RLRs: RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). SCI and stretch injury of cultured astrocytes stimulated RLR signaling as determined by phosphorylation of IRF3 leading to production of type I interferons (IFNs). RLR signaling stimulation with synthetic RNA resulted in RLR activation, phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, two hallmarks of reactive astrocytes. Moreover, mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MUL1), an RLR inhibitor, decreased production of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin following RIG-I signaling stimulation. Our findings identify a role for RLR signaling and type I IFN in regulating astrocyte innate immune responses after SCI. PMID:22161971

  19. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and NADPH oxidases are involved in restenosis after balloon injury.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hai-Dong; Huang, Dan; Weng, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Feng

    2009-11-01

    Restenosis is a major complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and is characterized by increased superoxide formation and accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The mechanisms through which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) modulates the pathological process are incompletely defined. In this study, balloon injury of porcine coronary arteries in vivo and cell scraping model in vitro were used to elucidate the pathway via this molecule. PPAR-gamma and NADPH oxidase expression significantly increased both in neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury or in the cultured SMCs after scraping injury. In vitro, PPAR-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostagladlin J(2) (15d-PGJ2) decreased cell-scraping-induced superoxide generation through suppression of NADPH oxidase activity via down-regulation of p22(phox) and gp91(phox). Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 could suppress scraping-stimulated proliferation of SMCs. These data demonstrate that upregulation of PPAR-gamma and NADPH oxidases are involved in restenosis and activation of PPAR-gamma can inhibit the NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation in SMCs after injury. These findings will provide a new potential drug target for restenosis after balloon injury. PMID:19562688

  20. Tissue transglutaminase activity is involved in the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes during CNS remyelination.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Miriam E; Baron, Wia; Bakker, Erik N T P; Bauer, Jan; Bol, John G J M; Brevé, John J P; Binnekade, Rob; Van Der Laarse, Willem J; Drukarch, Benjamin; Van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2011-11-01

    During normal brain development, axons are myelinated by mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Under pathological, demyelinating conditions within the central nervous system (CNS), axonal remyelination is only partially successful because oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) largely remain in an undifferentiated state resulting in a failure to generate myelinating OLGs. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme, which amongst other functions, is involved in cell differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that TG2 contributes to differentiation of OPCs into OLGs and thereby stimulates remyelination. In vivo studies, using the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination in TG2(-/-) and wild-type mice, showed that during remyelination expression of proteolipid protein mRNA, as a marker for remyelination, in the corpus callosum lags behind in TG2(-/-) mice resulting in less myelin formation and, moreover, impaired recovery of motor behavior. Subsequent in vitro studies showed that rat OPCs express TG2 protein and activity which reduces when the cells have matured into OLGs. Furthermore, when TG2 activity is pharmacologically inhibited, the differentiation of OPCs into myelin-forming OLGs is dramatically reduced. We conclude that TG2 plays a prominent role in remyelination of the CNS, probably through stimulating OPC differentiation into myelin-forming OLGs. Therefore, manipulating TG2 activity may represent an interesting new target for remyelination in demyelinating diseases. PMID:21818782

  1. IQ Domain GTPase-Activating Protein 1 is Involved in Shear Stress-Induced Progenitor-Derived Endothelial Cell Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Rami, Lila; Auguste, Patrick; Thebaud, Noélie B.; Bareille, Reine; Daculsi, Richard; Ripoche, Jean; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs). To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ) remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs), transfected (or not) with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m2) and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and ?-catenin) and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and ?-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with ?-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to ?-catenin. This “switch” was concomitant with the loss of ?-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress. PMID:24278215

  2. The activation of protein degradation in muscle by Ca2+ or muscle injury does not involve a lysosomal mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Furuno, K; Goldberg, A L

    1986-01-01

    By use of different inhibitors, we distinguished three proteolytic processes in rat skeletal muscle. When soleus muscles maintained under tension were exposed to the calcium ionophore A23187 or were incubated under no tension in the presence of Ca2+, net protein breakdown increased by 50-80%. Although leupeptin and E-64 inhibit this acceleration of protein breakdown almost completely, other agents that prevent lysosomal function, such as methylamine or leucine methyl ester, did not inhibit this effect. A similar increase in net proteolysis occurred in muscle fibres injured by cutting, and this response was also inhibited by leupeptin, but not by methylamine. In contrast, all these inhibitors markedly decreased the 2-fold increase in protein breakdown induced by incubating muscles without insulin and leucine, isoleucine and valine. In addition, the low rate of proteolysis seen in muscles under passive tension in complete medium was not affected by any of these inhibitors. Thus the basal degradative process in muscle does not involve lysosomes or thiol proteinases, and muscle can enhance protein breakdown by two mechanisms: lack of insulin and nutrients enhances a lysosomal process in muscle, as in other cells, whereas Ca2+ and muscle injury activate a distinct pathway involving cytosolic thiol proteinase(s). PMID:3099758

  3. Telomerase activity-independent function of telomerase reverse transcriptase is involved in acrylamide-induced neuron damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Pan, H; Wang, J; Liu, X; Hu, X

    2014-07-01

    Polyacrylamide is used widely in industry, and its decomposition product, acrylamide (ACR), readily finds its way into commonly consumed cosmetics and baked and fried foods. ACR exerts potent neurotoxic effects in human and animal models. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, traditionally has been considered to play an important role in maintaining telomere length. Emerging evidence has shown, however, that TERT plays an important role in neuroprotection by inhibiting apoptosis and excitotoxicity, and by promoting angiogenesis, neuronal survival and neurogenesis, which are closely related to the telomere-independent functions of TERT. We investigated whether and how the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. We found that ACR 1) significantly reduced the viability of cortical neurons as measured by MTT assay, 2) induced neuron apoptosis as revealed by FITC-conjugated Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis, 3) elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3, and 4) decreased bcl-2 expression of cortical neurons. ACR also increased intracellular ROS levels in cortical neurons, increased MDA levels and reduced GSH, SOD and GSH-Px levels in mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner. We found that TERT expression in mitochondria was increased by ACR at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mM, but TERT expression was decreased by 10 mM ACR. Telomerase activity, however, was undetectable in rat cortical neurons. Our results suggest that the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced apoptosis of cortical neurons. TERT also may exert its neuroprotective role in a telomerase activity-independent way, especially in mitochondria. PMID:24279610

  4. Effect of game format on heart rate, activity profile, and player involvement in elite and recreational youth players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S; Larsen, M N; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8 and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168 ± 12 bpm, P = 0.001, d = 0.59) and number of technical actions (65.1 ± 24.0 vs 36.9 ± 20.4, P? ? 0.001, d = 1.27) were higher in 5v5 than in 8v8. For U13, lower total distance covered (1821 ± 325 vs 2038 ± 328 m, P < 0.001, d = 0.66) and higher number of technical actions (36.2 ± 14.9 vs 26.9 ± 14.1, P < 0.001, d = 0.64) were observed in 8v8 than in 11v11, with no difference in mean HR (170 ± 10 vs 171 ± 10 bpm, P = 0.679, d = 0.10). In conclusion, HR is high in youth football matches irrespective of the level of play and the game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results in minor changes to the physical loading but elevates the technical involvement of youth players both at elite level and recreational level. PMID:24944130

  5. Involvement of Dopamine Receptors in Binge Methamphetamine-Induced Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, Genevieve; Atwell, Kenisha; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2011-01-01

    Single large doses of methamphetamine (METH) cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rodent striata. The dopamine D1 receptor appears to be involved in these METH-mediated stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in ER and mitochondrial stresses caused by single-day METH binges in the rat striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 injections of 10 mg/kg of METH alone or in combination with a putative D1 or D2 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 or raclopride, respectively, given 30 min prior to each METH injection. Rats were euthanized at various timepoints afterwards. Striatal tissues were used in quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. We found that binge METH injections caused increased expression of the pro-survival genes, BiP/GRP-78 and P58IPK, in a SCH23390-sensitive manner. METH also caused up-regulation of ER-stress genes, Atf2, Atf3, Atf4, CHOP/Gadd153 and Gadd34. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was increased after METH injections. SCH23390 completely blocked induction in all analyzed ER stress-related proteins that included ATF3, ATF4, CHOP/Gadd153, HSPs and caspase-12. The dopamine D2-like antagonist, raclopride, exerted small to moderate inhibitory influence on some METH-induced changes in ER stress proteins. Importantly, METH caused decreases in the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increases in the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Bad and cytochrome c, in a SCH23390-sensitive fashion. In contrast, raclopride provided only small inhibition of METH-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins. These findings indicate that METH-induced activation of striatal ER and mitochondrial stress pathways might be more related to activation of SCH23390-sensitive receptors. PMID:22174933

  6. Chromate alters root system architecture and activates expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Hernández-Madrigal, Fátima; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Long, Terri A; Cervantes, Carlos; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; López-Bucio, José

    2014-09-01

    Soil contamination by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) or chromate] due to anthropogenic activities has become an increasingly important environmental problem. To date few studies have been performed to elucidate the signaling networks involved on adaptive responses to (CrVI) toxicity in plants. In this work, we report that depending upon its concentration, Cr(VI) alters in different ways the architecture of the root system in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Low concentrations of Cr (20-40 µM) promoted primary root growth, while concentrations higher than 60 µM Cr repressed growth and increased formation of root hairs, lateral root primordia and adventitious roots. We analyzed global gene expression changes in seedlings grown in media supplied with 20 or 140 µM Cr. The level of 731 transcripts was significantly modified in response to Cr treatment with only five genes common to both Cr concentrations. Interestingly, 23 genes related to iron (Fe) acquisition were up-regulated including IRT1, YSL2, FRO5, BHLH100, BHLH101 and BHLH039 and the master controllers of Fe deficiency responses PYE and BTS were specifically activated in pericycle cells. It was also found that increasing concentration of Cr in the plant correlated with a decrease in Fe content, but increased both acidification of the rhizosphere and activity of the ferric chelate reductase. Supply of Fe to Cr-treated Arabidopsis allowed primary root to resume growth and alleviated toxicity symptoms, indicating that Fe nutrition is a major target of Cr stress in plants. Our results show that low Cr levels are beneficial to plants and that toxic Cr concentrations activate a low-Fe rescue system. PMID:24928490

  7. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  8. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    PubMed

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  9. Established by: This award was established by the Asian American And Pacific Islander Faculty and Staff Association to recognize academic achievement, active involvement in the

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    and Staff Association to recognize academic achievement, active involvement in the local and/or campus Asian for undergraduate students 3.5 cumulative GPA for graduate students Academic achievement Financial need is required, detailing your academic achievements, involvement and participation on campus or in your

  10. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Ji; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Choi, Myung Sook; Son, Dong Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2008-01-01

    Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-?B activation and inflammatory reaction, we further investigated whether activation of MAP kinase may be also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of melittin and bee venom. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects of melittin and bee venom were investigated in cultured Raw 264.7 cells, THP-1 human monocytic cells and Synoviocytes. The activation of NF-?B was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined either by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay or by biochemical assay. Expression of I?B, p50, p65, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as phosphorylation of MAP kinase family was determined by Western blot. Results Melittin (0.5–5 ?g/ml) and bee venom (5 and 10 ?g/ml) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 ?g/ml) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 ?M)-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose dependent manner. However, JNK inhibitor, anthra [1,9-cd]pyrazole-6 (2H)-one (SP600215, 10–50 ?M) dose dependently suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on NF-?B dependent luciferase and DNA binding activity via suppression of the inhibitory effect of melittin and bee venom on the LPS and SNP-induced translocation of p65 and p50 into nucleus as well as cytosolic release of I?B. Moreover, JNK inhibitor suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on iNOS and COX-2 expression, and on NO and PGE2 generation. Conclusion These data show that melittin and bee venom prevent LPS and SNP-induced NO and PGE2 production via JNK pathway dependent inactivation of NF-?B, and suggest that inactivation of JNK pathways may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis effects of melittin and bee venom. PMID:18507870

  11. Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families’ involvement in school-based activities and their children's literacy: The implications of having teachers who speak Spanish and English

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Tang; Eric Dearing; Heather B. Weiss

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n=72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in Spanish. Between kindergarten and third grade, family involvement in school-based activities increased for children who

  12. IeCPS2 is potentially involved in the biosynthesis of pharmacologically active Isodon diterpenoids rather than gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Ling; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jin, Qiu-Ping; Gao, Juan; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Lu, Shan; Zeng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    The traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Isodon L., is remarkably rich in pharmacologically active ent-kaurane diterpenoids of diverse carbon skeletons. In an effort to create a resource for gene discovery and elucidate the biosynthesis of Isodonent-kaurane diterpenoids, three cDNAs (named IeCPS1, IeCPS2 and IeCPS2a) were isolated putatively encoding copalyl diphosphate synthases from Isodoneriocalyx leaves. Recombinant proteins of IeCPS1 and IeCPS2 were expressed, respectively, in Escherichia coli, and were shown to specifically convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate to copalyl diphosphate as demonstrated by GC-MS analyses. Based on tissue-specific expression and metabolic localization studies, the IeCPS2 transcripts were detected in young and mature leaves where the dominant ent-kaurane diterpenoid maoecrystal B accumulates, whereas no detectable expression of IeCPS2 was observed in germinating seeds where the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway is usually active. In addition, no evidence for maoecrystal B was found in germinating seeds. On the other hand, IeCPS1 transcripts significantly accumulated in germinating seeds as well as in leaves. The biochemical and molecular genetic evidence thus indicated that IeCPS2 is a copalyl diphosphate synthase potentially involved in the biosynthesis of Isodon diterpenoids in leaves, while IeCPS1 is more probably relevant to gibberellin formation and may, in addition, participate in Isodonent-kaurane diterpenoid production. PMID:22284743

  13. OsSLI1, a homeodomain containing transcription activator, involves abscisic acid related stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Duan, Min; Liao, Jiakai; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Hui; Feng, Jiejie; Huang, Ji; Zhang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper type I (HD-Zip I) proteins are involved in the regulation of plant development and response to environmental stresses. In this study, OsSLI1 (Oryza sativa stress largely induced 1), encoding a member of the HD-Zip I subfamily, was isolated from rice. The expression of OsSLI1 was dramatically induced by multiple abiotic stresses and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). In silico sequence analysis discovered several cis-acting elements including multiple ABREs (ABA-responsive element binding factors) in the upstream promoter region of OsSLI1. The OsSLI1-GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of rice protoplast cells and the transcriptional activity of OsSLI1 was confirmed by the yeast hybrid system. Further, it was found that OsSLI1 expression was enhanced in an ABI5-Like1 (ABL1) deficiency rice mutant abl1 under stress conditions, suggesting that ABL1 probably negatively regulates OsSLI1 gene expression. Moreover, it was found that OsSLI1 was regulated in panicle development. Taken together, OsSLI1 may be a transcriptional activator regulating stress-responsive gene expression and panicle development in rice. PMID:25089296

  14. Activation of the bacterial thermosensor DesK involves a serine zipper dimerization motif that is modulated by bilayer thickness.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Larisa Estefanía; Ballering, Joost; Moussatova, Anastassiia; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Vazquez, Daniela B; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; de Mendoza, Diego; Tieleman, D Peter; Killian, J Antoinette

    2015-05-19

    DesK is a bacterial thermosensor protein involved in maintaining membrane fluidity in response to changes in environmental temperature. Most likely, the protein is activated by changes in membrane thickness, but the molecular mechanism of sensing and signaling is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to elucidate the mode of action of DesK by studying the so-called "minimal sensor DesK" (MS-DesK), in which sensing and signaling are captured in a single transmembrane segment. This simplified version of the sensor allows investigation of membrane thickness-dependent protein-lipid interactions simply by using synthetic peptides, corresponding to the membrane-spanning parts of functional and nonfunctional mutants of MS-DesK incorporated in lipid bilayers with varying thicknesses. The lipid-dependent behavior of the peptides was investigated by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and molecular modeling. These experiments were complemented with in vivo functional studies on MS-DesK mutants. Based on the results, we constructed a model that suggests a new mechanism for sensing in which the protein is present as a dimer and responds to an increase in bilayer thickness by membrane incorporation of a C-terminal hydrophilic motif. This results in exposure of three serines on the same side of the transmembrane helices of MS-DesK, triggering a switching of the dimerization interface to allow the formation of a serine zipper. The final result is activation of the kinase state of MS-DesK. PMID:25941408

  15. Involvement of nerve injury and activation of peripheral glial cells in tetanic sciatic stimulation-induced persistent pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lingli; Wang, Zhiyong; Lü, Ning; Yang, Jiale; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Zhiqi

    2010-10-01

    Tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS) produces long-lasting pain hypersensitivity in rats. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of C- and A-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal cord has been explored as contributing to central sensitization in pain pathways. However, the peripheral mechanism underlying TSS-induced pain hypersensitivity remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of TSS on peripheral nerve and the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) as a marker of neuronal injury. TSS induced a mechanical allodynia for at least 35 days and induced ATF3 expression in the ipsilateral DRG. ATF3 is colocalized with NF200-labeled myelinated DRG neurons or CGRP- and IB4-labeled unmyelinated ones. Furthermore, we found that TSS induced Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve at the level of myelinisation by S100 protein (to label Schwann cells) immunohistochemistry, luxol fast blue staining, and electron microscopy. TSS also elicited the activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) and enhanced the colocalization of GFAP and P2X7 receptors. Repeated local treatment with tetrodotoxin decreased GFAP expression in SGCs and behavioral allodynia induced by TSS. Furthermore, reactive microglia and astrocytes were found in the spinal dorsal horn after TSS. These results suggest that TSS-induced nerve injury and glial activation in the DRG and spinal dorsal horn may be involved in cellular mechanisms underlying the development of persistent pain after TSS and that TSS-induced nerve injury may be used as a novel neuropathic pain model. PMID:20544834

  16. Daxx from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in activation of NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Muting; Tang, Junliang; Liang, Qianhui; Zhu, Guohua; Li, Haoyang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Death domain-associated factor 6 (Daxx) is a Fas-binding protein that mediates the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and Fas-induced apoptosis. In this study, a crustacean Daxx (LvDaxx) was firstly cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDaxx cDNA was 2644 bp in length with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 2217 bp. Sequence analysis indicated that LvDaxx contained a single Daxx domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and shared a similarity with Drosophila melanogaster Daxx. LvDaxx was a nuclear-localized protein that was expressed highest in hemocytes and could be up-regulated in pathogen- and stimulant-challenge shrimps. LvDaxx could activate the artificial promoter containing an NF-?B binding site and the promoters of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ie1 gene and arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), suggesting LvDaxx could be involved in the activation of the NF-?B pathway. Knock-down of LvDaxx in vivo resulted in down-regulation of shrimp AMPs and reduction of WSSV copies in tissues. Furthermore, suppression of LvDaxx significantly decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimps, but increased the mortality of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus-infected shrimps. Thus, these suggested that LvDaxx could play a role in the innate immunity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in L. vannamei, while in the antiviral response, LvDaxx may be hijacked by WSSV and play a complex role in WSSV pathogenesis. PMID:25917972

  17. Transcriptional Activation of Multiple Operons Involved in para-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xuan; Chao, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole carbon and energy source. The genes involved in PNP degradation are organized in the following three operons: pnpA, pnpB, and pnpCDEFG. How the expression of the genes is regulated is unknown. In this study, an LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) is identified to activate the expression of the genes in response to the specific inducer PNP. While the LTTR coding gene pnpR was found to be not physically linked to any of the three catabolic operons, it was shown to be essential for the growth of strain WBC-3 on PNP. Furthermore, PnpR positively regulated its own expression, which is different from the function of classical LTTRs. A regulatory binding site (RBS) with a 17-bp imperfect palindromic sequence (GTT-N11-AAC) was identified in all pnpA, pnpB, pnpC, and pnpR promoters. Through electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutagenic analyses, this motif was proven to be necessary for PnpR binding. This consensus motif is centered at positions approximately ?55 bp relative to the four transcriptional start sites (TSSs). RBS integrity was required for both high-affinity PnpR binding and transcriptional activation of pnpA, pnpB, and pnpR. However, this integrity was essential only for high-affinity PnpR binding to the promoter of pnpCDEFG and not for its activation. Intriguingly, unlike other LTTRs studied, no changes in lengths of the PnpR binding regions of the pnpA and pnpB promoters were observed after the addition of the inducer PNP in DNase I footprinting. PMID:25326309

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Regulates Genes Involved in Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor Signaling and Lipid Metabolism during Adipogenesis through Functionally Distinct Enhancer Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Oger, Frédérik; Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Gheeraert, Céline; Avner, Stéphane; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Salbert, Gilles; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? is a transcription factor whose expression is induced during adipogenesis and that is required for the acquisition and control of mature adipocyte functions. Indeed, PPAR? induces the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and storage through enhancers activated during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we show that PPAR? also binds to enhancers already active in preadipocytes as evidenced by an active chromatin state including lower DNA methylation levels despite higher CpG content. These constitutive enhancers are linked to genes involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway that are transcriptionally induced during adipogenesis but to a lower extent than lipid metabolism genes, because of stronger basal expression levels in preadipocytes. This is consistent with the sequential involvement of hormonal sensitivity and lipid handling during adipocyte maturation and correlates with the chromatin structure dynamics at constitutive and activated enhancers. Interestingly, constitutive enhancers are evolutionary conserved and can be activated in other tissues, in contrast to enhancers controlling lipid handling genes whose activation is more restricted to adipocytes. Thus, PPAR? utilizes both broadly active and cell type-specific enhancers to modulate the dynamic range of activation of genes involved in the adipogenic process. PMID:24288131

  19. Host Cell Entry of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Involves Macropinocytosis Followed by Proteolytic Activation of the F Protein

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzaniak, Magdalena Anna; Zumstein, Michael Thomas; Gerez, Juan Atilio; Picotti, Paola; Helenius, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae that causes severe respiratory tract infections. Reports in the literature have indicated that to infect cells the incoming viruses either fuse their envelope directly with the plasma membrane or exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To study the entry process in human tissue culture cells (HeLa, A549), we used fluorescence microscopy and developed quantitative, FACS-based assays to follow virus binding to cells, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, membrane fusion, and infection. A variety of perturbants were employed to characterize the cellular processes involved. We found that immediately after binding to cells RSV activated a signaling cascade involving the EGF receptor, Cdc42, PAK1, and downstream effectors. This led to a series of dramatic actin rearrangements; the cells rounded up, plasma membrane blebs were formed, and there was a significant increase in fluid uptake. If these effects were inhibited using compounds targeting Na+/H+ exchangers, myosin II, PAK1, and other factors, no infection was observed. The RSV was rapidly and efficiently internalized by an actin-dependent process that had all hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Rather than fusing with the plasma membrane, the viruses thus entered Rab5-positive, fluid-filled macropinosomes, and fused with the membranes of these on the average 50 min after internalization. Rab5 was required for infection. To find an explanation for the endocytosis requirement, which is unusual among paramyxoviruses, we analyzed the fusion protein, F, and could show that, although already cleaved by a furin family protease once, it underwent a second, critical proteolytic cleavage after internalization. This cleavage by a furin-like protease removed a small peptide from the F1 subunits, and made the virus infectious. PMID:23593008

  20. Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all organisms, and generating iron limiting conditions for pathogens is one of the host defense strategies against microbial infections. Excess of iron can be toxic; therefore, iron uptake is tightly controlled. The high affinity iron uptake system of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been shown to be essential for virulence. Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. Gene expression profiling of the ?hog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. However, the function of Hog1p in the response of C. albicans to iron availability was not studied in detail. Thus, we analyzed phenotypic and molecular responses of C. albicans to different iron concentrations particularly with respect to the activity of the Hog1p MAP kinase module. Results We observed flocculation of yeast cells, when the iron ion concentration was equal to or higher than 5 ?M. This phenotype was dependent on the MAP kinase Hog1p and the corresponding MAP kinase kinase Pbs2p. Moreover, high extracellular iron ion concentrations led to hyper-phosphorylation of Hog1p. We determined lower amounts of multicopper ferroxidase (MCFO) proteins and lower ferric reductase activity, when the iron ion concentration in the medium was increased. This effect was also observed for the ?hog1 mutant. However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the ?hog1 in comparison to wild type cells. This effect was independent of iron availability in growth media. Conclusions In C. albicans, the MAP kinase Hog1p is part of the network regulating the response of the organism to iron availability. Hog1p was transiently phosphorylated under high iron concentrations and was essential for a flocculent phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of HOG1 led to increased levels of components of the reductive iron uptake system in comparison to the wild-type, independent of iron concentrations in the media. However, the additional induction of this system by low iron concentrations was independent of HOG1. PMID:23347662

  1. Direct activation of genes involved in intracellular iron use by the yeast iron-responsive transcription factor Aft2 without its paralog Aft1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Direct activation of genes involved in intracellular iron use by the yeast iron) 1 44 27 57 16 Running title: Transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism in yeast Word count, 13). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two paralogous iron-responsive transcription activators

  2. America Goes Back to School: A Place for Families and the Community. An Initiative of the Family Involvement Partnership for Learning. Partners' Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Involvement Partnership for Learning, Washington, DC.

    Noting the improvement in the quality of schools and education that occurs when parents are actively involved in their children's schools, this activity guide provides ways that parents can forge partnerships with schools on a variety of levels. Following an invitation from the United States Secretary of Education for parents to participate in the…

  3. Involvement of the proto-oncogene c-ets 1 and the urokinase plasminogen activator during mouse implantation and placentation.

    PubMed

    Grevin, D; Chen, J H; Raes, M B; Stehelin, D; Vandenbunder, B; Desbiens, X

    1993-12-01

    Many of the Ets proteins have been shown to be transcription activators. In vitro, Ets 1 proteins are involved in the transcriptional induction of genes such as stromelysin 1, collagenase 1 or urokinase type plasminogen activator, which are proteases responsible for extracellular matrix degradation. In vivo, c-ets 1 is expressed in a wide variety of embryonic tissues in migrating cells, especially in endothelial cells during blood vessel formation. C-ets 1 is also expressed in stromal cells of invasive carcinomas. In the present work, we have investigated the expression of both c-ets 1 and u-PA, a putative target gene of the Ets 1 proteins, within a biological model which includes both embryonic and tumoral aspects. Implantation and placentation of the mouse embryo display migration of the trophoblastic cells, which invade the stroma of the uterine endometrium and trigger the establishment of a new vascular frame. Using in situ hybridization, we show that the overlapping of expression of c-ets 1 and u-PA is restricted to some maternal cell populations from the invasive front and to the endothelial cells of the endometrial vasculature. C-ets 1 is never expressed in trophoblasts. In contrast, u-PA expression in trophoblasts is strong and coincides with the embryo invasive phase. In the embryo proper, c-ets 1 displays a spatio-temporal expression pattern similar to that described in the chick embryo. Until E 10.5, u-PA is expressed neither in embryonic nor in extra-embryonic structures. The respective roles of c-ets 1 and u-PA and their relationship during mammalian placentation are discussed. PMID:8179996

  4. CD48 is a counter-receptor for mouse CD2 and is involved in T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    CD2 is an intercellular adhesion molecule that has been implicated in T cell activation and differentiation both in humans and mice. Although the ligand for human CD2 has been defined as LFA-3, that for murine CD2 has not been identified yet. To identify the ligand for mouse CD2, we generated a chimeric molecule consisting of the extracellular domain of mouse CD2 and human immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 Fc (mCD2Rg). A hamster monoclonal antibody (mAb), HM48-1, was established by screening mAbs that could block the binding of mCD2Rg to T cell lines at the ligand site. The putative mouse CD2 ligand recognized by this mAb was a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kD, which were shared characteristics with human LFA-3. However, its expression was predominantly restricted to hematopoietic cells, unlike human LFA-3. Protein microsequencing analysis for the NH2-terminal 18 amino acid residues of the affinity- purified HM48-1 antigen revealed that it is almost identical with mouse CD48. This identity was further confirmed by the reactivity of HM48-1 with a soluble recombinant CD48 (sCD48) protein and the molecule recognized by a rat mAb raised against sCD48. A rat anti-CD48 mAb blocked the mCD2Rg binding as well as HM48-1. Moreover, sCD48 also inhibited the mCD2Rg binding to the cellular ligand. Finally, like anti- CD2 mAb, HM48-1 inhibited the phytohemagglutinin response and, when crosslinked, augmented the anti-CD3 response of splenic T cells. These results indicate that CD48 is a ligand for mouse CD2 and is involved in regulating T cell activation. PMID:1383383

  5. Early peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulated genes involved in expansion of pancreatic beta cell mass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The progression towards type 2 diabetes depends on the allostatic response of pancreatic beta cells to synthesise and secrete enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The endocrine pancreas is a plastic tissue able to expand or regress in response to the requirements imposed by physiological and pathophysiological states associated to insulin resistance such as pregnancy, obesity or ageing, but the mechanisms mediating beta cell mass expansion in these scenarios are not well defined. We have recently shown that ob/ob mice with genetic ablation of PPAR?2, a mouse model known as the POKO mouse failed to expand its beta cell mass. This phenotype contrasted with the appropriate expansion of the beta cell mass observed in their obese littermate ob/ob mice. Thus, comparison of these models islets particularly at early ages could provide some new insights on early PPAR? dependent transcriptional responses involved in the process of beta cell mass expansion Results Here we have investigated PPAR? dependent transcriptional responses occurring during the early stages of beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance in wild type, ob/ob, PPAR?2 KO and POKO mice. We have identified genes known to regulate both the rate of proliferation and the survival signals of beta cells. Moreover we have also identified new pathways induced in ob/ob islets that remained unchanged in POKO islets, suggesting an important role for PPAR? in maintenance/activation of mechanisms essential for the continued function of the beta cell. Conclusions Our data suggest that the expansion of beta cell mass observed in ob/ob islets is associated with the activation of an immune response that fails to occur in POKO islets. We have also indentified other PPAR? dependent differentially regulated pathways including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis through TGF-? signaling and decreased oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:22208362

  6. The inhibition of high-voltage-activated calcium current by activation of MrgC11 involves phospholipase C-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; He, S-Q; Tseng, P-Y; Xu, Q; Tiwari, V; Yang, F; Shu, B; Zhang, T; Tang, Z; Raja, S N; Wang, Y; Dong, X; Guan, Y

    2015-08-01

    High-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels play an important role in synaptic transmission. Activation of Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor subtype C (MrgC; mouse MrgC11, rat homolog rMrgC) inhibits HVA calcium current (ICa) in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but the intracellular signaling cascade underlying MrgC agonist-induced inhibition of HVA ICa in native DRG neurons remains unclear. To address this question, we conducted patch-clamp recordings in MrgA3-eGFP-wild-type mice, in which most MrgA3-eGFP(+) DRG neurons co-express MrgC11 and can be identified for recording. We found that the inhibition of HVA ICa by JHU58 (0.001-100nM, a dipeptide, MrgC-selective agonist) was significantly reduced by pretreatment with a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor (U73122, 1?M), but not by its inactive analog (U73343) or vehicle. Further, in rats that had undergone spinal nerve injury, pretreatment with intrathecal U73122 nearly abolished the inhibition of mechanical hypersensitivity by intrathecal JHU58. The inhibition of HVA ICa in MrgA3-eGFP(+) neurons by JHU58 (100nM) was partially reduced by pretreatment with a G?? blocker (gallein, 100?M). However, applying a depolarizing prepulse and blocking the G?i and G?s pathways with pertussis toxin (PTX) (0.5?g/mL) and cholera toxin (CTX) (0.5?g/mL), respectively, had no effect. These findings suggest that activation of MrgC11 may inhibit HVA ICa in mouse DRG neurons through a voltage-independent mechanism that involves activation of the PLC, but not G?i or G?s, pathway. PMID:26022362

  7. SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1, CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2, and other transcription factors are involved in ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 expression.

    PubMed

    Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Saito, Tatsunori; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the root apex is protected from aluminum (Al) rhizotoxicity by excretion of malate, an Al chelator, by ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 (AtALMT1). AtALMT1 expression is fundamentally regulated by the SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (STOP1) zinc finger protein, but other transcription factors have roles that enable Al-inducible expression with a broad dynamic range. In this study, we characterized multiple cis-elements in the AtALMT1 promoter that interact with transcription factors. In planta complementation assays of AtALMT1 driven by 5' truncated promoters of different lengths showed that the promoter region between -540 and 0 (the first ATG) restored the Al-sensitive phenotype of atalm1 and thus contains cis-elements essential for AtALMT1 expression for Al tolerance. Computation of overrepresented octamers showed that eight regions in this promoter region contained potential cis-elements involved in Al induction and STOP1 regulation. Mutation in a position around -297 from the first ATG completely inactivated AtALMT1 expression and Al response. In vitro binding assays showed that this region contained the STOP1 binding site, which accounted for the recognition by four zinc finger domains of the protein. Other positions were characterized as cis-elements that regulated expression by repressors and activators and a transcription factor that determines root tip expression of AtALMT1. From the consensus of known cis-elements, we identified CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2 to be an activator of AtALMT1 expression. Al-inducible expression of AtALMT1 changed transcription starting sites, which increased the abundance of transcripts with a shortened 5' untranslated region. The present analyses identified multiple mechanisms that regulate AtALMT1 expression. PMID:25627216

  8. SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1, CALMODULIN BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2, and Other Transcription Factors Are Involved in ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Saito, Tatsunori; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y.; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the root apex is protected from aluminum (Al) rhizotoxicity by excretion of malate, an Al chelator, by ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 (AtALMT1). AtALMT1 expression is fundamentally regulated by the SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1 (STOP1) zinc finger protein, but other transcription factors have roles that enable Al-inducible expression with a broad dynamic range. In this study, we characterized multiple cis-elements in the AtALMT1 promoter that interact with transcription factors. In planta complementation assays of AtALMT1 driven by 5? truncated promoters of different lengths showed that the promoter region between –540 and 0 (the first ATG) restored the Al-sensitive phenotype of atalm1 and thus contains cis-elements essential for AtALMT1 expression for Al tolerance. Computation of overrepresented octamers showed that eight regions in this promoter region contained potential cis-elements involved in Al induction and STOP1 regulation. Mutation in a position around –297 from the first ATG completely inactivated AtALMT1 expression and Al response. In vitro binding assays showed that this region contained the STOP1 binding site, which accounted for the recognition by four zinc finger domains of the protein. Other positions were characterized as cis-elements that regulated expression by repressors and activators and a transcription factor that determines root tip expression of AtALMT1. From the consensus of known cis-elements, we identified CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR2 to be an activator of AtALMT1 expression. Al-inducible expression of AtALMT1 changed transcription starting sites, which increased the abundance of transcripts with a shortened 5? untranslated region. The present analyses identified multiple mechanisms that regulate AtALMT1 expression. PMID:25627216

  9. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200?mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  10. Involvement of actin microfilament in regulation of pacemaking activity increased by hypotonic stress in cultured ICCs of murine intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Huang, X; Liu, D H; Lu, H L; Kim, Y C; Xu, W X

    2015-06-11

    Distension is a regular mechanical stimulus in gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study was designed to investigate the effect of hypotonic stress on pacemaking activity and determine whether actin microfilament is involved in its mechanism in cultured murine intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) by using whole-cell patch-clamp and calcium imaging techniques. Hypotonic stress induced sustained inward holding current from the baseline to -650+/-110 pA and significantly decreased amplitudes of pacemaker current. Hypotonic stress increased the intensity of basal fluorescence ratio (F/F0) from baseline to 1.09+/-0.03 and significantly increased Ca(2+) oscillation amplitude. Cytochalasin-B (20 microM), a disruptor of actin microfilaments, significantly suppressed the amplitudes of pacemaker currents and calcium oscillations, respectively. Cytochalasin-B also blocked hypotonic stress-induced sustained inward holding current and hypotonic stress-induced increase of calcium oscillations. Phalloidin (20 microM), a stabilizer of actin microfilaments, significantly enhanced the amplitudes of pacemaker currents and calcium oscillations, respectively. Despite the presence of phalloidin, hypotonic stress was still able to induce an inward holding current and increased the basal fluorescence intensity. These results suggest that hypotonic stress induces sustained inward holding current via actin microfilaments and the process is mediated by alteration of intracellular basal calcium concentration and calcium oscillation in cultured intestinal ICCs. PMID:25536314

  11. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200?mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  12. Toluene biodegradation in a solid/liquid system involving immobilized activated sludge and silicone oil as pollutant reservoir.

    PubMed

    Diz Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Díaz, Diego; Amrane, Abdeltif; Couvert, Annabelle

    2015-02-01

    A solid/liquid system involving activated sludge immobilized in an agar medium and a non-aqueous phase liquid containing the target pollutant has been considered to treat a model hydrophobic volatile organic compound, toluene. The positive impact of the use of a multiphase bioreactor is that the organic phase constitutes a pollutant reservoir and also helps to overcome possible pollutant toxicity. In addition and to overcome the drawbacks of the use of a solid organic phase (high pressure drop and low mass transfer) instead of a liquid organic phase, the considered solid phase was the aqueous. Consequently, silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) which showed its relevance for implementation in multiphase bioreactors was used. Promising results were observed from the analysis of toluene in the gaseous phase; for an initial amount of 2?g?L(-1) related to the organic phase, a v/v ratio of 0.5 of the organic phase to the aqueous agar phase, total toluene consumption was observed in about 9 days, leading to a global biodegradation rate of approximately 3.1?mg?L(-1)?h(-1), namely in the range of values previously observed in liquid/liquid systems. PMID:25187471

  13. Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David; Ampurdanés, Coral; Medina, Manel G; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep Maria; Saura, Josep; Planas, Anna M; Navarro, Pilar

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for A?-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-? release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role. PMID:22162045

  14. Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway involved in megakaryocyte proliferation induced by vanadium resembles some aspects of essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalva, Adriana; Piñon-Zarate, Gabriela; Falcon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Lopez-Valdez, Nelly; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rendon-Huerta, Erika; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2014-01-23

    Vanadium (V) is an air pollutant released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. Also, it has been recently evaluated for their carcinogenic potential to establish permissible limits of exposure at workplaces. We previously reported an increase in the number and size of platelets and their precursor cells and megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen. The aim of this study was to identify the involvement of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway and thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor, and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (Mpl), in megakaryocyte proliferation induced by this compound. Mice were exposed twice a week to vanadium pentoxide inhalation (0.02 M) and were killed at 4th, 6th, and 8th week of exposure. Phosphorylated JAK2 (JAK2 ph), STAT3 (STAT3 ph), STAT5, and Mpl were identified in mice spleen megakaryocytes by cytofluorometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in JAK2 ph and STAT3 ph, but a decrease in Mpl at 8-week exposure was identified in our findings. Taking together, we propose that the morphological findings, JAK/STAT activation, and decreased Mpl receptor induced by V leads to a condition comparable to essential thrombocythemia, so the effect on megakaryocytes caused by different mechanisms is similar. We also suggest that the decrease in Mpl is a negative feedback mechanism after the JAK/STAT activation. Since megakaryocytes are platelet precursors, their alteration affects platelet morphology and function, which might have implications in hemostasis as demonstrated previously, so it is important to continue evaluating the effects of toxics and pollutants on megakaryocytes and platelets. PMID:24442345

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.495 - If a permit involves demonstrations or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action...MANAGEMENT Occasional Use of Public Buildings Permits § 102-74.495...activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action...activities that may lead to civil disturbances....

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.495 - If a permit involves demonstrations or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action...MANAGEMENT Occasional Use of Public Buildings Permits § 102-74.495...activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action...activities that may lead to civil disturbances....

  17. An activating transcription factor of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in WSSV genes Wsv059 and Wsv166 regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Bi, Hai-Tao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATF?. The full-length cDNA of LvATF? was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATF? was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATF? expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATF? had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATF? could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATF? resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATF? may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. PMID:25172110

  18. Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway involving CHOP in the lungs of rats with hyperoxia?induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Lu-Jie

    2015-09-01

    The molecular pathomechanisms underlying bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain to be fully elucidated, however, lung injury is considered to be a key event. The present study was performed to determine the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and investigate the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in a BPD rat model. A total of 48 preterm Sprague?Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a hyperoxia group. The rats in the BPD group were exposed to 85% hyperoxia, while the rats in the control group were exposed to room air. A total of eight rats in each group were sacrificed 7, 14 or 21 days after exposure. The expression levels of 78?kDa glucose?regulated/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in the lung tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and CHOP were detected using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. In addition, the levels of apoptosis in the lung cells were evaluated suing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase?mediated dUTP nick?end labeling. It was demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and CHOP, and the levels of cell apoptosis in the hyperoxia group differed significantly from those in the control group (P<0.05) at different time?points, and increased with extension of the duration of hyperoxic exposure. These data demonstrated that the ER stress pathway, involving CHOP, is activated and is important in the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:26099737

  19. In Vitro Anti-Echinococcal and Metabolic Effects of Metformin Involve Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Larval Stages of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Loos, Julia A; Cumino, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Metformin (Met) is a biguanide anti-hyperglycemic agent, which also exerts antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. This drug inhibits the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain inducing a fall in the cell energy charge and leading 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK is a highly conserved heterotrimeric complex that coordinates metabolic and growth pathways in order to maintain energy homeostasis and cell survival, mainly under nutritional stress conditions, in a Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent manner. This work describes for the first time, the in vitro anti-echinococcal effect of Met on Echinococcus granulosus larval stages, as well as the molecular characterization of AMPK (Eg-AMPK) in this parasite of clinical importance. The drug exerted a dose-dependent effect on the viability of both larval stages. Based on this, we proceeded with the identification of the genes encoding for the different subunits of Eg-AMPK. We cloned one gene coding for the catalytic subunit (Eg-ampk?) and two genes coding for the regulatory subunits (Eg-ampk? and Eg-ampk?), all of them constitutively transcribed in E. granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Their deduced amino acid sequences show all the conserved functional domains, including key amino acids involved in catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions. In protoscoleces, the drug induced the activation of AMPK (Eg-AMPK?-P176), possibly as a consequence of cellular energy charge depletion evidenced by assays with the fluorescent indicator JC-1. Met also led to carbohydrate starvation, it increased glucogenolysis and homolactic fermentation, and decreased transcription of intermediary metabolism genes. By in toto immunolocalization assays, we detected Eg-AMPK?-P176 expression, both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells as in the larval tegument, the posterior bladder and the calcareous corpuscles of control and Met-treated protoscoleces. Interestingly, expression of Eg-AMPK? was observed in the developmental structures during the de-differentiation process from protoscoleces to microcysts. Therefore, the Eg-AMPK expression during the asexual development of E. granulosus, as well as the in vitro synergic therapeutic effects observed in presence of Met plus albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), suggest the importance of carrying out chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy studies combining Met with conventional anti-echinococcal agents to test the potential use of this drug in hydatidosis therapy. PMID:25965910

  20. Involvement of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels in dorsal root ganglion in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Wan, You

    2008-10-25

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have peripheral terminals in skin, muscle, and other peripheral tissues, and central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are present in the DRG. The genes encoding HCN channels have four subtypes named HCN1 to HCN4. HCN channels are permeable to both K(+) and Na(+). They underlie the depolarization that modulates the rhythmic generations of action potentials (APs), contribute to the resting membrane potential, and modify the waveform of propagated synaptic and generator potentials. Neuropathic pain is characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. After spinal nerve injury, the cell bodies of the primary sensory neurons in segmental DRG become hyperexcitable, characterized for some neurons by the presence of spontaneous firing (or ectopic discharge). In the following, we summarize our observations on the role of HCN channels in DRG neurons in neuropathic pain. 1 HCN subtypes and I(h) in DRG neurons Immunohistochemical staining revealed a subgroup of neurons in the DRG that were stained with rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for HCN1, 2, 3 and 4. The most prominently expressed HCN subtype was HCN1. HCN1-positive cells in DRG were medium to large in size and doubly labeled with neurofilament-200 (NF-200), and were not labeled with isolectin B4 (IB4), a C fiber marker. In contrast, HCN2, 3 or 4 was expressed in all DRG neurons at a lower level. HCN4 was confined to small neurons. DRG neurons expressed I(h). When membrane was hyperpolarized, the channel was activated, mediating a slowly activated, inward current. I(h) was distributed mainly in large and medium-sized DRG neurons. 2 Changes in expression of HCN in DRG after spinal nerve ligation Western blotting was used to detect the changes in the expression of HCN subtypes in the DRG after spinal nerve ligation. HCN1 mRNA and protein were reduced in the DRG whose spinal nerve had been ligated. HCN1 expression was decreased to the lowest level at day 14 and restored at day 28 after spinal nerve ligation. HCN2 mRNA and medium molecular weight protein was also decreased in spinal-nerve ligated DRG. HCN3 and 4 in the same ganglion remained unchanged as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining, until day 28 when they became significantly decreased. HCN4 mRNA in DRG did not change, and protein expression slightly increased. Interestingly, abundant axonal accumulation of HCN channel protein at the injured sites in chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. Electron immunomicroscopy showed strong positive immunolabeling on the axolemma of myelinated thick axons. 3 Role of I(h) in neuronal excitability and ectopic discharges after spinal nerve ligation ZD7288, a specific I(h) blocker, inhibited I(h) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. With patch-clamp recording on acutely isolated DRG neurons, it was found that ZD7288 perfusion resulted in a decrease of both I(h) activity and the activation time constant. ZD7288 decreased the number of repetitive APs and caused an increase in AP rise time, accompanied by a small hyperpolarization of the membrane resting potential. The results demonstrated that I(h) was involved in AP firing, and possessed the physiological functions to facilitate neuronal excitability and ectopic firing. Extracellular electrophysiological recording from dorsal root fibers associated with the spinal nerve-ligated ganglion revealed three different firing patterns of ectopic discharges: tonic or regular, bursting and irregular. The average frequency of ectopic discharges and the proportions of active filaments also changed rapidly, both parameters reaching a peak within 24 h then declining gradually in the following days. It was also found that proportions of three different firing patterns changed dynamically over time. The tonic and bursting types were dominant patterns in the first 24 h, while the irregular became the only pattern at day 14. We found that all three firing patterns

  1. The use of parent involved take-home science activities during student teaching: Understanding the challenges of implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarazinski, Jill

    The purpose of this study was to identify student teachers use and implementation of Science in a Bag when it was no longer a required course-based assessment. This take-home science activity acted as the elaboration component of the 5Es lesson teacher candidates designed and taught in the classroom, utilized household items, and directly involved parents in their child's education. The purposeful sample was comprised of six teacher candidates during their student teaching practicum, the last semester of the childhood education teacher certification program. This collective case study centered on student teachers' use of the focused activity, Science in a Bag, in order to gain knowledge of challenges faced in applying take-home science kits and working with parents. Data collection was comprised of student teacher and parent interviews, candidate reflections, as well as in-class observations and discussions carried out during weekly seminars. Data collection occurred throughout the seven-week student teaching practicum. The four research questions were: 1) What factors do teacher candidates identify as interfering with their ability to implement Science in a Bag during student teaching placements? 2) What factors do teacher candidates identify as enhancing their ability to carry out Science in a Bag? 3) What forms of support do teacher candidates believe are important to their success in implementing Science in a Bag during student teaching? 4) How do teacher candidates deal with obstacles when implementing Science in a Bag? Despite the fact that no student teacher was prohibited from implementing Science in a Bag, the level to which candidates valued and utilized this instructional strategy varied compared to how they were taught and practiced it during the science methods course. Some student teachers attempted to hide their feelings toward Science in a Bag, however their actions revealed that they were simply carrying out the instructional strategy because they had agreed to implement it, not because they appreciated its worth to students and their families. Altering candidate beliefs in one semester prior to student teaching proved difficult, especially when cooperating teachers were demonstrating and encouraging methodologies which were frowned upon during the science methods coursework. Therefore, this study also raised issues with teacher education and identified the need to better align educational philosophies taught throughout the program and those showcased by cooperating teachers if science education reform is to transpire. Teacher candidates very often abandoned the inquiry-based modes of instruction taught to them during the science methods course prior to student teaching and replaced them with ideas and suggestions from their cooperating teacher, approaches which were more traditional and teacher-centered. Cooperating teacher opinions and suggestions appeared to take precedence over what was taught and practiced during their preparation coursework. Candidates' prior beliefs and experiences with education appeared to dominate their teaching repertoire. The culmination of their own K-12 education and much of their undergraduate courses made altering their beliefs toward inquiry-based methodologies difficult during only one semester prior to student teaching. Therefore, all candidates reverted back to some level of teacher-centered, recipe-like science lessons and tasks. It was also noted that the candidates' understanding of hands-on versus inquiry learning was often blurred. Hands-on learning was often demonstrated and applauded by cooperating teachers, as well as parents, once they responded to Science in a Bag surveys and interviews, further supporting this misconception by praising hands-on learning and in some cases stating it was the way students learned best. Most parents were willing to and enjoyed performing these take-home family activities. Some of the most frequent parent comments related to family time, being informed about the content their child was learning in school and the child taking on

  2. Requirement of Ca2+ and PKC  for Janus Kinase 2 Activation by Angiotensin II: Involvement of PYK2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD D. FRANK; SHUICHI SAITO; EVANGELINE D. MOTLEY; TERUKATSU SASAKI; MOTOI OHBA; TOSHIO KUROKI; TADASHI INAGAMI; SATORU EGUCHI

    2002-01-01

    In vascular smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II (AngII) stimulates association of its G protein- coupled AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), resulting in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. Although the association and activation of subse- quent signal transducer and activator of transcrip- tion proteins appear to prerequire JAK2 activation, the signaling

  3. Salmonella virulence factor SpiC is involved in expression of flagellin protein and mediates activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei-ichi Uchiya; Toshiaki Nikai

    2008-01-01

    SpiC is a virulence factor encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). We have previously reported that infection of macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium results in the SPI-2-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, leading to the expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3, which is involved in the inhibition of cytokine signalling. Here, we investigated

  4. Direct Activation of Genes Involved in Intracellular Iron Use by the Yeast Iron-Responsive Transcription Factor Aft2 without Its Paralog Aft1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Courel; S. Lallet; J.-M. Camadro; P.-L. Blaiseau

    2005-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a pair of paralogous iron-responsive transcription activators, Aft1 and Aft2. Aft1 activates the cell surface iron uptake systems in iron depletion, while the role of Aft2 remains poorly understood. This study compares the functions of Aft1 and Aft2 in regulating the transcription of genes involved in iron homeostasis, with reference to the presence\\/absence of the

  5. Involvement of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase1 in Nitric Oxide-Induced Cell Death in PC12 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ok-Jin Han; KeunHo Joe; SeongWon Kim; HeeSung Lee; NyounSoo Kwon; KwangJin Baek; Hye-Young Yun

    2001-01-01

    Although nitric oxide (NO) plays key signaling roles in the nervous systems, excess NO leads to cell death. In this study, the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) in NO-induced cell death was investigated in PC12 cells. NO donor transiently activated p38 MAPK in the wild type parental PC12 cells, whereas the p38

  6. Synergistic Activation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Expression and Steroid Biosynthesis by Retinoids: Involvement of cAMP/PKA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Slominski, Andrzej T.; King, Steven R.; Stetson, Cloyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) mediate the action of retinoids that play important roles in reproductive development and function, as well as steroidogenesis. Regulation of steroid biosynthesis is principally mediated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR); however, the modes of action of retinoids in the regulation of steroidogenesis remain obscure. In this study we demonstrate that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) enhances StAR expression, but not its phosphorylation (P-StAR), and progesterone production in MA-10 mouse Leydig cells. Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) cascade, by dibutyrl-cAMP or type I/II PKA analogs, markedly increased retinoid-responsive StAR, P-StAR, and steroid levels. Targeted silencing of endogenous RAR? and RXR?, with small interfering RNAs, resulted in decreases in 9-cis RA-stimulated StAR and progesterone levels. Truncation of and mutational alterations in the 5?-flanking region of the StAR gene demonstrated the importance of the ?254/?1-bp region in retinoid responsiveness. An oligonucleotide probe encompassing an RXR/liver X receptor recognition motif, located within the ?254/?1-bp region, specifically bound MA-10 nuclear proteins and in vitro transcribed/translated RXR? and RAR? in EMSAs. Transcription of the StAR gene in response to atRA and dibutyrl-cAMP was influenced by several factors, its up-regulation being dependent on phosphorylation of cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB). Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed the association of phosphorylation of CREB, CREB binding protein, RXR?, and RAR? to the StAR promoter. Further studies elucidated that hormone-sensitive lipase plays an important role in atRA-mediated regulation of the steroidogenic response that involves liver X receptor signaling. These findings delineate the molecular events by which retinoids influence cAMP/PKA signaling and provide additional and novel insight into the regulation of StAR expression and steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. PMID:24265455

  7. The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jayaraman, Kogilla Vani; Balakhrisnan, Ganesh; Abdullah, Fatimah Corazon

    2006-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception. PMID:16867020

  8. Differential Involvement of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons of Cat Motor Cortex in Coincident Spike Activity Related to Behavioral Context

    E-print Network

    Putrino, David F.

    To assess temporal associations in spike activity between pairs of neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) related to different behaviors, we compared the incidence of coincident spiking activity of task-related (TR) and ...

  9. Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Families' Involvement in School-Based Activities and Their Children's Literacy: The Implications of Having Teachers Who Speak Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in…

  10. The Association of Attendance at Religious Services and Involvement in Church/Religious Activities and Youth Assets, by Gender, with Youths Engagement in Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Bensyl, Diana; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse among…

  11. The Influence of Race and Ethnicity on Substance Use and Negative Activity Involvement among Monoracial and Multiracial Adolescents of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictors of substance use and negative activity involvement among a diverse sample of European American, African American, Hispanic, Native American, and multiracial early adolescents (n = 749) living in a large urban city in the Southwest United States. This study investigated a broad set of predictor variables that tap…

  12. Involving Latino Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Reyes L.; Diaz, Delia M.; Sanchez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Describes barriers to Latino parent involvement in educational activities, factors to consider when involving Latino parents, and two examples of Latino involvement programs in California: Family Literacy Workshop at James Monroe Elementary School, Madera Unified School District, and Parents Take P.A.R.T. (Parent Assisted Reading Training) at…

  13. Sensing of Volume Changes by Poterioochromonas Involves a Ca2+-Regulated System Which Controls Activation of Isofloridoside-Phosphate Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, Heinrich

    1981-01-01

    In Poterioochromonas, osmotically induced shrinkage is reversed by an accumulation of isofloridoside. In crude extracts, the isofloridosidephosphate synthase is activated by an enzyme system, the activity of which is increased at reduced cell volume and decreases again when cells reswell. The synthase-activating enzyme system also spontaneously gains activity in cell homogenates. This process is affected by the presence of ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetate or ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the homogenization buffer and can also be irreversibly initiated by addition of Ca2+ ions to homogenates. Pretreatment of the cells with the Ca2+-ionophore A 23187 also enhances spontaneous operation of the activation system in homogenates. Addition of the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, or chlorpromazine to homogenates promotes the activation process. The results suggest that detection of volume changes involves a Ca2+-controlled and possibly calmodulin-mediated reaction sequence located in membranes. This mechanism might involve zymogens and, after stimulation by cell shrinkage, appears to produce or activate a specific protease capable of activating the isofloridosidephosphate synthase. PMID:16661928

  14. Kindlin-2 phosphorylation by Src at Y193 enhances Src activity and is involved in Migfilin recruitment to the focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoli; Lu, Danyu; Wang, Xiang; Wan, Junhu; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongquan

    2015-07-01

    Kindlin-2 regulates external to internal cell signaling by interaction with integrins in a process that involves the tyrosine kinase, Src. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report that Src binds to and phosphorylates Kindlin-2 at Y193. Reciprocally, Kindlin-2-Y193 phosphorylation activates and maintains Src kinase activity. Kindlin-2-Y193 phosphorylation is also involved in its binding capacity with Migfilin and the recruitment of Migfilin to the focal adhesions. Functionally, we demonstrate that Kindlin-2-Y193 phosphorylation regulates Kindlin-2-mediated cell spreading and migration. These findings suggest that Src, Kindlin-2 and Migfilin together constitute a positive feedback loop that controls Src activity and regulates integrin-mediated cellular functions. PMID:26037143

  15. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)], E-mail: Weidong_Wu@med.unc.edu; Alexis, Neil E. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chen Xian [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Peden, David B. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)]|[Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  16. Preterm birth is a multifactorial disease involving acti-vation of uterine contractions or decreased cervical com-

    E-print Network

    Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    1051 Preterm birth is a multifactorial disease involving acti- vation of uterine contractions or decreased cervical com- petence, which can be the result of an inflammatory, infectious, or ischemic insult to the uteroplacental bar- rier.1 Preterm labor distinguished by uterine contractions or preterm premature rupture

  17. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  18. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which...to: (1) Contact FSA as early as possible in the planning...of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult...State and local approvals as early as possible in the...

  19. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which...to: (1) Contact FSA as early as possible in the planning...of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult...State and local approvals as early as possible in the...

  20. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...requested. 408.4 Section 408.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT...Implementing Procedures § 408.4 Early involvement in foreign...parties during preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors are identified; (4) Submit applications for...

  1. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...requested. 408.4 Section 408.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT...Implementing Procedures § 408.4 Early involvement in foreign...parties during preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors are identified; (4) Submit applications for...

  2. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...requested. 408.4 Section 408.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT...Implementing Procedures § 408.4 Early involvement in foreign...parties during preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors are identified; (4) Submit applications for...

  3. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...requested. 408.4 Section 408.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT...Implementing Procedures § 408.4 Early involvement in foreign...parties during preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors are identified; (4) Submit applications for...

  4. Involvement of IGF-1 and Akt in M1/M2 activation state in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James P; Minogue, Aedín M; Falvey, Aidan; Lynch, Marina A

    2015-07-15

    Macrophages can be polarised to adopt the M1 or M2 phenotype and functional outcomes of activation include altered secretion of immune molecules such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 as well as upregulation of cell surface molecules specifically associated with each state. Interleukin (IL)-4 mediates its effects through two receptors, the type I and II receptors and activation of these receptors results in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)6. JAK3 is activated as a consequence of ligation of the type I IL-4R, which participates in Akt activation. We set out to investigate the impact of perturbation of IGF-1 tone on IL-4- and interferon (IFN)?-induced activation, the mechanisms by which this may occur and the contribution of type I IL-4R activation to adoption of the M2 state. The data presented here indicate that IL-4-induced activation of Akt is JAK3-dependent, enhanced by release of IGF-1 and necessary for full adoption of the M2 phenotype, since blocking IGF-1 activity blunts the ability of IL-4 to induce activation of Akt and to upregulate expression of some M2-associated molecules. In addition, differential control of the expression of mannose receptor (MRC1), arginase-1 (Arg-1), chitinase-3 like 3 (Chi3l3) and found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1) was observed. The IFN?-induced decrease in IGF-1 was exacerbated by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase, indicating that Akt may regulate its own activation via IGF-1. Overall, a deficit in IGF-1/Akt signalling is associated with decreased capacity to induce the M2 state and an increased responsiveness to IFN?. PMID:26022664

  5. Involvement of cAMP/EPAC/TRPM2 activation in glucose- and incretin-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Yosida, Masashi; Dezaki, Katsuya; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Kodera, Shiho; Lam, Nien V; Ito, Kiyonori; Rita, Rauza S; Yamada, Hodaka; Shimomura, Kenju; Ishikawa, San-e; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Kawakami, Masanobu; Tominaga, Makoto; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    In pancreatic ?-cells, closure of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel is an initial process triggering glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, constitutive opening of background nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) is essentially required to effectively evoke depolarization as a consequence of K(ATP) channel closure. Thus, it is hypothesized that further opening of NSCC facilitates membrane excitability. We identified a class of NSCC that was activated by exendin (ex)-4, GLP-1, and its analog liraglutide at picomolar levels. This NSCC was also activated by increasing the glucose concentration. NSCC activation by glucose and GLP-1 was a consequence of the activated cAMP/EPAC-mediated pathway and was attenuated in TRPM2-deficient mice. The NSCC was not activated by protein kinase A (PKA) activators and was activated by ex-4 in the presence of PKA inhibitors. These results suggest that glucose- and incretin-activated NSCC (TRPM2) works in concert with closure of the KATP channel to effectively induce membrane depolarization to initiate insulin secretion. The current study reveals a new mechanism for regulating electrical excitability in ?-cells and for mediating the action of glucose and incretin to evoke insulin secretion, thereby providing an innovative target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24824430

  6. Photoreceptors involved in the entrainment of the circadian activity rhythm of the blood?sucking bug, Rhodnius pholixus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Constantinou

    1984-01-01

    In an artificial light cycle of LD 12:12, adult Rhodnius prolixus Stål, displayed a strictly nocturnal pattern of locomotory activity. Occlusion of the ocelli with black varnish did not affect the pattern; occlusion of the eyes or eyes and ocelli did not prevent entrainment to the LD cycle, but did affect the phase angle difference between the onset activity and

  7. A common active site of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Bacillus cereus YB-4 is involved in polymerization and alcoholysis reactions.

    PubMed

    Hyakutake, Manami; Tomizawa, Satoshi; Mizuno, Kouhei; Hisano, Tamao; Abe, Hideki; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2015-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Bacillus cereus YB-4 (PhaRCYB4) catalyzes not only PHA polymerization but also alcoholytic cleavage of PHA chains. The alcoholysis activity of PhaRCYB4 is expressed when a hydroxyacyl-CoA monomer is absent but an alcohol compound is present. In this study, we performed alanine mutagenesis of the putative catalytic triad (Cys(151), Asp(306), and His(335)) in the PhaCYB4 subunit to identify the active site residues for polymerization and alcoholysis activities. Individual substitution of each triad residue with alanine resulted in loss of both polymerization and alcoholysis activities, suggesting that these residues are commonly shared between polymerization and alcoholysis reactions. The loss of activity was also observed following mutagenesis of the triad to other amino acids, except for one PhaRCYB4 mutant with a C151S substitution, which lost polymerization activity but still possessed cleavage activity towards PHA chains. The low-molecular-weight PHA isolated from the PhaRCYB4(C151S)-expressing strain showed a lower ratio of alcohol capping at the P(3HB) carboxy terminus than did that from the wild-type-expressing strain. This observation implies that hydrolysis activity of PhaRCYB4 might be elicited by the C151S mutation. PMID:25503319

  8. B-cell-attracting chemokine-1 (BCA-1/CXCL13) in systemic lupus erythematosus, its correlation to disease activity and renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Sawsan Said; Saad, Wessam El Sayed; Shedid, Noha Hussien

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype of systemic autoimmune disease in which cytokines such as B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC or CXCL13) may play important roles in pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the implications of CXCL13 in SLE diagnosis and its correlation with disease activity and renal involvement. The study included 50 adult female patients with SLE and 30 age-matched female healthy individuals serving as a control group. Patients' Group was further subdivided according to disease activity calculated by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). All studied individuals were subjected to assessment of serum CXCL13 by ELISA. A highly significant stepwise progressive increase in CXCL 13 level was recorded through controls, inactive SLE and active disease (P < 0.01). Moreover, it correlated positively with SLEDAI and proteinuria (P < 0.01). At a cut- off level 80 pg/mL, CXCL13 could discriminate active SLE from inactive (AUC = 0.989, sensitivity 100% & specificity 96%). In conclusion, an increased level of CXCL13 is a distinctive feature in SLE. CXCL13 correlates with disease activity and renal involvement. PMID:25812350

  9. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ying, E-mail: peiying-19802@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China)] [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Chen, Zhen-Ping, E-mail: 530670663@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China)] [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Ju, Huai-Qiang, E-mail: 344464448@qq.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China)] [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Komatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: komatsu-ms@igakuken.or.jp [Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Ji, Yu-hua, E-mail: tjyh@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Ge, E-mail: lggege_15@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Guo, Chao-wan, E-mail: chaovan_kwok@hotmail.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Zhang, Ying-Jun, E-mail: zhangyj@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China)] [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Yang, Chong-Ren, E-mail: cryang@mail.kib.ac.cn [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China)] [Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, Kunming 650204 (China); Wang, Yi-Fei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China)] [Biomedicine Research and Development Center of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Kitazato, Kaio, E-mail: kkholi@msn.com [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Pharmacology of Infectious agents, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  10. Involvement of the sigma 1 receptor in inhibiting activity of fluvoxamine on marble-burying behavior: Comparison with paroxetine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuaki Egashira; Satoko Harada; Ryoko Okuno; Michihiko Matsushita; Ryoji Nishimura; Kenichi Mishima; Katsunori Iwasaki; Kensuke Orito; Michihiro Fujiwara

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the involvement of the sigma1 receptor in the inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine, compared with that of paroxetine, on marble-burying behavior, which is an animal model of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Sigma1 receptor agonists (+)-SKF 10047 and PRE-084 significantly inhibited marble-burying behavior. Sigma receptor antagonist BD 1047 and selective sigma1 receptor

  11. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...section addresses the application of § 764.2(e) of...Wassenaar Arrangement's Web site (www.wassenaar...such activities. License applications should be submitted...

  12. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor stimulates Na+–K+ ATPase activity through a pathway involving PKC-? in rat thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Marsigliante, S; Muscella, A; Elia, M G; Greco, S; Storelli, C

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtype 1, AT1, is expressed by the rat thyroid. A relationship between thyroid function and several components of the renin-angiotensin system has also been established, but the Ang II cellular effects in thyrocytes and its transduction signalling remain undefined. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the modulation of the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase by Ang II and its intracellular transduction pathway in PC-Cl3 cells, an established epithelial cell line derived from rat thyroid. Here we have demonstrated, by RT-PCR analysis, the expression of mRNA for the Ang II AT1 receptor in PC-Cl3 cells; mRNA for the Ang II AT2 receptor was not detected. Ang II was not able to affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in fura-2-loaded cells, but it stimulated the translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane of atypical protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-?) and -iota (PKC-?) isoforms with subsequent phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and 2). Translocated atypical PKCs displayed temporally different activations, the activation of PKC-? being the fastest. PC-Cl3 cells stimulated with increasing Ang II concentrations showed dose- and time-dependent activation of the Na+-K+ ATPase activity, which paralleled the PKC-? translocation time course. Na+-K+ ATPase activity modulation was dependent on PKC activation since the PKC antagonist staurosporine abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The inhibition of the ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and 2) by PD098059 (2?-amino-3?-methoxyflavone) failed to block the effect of Ang II on the Na+-K+ ATPase activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Ang II modulates Na+-K+ ATPase activity in PC-Cl3 cells through the AT1 receptor via activation of atypical PKC-? while the Ang II-activated PKC-? appears to have other as yet unknown functions. PMID:12527732

  13. Zn 2+-induced NF-?B-dependent transcriptional activity involves site-specific p65\\/RelA phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Mee Kim; Dongsun Cao; William Reed; Weidong Wu; Ilona Jaspers; Tamara Tal; Philip A. Bromberg; James M. Samet

    2007-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, but is proinflammatory when inhaled into the lung. While it is recognized that zinc exposure of airway epithelial cells activates the transcription factor NF-?B and increases the expression of inflammatory cytokines to mediate this response, the underlying mechanism of NF-?B activation remains to be characterized. In this study, we investigated these Zn2+-induced signaling mechanisms in

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of ?-Galactosylceramide Analogs in Activated Microglia: Involvement of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Sun; Park, Seung Bum; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 ?-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-? at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-?B and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-? production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-?B and AP-1 activities. PMID:24523867

  15. Neural and sympathetic activity associated with exploration in decision-making: further evidence for involvement of insula

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Ichikawa, Naho; Kimura, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that sympathetic activity was associated with exploration in decision-making indexed by entropy, which is a concept in information theory and indexes randomness of choices or the degree of deviation from sticking to recent experiences of gains and losses, and that activation of the anterior insula mediated this association. The current study aims to replicate and to expand these findings in a situation where contingency between options and outcomes is manipulated. Sixteen participants performed a stochastic decision-making task in which we manipulated a condition with low uncertainty of gain/loss (contingent-reward condition) and a condition with high uncertainty of gain/loss (random-reward condition). Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET), and cardiovascular parameters and catecholamine in the peripheral blood were measured, during the task. In the contingent-reward condition, norepinephrine as an index of sympathetic activity was positively correlated with entropy indicating exploration in decision-making. Norepinephrine was negatively correlated with neural activity in the right posterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsal pons, suggesting neural bases for detecting changes of bodily states. Furthermore, right anterior insular activity was negatively correlated with entropy, suggesting influences on exploration in decision-making. By contrast, in the random-reward condition, entropy correlated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices but not with sympathetic activity. These findings suggest that influences of sympathetic activity on exploration in decision-making and its underlying neural mechanisms might be dependent on the degree of uncertainty of situations. PMID:25426038

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of ?-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Kim, Yongju; Song, Heebum; Chung, Young Sun; Park, Seung Bum; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 ?-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-? at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-?B and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-? production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-?B and AP-1 activities. PMID:24523867

  17. Analysis of the rolC promoter region involved in somatic embryogenesis-related activation in carrot cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, N; Yokoyama, R; Uchimiya, H

    1994-01-01

    In cell cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L.), somatic embryogenesis can be induced by transferring cells from a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to one devoid of 2,4-D. Previous analysis of transgenic carrot cells containing the 5' non-coding sequence of the Ri plasmid rolC and a structural gene for bacterial beta-glucuronidase (uidA) has shown that the chimeric gene is actively expressed after induction of somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of the rolC promoter is dependent on the process of embryo development but not on the duration of the cell culture in 2,4-D-free medium. We also analyzed the cis region of the rolC promoter that is responsible for somatic embryogenesis-related activation (SERA), namely relatively low beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in calli and proembryogenic masses (PEM) and high GUS activity in heart- and torpedo-stage embryos. When the -255-bp region of the rolC gene was used, SERA was retained. Internal deletions within this -255-bp region did not alter SERA by the rolC promoter. Furthermore, when a rolC promoter fragment (-848 to -94 bp) was fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S core region (-90 to +6 bp), it conferred relatively low GUS activity in calli and PEM but high GUS activity in heart and torpedo embryos. When -848 to -255-bp or -255- to -94-bp fragments of the rolC promoter were fused to the same CaMV 35S core region, GUS activity patterns were not related to somatic embryogenesis. These results suggest that the combination of several regulatory regions in the rolC promoter may be required for SERA in carrot cell cultures. PMID:8016259

  18. Involvement of an Extracellular Protease in Algicidal Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain A28

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-og; Kato, Junichi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Mitsutani, Atsushi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 was able to kill the diatom Skeletonema costatum strain NIES-324. The culture supernatant of strain A28 showed potent algicidal activity when it was applied to a paper disk placed on a lawn of S. costatum NIES-324. The condensed supernatant, which was prepared by subjecting the A28 culture supernatant to ultrafiltration with a 10,000-Mw-cutoff membrane, showed algicidal activity, suggesting that strain A28 produced extracellular substances capable of killing S. costatum cells. The condensed supernatant was then found to have protease and DNase activities. Two Pseudoalteromonas mutants lacking algicidal activity, designated NH1 and NH2, were selected after N-methyl-N?-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The culture supernatants of NH1 and NH2 showed less than 15% of the protease activity detected with the parental strain, A28. The protease was purified to homogeneity from A28 culture supernatants by using ion-exchange chromatography followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. Paper-disk assays revealed that the purified protease had potent algicidal activity. The purified protease had a molecular mass for 50 kDa, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be Ala-Thr-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro. The optimum pH and temperature of the protease were found to be 8.8 and 30°C, respectively, by using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. The protease activity was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin. No significant inhibition was detected with EDTA, EGTA, phenanthroline or tetraethylenepentamine. These results suggest that Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 produced an extracellular serine protease which was responsible for the algicidal activity of this marine bacterium. PMID:11010878

  19. T lymphocyte activation signals for interleukin-2 production involve activation of MKK6-p38 and MKK7-SAPK/JNK signaling pathways sensitive to cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S; Moriguchi, T; Koyasu, S; Nishida, E

    1998-05-15

    p38/CSBP, a subgroup member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily molecules, is known to be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses. We report here that p38 is specifically activated by signals that lead to interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in T lymphocytes. A p38 activator MKK6 was also markedly activated by the same stimulation. Pretreatment of cells with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38, as well as expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MKK6, suppressed the transcriptional activation of the IL-2 promoter. We also demonstrated that MKK7, a recently described MAPK kinase family member, plays a major role in the activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in T lymphocytes. Moreover, a dominant-negative mutant of MKK7 abrogated the transcriptional activation of the distal nuclear factor of activated T cells response element in the IL-2 promoter. Cyclosporin A, a potent immunosuppressant, inhibited activation of both p38 and SAPK/JNK pathways but not the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Our results indicate that both MKK6 to p38 and MKK7 to SAPK/JNK signaling pathways are activated in a cyclosporin A-sensitive manner and contribute to IL-2 gene expression in T lymphocytes. PMID:9575191

  20. New Role for Kruppel-like Factor 14 as a Transcriptional Activator Involved in the Generation of Signaling Lipids*

    PubMed Central

    de Assuncao, Thiago M.; Lomberk, Gwen; Cao, Sheng; Yaqoob, Usman; Mathison, Angela; Simonetto, Douglas A.; Huebert, Robert C.; Urrutia, Raul A.; Shah, Vijay H.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is an FGF-inducible gene responsible for generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a critical lipid signaling molecule implicated in diverse endothelial cell functions. In this study, we identified SK1 as a target of the canonical FGF2/FGF receptor 1 activation pathway in endothelial cells and sought to identify novel transcriptional pathways that mediate lipid signaling. Studies using the 1.9-kb SK1 promoter and deletion mutants revealed that basal and FGF2-stimulated promoter activity occurred through two GC-rich regions located within 633 bp of the transcription start site. Screening for GC-rich binding transcription factors that could activate this site demonstrated that KLF14, a gene implicated in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, binds to this region. Congruently, overexpression of KLF14 increased basal and FGF2-stimulated SK1 promoter activity by 3-fold, and this effect was abrogated after mutation of the GC-rich sites. In addition, KLF14 siRNA transfection decreased SK1 mRNA and protein levels by 3-fold. Congruently, SK1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in livers from KLF14 knock-out mice. Combined, luciferase, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF14 couples to p300 to increase the levels of histone marks associated with transcriptional activation (H4K8ac and H3K14ac), while decreasing repressive marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). Collectively, the results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby SK1 lipid signaling is regulated by epigenetic modifications conferred by KLF14 and p300. Thus, this is the first description of the activity and mechanisms underlying the function of KLF14 as an activator protein and novel regulator of lipid signaling. PMID:24759103

  1. New role for Kruppel-like factor 14 as a transcriptional activator involved in the generation of signaling lipids.

    PubMed

    de Assuncao, Thiago M; Lomberk, Gwen; Cao, Sheng; Yaqoob, Usman; Mathison, Angela; Simonetto, Douglas A; Huebert, Robert C; Urrutia, Raul A; Shah, Vijay H

    2014-05-30

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is an FGF-inducible gene responsible for generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a critical lipid signaling molecule implicated in diverse endothelial cell functions. In this study, we identified SK1 as a target of the canonical FGF2/FGF receptor 1 activation pathway in endothelial cells and sought to identify novel transcriptional pathways that mediate lipid signaling. Studies using the 1.9-kb SK1 promoter and deletion mutants revealed that basal and FGF2-stimulated promoter activity occurred through two GC-rich regions located within 633 bp of the transcription start site. Screening for GC-rich binding transcription factors that could activate this site demonstrated that KLF14, a gene implicated in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, binds to this region. Congruently, overexpression of KLF14 increased basal and FGF2-stimulated SK1 promoter activity by 3-fold, and this effect was abrogated after mutation of the GC-rich sites. In addition, KLF14 siRNA transfection decreased SK1 mRNA and protein levels by 3-fold. Congruently, SK1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in livers from KLF14 knock-out mice. Combined, luciferase, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF14 couples to p300 to increase the levels of histone marks associated with transcriptional activation (H4K8ac and H3K14ac), while decreasing repressive marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). Collectively, the results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby SK1 lipid signaling is regulated by epigenetic modifications conferred by KLF14 and p300. Thus, this is the first description of the activity and mechanisms underlying the function of KLF14 as an activator protein and novel regulator of lipid signaling. PMID:24759103

  2. Inhibition by HAJ11 of respiratory burst in neutrophils and the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and phospholipase D activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jih P; Tsao, Lo T; Raung, Shue L; Hsu, Mei F; Kuo, Sheng C

    1996-01-01

    The possible mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of ethyl 2-(3-hydroxyanilino)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydrofuran-3-carboxylate (HAJ11) on the respiratory burst of rat neutrophils in vitro was investigated.HAJ11 caused a reversible and a concentration-dependent inhibition of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2?) generation (IC50 4.9±0.7??M) and O2 consumption (IC50 4.9±1.5??M). Concanavalin A (Con A)- and NaF-induced O2? generation were also suppressed by HAJ11. However, HAJ11 was a weak inhibitor of the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced responses.HAJ11 did not scavenge the O2? generation in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and dihydroxyfumaric acid (DHF) autoxidation.HAJ11 showed no activity on fMLP-induced inositol phosphates formation and [Ca2+]i elevation in intact neutrophils. In addition, HAJ11 had no effect on neutrophil cytosolic phospholipase C (PLC) activity.HAJ11 reduced fMLP-induced phosphatidic acid (PA) (IC50 29.1±6.5??M) and phosphatidylethanol (PEt) (IC50 22.6±1.9??M) formation in a concentration-dependent manner. HAJ11 also reduced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in neutrophils stimulated by fMLP.HAJ11 was a weak inhibitor of neutrophil cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and had a negligible effect on brain PKC. Cellular cyclic nucleotides levels were not altered by HAJ11. In addition, HAJ11 did not affect protein kinase A (PKA) activity.HAJ11 had no effect on the O2? generation of PMA-activated and arachidonic acid (AA)-activated NADPH oxidase preparations.Taken together these results indicate that the inhibition of respiratory burst by HAJ11 probably mainly occurs through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and phospholipase D (PLD) activity. PMID:9117103

  3. PPAR? regulates cholinergic-driven activity of midbrain dopamine neurons via a novel mechanism involving ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Scheggi, Simona; Carta, Gianfranca; Madeddu, Camilla; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M Grazia; Castelli, M Paola; Fratta, Walter; Schilstrom, Bjorn; Banni, Sebastiano; De Montis, M Graziella; Pistis, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons control reward-driven learning, and their dysregulation can lead to psychiatric disorders. Tonic and phasic activity of these dopaminergic neurons depends on cholinergic tone and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly those containing the ?2 subunit (?2*-nAChRs). Nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-? (PPAR?) tonically regulate ?2*-nAChRs and thereby control dopamine neuron firing activity. However, it is unknown how and when PPAR? endogenous ligands are synthesized by dopamine cells. Using ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiological techniques combined with biochemical and behavioral analysis, we show that activation of ?7-nAChRs increases in the rat VTA both the tyrosine phosphorylation of the ?2 subunit of nAChRs and the levels of two PPAR? endogenous ligands in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Accordingly, in vivo production of endogenous PPAR? ligands, triggered by ?7-nAChR activation, blocks in rats nicotine-induced increased firing activity of dopamine neurons and displays antidepressant-like properties. These data demonstrate that endogenous PPAR? ligands are effectors of ?7-nAChRs and that their neuromodulatory properties depend on phosphorylation of ?2*-nAChRs on VTA dopamine cells. This reveals an autoinhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing dopamine cell overexcitation engaged during hypercholinergic drive. Our results unveil important physiological functions of nAChR/PPAR? signaling in dopamine neurons and how behavioral output can change after modifications of this signaling pathway. Overall, the present study suggests PPAR? as new therapeutic targets for disorders associated with unbalanced dopamine-acetylcholine systems. PMID:23554501

  4. Activation of the p38 signaling pathway by heat shock involves the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu from Ask1.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques

    2002-08-23

    Despite the importance of the stress-activated protein kinase pathways in cell death and survival, it is unclear how stressful stimuli lead to their activation. In the case of heat shock, the existence of a specific mechanism of activation has been evidenced, but the molecular nature of this pathway is undefined. Here, we found that Ask1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1), an upstream activator of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 during exposure to oxidative stress and other stressful stimuli, was also activated by heat shock. Ask1 activity was required for p38 activation since overexpression of a kinase dead mutant of Ask1, Ask1(K709M), inhibited heat shock-induced p38 activation. The activation of Ask1 by oxidative stress involves the oxidation of thioredoxin, an endogenous inhibitor of Ask1. A different activation mechanism takes place during heat shock. In contrast to p38 induction by H(2)O(2), induction by heat shock was not antagonized by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or by overexpressing thioredoxin and was not accompanied by the dissociation of thioredoxin from Ask1. Instead, heat shock caused the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu1-1 (GSTM1-1) from Ask1 and overexpression of GSTM1-1-inhibited induction of p38 by heat shock. We concluded that because of an alternative regulation by the two distinct repressors thioredoxin and GSTM1-1, Ask1 constitutes the converging point of the heat shock and oxidative stress-sensing pathways that lead to p38 activation. PMID:12077134

  5. Effect of dietary protein\\/carbohydrate ratio on activities of hepatic enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gaye-Siessegger; U. Focken; K. Becker

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of different dietary protein\\/carbohydrate ratios on activities of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism as well as on growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreo-\\u0009chromis niloticus). Fish were fed semi-synthetic diets differing in their protein\\/carbohydrate ratio. The diets were formulated to be isolipidic and isoenergetic (on the basis of metabolizable energy). Fish

  6. Nuclear factor ?B and activating protein 1 are involved in differentiation-related resistance to oxidative stress in skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valeria Catani; Isabella Savini; Guglielmo Duranti; Daniela Caporossi; Roberta Ceci; Stefania Sabatini; Luciana Avigliano

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle cells are continuously exposed to oxidative stress. Thus, they compensate environmental challenges by increasing adaptive responses, characterized by activating protein 1 (AP-1)- and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. We investigated the crosstalk of molecules involved in redox signaling in muscle cells, by using the rat L6C5 and mouse C2C12 cell lines,

  7. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Oliver G; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. PMID:25645941

  8. Involvement of trypsin-digested silk peptides in the induction of RAW264.7 macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Min-Ki; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Chun, Hyang Sook; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-12-01

    The activation of macrophages by trypsin-digested silk peptides was investigated by considering CD1 lb and CD40 expression in the RAW264.7 cell, a murine macrophage. Silk protein hydrolysates were digested with trypsin, following by centrifugal purification using the Centriprep 30k concentrator. Trypsin-digested total silk peptides and its centrifugal fractions were tested for macrophage activation in vitro. The functional peptide of fractionated silk peptides was examined by LC/MS/MS analysis. Trypsin-digested and fractionated silk peptides of more than 30 kDa induced an increase in the activation markers CD1 lb and CD40 in RAW264.7 cells. These results are supported by morphological changes reflecting an increase in the number of dendrites in activated cells. The fractionated silk peptides examined by LC/MS/MS contained partial peptides of Bombyx mori fibroin. These results suggest that the activation of RAW264.7 macrophages may be induced not by sericin-derived peptides but by fibroin-derived ones. PMID:24555292

  9. Promotion of testa rupture during garden cress germination involves seed compartment-specific expression and activity of pectin methylesterases.

    PubMed

    Scheler, Claudia; Weitbrecht, Karin; Pearce, Simon P; Hampstead, Anthony; Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Lee, Kieran J D; Voegele, Antje; Oracz, Krystyna; Dekkers, Bas J W; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wood, Andrew T A; Bentsink, Leónie; King, John R; Knox, J Paul; Holdsworth, Michael J; Müller, Kerstin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) controls the methylesterification status of pectins and thereby determines the biophysical properties of plant cell walls, which are important for tissue growth and weakening processes. We demonstrate here that tissue-specific and spatiotemporal alterations in cell wall pectin methylesterification occur during the germination of garden cress (Lepidium sativum). These cell wall changes are associated with characteristic expression patterns of PME genes and resultant enzyme activities in the key seed compartments CAP (micropylar endosperm) and RAD (radicle plus lower hypocotyl). Transcriptome and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis as well as PME enzyme activity measurements of separated seed compartments, including CAP and RAD, revealed distinct phases during germination. These were associated with hormonal and compartment-specific regulation of PME group 1, PME group 2, and PME inhibitor transcript expression and total PME activity. The regulatory patterns indicated a role for PME activity in testa rupture (TR). Consistent with a role for cell wall pectin methylesterification in TR, treatment of seeds with PME resulted in enhanced testa permeability and promoted TR. Mathematical modeling of transcript expression changes in germinating garden cress and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds suggested that group 2 PMEs make a major contribution to the overall PME activity rather than acting as PME inhibitors. It is concluded that regulated changes in the degree of pectin methylesterification through CAP- and RAD-specific PME and PME inhibitor expression play a crucial role during Brassicaceae seed germination. PMID:25429110

  10. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF OBJECT MEMORY CONSOLIDATION INVOLVES HIPPOCAMPAL ERK ACTIVATION AND MEMBRANE-BOUND ESTROGEN RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stephanie M.; Lewis, Michael C.; Pechenino, Angela S.; Harburger, Lauren L.; Orr, Patrick T.; Gresack, Jodi E.; Schafe, Glenn E.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical for various forms of learning and memory, and is activated by the potent estrogen, 17?-estradiol (E2). Here, we asked whether E2 modulates memory via ERK activation and putative membrane-bound estrogen receptors (ERs). Using ovariectomized mice, we first demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.2 mg/kg E2 significantly increases dorsal hippocampal levels of phosphorylated ERK protein 1 hour after injection. Second, we show that E2 administered i.p. (0.2 mg/kg) or via intrahippocampal infusion (5.0 ?g/side) immediately after training in an object recognition task significantly enhances memory retention, and that the beneficial effect of i.p. E2 is blocked by dorsal hippocampal inhibition of ERK activation. Third, using bovine serum albumin-conjugated 17?-estradiol (BSA-E2), we demonstrate that E2 binding at membrane-bound ERs can increase dorsal hippocampal ERK activation and enhance object memory consolidation in an ERK-dependent manner. Fourth, we show that this effect is independent of nuclear ERs, but is dependent on the dorsal hippocampus. By demonstrating that E2 enhances memory consolidation via dorsal hippocampal ERK activation, this study is the first to identify a specific molecular pathway by which E2 modulates memory and to demonstrate a novel role for membrane-bound ERs in mediating E2-induced improvements in hippocampal memory consolidation. PMID:18753366

  11. Adenosine A2 receptors are involved in the activation of ATP-sensitive K+ currents during metabolic inhibition in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sheng-Jun; Li, Li-Rong

    2011-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that an interaction among adenosine A(1) receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) mediates ischemic preconditioning in experiments on different animal species. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of K(ATP) is functionally coupled to A(1) receptors and (or) PKC activation during metabolic inhibition (MI) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Perforated-patch using nystatin and conventional whole-cell recording methods were used to observe the effects of adenosine and adenosine-receptor antagonists on the activation of K(ATP) currents during MI induced by application of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) without glucose, in the presence or absence of a PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Adenosine accelerated the time course activation of K(ATP) currents during MI under the intact intracellular condition or dialyzed condition with l mmol/L ATP in the pipette solution. The accelerated effect of adenosine activation of K(ATP) under MI was not reversed by a nonselective Al adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (SPT), or a specific Al adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). However, the adenosine A(2) receptor antagonist alloxazine reversed the time course activation of the K(ATP) current under MI. An adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, did not further abbreviate the time course activation of K(ATP) with or without adenosine. Application of a PKC blocker, chelerythrine, reversed the time course activation of K(ATP) by adenosine under MI. In addition, pretreatment with a PKC activator, PMA, had similar effects to adenosine, while adenosine did not further shorten the time required for activation of K(ATP) currents during MI with PMA pretreatment. There is no direct evidence of activation of K(ATP) currents by adenosine A(1) receptor during metabolic inhibition under our experimental condition. However, adenosine A(2) receptor activation is involved in the K(ATP) channel activation in the guinea pig ventricular myocytes, of which effect is not mediated through the increase in intracellular cAMP. Adenosine seems to interact with PKC activation to open K(ATP) during MI, but a possible link between the adenosine A(2) receptor and PKC activation in this process needs further elucidation. PMID:21423292

  12. Evidence that the amino acid residue Cys117 of chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase is involved in its activity and structural stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Sun, Yan-Li; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining the reduced pool of AsA. And the amino acid residue C117 of chloroplastic MDAR is the conserved cysteine residue in MDAR isoforms. A series mutation of conserved amino acid residue cysteine117 (C117) was constructed to investigate its role in MDAR structural stability and activity. Our study revealed that mutation in this conserved residue could cause pronounced loss of activity and conformational changes. Spectroscopic experiments indicated that these mutations influenced transition from the molten globule intermediate to the native state in folding process. These results suggested that amino acid residue C117 played a relatively important role in keeping MDAR structural stability and activity. PMID:20085781

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and antileishmanial activities of gold(I) complexes involving quinoline functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Paloque, Lucie; Hemmert, Catherine; Valentin, Alexis; Gornitzka, Heinz

    2015-04-13

    A series of new mononuclear cationic or neutral gold(I) complexes containing quinoline functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene(s) (NHC(s)) were synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structures of two key compounds are presented. Proligands and their corresponding gold(I) complexes together with previously described silver(I) and gold(I) bis(NHC-quinoline) and gold(I) bis(NHC-methylbipyridine) complexes were evaluated in vitro towards Leishmania infantum. In parallel, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these molecules was assessed on the murine macrophages J774A.1. All gold(I) compounds show potent antileishmanial activity against L. infantum promastigotes and three of them are also efficient against L. infantum intracellular amastigotes. Structure-activity and toxicity relationships enables to evidence a lead-compound (6) displaying both a high activity and a good selectivity index. PMID:25747497

  14. Microcystin-LR-caused ROS generation involved in p38 activation and tau hyperphosphorylation in neuroendocrine (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guanmin; Liu, Jinghui; Lin, Shuyan; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a potent specific hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, has recently been reported to show neurotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that MC-LR caused the reorganization of cytoskeleton architectures and hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-associated proteins tau and HSP27 in neuroendocrine PC12 cell line by direct PP2A inhibition and indirect p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. It has been shown that oxidative stress is extensively associated with MC-LR toxicity, mainly resulting from an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which ROS mediates the cytotoxic action of MC-LR are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ROS might play a critical role in MC-LR-induced hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and the activation of the MAPKs in PC12 cell line. The results showed that MC-LR had time- and concentration-dependent effects on ROS generation, p38-MAPK activation and tau phosphorylation. The time-course studies indicated similar biphasic changes in ROS generation and tau hyperphosphorylation, which started to increase within 1 h and reached the maximum level at 3 h followed by a decrease after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and vitamin C, significantly decreased MC-LR-induced ROS generation and effectively attenuated p38-MAPK activation as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that ROS generation triggered by MC-LR is a key intracellular event that contributes to an induction of p38-MAPK activation and tau phosphorylation, and that blockade of this ROS-mediated redox-sensitive signal cascades may attenuate the toxic effects of MC-LR. PMID:24142891

  15. Rac1 and Rac3 isoform activation is involved in the invasive and metastatic phenotype of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Baugher, Paige J; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Price, Janet E; Dharmawardhane, Surangani F

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The metastatic progression of cancer is a direct result of the disregulation of numerous cellular signaling pathways, including those associated with adhesion, migration, and invasion. Members of the Rac family of small GTPases are known to act as regulators of actin cytoskeletal structures and strongly influence the cellular processes of integrin-mediated adhesion and migration. Even though hyperactivated Rac proteins have been shown to influence metastatic processes, these proteins have never been directly linked to metastatic progression. Methods To investigate a role for Rac and Cdc42 in metastatic breast cancer cell invasion and migration, relative endogenous Rac or Cdc42 activity was determined in a panel of metastatic variants of the MDA-MB-435 metastatic human breast cancer cell line using a p21-binding domain-PAK pull down assay. To investigate the migratory and invasive potential of the Rac isoforms in human breast cancer, namely Rac1 and the subsequently cloned Rac3, we stably expressed either dominant active Rac1 or dominant active Rac3 into the least metastatic cell variant. Dominant negative Rac1 or dominant negative Rac3 were stably expressed in the most metastatic cell variant. Cell lines expressing mutant Rac1 or Rac3 were analyzed using in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion assays. Results We show that increased activation of Rac proteins directly correlates with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of cell variants derived from a single metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435). The same correlation could not be found with activated Cdc42. Expression of a dominant active Rac1 or a dominant active Rac3 resulted in a more invasive and motile phenotype. Moreover, expression of either dominant negative Rac1 or dominant negative Rac3 into the most metastatic cell variant resulted in decreased invasive and motile properties. Conclusion This study correlates endogenous Rac activity with high metastatic potential and implicates Rac in the regulation of cell migration and invasion in metastatic breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest a role for both the Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in human breast cancer progression. PMID:16280046

  16. Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription proteins regulate genes involved in adipocyte metabolism and lipolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holowachuk, Eugene W. [Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Research Institute, 1 Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 (United States)]. E-mail: geneh@telenet.net

    2007-09-21

    NFAT involvement in adipocyte physiological processes was examined by treatment with CsA and/or GSK3{beta} inhibitors (Li{sup +} or TZDZ-8), which prevent or increase NFAT nuclear translocation, respectively. CsA treatment reduced basal and TNF{alpha}-induced rates of lipolysis by 50%. Adipocytes preincubated with Li{sup +} or TZDZ-8 prior to CsA and/or TNF{alpha}, exhibited enhanced basal rates of lipolysis and complete inhibition of CsA-mediated decreased rates of lipolysis. CsA treatment dramatically reduced the mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (aP2, HSL, PPAR{gamma}, ACS and Adn), compared with control or TNF{alpha}-treatment, whereas Li{sup +} pretreatment blocked the inhibitory effects of CsA, and mRNA levels of aP2, HSL, PPAR{gamma}, and ACS were found at or above control levels. NFAT nuclear localization, assessed by EMSA, confirmed that CsA or Li{sup +} treatments inhibited or increased NFAT nuclear translocation, respectively. These results show that NFAT proteins in mature adipocytes participate in the transcriptional control of genes involved in adipocyte metabolism and lipolysis.

  17. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Matías Alejandro; Díaz, Ailén Magalí; Hesse, Christina; Ginter, Wiebke; Gentilini, María Virginia; Nuñez, Guillermo Gabriel; Canellada, Andrea Mercedes; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Castro, Marisa Silvia; Manghi, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs) in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNF?, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFN?. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFN?-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation. PMID:25978357

  18. PIAS proteins are involved in the SUMO-1 modification, intracellular translocation and transcriptional repressive activity of RET finger protein

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Tetsuo [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Shimono, Yohei [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kawai, Kumi [Department of Molecular Pathology, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Urano, Takeshi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Niwa, Yasumasa [Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Goto, Hidemi [Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Masahide [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan) and Department of Molecular Pathology, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: mtakaha@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2005-08-01

    Ret finger protein (RFP) is a nuclear protein that is highly expressed in testis and in various tumor cell lines. RFP functions as a transcriptional repressor and associates with Enhancer of Polycomb 1 (EPC1), a member of the Polycomb group proteins, and Mi-2{beta}, a main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We show that RFP binds with PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins, PIAS1, PIAS3, PIASx{alpha} and PIASy at their carboxyl-terminal region and is covalently modified by SUMO-1 (sumoylation). PIAS proteins enhance the sumoylation of RFP in a dose-dependent manner and induce the translocation of RFP into nuclear bodies reminiscent of the PML bodies. In addition, co-expression of PIAS proteins or SUMO-1 strengthened the transcriptional repressive activity of RFP. Finally, our immunohistochemical results show that RFP, SUMO-1 and PIASy localize in a characteristic nuclear structure juxtaposed with the inner nuclear membrane (XY body) of primary spermatocytes in mouse testis. These results demonstrate that the intracellular location and the transcriptional activity of RFP are modified by PIAS proteins which possess SUMO E3 ligase activities and suggest that they may play a co-operative role in spermatogenesis.

  19. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Morfini, Gerardo A; LaPointe, Nichole E; Pigino, Gustavo F; Patterson, Kristina R; Song, Yuyu; Andreadis, Athena; Fu, Yifan; Brady, Scott T; Binder, Lester I

    2011-07-01

    Aggregated filamentous forms of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule-associated protein) represent pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. While axonal transport dysfunction is thought to represent a primary pathogenic factor in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, the direct molecular link between pathogenic forms of tau and deficits in axonal transport remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that filamentous, but not soluble, forms of wild-type tau inhibit anterograde, kinesin-based fast axonal transport (FAT) by activating axonal protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), independent of microtubule binding. Here, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-18 of tau, comprising a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD), are necessary and sufficient for activation of this pathway in axoplasms isolated from squid giant axons. Various pathogenic forms of tau displaying increased exposure of PAD inhibited anterograde FAT in squid axoplasm. Importantly, immunohistochemical studies using a novel PAD-specific monoclonal antibody in human postmortem tissue indicated that increased PAD exposure represents an early pathogenic event in AD that closely associates in time with AT8 immunoreactivity, an early marker of pathological tau. We propose a model of pathogenesis in which disease-associated changes in tau conformation lead to increased exposure of PAD, activation of PP1-GSK3, and inhibition of FAT. Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau. PMID:21734277

  20. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 ?g/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-?. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-?1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-?, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-?1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade. PMID:26089141

  1. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production.

    PubMed

    Molina, Matías Alejandro; Díaz, Ailén Magalí; Hesse, Christina; Ginter, Wiebke; Gentilini, María Virginia; Nuñez, Guillermo Gabriel; Canellada, Andrea Mercedes; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Castro, Marisa Silvia; Manghi, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs) in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNF?, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFN?. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFN?-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation. PMID:25978357

  2. Vehicle design and speed and pedestrian injury: Australia's involvement in the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Anderson; Jack McLean

    Australia is contributing to the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group (IHRA PSEG) through research undertaken at the Road Accident Research Unit, and funded by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services. The IHRA PSEG is charged with the development of test procedures for assessing the protection afforded by the vehicle to a pedestrian in the event

  3. Selenofuranoside Ameliorates Memory Loss in Alzheimer-Like Sporadic Dementia: AChE Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Chiapinotto Spiazzi, Cristiano; Bucco Soares, Melina; Pinto Izaguirry, Aryele; Musacchio Vargas, Laura; Zanchi, Mariane Magalhães; Frasson Pavin, Natasha; Ferreira Affeldt, Ricardo; Seibert Lüdtke, Diogo; Prigol, Marina; Santos, Francielli Weber

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming more common due to the increase in life expectancy. This study evaluated the effect of selenofuranoside (Se) in an Alzheimer-like sporadic dementia animal model. Male mice were divided into 4 groups: control, A?, Se, and A? + Se. Single administration of A? peptide (fragments 25–35; 3?nmol/3??L) or distilled water was administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. Selenofuranoside (5?mg/kg) or vehicle (canola oil) was administered orally 30?min before A? and for 7 subsequent days. Memory was tested through the Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive-avoidance (SDPA) tests. Antioxidant defenses along with reactive species (RS) were assessed. Inflammatory cytokines levels and AChE activity were measured. SOD activity was inhibited in the A? group whereas RS were increased. AChE activity, GSH, and IL-6 levels were increased in the A? group. These changes were reflected in impaired cognition and memory loss, observed in both behavioral tests. Se compound was able to protect against memory loss in mice in both behavioral tests. SOD and AChE activities as well as RS and IL-6 levels were also protected by Se administration. Therefore, Se is promising for further studies.

  4. Copyright 2001 by the Genetics Society of America Genes Affecting the Activity of Nicotinic Receptors Involved in

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    Copyright © 2001 by the Genetics Society of America Genes Affecting the Activity of Nicotinic of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors such as nicotine and levamisole stimulate egg laying; however, the genetic of levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptors in nematodes. Seven of these genes, including the nicotinic receptor

  5. Involvement of high mobility group box 1 in the activation of C5a-primed neutrophils induced by ANCA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Huan; Hao, Jian; Chang, Dong-Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Chen, Min

    2015-07-01

    C5a plays a central role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-mediated neutrophil recruitment and activation. A previous study showed that C5a played a crucial role in the regulation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from human neutrophils. The current study further investigated the interaction between C5a and HMGB1 in ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. The effects of HMGB1 inhibitors on the translocation of ANCA antigens, ANCA-induced respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils were tested. We found that blocking HMGB1 decreased C5a-mediated translocation of ANCA antigens, as well as ANCA-induced respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils. Further study showed that supernatant of C5a-primed neutrophils, which contained HMGB1, also caused translocation of ANCA antigens of primary neutrophils, whereas blocking HMGB1 decreased the translocation. In conclusion, blocking HMGB1 may attenuate ANCA-induced activation of C5a-primed neutrophils. The interaction between HMGB1 and C5a might play an important role in ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. PMID:25934387

  6. Fostering Culture Change in an Undergraduate Business Program: "Nudging" Students towards Greater Involvement in Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    A report on a successfully implemented program to increase student participation in extra-curricular activities in an undergraduate business program with a high percentage of first-generation college students. A market-research study offered insight as to why students were not participating before the program was launched. Greater participation in…

  7. The Fas-associated death domain protein/caspase-8/c-FLIP signaling pathway is involved in TNF-induced activation of ERK

    SciTech Connect

    Lueschen, Silke [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Falk, Markus [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Scherer, Gudrun [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Ussat, Sandra [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Paulsen, Maren [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Adam-Klages, Sabine [Institut fuer Immunologie, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Michaelisstrasse 5, 24105 Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: sadam@email.uni-kiel.de

    2005-10-15

    The cytokine TNF activates multiple signaling pathways leading to cellular responses ranging from proliferation and survival to apoptosis. While most of these pathways have been elucidated in detail over the past few years, the molecular mechanism leading to the activation of the MAP kinases ERK remains ill defined and is controversially discussed. Therefore, we have analyzed TNF-induced ERK activation in various human and murine cell lines and show that it occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of the signaling components Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), caspase-8, and c-FLIP in the pathway activating ERK in response to TNF. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (I) Overexpression of FADD, caspase-8, or a c-FLIP protein containing the death effector domains only leads to enhanced and prolonged ERK activation after TNF treatment. (II) TNF-induced ERK activation is strongly diminished in the absence of FADD. Interestingly, the enzymatic function of caspase-8 is not required for TNF-induced ERK activation. Additional evidence suggests a role for this pathway in the proliferative response of murine fibroblasts to TNF.

  8. Gender and grade level differences in interest, perceived personal capacity, and involvement in technology and engineering-related activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Katherine

    Society has become increasingly technological, demanding that all citizens have a level of technological literacy. In order for this to occur, both males and females must participate in technology-related activities to achieve an adequate level of technological literacy. Despite individual and organizational efforts, females continue to be underrepresented in STEM-related occupations. This is especially true in many engineering-related fields. Jolly, Campbell and Perlman (2004) devised the Engagement, Capacity, and Continuity (ECC) Trilogy. With each factor of the trilogy in place, Jolly et al. found that female representation increased in STEM. The purpose of this study was to identify whether Jolly, Campbell, and Perlman's (2004) Engagement, Capacity, and Continuity Trilogy could be utilized by teachers in technology and engineering program settings to examine their students' interest (engagement), perceived personal capacity (capacity), as well as participation in technology and engineering-related activities (continuity). This descriptive study surveyed 556 female and male middle school and high school students enrolled in Technology and Engineering classes. The results of this study revealed that when students indicated a high interest and a high perceived personal capacity, and when they participated in technology and engineering-related activities, they also indicated an interest in pursuing a career in engineering. The results also revealed that the male students continued to be encouraged by technology and engineering teachers, parents, and counselors to pursue a career in engineering more than female students. This startling finding should draw some concern; both males and females should be equally encouraged to consider engineering as a career. Technology and engineering teachers should implement activities that appeal to both males and females. Parents should encourage their daughters to participate in informal learning opportunities to nurture their daughters' interest in STEM-related areas. Counselors should gain an awareness of the scope and diversity of different engineering fields so they can advise both male and female students to consider careers in engineering. In order for the United States to be competitive and innovative at the global level, female representation and contributions in STEM fields must increase. Key Words: GENDER, ENGAGEMENT, INTEREST, PERCEIVED PERSONAL CAPACITY, TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES, WISCONSIN, STEM, AFTERSCHOOL ACTIVITIES.

  9. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C.; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. PMID:25010278

  10. Involvement of Na+/K+ pump in fine modulation of bursting activity of the snail Br neuron by 10 mT static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Ljiljana; Todorovi?, Nataša; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Stani?, Marina; Rauš, Snežana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Jana?, Branka

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneously active Br neuron from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex of the garden snail Helix pomatia rhythmically generates regular bursts of action potentials with quiescent intervals accompanied by slow oscillations of membrane potential. We examined the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+) pump in modulating its bursting activity by applying a static magnetic field. Whole snail brains and Br neuron were exposed to the 10-mT static magnetic field for 15 min. Biochemical data showed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased almost twofold after exposure of snail brains to the static magnetic field. Similarly, (31)P NMR data revealed a trend of increasing ATP consumption and increase in intracellular pH mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in snail brains exposed to the static magnetic field. Importantly, current clamp recordings from the Br neuron confirmed the increase in activity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump after exposure to the static magnetic field, as the magnitude of ouabain's effect measured on the membrane resting potential, action potential, and interspike interval duration was higher in neurons exposed to the magnetic field. Metabolic pathways through which the magnetic field influenced the Na(+)/K(+) pump could involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as blocking these processes abolished the effect of the static magnetic field. PMID:22534773

  11. The involvement of AMP-activated protein kinases in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pao-Yun; Lee, Yen-Mei; Law, Kwok-Keung; Lin, Chia-Wei; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2007-12-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a kinase cascade that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. AMPK has recently emerged as an attractive and novel target for inflammatory disorders. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the role of AMPKalpha in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and to evaluate the mechanism of nicotine-induced AMPKalpha phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. The results indicate that nicotine alleviated paw edema and the activation of AMPKalpha involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine in vivo. In addition, nicotine was able to activate AMPKalpha phosphorylation in macrophages and this effect was mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, nicotine significantly induced the phosphorylation of Akt and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) protein expression in macrophages. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), suppressed nicotine-induced Akt and AMPKalpha phosphorylation. STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, not only inhibited the activation of AMPKalpha but also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt induced by nicotine. In conclusion, both of CaMKK and PI3K/Akt pathways are involved in the nicotine-induced AMPKalpha phosphorylation in macrophages, and the interaction of CaMKK and Akt may exist. AMPKalpha is a novel and critical component of anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine. PMID:17869227

  12. Shuang-huang-lian attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Fen; Hou, Rui; Cai, Run-Lan; Qi, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a common traditional Chinese preparation extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, and Fructus Forsythiae. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of SHL on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. SHL reduced the lung wet/dry weight ratio, lowered the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues 6?h after LPS treatment. It also inhibited the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that SHL attenuated LPS-induced interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lung tissue. Moreover, SHL could also enhance the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, increase the reduced glutathione content, and decrease the malondialdehyde content. The present results suggest that SHL possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties that may protect mice against LPS-induced ALI. PMID:25945107

  13. Thrombin-mediated IL10 up-regulation involves protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 expression in human mononuclear leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Naldini; Claudia Bernini; Annalisa Pucci; Fabio Carraro

    2005-01-01

    Thrombin, the key enzyme of the coag- ulation cascade, exerts cellular effects through ac- tivation of the protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interleukin (IL)-10, besides its anti-inflam- matory properties, is considered a major denomi- nator of the immunosuppressive effect during hu- man endotoxemia. We have recently shown that thrombin inhibits IL-12 production in human mononuclear cells and that such inhibition is ac-

  14. Involvement of NF-?B and AP1 activation in icariin promoted cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanbo Wo; Danyan Zhu; Yongping Yu; Yijia Lou

    2008-01-01

    Icariin has been reported to facilitate the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiomyocytes; however, the mechanism on cardiomyogenic cell lineage differentiation has not been fully elucidated yet. In the present studies, an underlying signaling network including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, 2 (ERK1, 2), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors c-jun and c-fos was assumed

  15. Mechanism of Ang II involvement in activation of NF-?B through phosphorylation of p65 during aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Min Kim; Hyoung-Sam Heo; Young Mi Ha; Byeong Hyeok Ye; Eun Kyeong Lee; Yeon Ja Choi; Byung Pal Yu; Hae Young Chung

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a major effector of the renin–angiotensin system, is now recognized as a pro-inflammatory mediator.\\u000a This Ang II signaling, which causes transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, is regulated through nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B).\\u000a At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of aging on Ang II signaling and NF-?B activation are not fully\\u000a understood. The purpose of this study

  16. NADPH oxidase NOX1 is involved in activation of protein kinase C and premature senescence in early stage diabetic kidney.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Kakehi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Misaki; Iwata, Kazumi; Ibi, Masakazu; Ohshima, Yoichi; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Junjie; Wen, Xiaopeng; Taye, Ashraf; Fan, Chunyuan; Katsuyama, Masato; Sharma, Kumar; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro

    2015-06-01

    Increased oxidative stress and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) under hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Because reactive oxygen species derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NOX1 accelerate the translocation of PKC isoforms, NOX1 is postulated to play a causative role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type and Nox1-deficient mice (KO) by two doses of streptozotocin injection. At 3 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, glomeruli and cortical tubules were isolated from kidneys. The mRNA level of Nox1 was significantly upregulated in the renal cortex at 3 weeks of hyperglycemia. Urinary albumin and expression of inflammatory or fibrotic mediators were similarly elevated in diabetic wild-type and KO; however, increases in glomerular volume and mesangial matrix area were attenuated in diabetic KO. Nox1 deficiency significantly reduced the levels of renal thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, membranous translocation of PKC?/?, activity of PKC, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, increased staining of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase in glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic mice was significantly suppressed in KO. Whereas the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16(INK4A) and p21(Cip1), were equivalent between the genotypes, increased levels of p27(Kip1) and ?-H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were significantly attenuated in isolated glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic KO. Taken together, NOX1 modulates the p38/p27(Kip1) signaling pathway by activating PKC and promotes premature senescence in early stage diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25701431

  17. ?-TEA-induced death receptor dependent apoptosis involves activation of acid sphingomyelinase and elevated ceramide-enriched cell surface membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Weiping Yu; Richa Tiwary; Sook-Kyung Park; Ailian Xiong; Bob G Sanders; Kimberly Kline

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (?-TEA), an analog of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol), is a potent and selective apoptosis-inducing agent for human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. ?-TEA induces apoptosis via activation of extrinsic death receptors Fas (CD95) and DR5, JNK\\/p73\\/Noxa pathways, and suppression of anti-apoptotic mediators Akt, ERK, c-FLIP and survivin in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells.

  18. ?-TEA-induced death receptor dependent apoptosis involves activation of acid sphingomyelinase and elevated ceramide-enriched cell surface membranes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (?-TEA), an analog of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol), is a potent and selective apoptosis-inducing agent for human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. ?-TEA induces apoptosis via activation of extrinsic death receptors Fas (CD95) and DR5, JNK/p73/Noxa pathways, and suppression of anti-apoptotic mediators Akt, ERK, c-FLIP and survivin in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells. Results In this study, we demonstrate that ?-TEA induces the accumulation of cell surface membrane ceramide, leading to co-localization with Fas, DR5, and FADD, followed by activation of caspases-8 and -9 and apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ?-TEA treatment leads to increased acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity by 30 min, peaking at 4 hrs, which is correlated with ASMase translocation from cytosol to the cell surface membrane. Functional knockdown of ASMase with either the chemical inhibitor, desipramine, or siRNA markedly reduces ?-TEA-induced cell surface membrane accumulation of ceramide and its co-localization with Fas, DR5, and FADD, cleavage of caspases-8 and -9 and apoptosis, suggesting an early and critical role for ASMase in ?-TEA-induced apoptosis. Consistent with cell culture data, immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues taken from ?-TEA treated nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 xenografts show increased levels of cell surface membrane ceramide in comparison to tumor tissues from control animals. Conclusion Taken together, these studies demonstrate that ASMase activation and membrane ceramide accumulation are early events contributing to ?-TEA-induced apoptosis in vitro and perhaps in vivo. PMID:20974006

  19. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Ji Park; Hwa Jeong Lee; Myung Sook Choi; Dong Ju Son; Ho Sueb Song; Min Jong Song; Jeong Min Lee; Sang Bae Han; Youngsoo Kim; Jin Tae Hong

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase

  20. Involvement of the AIM2, NLRC4, and NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Caspase1 Activation by Listeria monocytogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianghong Wu; Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri; Emad S. Alnemri

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Listeria monocytogenes can cause meningitis and septicemia in newborn, elderly, or immunocompromised individuals. Pregnant women are particularly\\u000a susceptible to Listeria, leading to a potentially fatal infection. Cytosolic Listeria activates the proinflammatory caspase-1 and induces the processing and secretion of interleukins IL-1? and IL-18 as well\\u000a as caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis. This study elucidates the role of various inflammasome components of

  1. Involvement of -Glucans in the Wide-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii MUCL 41968 Killer Toxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Guyard; Eric Dehecq; Jean-Pierre Tissier; Luciano Polonelli; Eduardo Dei-Cas; Jean-Charles Cailliez; Franco D. Menozzi

    Background: Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii MUCL 41968 secretes a 85-kDa glycoprotein killer toxin (WmKT) that displays a cytocidal activity against a wide range of microorganisms, making WmKT a promising candidate for the development of new antimicrobial molecules. Although the killing mechanism of WmKT is still unknown, the toxin was recently proposed to bind to the surface of sensitive microorganisms through

  2. Human Myeloma Cell Lines Induce Osteoblast Downregulation of CD99 Which Is Involved in Osteoblast Formation and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oranger, Angela; Carbone, Claudia; Mongelli, Teresa; Gigante, Isabella; Tamma, Roberto; Mori, Giorgio; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Scotlandi, Katia; Colucci, Silvia; Grano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    CD99 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in physiological conditions by cells of different tissues, including osteoblasts (OBs). High or low CD99 levels have been detected in various pathological conditions, and the supernatant of some carcinoma cell lines can modulate CD99 expression in OB-like cells. In the present work we demonstrate for the first time that two different human myeloma cell lines (H929 and U266) and, in a less degree, their conditioned media significantly downregulate CD99 expression in normal human OBs during the differentiation process. In the same experimental conditions the OBs display a less differentiated phenotype as demonstrated by the decreased expression of RUNX2 and Collagen I. On the contrary, when CD99 was activated by using a specific agonist antibody, the OBs become more active as demonstrated by the upregulation of Alkaline Phosphatase, Collagen I, RUNX2, and JUND expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of CD99 is able to induce the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and AKT intracellular signal transduction molecules in the OBs. PMID:26000312

  3. Sugar uptake and involved enzymatic activities by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria: their relationship with breadmaking quality.

    PubMed

    Antuña, B; Martínez-Anaya, M A

    1993-05-01

    The uptake kinetics of sugars present in wheat doughs and alpha-glucosidase as well as beta-fructosidase activities were determined in different strains of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. These strains were previously selected according to their breadmaking quality. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P6), Candida guilliermondii (P40), Lactobacillus plantarum (B31 and La18) and L. brevis (B21) showed good performance, while Sacch. fructuum (P43), L. cellobiosus (B37) and Enterococcus faecium (B11) yielded bread of lower quality. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (B10), when used in combination with other strains led also to high quality starters. All yeast strains used assimilated glucose, fructose and maltose, exhibiting saturable kinetics. Lactic acid bacteria showed saturable kinetics only for hexoses, whereas disaccharide uptake was linear. Sacch. cerevisiae, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. brevis and L. plantarum (B31) displayed better sugar uptake properties. For all the strains used alpha-glucosidase and beta-fructosidase activities were detected. The highest specific activities were found for Sacch. cerevisiae, C. guilliermondii and L. plantarum (B31). These results indicate good correlation between the parameters evaluated and the breadmaking potential of the microorganisms. PMID:8494688

  4. I think therefore I am: Rest-related prefrontal cortex neural activity is involved in generating the sense of self.

    PubMed

    Gruberger, M; Levkovitz, Y; Hendler, T; Harel, E V; Harari, H; Ben Simon, E; Sharon, H; Zangen, A

    2015-05-01

    The sense of self has always been a major focus in the psychophysical debate. It has been argued that this complex ongoing internal sense cannot be explained by any physical measure and therefore substantiates a mind-body differentiation. Recently, however, neuro-imaging studies have associated self-referential spontaneous thought, a core-element of the ongoing sense of self, with synchronous neural activations during rest in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the medial and lateral parietal cortices. By applying deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human PFC before rest, we disrupted activity in this neural circuitry thereby inducing reports of lowered self-awareness and strong feelings of dissociation. This effect was not found with standard or sham TMS, or when stimulation was followed by a task instead of rest. These findings demonstrate for the first time a critical, causal role of intact rest-related PFC activity patterns in enabling integrated, enduring, self-referential mental processing. PMID:25778382

  5. Monosodium iodoacetate induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and caspase activation in rat chondrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Li, Longjie; Geng, Chengyan; Gong, Dezheng; Jiang, Lijie; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Kajima, Koji; Zhong, Laifu

    2013-03-01

    Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) is an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and causes dose-dependent cartilage degradation resembling the pathological changes of human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we assessed the apoptosis induced by MIA and clarified the underlying mechanisms using the primary rat chondrocytes. The apoptosis of primary rat chondrocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were evaluated using fluorescence spectrophotometer. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometer. Apoptosis-related protein cytochrome c and procaspase-3 expressions were examined by Western blotting. We found that MIA treatment induces apoptosis in chondrocytes, as confirmed by increases in the percent of apoptotic cells, up-regulation of cytochrome c and caspase-3 protein levels. Treatment with MIA increases ROS production and decreases the levels of ??m. The antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), significantly prevented the production of ROS, the reduction of ??m, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3. Further, NAC completely protected the cells from MIA-induced apoptosis. Together these observations suggest that the mechanisms of MIA-induced apoptosis are primarily via ROS production and mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 activation in primary rat chondrocytes. PMID:23124986

  6. Involvement of Manduca sexta peptidoglycan recognition protein-1 in the recognition of bacteria and activation of prophenoloxidase system

    PubMed Central

    Sumathipala, Niranji; Jiang, Haobo

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in detecting bacteria and promoting immunity is well recognized in Drosophila melanogaster and other insect species, such a role has not yet been experimentally established for PGRPs in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. In this study, we purified M. sexta PGRP1 from the baculovirus-insect cell expression system, tested its association with peptidoglycans and intact bacteria, and explored its possible link with the prophenoloxidase activation system in larval hemolymph. Sequence comparison suggested that PGRP1 is not an amidase and lacks residues for interacting with the carboxyl group of meso-diaminopimelic acid-peptidoglycans (DAP-PGs). M. sexta PGRP1 gene was constitutively expressed at a low level in fat body, and the mRNA concentration became much higher after an injection of Escherichia coli. Consistently, the protein concentration in larval plasma increased in a time-dependent manner after the immune challenge. Purified recombinant PGRP1 specifically bound to soluble DAP-PG of E. coli but not to soluble Lys-type PG of Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, this recognition protein completely bound to insoluble PGs from Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis, whereas its association with the bacterial cells was low even though their peptidoglycans are exposed on the cell surface. After PGRP1 had been added to plasma of naïve larvae in the absence of microbial elicitor, there was a concentration-dependent increase in prophenoloxidase activation. Phenoloxidase activity, as usual, increased after the plasma was incubated with peptidoglyans or bacterial cells. These increases became more prominent when insoluble M. luteus or B. megaterium PG or soluble E. coli PG and PGRP1 were both present. Statistic analysis suggested a synergistic effect caused by interaction between PGRP1 and these PGs. Taken together, these results indicated that PGRP1 is a member of the M. sexta prophenoloxidase activation system, which recognizes peptidoglycans from certain bacteria and initiates the host defense response. The unexplained difference between the purified PGs and intact bacteria clearly reflects our general lack of understanding of PGRP1-mediated recognition and how it leads to proPO activation. PMID:20416376

  7. Timely Activation of Budding Yeast APCCdh1 Involves Degradation of Its Inhibitor, Acm1, by an Unconventional Proteolytic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Melesse, Michael; Choi, Eunyoung; Hall, Hana; Walsh, Michael J.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hall, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulated proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system is a fundamental and essential feature of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. Most proteins with cell cycle-regulated stability are targeted for degradation by one of two related ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-cullin-F box protein (SCF) complex or the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Here we describe an unconventional cell cycle-regulated proteolytic mechanism that acts on the Acm1 protein, an inhibitor of the APC activator Cdh1 in budding yeast. Although Acm1 can be recognized as a substrate by the Cdc20-activated APC (APCCdc20) in anaphase, APCCdc20 is neither necessary nor sufficient for complete Acm1 degradation at the end of mitosis. An APC-independent, but 26S proteasome-dependent, mechanism is sufficient for complete Acm1 clearance from late mitotic and G1 cells. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears distinct from the canonical ubiquitin targeting pathway, exhibiting several features of ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. For example, Acm1 degradation in G1 requires neither lysine residues in Acm1 nor assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Acm1 was stabilized though by conditional inactivation of the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1, implying some requirement for the ubiquitin pathway, either direct or indirect. We identified an amino terminal predicted disordered region in Acm1 that contributes to its proteolysis in G1. Although ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrates have been described, Acm1 appears unique in that its sensitivity to this mechanism is strictly cell cycle-regulated via cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation. As a result, Acm1 expression is limited to the cell cycle window in which Cdk is active. We provide evidence that failure to eliminate Acm1 impairs activation of APCCdh1 at mitotic exit, justifying its strict regulation by cell cycle-dependent transcription and proteolytic mechanisms. Importantly, our results reveal that strict cell-cycle expression profiles can be established independent of proteolysis mediated by the APC and SCF enzymes. PMID:25072887

  8. Proteinase activated receptor-2-mediated dual oxidase-2 up-regulation is involved in enhanced airway reactivity and inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Alharbi, Naif O; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Tyagi, Manoj; Ahmad, Sheikh F; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2015-07-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) express a variety of receptors, which sense danger signals from various aeroallergens/pathogens being inhaled constantly. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is one such receptor and is activated by cockroach allergens, which have intrinsic serine proteinase activity. Recently, dual oxidases (DUOX), especially DUOX-2, have been shown to be involved in airway inflammation in response to Toll-like receptor activation. However, the association between PAR-2 and DUOX-2 has not been explored in airways of allergic mice. Therefore, this study investigated the contribution of DUOX-2/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in airway reactivity and inflammation after PAR-2 activation. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with intact cockroach allergen extract (CE) in the presence of aluminium hydroxide followed by intranasal challenge with CE. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, oxidative stress (DUOX-2, ROS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrite, nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyls) and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3). Challenge with CE led to up-regulation of DUOX-2 and ROS in AECs with concomitant increases in airway reactivity/inflammation and parameters of oxidative stress, and apoptosis. All of these changes were significantly inhibited by intranasal administration of ENMD-1068, a small molecule antagonist of PAR-2 in allergic mice. Administration of diphenyliodonium to allergic mice also led to improvement of allergic airway responses via inhibition of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway; however, these effects were less pronounced than PAR-2 antagonism. The current study suggests that PAR-2 activation leads to up-regulation of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway in AECs, which is involved in regulation of airway reactivity and inflammation via oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:25684443

  9. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, ?ukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport. PMID:25148470

  10. Hypoxia-inducible Lipid Droplet-associated (HILPDA) Is a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Target Involved in Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Mattijssen, Frits; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Andasarie, Tresty; Szalowska, Ewa; Zota, Annika; Krones-Herzig, Anja; Heier, Christoph; Ratman, Dariusz; De Bosscher, Karolien; Qi, Ling; Zechner, Rudolf; Herzig, Stephan; Kersten, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play major roles in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism through the control of numerous genes involved in processes such as lipid uptake and fatty acid oxidation. Here we identify hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated (Hilpda/Hig2) as a novel PPAR target gene and demonstrate its involvement in hepatic lipid metabolism. Microarray analysis revealed that Hilpda is one of the most highly induced genes by the PPAR? agonist Wy14643 in mouse precision cut liver slices. Induction of Hilpda mRNA by Wy14643 was confirmed in mouse and human hepatocytes. Oral dosing with Wy14643 similarly induced Hilpda mRNA levels in livers of wild-type mice but not Ppara?/? mice. Transactivation studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Hilpda is a direct PPAR? target gene via a conserved PPAR response element located 1200 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Hepatic overexpression of HILPDA in mice via adeno-associated virus led to a 4-fold increase in liver triglyceride storage, without any changes in key genes involved in de novo lipogenesis, ?-oxidation, or lipolysis. Moreover, intracellular lipase activity was not affected by HILPDA overexpression. Strikingly, HILPDA overexpression significantly impaired hepatic triglyceride secretion. Taken together, our data uncover HILPDA as a novel PPAR target that raises hepatic triglyceride storage via regulation of triglyceride secretion. PMID:24876382

  11. Growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase brain insulin-like growth factor-I expression and activate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Frago, Laura M; Pañeda, Covadonga; Dickson, Suzanne L; Hewson, Adrian K; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2002-10-01

    Beneficial effects of GH on memory, mental alertness, and motivation have been documented. Many actions of GH are mediated through IGF-I; hence, we investigated whether systemic administration of GH or GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 modulates the brain IGF system. Treatment of adult male rats with GHRP-6 or GH for 1 wk significantly increased IGF-I mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and hippocampus, with no effect in cerebral cortex. Expression of the IGF receptor and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 were not affected. Phosphorylation of Akt and Bad was stimulated in areas where IGF-I was increased, with no change in MAPK or glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. This suggests that GH and GHRP-6 activate phosphatidylinositol kinase intracellular pathways involved in cell survival in response to growth factors. Indeed, the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was augmented in these same areas, with no change in the proapoptotic protein Bax. IGFBP-5, also reported to be involved in neuron survival processes, was increased mainly in the hypothalamus, suggesting a possible neuroendocrine role. In conclusion, GH and GHRP-6 modulate IGF-I expression in the central nervous system in an anatomically specific manner. This is coincident with activation of intracellular signaling pathways used by IGF-I and increased expression of proteins involved in cell survival or neuroprotection. PMID:12239123

  12. Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes involves beta cell infection and intra-islet JAK-STAT activation prior to insulitis.

    PubMed

    Alkanani, Aimon K; Hara, Naoko; Gianani, Roberto; Zipris, Danny

    2014-11-01

    We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham Rat Virus (KRV)-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) to test the hypothesis that disease mechanisms are linked with beta cell infection and intra-islet immune activation prior to insulitis. KRV induces genes involved in type I and type II interferon pathways in islet cell lines in vitro and in islets from day-5-infected animals in vivo via mechanisms that do not involve insulitis, beta cell apoptosis, or impaired insulin expression. Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that KRV protein is expressed in beta cells 5 days following infection. KRV induces the phosphorylation of Janus Kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) in islet cells via a mechanism that could involve TLR9 and NF-?B pathways. These data demonstrate for the first time that KRV-induced islet destruction is associated with beta cell infection and intra-islet innate immune upregulation early in the disease process. PMID:25129435

  13. Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement

    PubMed Central

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus. PMID:25378912

  14. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 is downregulated in gastric cancer tissue and involved in cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhao, Deshou; Sun, Yunwei; Huang, Liya; Zhang, Shuxian; Yuan, Yaozong

    2012-12-01

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is a novel modulator of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway that negatively regulates the inflammatory response. It has been also reported to be downregulated in a variety of human cancer cell lines. However, the role of PIAS1 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of PIAS1 expression and its regulated mechanisms in gastric cancer cell metastasis. Therefore, the expression of PIASI was explored in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues of gastric cancer with 31 cases of patients, and the prognostic value was analyzed. In addition, the growth and invasion in SGC7901 cells were investigated in the restoration of PIAS1 expression with Ad5/F35-PIAS1 or Ad5/F35-vector or PBS treatment, and the activity of P38MAPK, P-P38MAPK, JNK/SAPK, P-JNK/SAPK, ERK and P-ERK, were detected by western blotting. The tumor migratory factors MMP-9, MMP-2 and ICAM-1 were analyzed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that 22 of 31 (70.9%) gastric cancer specimens showed low levels of PIAS1 expression from immunohistochemistry staining using tissue microarrays. Statistical analysis suggested that the downregulation of PIAS1 was significantly correlated with tumor staging. Furthermore, we found that the restoration of PIAS1 expression mediated by Ad5/F35 virus suppressed cell proliferation and invasion accompanied by the inhibition of P38MAPK and ERK protein expression and activity, but not JNK/SAPK protein. Notably, PIAS1 restoration with the transfection of Ad5/F35-PIAS1 robustly decreased the expression of tumor migratory factors including MMP-9, MMP-2 and ICAM-1 compared to Ad5/F35-vector. These data suggest that PIAS1 may function as a tumor suppressor to regulate gastric cancer cell metastasis by targeting the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22972521

  15. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in acquired gemcitabine-resistant human urothelial carcinoma sublines.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Chi; Hu, Huei-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, A-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of how resistance arises and what molecular alterations correlate with resistance is the key to developing novel effective therapeutic strategies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of gemcitabine (Gem) resistance and provide possible therapeutic options, three Gem-resistant urothelial carcinoma sublines were established (NG0.6, NG0.8, and NG1.0). These cells were cross-resistant to arabinofuranosyl cytidine and cisplatin, but sensitive to 5-fluorouracil. The resistant cells expressed lower values of [hENT1 × dCK/RRM1 × RRM2] mRNA ratio. Two adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins ABCD1 as well as multidrug resistance protein 1 were elevated. Moreover, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 were upregulated, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity were repressed significantly. Administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the Gem sensitivity in NTUB1 cells, whereas that of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor did not. Furthermore, the Gem-resistant sublines also exhibited higher migration ability. Forced expression of p38 MAPK impaired the cell migration activity and augmented Gem sensitivity in NG1.0 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that complex mechanisms were merged in acquiring Gem resistance and provide information that can be important for developing therapeutic targets for treating Gem-resistant tumors. PMID:24924837

  16. Involvement of renal sympathetic nerve activation on the progression of ischemic acute kidney injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Junpei; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Hisa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Renal ischemia produces renal sympathoexcitation that is responsible for the development of ischemic acute kidney injury. The present study examined changes in the sympathetic nerve function in mice. Ischemic acute kidney injury was induced by occlusion of both renal pedicles. Renal ischemia/reperfusion increased blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of noradrenaline, in the kidney. Renal immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase was observed along with vessel and tubular structure both in the sham-operated and the ischemic acute kidney injury mice. The prominent morphological change was that tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was observed in the glomeruli of the ischemic acute kidney injury mice, whereas there are almost no tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity signals in the glomeruli of the sham-operated mice. This tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the glomeruli is colocalized with synapsin I immunoreactivity in the ischemic acute kidney injury mice. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) attenuated these changes induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that morphological and functional changes of glomerulus adrenergic nerve terminal are involved in the pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion-induced ischemic acute kidney injury. PMID:25069611

  17. Aphid Feeding Activates Expression of a Transcriptome of Oxylipin-Based Defense Signals in Wheat Involved in Resistance to Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, C. MICHAEL; LIU, XUMING; WANG, LIANG J.; LIU, XIANG; CHEN, MING-SHUN; STARKEY, SHARON; BAI, JIANFA

    2013-01-01

    Damage by the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, significantly reduces wheat and barley yields worldwide. In compatible interactions, virulent RWA populations flourish and susceptible plants suffer extensive leaf chlorophyll loss. In incompatible interactions, RWA reproduction and population growth are significantly reduced and RWA-related chlorophyll loss in resistant plants is minor. The objectives of this study were to develop an understanding of the molecular and phytochemical bases of RWA resistance in plants containing the Dnx resistance gene. Microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and phytohormone assays were conducted to identify transcriptome components unique to RWA-infested Dnx plants and susceptible (Dn0) plants, and to identify and characterize putative genes involved in Dnx plant defense responses. We found that RWA-infested Dnx plants upregulated > 180 genes related to reactive oxygen species, signaling, pathogen defense, and arthropod allelochemical and physical defense. The expression of several of these genes in RWA-infested Dnx plants increased significantly from 6- to 24-h post infestation (hpi), but their expression in Dn0 plants, when present, was delayed until 48- to 96 hpi. Concentrations of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, trans-methyl-12-oxophytodienoic acid, and abscisic acid were significantly greater in Dnx foliage than in Dn0 foliage after RWA infestation, suggesting that Dnx RWA defense and resistance genes may be regulated via the oxylipin pathway. These findings provide a foundation for the elucidation of the molecular basis for compatible- and incompatible plant-aphid interactions. PMID:20229216

  18. Decolorizing activity of malachite green and its mechanisms involved in dye biodegradation by Achromobacter xylosoxidans MG1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji'ai; Qiao, Min; Wei, Kangbi; Ding, Junmei; Liu, Zhongzhong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Huang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    An Achromobacter xylosoxidans MG1 strainisolated from the effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing factory from Yunnan Province in China was found capable of decolorizing the malachite green dye at a high efficacy. Strain MG1 reduced 86% malachite green at the concentration of 2,000 mg/l within 1 h, representing a greater ability for decolorizing and a higher tolerance of this compound than all previously reported bacteria. Color removal was optimal at pH 6 and 38°C. Further experimental evidences demonstrated that both cytoplasmic and extracellular biodegradation contributed to the decolorization of malachite green. Nested PCR was employed to identify the candidate genes responsible for malachite green decolorization, and we identified a cytoplasmic triphenylmethane reductase gene with 100% amino acid similarity to the corresponding gene in Citrobacter sp. strain. In contrast to our expectation, the addition of metyrapone had little effect on the cytoplasmic biodegradation, suggesting that cytochrome P450 was not involved in the high-performance reduction. The extracellular biodegradation was likely attributable to the secretion of extracellular proteases and some heat-resistant compounds. PMID:21865764

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Nine Tissues to Discover Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Bunsupa, Somnuk; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Yamamoto, Hirobumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Sophora flavescens AITON?kurara, ?has long been used to treat various diseases. Although several research findings revealed the biosynthetic pathways of its characteristic chemical components as represented by matrine, insufficient analysis of transcriptome data hampered in-depth analysis of the underlying putative genes responsible for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical chemical components. In this study, more than 200 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using nine types of tissue from S. flavescens, followed by CLC de novo assembly, ultimately yielding 83325 contigs in total. By mapping the reads back to the contigs, reads per kilobase of the transcript per million mapped reads values were calculated to demonstrate gene expression levels, and overrepresented gene ontology terms were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential metabolic pathways, all 1350 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. By analyzing expression patterns, we proposed some candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and quinolizidine alkaloids. Adopting RNA-Seq analysis, we obtained substantially credible contigs for downstream work. The preferential expression of the gene for putative lysine/ornithine decarboxylase committed in the initial step of matrine biosynthesis in leaves and stems was confirmed in semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings in this report may serve as a stepping-stone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26027827

  20. Calcium-activated non-selective cation currents are involved in generation of tonic and bursting activity in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta

    PubMed Central

    Mrejeru, Ana; Wei, Aguan; Ramirez, Jan Marino

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nigral dopamine neurons are transiently activated by high frequency glutamatergic inputs relaying reward-predicting sensory information. The tonic firing pattern of dopamine cells responds to these inputs with a transient burst of spikes that requires NMDA receptors. Here, we show that NMDA receptor activation further excites the cell by recruiting a calcium-activated non-selective cation current (ICAN) capable of generating a plateau potential. Burst firing in vitro is eliminated after blockade of ICAN with flufenamic acid, 9-phenanthrol, or intracellular BAPTA. ICAN is likely to be mediated by a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, and RT-PCR was used to confirm expression of TRPM2 and TRPM4 mRNA in substantia nigra pars compacta. We propose that ICAN is selectively activated during burst firing to boost NMDA currents and allow plateau potentials. This boost mechanism may render DA cells vulnerable to excitotoxicity. PMID:21486760

  1. Mapping of Functional Domains of the Lipid Kinase Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Type III Alpha Involved in Enzymatic Activity and Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Harak, Christian; Radujkovic, Danijela; Taveneau, Cyntia; Reiss, Simon; Klein, Rahel; Bressanelli, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha (PI4KIII?) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4KIII? is an essential host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Interaction with HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) leads to kinase activation and accumulation of PI4P at intracellular membranes. In this study, we investigated the structural requirements of PI4KIII? in HCV replication and enzymatic activity. Therefore, we analyzed PI4KIII? mutants for subcellular localization, reconstitution of HCV replication in PI4KIII? knockdown cell lines, PI4P induction in HCV-positive cells, and lipid kinase activity in vitro. All mutants still interacted with NS5A and localized in a manner similar to that of the full-length enzyme, suggesting multiple regions of PI4KIII? are involved in NS5A interaction and subcellular localization. Interestingly, the N-terminal 1,152 amino acids were dispensable for HCV replication, PI4P induction, and enzymatic function, whereas further N-terminal or C-terminal deletions were deleterious, thereby defining the minimal PI4KIII? core enzyme at a size of ca. 108 kDa. Additional deletion of predicted functional motifs within the C-terminal half of PI4KIII? also were detrimental for enzymatic activity and for the ability of PI4KIII? to rescue HCV replication, with the exception of a proposed nuclear localization signal, suggesting that the entire C-terminal half of PI4KIII? is involved in the formation of a minimal enzymatic core. This view was supported by structural modeling of the PI4KIII? C terminus, suggesting a catalytic center formed by an N- and C-terminal lobe and an armadillo-fold motif, which is preceded by three distinct alpha-helical domains probably involved in regulation of enzymatic activity. IMPORTANCE The lipid kinase PI4KIII? is of central importance for cellular phosphatidylinositol metabolism and is a key host cell factor of hepatitis C virus replication. However, little is known so far about the structure of this 240-kDa protein and the functional importance of specific subdomains regarding lipid kinase activity and viral replication. This work focuses on the phenotypic analysis of distinct PI4KIII? mutants in different biochemical and cell-based assays and develops a structural model of the C-terminal enzymatic core. The results shed light on the structural and functional requirements of enzymatic activity and the determinants required for HCV replication. PMID:24920820

  2. Palmitate-Mediated Downregulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor  Coactivator 1  in Skeletal Muscle Cells Involves MEK1\\/2 and Nuclear Factor B Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Coll; Mireia Jove; Ricardo Rodrõ ´ guez-Calvo; Elena Eyre; Xavier Palomer; Rosa M. Sanchez; Manuel Merlos; Juan Carlos Laguna; Manuel Vazquez-Carrera

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which elevated levels of free fatty acids cause insulin resistance are not well understood. Previous studies have reported that insulin-resistant states are characterized by a reduction in the expression of peroxi- some proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator (PGC)-1, a transcriptional activator that promotes oxidative capac- ity in skeletal muscle cells. However, little is known about the factors responsible for

  3. Activation of a nonspecific cation current in rat cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells: involvement of a G?i subunit protein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jennifer S; Kelly, Melanie E M

    1998-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques were used to investigate the G protein subtype and related signalling molecules involved in activation of a nonspecific cation (NSC) current in rat cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Under control conditions, in 130?mM NaCl with K+ aspartate in the pipette, cytosolic dialysis with guanosine-5?-O-(3-triphosphate) (GTP?S, 0.1?mM) activated a large non-inactivating NSC current in 80% of the cells recorded from. Loading RPE cells with antibodies (10??g-ml?1) against the ? subunit of all PTX-sensitive G proteins (G?i/o/t/z) reduced NSC current activation to 11%, while loading RPE cells with antibodies directed specifically against the ? subunits of the Gi subclass (G?i-3) completely abolished current activation. In RPE cells loaded with anti-G?s activation of the NSC current was unaffected. Investigation of the potential downstream mediators in the G?i NSC channel pathway revealed that activation of the cation conductance was unaffected by treatment of RPE cells with the selective protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X (3??M) or the selective CaM kinase II inhibitor KN-93 (50??M). However, NSC current activation was delayed and the current amplitude reduced in the presence of the nonselective kinase inhibitor H-7 (100??M) or the selective inhibitor of MAPKK (MEK) activation, PD 98059 (50??M). In the absence of GTP?S, the NSC current was not activated by superfusion of the cells with the cyclic GMP kinase activator dibutyryl-cyclic GMP or with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. These results support the involvement of a G protein of the G?i subclass in the activation of a NSC current in rat RPE cells, and suggest a potential modulatory role for MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation in current regulation. PMID:9720781

  4. Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Involves Activation of the Wnt5a/JNK Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sujeong; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of ß-catenin and GSK3ß. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased. Thus, this study shows for the first time how a single Wnt5a ligand can activate the neural differentiation pathway through the activation of Wnt5a/JNK pathway by binding Fzd3 and Fzd5 and directing Axin/GSK-3ß in hADSCs.

  5. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is involved in the early activation of hypothalamic inflammation in experimental obesity.

    PubMed

    Morari, Joseane; Anhe, Gabriel F; Nascimento, Lucas F; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Razolli, Daniela; Solon, Carina; Guadagnini, Dioze; Souza, Gabriela; Mattos, Alexandre H; Tobar, Natalia; Ramos, Celso D; Pascoal, Vinicius D; Saad, Mario J; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Moraes, Juliana C; Velloso, Licio A

    2014-11-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a common feature of experimental obesity. Dietary fats are important triggers of this process, inducing the activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Microglia cells, which are the cellular components of the innate immune system in the brain, are expected to play a role in the early activation of diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Here, we use bone marrow transplants to generate mice chimeras that express a functional TLR4 in the entire body except in bone marrow-derived cells or only in bone marrow-derived cells. We show that a functional TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells is required for the complete expression of the diet-induced obese phenotype and for the perpetuation of inflammation in the hypothalamus. In an obesity-prone mouse strain, the chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is rapidly induced in the neurons of the hypothalamus after the introduction of a high-fat diet. The inhibition of hypothalamic fractalkine reduces diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived monocytic cells to the hypothalamus; in addition, this inhibition reduces obesity and protects against diet-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, fractalkine is an important player in the early induction of diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation, and its inhibition impairs the induction of the obese and glucose intolerance phenotypes. PMID:24947351

  6. Evidences for the Involvement of Monoaminergic and GABAergic Systems in Antidepressant-like Activity of Tinospora cordifolia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, D.; Goyal, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was taken up to investigate the effect of petroleum ether extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers, on depression in mice. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice (either sex) and evaluated for antidepressant-like activity using tail suspension test and forced swim test. Petroleum ether extract at all three doses produced significant antidepressant-like effect in tail suspension test as well as in forced swim test and their efficacies were found to be comparable to imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) and sertraline (20 mg/kg, p.o.). The extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed most potent effect and did not show any significant change in locomotor functions of mice as compared to control. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment of animals with prazosin (a ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (a serotonin synthesis inhibitor) and baclofen (GABA-B agonist), when tested in tail suspension test. Moreover, petroleum ether extract also reduced the mouse whole brain monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) activities as compared to control, resulting in increase in the levels of brain monoamines. Therefore, the extract may have potential therapeutic value for the management of depressive disorders. PMID:21369437

  7. Laforin, a dual specificity phosphatase involved in Lafora disease, is present mainly as monomeric form with full phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Dukhande, Vikas V; Rogers, Devin M; Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Donderis, Jordi; Marina, Alberto; Taylor, Adam O; Sanz, Pascual; Gentry, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    Lafora Disease (LD) is a fatal neurodegenerative epileptic disorder that presents as a neurological deterioration with the accumulation of insoluble, intracellular, hyperphosphorylated carbohydrates called Lafora bodies (LBs). LD is caused by mutations in either the gene encoding laforin or malin. Laforin contains a dual specificity phosphatase domain and a carbohydrate-binding module, and is a member of the recently described family of glucan phosphatases. In the current study, we investigated the functional and physiological relevance of laforin dimerization. We purified recombinant human laforin and subjected the monomer and dimer fractions to denaturing gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phosphatase assays, protein-protein interaction assays, and glucan binding assays. Our results demonstrate that laforin prevalently exists as a monomer with a small dimer fraction both in vitro and in vivo. Of mechanistic importance, laforin monomer and dimer possess equal phosphatase activity, and they both associate with malin and bind glucans to a similar extent. However, we found differences between the two states' ability to interact simultaneously with malin and carbohydrates. Furthermore, we tested other members of the glucan phosphatase family. Cumulatively, our data suggest that laforin monomer is the dominant form of the protein and that it contains phosphatase activity. PMID:21887368

  8. Autophagy promotes paclitaxel resistance of cervical cancer cells: involvement of Warburg effect activated hypoxia-induced factor 1-?-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Gong, F; Chen, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, J; Yu, M; Zhang, S; Wang, M; Xiao, G; Liao, H

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs for advanced cervical cancer. However, acquired resistance of paclitaxel represents a major barrier to successful anticancer treatment. In this study, paclitaxel-resistant HeLa sublines (HeLa-R cell lines) were established by continuous exposure and increased autophagy level was observed in HeLa-R cells. 3-Methyladenine or ATG7 siRNA, autophagy inhibitors, could restore sensitivity of HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel compared with parental HeLa cells. To determine the underlying molecular mechanism, differentially expressed proteins between HeLa and HeLa-R cells were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS. We found glycolysis-associated proteins were upregulated in HeLa-R cell lines. Inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose or koningic acid could decrease autophagy and enhance sensitivity of HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel. Moreover, glycolysis could activate HIF1-?. Downregulation of HIF1-? by specific siRNA could decrease autophagy and resensitize HeLa-R cells to paclitaxel. Taken together, a possible Warburg effect activated HIF1-?-mediated signaling-induced autophagic pathway is proposed, which may provide new insight into paclitaxel chemoresistance. PMID:25118927

  9. Involvement of Asn-293 in stereospecific agonist recognition and in activation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, K; Zuurmond, H M; Krasel, C; Ijzerman, A P; Lohse, M J

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism for stereospecific binding of agonists to beta 2-adrenergic receptors we used receptor models to identify potential binding sites for the beta-OH-group of the ligand, which defines the chiral center. Ser-165, located in transmembrane helix IV, and Asn-293, situated in the upper half of transmembrane helix VI, were identified as potential binding sites. Mutation of Ser-165 to Ala did not change the binding of either isoproterenol isomer as revealed after transient expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. In contrast, a receptor mutant in which Asn-293 was replaced by Leu showed substantial loss of stereospecific isoproterenol binding. Adenylyl cyclase stimulation by this mutant after stable expression in CHO cells confirmed the substantial loss of stereospecificity for isoproterenol. In a series of agonists the loss of affinity in the Leu-293 mutant receptor was strongly correlated with the intrinsic activity of the compounds. Full agonists showed a 10-30-fold affinity loss, whereas partial agonists had almost the same affinity for both receptors. Stereospecific recognition of antagonists was unaltered in the Leu-293 mutant receptor. These data indicate a relationship between stereospecificity and intrinsic activity of agonists and suggest that Asn-293 is important for both properties of the agonist-receptor interaction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8799191

  10. Critical involvement of Rho GTPase activity in the efficient transplantation of neural stem cells into the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells is a promising approach toward functional restoration of the damaged neural tissue, but the injured spinal cord has been shown to be an adverse environment for the survival, migration, and differentiation of the donor cells. To improve the efficiency of cell replacement therapy, cell autonomous factors in the donor cells should be optimized. In light of recent findings that Rho family GTPases regulate stem cell functions, genetic manipulation of Rho GTPases can potentially control phenotypes of transplanted cells. Therefore we expressed mutant forms of Rho GTPases, Rac, Rho, and Cdc42, in the neural stem/progenitor cells and examined their survival and migration after transplantation. Results Manipulation of the individual Rho GTPases showed differential effects on survival, with little variation in their migratory route and predominant differentiation into the oligodendroglial lineage. Combined suppression of both Rac and Rho activity had a prominent effect on promoting survival, consistent with its highly protective effect on drug-induced apoptosis in culture. Conclusion Manipulation of Rac and Rho activities fully rescued suppression of cell survival induced by the spinal cord injury. Our results indicate that precise regulation of cell autonomous factors within the donor cells can ameliorate the detrimental environment created by the injury. PMID:19943951

  11. Theta oscillation and neuronal activity in rat hippocampus are involved in temporal discrimination of time in seconds

    PubMed Central

    Nakazono, Tomoaki; Sano, Tomomi; Takahashi, Susumu; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of time cells revealed that the rodent hippocampus has information regarding time. Previous studies have suggested that the role of hippocampal time cells is to integrate temporally segregated events into a sequence using working memory with time perception. However, it is unclear whether hippocampal cells contribute to time perception itself because most previous studies employed delayed matching-to-sample tasks that did not separately evaluate time perception from working memory processes. Here, we investigated the function of the rat hippocampus in time perception using a temporal discrimination task. In the task, rats had to discriminate between durations of 1 and 3 s to get a reward, and maintaining task-related information as working memory was not required. We found that some hippocampal neurons showed firing rate modulation similar to that of time cells. Moreover, theta oscillation of local field potentials (LFPs) showed a transient enhancement of power during time discrimination periods. However, there were little relationships between the neuronal activities and theta oscillations. These results suggest that both the individual neuronal activities and theta oscillations of LFPs in the hippocampus have a possibility to be engaged in seconds order time perception; however, they participate in different ways.

  12. Camalexin-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells Involves Alterations of Expression and Activity of Lysosomal Protease Cathepsin D

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Basil; Randle, Diandra; Mezencev, Roman; Thomas, LeeShawn; Hinton, Cimona; Marah, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Camalexin, the phytoalexin produced in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, possesses antiproliferative and cancer chemopreventive effects. We have demonstrated that the cytostatic/cytotoxic effects of camalexin on several prostate cancer (PCa) cells are due to oxidative stress. Lysosomes are vulnerable organelles to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-induced injuries, with the potential to initiate and or facilitate apoptosis subsequent to release of proteases such as cathepsin D (CD) into the cytosol. We therefore hypothesized that camalexin reduces cell viability in PCa cells via alterations in expression and activity of CD. Cell viability was evaluated by MTS cell proliferation assay in LNCaP and ARCaP Epithelial (E) cells, and their respective aggressive sublines C4-2 and ARCaP Mesenchymal (M) cells, whereby the more aggressive PCa cells (C4-2 and ARCaPM) displayed greater sensitivity to camalexin treatments than the lesser aggressive cells (LNCaP and ARCaPE). Immunocytochemical analysis revealed CD relocalization from the lysosome to the cytosol subsequent to camalexin treatments, which was associated with increased protein expression of mature CD; p53, a transcriptional activator of CD; BAX, a downstream effector of CD, and cleaved PARP, a hallmark for apoptosis. Therefore, camalexin reduces cell viability via CD and may present as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer cells. PMID:24699144

  13. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nagaraj M; Goswami, Usha; Khan, M Islam

    2008-10-01

    In invertebrates, cellular and humoral components are evolved to maintain their body immunity and integrity. Both these factors respond to different antigens such as microorganisms, vertebrate erythrocytes and foreign proteins. In this article, we report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall glycoconjugates of bacteria are involved in lectin induction. HSL showed strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Under in vitro conditions, purified HSL mediate agglutination of the test bacteria, there by indicating a possible mode of action in physiological situation. PMID:18501924

  14. Collagenolytic Activities of the Major Secreted Cathepsin L Peptidases Involved in the Virulence of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W.; Corvo, Ileana; Jones, Peter M.; George, Anthony M.; Padula, Matthew P.; To, Joyce; Cancela, Martin; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Tort, Jose F.; Roche, Leda; Dalton, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The temporal expression and secretion of distinct members of a family of virulence-associated cathepsin L cysteine peptidases (FhCL) correlates with the entry and migration of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica in the host. Thus, infective larvae traversing the gut wall secrete cathepsin L3 (FhCL3), liver migrating juvenile parasites secrete both FhCL1 and FhCL2 while the mature bile duct parasites, which are obligate blood feeders, secrete predominantly FhCL1 but also FhCL2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibit differences in their kinetic parameters towards a range of peptide substrates. Uniquely, FhCL2 and FhCL3 readily cleave substrates with Pro in the P2 position and peptide substrates mimicking the repeating Gly-Pro-Xaa motifs that occur within the primary sequence of collagen. FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 hydrolysed native type I and II collagen at neutral pH but while FhCL1 cleaved only non-collagenous (NC, non-Gly-X-Y) domains FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibited collagenase activity by cleaving at multiple sites within the ?1 and ?2 triple helix regions (Col domains). Molecular simulations created for FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 complexed to various seven-residue peptides supports the idea that Trp67 and Tyr67 in the S2 subsite of the active sites of FhCL3 and FhCL2, respectively, are critical to conferring the unique collagenase-like activity to these enzymes by accommodating either Gly or Pro residues at P2 in the substrate. The data also suggests that FhCL3 accommodates hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly at P3-P2 better than FhCL2 explaining the observed greater ability of FhCL3 to digest type I and II collagens compared to FhCL2 and why these enzymes cleave at different positions within the Col domains. Conclusions/Significance These studies further our understanding of how this helminth parasite regulates peptidase expression to ensure infection, migration and establishment in host tissues. PMID:21483711

  15. Wnt activity guides facial branchiomotor neuron migration, and involves the PCP pathway and JNK and ROCK kinases

    PubMed Central

    Vivancos, Valérie; Chen, Ping; Spassky, Nathalie; Qian, Dong; Dabdoub, Alain; Kelley, Matthew; Studer, Michèle; Guthrie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Background Wnt proteins play roles in many biological processes, including axon guidance and cell migration. In the mammalian hindbrain, facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons undergo a striking rostral to caudal migration, yet little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated a possible role of Wnts and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in this process. Results Here we demonstrate a novel role for Wnt proteins in guiding FBM neurons during their rostral to caudal migration in the hindbrain. We found that Wnt5a is expressed in a caudalhigh to rostrallow gradient in the hindbrain. Wnt-coated beads chemoattracted FBM neurons to ectopic positions in an explant migration assay. The rostrocaudal FBM migration was moderately perturbed in Wnt5a mutant embryos and severely disrupted in Frizzled3 mutant mouse embryos, and was aberrant following inhibition of Wnt function by secreted Frizzled-related proteins. We also show the involvement of the Wnt/PCP pathway in mammalian FBM neuron migration. Thus, mutations in two PCP genes, Vangl2 and Scribble, caused severe defects in FBM migration. Inhibition of JNK and ROCK kinases strongly and specifically reduced the FBM migration, as well as blocked the chemoattractant effects of ectopic Wnt proteins. Conclusion These results provide in vivo evidence that Wnts chemoattract mammalian FBM neurons and that Wnt5a is a candidate to mediate this process. Molecules of the PCP pathway and the JNK and ROCK kinases also play a role in the FBM migration and are likely mediators of Wnt signalling. PMID:19210786

  16. Melatonin reduced microglial activation and alleviated neuroinflammation induced neuron degeneration in experimental traumatic brain injury: Possible involvement of mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Wang, Handong; Xu, Jianguo; Lu, Xinyu; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Lin

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to detect the modulation manner of melatonin on microglial activation and explore herein possible involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway following traumatic brain injury (TBI). ICR mice were divided into four groups: sham group, TBI group, TBI+sal group and TBI+Melatonin group. A weight-drop model was employed to cause TBI. Neurological severity score (NSS) tests were performed to measure behavioral outcomes. Nissl staining was conducted to observe the neuronal degeneration and wet-to-dry weight ratio indicated brain water content. Immunofluorescence was designed to investigate microglial activation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to evaluate proinflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin-beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)). Western blotting was engaged to analyze the protein content of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Melatonin administration was associated with markedly restrained microglial activation, decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the number of surviving neurons at the site of peri-contusion. Meanwhile, melatonin administration resulted in dephosphorylated mTOR pathway. In conclusion, this study presents a new insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-neuroinflammation of melatonin, with possible involvement of mTOR pathway. PMID:24995391

  17. The p21-activated kinase PAK 5 is involved in formalin-induced nociception through regulation of MAP-kinase signaling and formalin-specific receptors.

    PubMed

    Coste, Ovidiu; Möser, Christine V; Sisignano, Marco; Kynast, Katharina L; Minden, Audrey; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in signal cascades relevant for nociceptive processing and neuropathic pain. Particularly, the recently described group B PAKs 4, 5 and 6 regulate MAP-kinases and the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which have been linked to pain processing. However, a specific role of these PAKs in nociception has not yet been demonstrated. We found PAK 4, 5 and 6 expression in pain-relevant tissues in peripheral and CNS. Since viable knock-out mice only exist for the PAK isoform 5, we further assessed the impact of this PAK on acute and chronic pain using different behavioral models in mice. PAK 5 knock-out mice showed normal acute nociception and did not differ from wild type mice in their neuropathic pain behavior. However, the nociceptive response in formalin-induced paw inflammation was significantly reduced in knock-out mice associated with inhibition of MAP-kinase activation and a decreased number of formalin-induced c-Fos positive neurons in the spinal cord. Furthermore, in isolated neurons, we found a significantly reduced calcium response after stimulation of TRPA1-channels in PAK 5(-/-)- compared to PAK 5(+/+)-cells. Our results indicate that PAK 5 is involved in formalin-induced inflammatory nociception through regulation of MAPK-induced c-Fos-activation and formalin-specific TRP-channels. PMID:22732262

  18. In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defence.

    PubMed

    van Hooijdonk, A C; Kussendrager, K D; Steijns, J M

    2000-11-01

    The in vivo evidence of the antimicrobial and antiviral activity of bovine milk and colostrum derived components are reviewed with special emphasis on lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. Their mode of action and the rationale for their application in efficacy trials with rodents, farm animals, fish and humans, to give protection against infectious agents, are described. A distinction is made between efficacy obtained by oral and non-oral administration of these non-specific defence factors which can be commercially applied in large quantities due to major achievements in dairy technology. From the in vivo studies one can infer that lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are very promising, naturally occurring antimicrobials for use in fish farming, husbandry, oral hygiene and functional foods. Other promising milk-derived compounds include lipids, from which anti-infective degradation products are generated during digestion, and antimicrobial peptides hidden in the casein molecules. PMID:11242457

  19. Lack of involvement of fusimotor activation in movements of the foot produced by electrical stimulation of monkey cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, M. McD.; Porter, R.

    1971-01-01

    1. Contractions of the small muscles of the foot producing flexion and adduction of the hallux were elicited by brief trains of electrical stimulation of a motor point on the precentral gyrus of anaesthetized monkeys and these contractions were recorded myographically. 2. The cortical stimulus intensities necessary to produce minimal muscle contractions were measured for different frequencies of stimulation at the cortical point, and the latency of the minimal muscle contraction was measured in each case. 3. Section of all the relevant lumbar and sacral dorsal roots had no effect on the threshold stimulus currents necessary to produce minimal contractions or on the latencies of these responses. Hence, in the anaesthetized monkey, the power of the cortico-fusimotor activity stirred up by electrical stimulation of the cortex is inadequate to influence significantly the motor responses of the most accessible muscles. PMID:4254074

  20. Involvement of p300 in constitutive and HIV-1 Tat-activated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zhenyuan; Liu, Ying; Fan, Yan; Zhou, Betty Y.; Yang, X. Frank; He, Johnny J.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is an important pathogenic factor in HIV-1-associated neurological diseases. One hallmark of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is astrocytosis, which is characterized by elevated GFAP expression in astrocytes. We have shown that Tat activates GFAP expression in astrocytes (Zhou, et al., Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 27:296, 2004) and that GFAP is an important regulator of Tat neurotoxicity (Zou, et. al., Am. J. Pathol. 171:1293, 2007). However, the underlying mechanisms for Tat-mediated GFAP up-regulation are not understood. In the current study, we reported concurrent up-regulation of adenovirus E1a-associated 300 kDa protein p300 and GFAP in Tat-expressing human astroytoma cells and primary astrocytes. We showed that p300 was indeed induced by Tat expression and HIV-1 infection and that the induction occurred at the transcriptional level through the cis-acting elements of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) within its promoter. Using siRNA, we further showed that p300 regulated both constitutive and Tat-mediated GFAP expression. Moreover, we showed that ectopic expression of p300 potentiated Tat transactivation activity and increased proliferation of HIV-1-infected astrocytes, but had little effect on HIV-1 replication in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that Tat is a positive regulator of p300 expression, which in turn regulates GFAP expression, and suggest that the Tat-Egr-1-p300-GFAP axis likely contributes to Tat neurotoxicity and predisposes astrocytes to be an HIV-1 sanctuary in the CNS. PMID:20578042

  1. P2X7R is involved in the progression of atherosclerosis by promoting NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    PENG, KUANG; LIU, LUSHAN; WEI, DANGHENG; LV, YUNCHENG; WANG, GANG; XIONG, WENHAO; WANG, XIAOQING; ALTAF, AFRASYAB; WANG, LILI; HE, DAN; WANG, HONGYAN; QU, PENG

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) are expressed in macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. However, the mechanisms through which P2X7R participates in the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of P2X7R in atherosclerosis and the mechanisms of action of the NLRP3 inflammasome following stimulation with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We observed the expression and distribution of P2X7R in the atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries from an autopsy specimen and in that of the aortic sinuses of apoE?/? mice by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. The specificity of short interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress P2X7R and NLRP3 mRNA expression. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were used to analyze mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to examine the interaction between protein kinase R (PKR) phosphorylation and NLRP3. P2X7R and NLRP3 were expressed at high levels in the atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries. Stimulation with oxLDL upregulated P2X7R, NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-1? expression. P2X7R knockdown by siRNA suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting the PKR phosphorylation mediated by oxLDL. In the atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinuses of apoE?/? mice, P2X7R expression was found at high levels. Moreover, P2X7R siRNA attenuated the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE?/? mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that P2X7R plays a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis and regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting PKR phosphorylation. PMID:25761252

  2. Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A.; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  3. Rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-HT) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hagbom, Marie; Istrate, Claudia; Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-07-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca²? concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP?), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT? receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  4. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan, E-mail: kalaivasanbio@gmail.com; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam, E-mail: sudhandiran@yahoo.com

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, ?-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  5. Conserved Loop Cysteines of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) Are Involved in Its Active Site Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Jian-Ke; Jin, Da-Yun; Stafford, Darrel W.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) reduces vitamin K epoxide in the vitamin K cycle for post-translational modification of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological functions. However, the physiological function of VKORC1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), a paralogous enzyme sharing about 50% protein identity with VKORC1, is unknown. Here we determined the structural and functional differences of these two enzymes using fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay and an in vivo cell-based activity assay. We show that in vivo VKORC1L1 reduces vitamin K epoxide to support vitamin K-dependent carboxylation as efficiently as does VKORC1. However, FPP assays show that unlike VKORC1, VKORC1L1 is a four-transmembrane domain protein with both its termini located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the conserved loop cysteines, which are not required for VKORC1 activity, are essential for VKORC1L1's active site regeneration. Results from domain exchanges between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that it is VKORC1L1's overall structure that uniquely allows for active site regeneration by the conserved loop cysteines. Intermediate disulfide trapping results confirmed an intra-molecular electron transfer pathway for VKORC1L1's active site reduction. Our results allow us to propose a concerted action of the four conserved cysteines of VKORC1L1 for active site regeneration; the second loop cysteine, Cys-58, attacks the active site disulfide, forming an intermediate disulfide with Cys-139; the first loop cysteine, Cys-50, attacks the intermediate disulfide resulting in active site reduction. The different membrane topologies and reaction mechanisms between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that these two proteins might have different physiological functions. PMID:24532791

  6. E50K-OPTN-Induced Retinal Cell Death Involves the Rab GTPase-Activating Protein, TBC1D17 Mediated Block in Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Madhavi Latha Somaraju; Kumari, Asha; Radha, Vegesna; Swarup, Ghanshyam

    2014-01-01

    The protein optineurin coded by OPTN gene is involved in several functions including regulation of endocytic trafficking, autophagy and signal transduction. Certain missense mutations in the gene OPTN cause normal tension glaucoma. A glaucoma-causing mutant of optineurin, E50K, induces death selectively in retinal cells. This mutant induces defective endocytic recycling of transferrin receptor by causing inactivation of Rab8 mediated by the GTPase-activating protein, TBC1D17. Here, we have explored the mechanism of E50K-induced cell death. E50K-OPTN-induced cell death was inhibited by co-expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of TBC1D17 and also by shRNA mediated knockdown of TBC1D17. Endogenous TBC1D17 colocalized with E50K-OPTN in vesicular structures. Co-expression of transferrin receptor partially protected against E50K-induced cell death. Overexpression of the E50K-OPTN but not WT-OPTN inhibited autophagy flux. Treatment of cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, reduced E50K-OPTN-induced cell death. An LC3-binding-defective mutant of E50K-OPTN showed reduced cell death, further suggesting the involvement of autophagy. TBC1D17 localized to autophagosomes and inhibited autophagy flux dependent on its catalytic activity. Knockdown of TBC1D17 rescued cells from E50K-mediated inhibition of autophagy flux. Overall, our results suggest that E50K mutant induced death of retinal cells involves impaired autophagy as well as impaired transferrin receptor function. TBC1D17, a GTPase-activating protein for Rab GTPases, plays a crucial role in E50K-induced impaired autophagy and cell death. PMID:24752605

  7. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); He Shiping [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); Jan, C.-R. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  8. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. PMID:25047375

  9. Megalin/Cubulin-Lysosome-mediated Albumin Reabsorption Is Involved in the Tubular Cell Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome and Tubulointerstitial Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Wen, Yi; Tang, Tao-Tao; Lv, Lin-Li; Tang, Ri-Ning; Liu, Hong; Ma, Kun-Ling; Crowley, Steve D; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2015-07-17

    Albuminuria contributes to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease by inducing tubulointerstitial inflammation (TI) and fibrosis. However, the exact mechanisms of TI in response to albuminuria are unresolved. We previously demonstrated that NLRP3 and inflammasomes mediate albumin-induced lesions in tubular cells. Here, we further investigated the role of endocytic receptors and lysosome rupture in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. A murine proteinuric nephropathy model was induced by albumin overload as described previously. The priming and activation signals for inflammasome complex formation were evoked simultaneously by albumin excess in tubular epithelial cells. The former signal was dependent on a albumin-triggered NF-?B pathway activation. This process is mediated by the endocytic receptor, megalin and cubilin. However, the silencing of megalin or cubilin inhibited the albumin-induced NLRP3 signal. Notably, subsequent lysosome rupture and the corresponding release of lysosomal hydrolases, especially cathepsin B, were observed in tubular epithelial cells exposed to albumin. Cathepsin B release and distribution are essential for NLRP3 signal activation, and inhibitors of cathepsin B suppressed the NLRP3 signal in tubular epithelial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that megalin/cubilin and lysosome rupture are involved in albumin-triggered tubular injury and TI. This study provides novel insights into albuminuria-induced TI and implicates the active control of albuminuria as a critical strategy to halt the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26025362

  10. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P < 0.01), and immunohistochemistry with Neurofilament 200 indicated more myelinated afferents existed in MTrSs (P < 0.01). Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) recordings at MTrSs showed that specific block of myelinated afferents in sciatic nerve with tetrodotoxin (TTX) led to significantly decreased SEA (P < 0.05). Behavioral assessment showed that mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Block of myelinated afferents by intramuscular TTX injection increased MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P < 0.01), while MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P < 0.05) and then increased (P > 0.05). 30?min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs.

  11. Activation of bacterial ceramidase by anionic glycerophospholipids: possible involvement in ceramide hydrolysis on atopic skin by Pseudomonas ceramidase.

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Katsuhiro; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Inagaki, Masanori; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Imayama, Shuhei; Nakamura, Takashi; Ito, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We have reported previously that the ceramidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AN17 isolated from a patient with atopic dermatitis requires detergents for hydrolysis of ceramide (Cer) [Okino, Tani, Imayama and Ito (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14368--14373]. In the present study, we report that some glycerophospholipids strongly activated the hydrolysis of Cer by Pseudomonas ceramidase in the absence of detergents. Among the glycerophospholipids tested, cardiolipin was most effective in stimulating hydrolysis of Cer followed by phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, whereas phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol were less effective. Interestingly, Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipids, which contain cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol as major lipid components, also strongly enhanced the hydrolysis of normal Cer, as well as the human skin-specific omega-hydroxyacyl Cer, by the enzyme in the absence of detergents. It was confirmed that several strains of P. aeruginosa, including AN17, secrete a significant amount of staphylolytic proteases to lyse S. aureus cells, resulting in the release of cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Since both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus are suspected of being present in microflora of atopic skin, we speculate that S. aureus-derived glycerophospholipids stimulate the hydrolysis of Cer in atopic skin by bacterial ceramidase. PMID:11879188

  12. Insulin regulation of proliferation involves activation of AKT and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Isenovic, E R; Fretaud, M; Koricanac, G; Sudar, E; Velebit, J; Dobutovic, B; Marche, P

    2009-05-01

    This investigation used primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to examine the effect of insulin (INS) on proliferation of VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinase B (Akt) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK 1/2) signaling pathways in mediating the mitogenic action of INS in VSMCs. Incubation of rat VSMCs with INS (100 nM) for 10 min resulted in an increase of Akt phosphorylation by 6-fold (p<0.001) and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation by 3-fold (p<0.001). Pretreatment for 15 min with 10 muM of PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 or with 20 muM PD98059, inhibitor of ERK 1/2, significantly reduced INS-stimulated Akt and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation by 76 and 75%, respectively. Prolonged treatment of VSMCs with INS for 24 h did not have an effect on either Akt or ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Incubation of rat VSMCs with INS resulted in an increase of VSMCs proliferation by 87% (p<0.001.) The effect of INS on VSMCs proliferation was significantly reduced by 68% by pretreatment with LY294002 (p>0.01) and by 71% (p>0.01) by pretreatment with PD98059. These results indicate that INS acts through Akt and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways to up-regulate proliferation of VSMC's. PMID:19235132

  13. Differential Effects of Nitrostyrene Derivatives on Myelopoiesis Involve Regulation of C/EBP? and p38MAPK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Anton C.; Maso, Victor; da Silva, Saulo L.; Bierings, Marc B.; de Souza Queiroz, Mary L.; Coffer, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow failure syndromes and MDS represent a heterogenous group of diseases, characterized by ineffective myelopoiesis, the risk of clonal evolution and a generally poor response to chemotherapy-based treatment regimen. Nitrostyrene derivatives have been studied as protein phosphatase inhibitors in various tumor models. Pharmacological studies have identified nitrostyrene as the structural core underlying a pro-apoptotic effect in tumor cells, yet their effects on normal cells, including those of the hematopoietic system, are largely unknown. In this study, utilizing umbilical cord blood-derived myeloid progenitor cells, patient-derived bone marrow cells, and a (BALB/c) mouse model; we investigated the effects of treatment with two nitrostyrene derivatives (NTS1 and NTS2) on myeloid development. We demonstrate that these compounds stimulate the expansion and differentiation of myeloid progenitors in vitro and improve myeloid reconstitution after chemotherapy-induced bone marrow depletion in vitro and in vivo. These effects were accompanied by increased C/EBP? expression and activity and inhibition of the p38MAPK signalling pathway. Together, our data suggest that nitrostyrenes improve myelopoiesis and represent potential new treatment strategies for patients suffering from bone marrow failure syndromes, hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome and chemotherapy-induced aplasia. PMID:24614182

  14. Partnering with Pueblos: Involving American Indians in environmental restoration activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shaner, M.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1995-02-01

    Many communities in the area surrounding Los Alamos are very concerned about the environmental impact past and current Laboratory operations have on their communities. Their main concerns are contamination of water, soil and air as well as the hazardous and radioactive wastes stored at the Laboratory site. Environmental surveillance results show that contamination may have migrated off-site through the canyons of the Pajarito Plateau to the Rio Grande. San Ildefonso Pueblo and Cochiti Pueblo are located downstream from the canyons that drain the Los Alamos town site and Laboratory lands. Several other pueblos are also located downstream from the Laboratory. The Pueblos located upstream from the laboratory indicated that contamination of air and worry about the contamination of the animals they hunt for food is a more important concern to them. There are many canyons that drain the areas where Los Alamos and Laboratory property are located. To be able to characterize those canyons that are known or suspected to have received contamination, the ER Project needs to prepare RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) work plans for approval by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Once EPA approves the work plant, characterization activities can start for the specific areas identified in the work plan.

  15. A Pcl-Like Cyclin of Aspergillus nidulans Is Transcriptionally Activated by Developmental Regulators and Is Involved in Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Schier, Niklas; Liese, Ralf; Fischer, Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation of spores on a multicellular aerial structure, called a conidiophore. A key regulator of asexual development is the TFIIIA-type zinc finger containing transcriptional activator Bristle (BRLA). Besides BRLA, the transcription factor ABAA, which is located downstream of BRLA in the developmental regulation cascade, is necessary to direct later gene expression during sporulation. We isolated a new developmental mutant and identified a leaky brlA mutation and the mutated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclin homologue pclA, both contributing to the developmental phenotype of the mutant. pclA was found to be 10-fold transcriptionally upregulated during conidiation, and a pclA deletion strain was reduced three- to fivefold in production of conidia. Expression of pclA was strongly induced by ectopic expression of brlA or abaA under conidiation-suppressing conditions, indicating a direct role for brlA and abaA in pclA regulation. PCLA is homologous to yeast Pcl cyclins, which interact with the Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase. Although interaction with a PSTAIRE kinase was shown in vivo, PCLA function during sporulation was independent of the A. nidulans Pho85 homologue PHOA. Besides the developmental regulation, pclA expression was cell cycle dependent with peak transcript levels in S phase. Our findings suggest a role for PCLA in mediating cell cycle events during late stages of sporulation. PMID:11359914

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of platinum(II) oxalato complexes involving 7-azaindole derivatives as coligands.

    PubMed

    Štarha, Pavel; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Popa, Igor; Dvo?ák, Zden?k

    2014-01-01

    The platinum(II) oxalato complexes [Pt(ox)(naza)2] (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N), multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS); naza = 4-chloro-7-azaindole (4Claza; 1), 3-bromo-7-azaindole (3Braza; 2) or 4-bromo-7-azaindole (4Braza; 3). The prepared substances were screened for their in vitro antitumor activity on the osteosarcoma (HOS) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) human cancer cell lines, where 2 showed moderate antitumor effect (IC50 = 27.5 ?M, and 18.3 ?M, respectively). The complex 2 was further tested on a panel of six others human cancer cell lines, including the malignant melanoma (G361), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), ovarian carcinoma (A2780), cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780R), lung carcinoma (A549) and prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP). This substance was found to be moderate antitumor effective against G361 (IC50 = 17.3 ?M), HeLa (IC50 = 31.8 ?M) and A2780 (IC50 = 19.2 ?M) cell lines. The complex 2 was also studied by NMR for its solution stability and by ESI-MS experiments for its ability to interact with biomolecules, such as cysteine, glutathione or guanosine 5'-monophosphate. PMID:25068781

  17. Epigenome analysis reveals TBX5 as a novel transcription factor involved in the activation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Karouzakis, Emmanuel; Trenkmann, Michelle; Gay, Renate E; Michel, Beat A; Gay, Steffen; Neidhart, Michel

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we analyzed the methylation status of human promoters in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF). Differentially methylated genes between RASF and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF) were identified by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and hybridization to human promoter tiling arrays. The methylation status was confirmed by pyrosequencing. Gene and protein expression of differentially methylated genes was evaluated with real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to measure the gene promoter-associated acetylation and methylation of histones. Transcription factor-specific targets were identified with microarray and luciferase assays. We found that the transcription factor T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5) was less methylated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium and RASF than in osteoarthritis (OA) samples. Demethylation of the TBX5 promoter in RASF and RA synovium was accompanied by higher TBX5 expression than in OASF and OA synovium. In RA synovium, TBX5 expression was primarily localized to the synovial lining. In addition, the TBX5 locus was enriched in activating chromatin marks, such as histone 4 lysine 4 trimethylation and histone acetylation, in RASF. In our functional studies, we observed that 790 genes were differentially expressed by 2-6-fold after overexpression of TBX5 in OASF. Bioinformatic analysis of these genes revealed that the chemokines IL-8, CXCL12, and CCL20 were common targets of TBX5 in OASF. Taken together, our data show that TBX5 is a novel inducer of important chemokines in RASF. Thus, we conclude that RASF contribute to the inflammatory processes operating in the pathogenesis of RA via epigenetic control of TBX5. PMID:25320281

  18. Characterization of lipoteichoic acid structures from three probiotic Bacillus strains: involvement of D-alanine in their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Villéger, Romain; Saad, Naima; Grenier, Karine; Falourd, Xavier; Foucat, Loïc; Urdaci, Maria C; Bressollier, Philippe; Ouk, Tan-Sothea

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics represent a potential strategy to influence the host's immune system thereby modulating immune response. Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) is a major immune-stimulating component of Gram-positive cell envelopes. This amphiphilic polymer, anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane by means of its glycolipid component, typically consists of a poly (glycerol-phosphate) chain with D-alanine and/or glycosyl substitutions. LTA is known to stimulate macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of inflammatory mediators such as Nitric Oxide (NO). This study investigates the structure-activity relationship of purified LTA from three probiotic Bacillus strains (Bacillus cereus CH, Bacillus subtilis CU1 and Bacillus clausii O/C). LTAs were extracted from bacterial cultures and purified. Chemical modification by means of hydrolysis at pH 8.5 was performed to remove D-alanine. The molecular structure of native and modified LTAs was determined by (1)H NMR and GC-MS, and their inflammatory potential investigated by measuring NO production by RAW 264.7 macrophages. Structural analysis revealed several differences between the newly characterized LTAs, mainly relating to their D-alanylation rates and poly (glycerol-phosphate) chain length. We observed induction of NO production by LTAs from B. subtilis and B. clausii, whereas weaker NO production was observed with B. cereus. LTA dealanylation abrogated NO production independently of the glycolipid component, suggesting that immunomodulatory potential depends on D-alanine substitutions. D-alanine may control the spatial configuration of LTAs and their recognition by cell receptors. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory abilities of probiotics is essential to optimize their use. PMID:25090957

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse microbial communities in microbial electrolysis cells involved in enhanced H2 production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-05-01

    Renewable H(2) production from a plentiful biomass, waste activated sludge (WAS), can be achieved by fermentation, but the yields are low. The use of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) can increase the H(2) production yields to several times that of fermentation. We have proved that the enhancement of H(2) production was due to the ability of MECs to use a wider range of organic matter in WAS than in fermentation. To support this result strongly, we here investigated the microbial community structures of WAS and anode biofilms in WAS-fed MECs. A pyrosequencing analysis based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that dominant populations in MECs were more diverse than those in WAS (inoculum and substrate) after enrichment, and there was a clear distinction between MECs and WAS in microbial community structure. Diverse acid-producing bacteria and exoelectrogens (predominance of Geobacter) were detected in MECs but they were only rarely found in WAS. It has been reported that these acid-producing bacteria can ferment various sugars and amines with acetate, propionate, and butyrate as their major by-products. This was consistent with our chemical analyses. Detected exoelectrogens are known to use these organic acids (mainly acetate) and certain sugars to directly produce current for H(2) generation at the cathodes in the MECs. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that a consistent feed of alkaline-pretreated WAS containing large amounts of acetate led to a predominance of acetoclastic methanogens, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were abundant in MECs fed both raw and alkaline-pretreated WAS. Syntrophic interactions between phylogenetically diverse microbial populations in anodophilic biofilms were found to drive the efficient cascade utilization of organic matter in WAS. PMID:22374298

  20. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W., E-mail: lostrow1@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  1. Discovery of a gene involved in a third bacterial protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity through comparative genomic analysis and functional complementation.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Tye O; Gerdes, Svetlana; Craven, Sarah H; Neidle, Ellen L; Phillips, John D; Dailey, Harry A

    2011-07-01

    Tetrapyrroles are ubiquitous molecules in nearly all living organisms. Heme, an iron-containing tetrapyrrole, is widely distributed in nature, including most characterized aerobic and facultative bacteria. A large majority of bacteria that contain heme possess the ability to synthesize it. Despite this capability and the fact that the biosynthetic pathway has been well studied, enzymes catalyzing at least three steps have remained "missing" in many bacteria. In the current work, we have employed comparative genomics via the SEED genomic platform, coupled with experimental verification utilizing Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to identify one of the missing enzymes, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in heme biosynthesis. COG1981 was identified by genomic analysis as a candidate protein family for the missing enzyme in bacteria that lacked HemG or HemY, two known protoporphyrinogen oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence of COG1981 is unlike those of the known enzymes HemG and HemY, but in some genomes, the gene encoding it is found neighboring other heme biosynthetic genes. When the COG1981 gene was deleted from the genome of A. baylyi, a bacterium that lacks both hemG and hemY, the organism became auxotrophic for heme. Cultures accumulated porphyrin intermediates, and crude cell extracts lacked protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. The heme auxotrophy was rescued by the presence of a plasmid-borne protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene from a number of different organisms, such as hemG from Escherichia coli, hemY from Myxococcus xanthus, or the human gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:21642412

  2. A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade module, MKK3-MPK6 and MYC2, is involved in blue light-mediated seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Vishmita; Raghuram, Badmi; Sinha, Alok Krishna; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2014-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in several signal transduction processes in eukaryotes. Light signal transduction pathways have been extensively studied in plants; however, the connection between MAPK and light signaling pathways is currently unknown. Here, we show that MKK3-MPK6 is activated by blue light in a MYC2-dependent manner. MPK6 physically interacts with and phosphorylates a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, MYC2, and is phosphorylated by a MAPK kinase, MKK3. Furthermore, MYC2 binds to the MPK6 promoter and regulates its expression in a feedback regulatory mechanism in blue light signaling. We present mutational and physiological studies that illustrate the function of the MKK3-MPK6-MYC2 module in Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development and provide a revised mechanistic view of photomorphogenesis. PMID:25139007

  3. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibits NF-kappaB activation and iNOS expression induced by IL-1beta: involvement of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, A F; Carvalho, A P; Caramona, M M; Lopes, M C

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In this work, we studied the mechanisms by which diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1) in bovine articular chondrocytes. To achieve this, we evaluated the ability of DPI to inhibit the expression and activity of the inducible isoform of the NO synthase (iNOS) induced by IL-1. We also studied the ability of DPI to prevent IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. RESULTS: Northern and Western blot analysis, respectively, showed that DPI dose-dependently inhibited IL-1-induced iNOS mRNA and protein synthesis in primary cultures of bovine articular chondrocytes. DPI effectively inhibited NO production (IC50=0.03+/-0.004 microM), as evaluated by the method of Griess. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation, as evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was inhibited by DPI (1-10 microM) in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1-induced ROS production, as evaluated by measurement of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, was inhibited by DPI at concentrations that also prevented NF-kappaB activation and iNOS expression. CONCLUSIONS: DPI inhibits IL-1-induced NO production in chondrocytes by two distinct mechanisms: (i) by inhibiting NOS activity, and (ii) by preventing iNOS expression through the blockade of NF-kappaB activation. These results also support the involvement of reactive oxygen species in IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation and expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, such as iNOS. PMID:11577997

  4. Mutational Analysis Suggests That Activation of the Yeast Pheromone Response Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway Involves Conformational Changes in the Ste5 Scaffold Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Claudio; Inouye, Carla J.; Stroschein, Shannon L.; Iaquinta, Phillip J.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Ste5 is essential for pheromone response and binds components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade: Ste11 (MEKK), Ste7 (MEK), and Fus3 (MAPK). Pheromone stimulation releases G?? (Ste4-Ste18), which recruits Ste5 and Ste20 (p21-activated kinase) to the plasma membrane, activating the MAPK cascade. A RING-H2 domain in Ste5 (residues 177–229) negatively regulates Ste5 function and mediates its interaction with G??. Ste5(C177A C180A), carrying a mutated RING-H2 domain, cannot complement a ste5? mutation, yet supports mating even in ste4? ste5? cells when artificially dimerized by fusion to glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast, wild-type Ste5 fused to GST permits mating of ste5? cells, but does not allow mating of ste4? ste5? cells. This differential behavior provided the basis of a genetic selection for STE5 gain-of-function mutations. MATa ste4? ste5? cells expressing Ste5-GST were mutagenized chemically and plasmids conferring the capacity to mate were selected. Three independent single-substitution mutations were isolated. These constitutive STE5 alleles induce cell cycle arrest, transcriptional activation, and morphological changes normally triggered by pheromone, even when G?? is absent. The first, Ste5(C226Y), alters the seventh conserved position in the RING-H2 motif, confirming that perturbation of this domain constitutively activates Ste5 function. The second, Ste5(P44L), lies upstream of a basic segment, whereas the third, Ste5(S770K), is situated within an acidic segment in a region that contacts Ste7. None of the mutations increased the affinity of Ste5 for Ste11, Ste7, or Fus3. However, the positions of these novel-activating mutations suggested that, in normal Ste5, the N terminus may interact with the C terminus. Indeed, in vitro, GST-Ste5(1-518) was able to associate specifically with radiolabeled Ste5(520-917). Furthermore, both the P44L and S770K mutations enhanced binding of full-length Ste5 to GST-Ste5(1-518), whereas they did not affect Ste5 dimerization. Thus, binding of G?? to the RING-H2 domain may induce a conformational change that promotes association of the N- and C-terminal ends of Ste5, stimulating activation of the MAPK cascade by optimizing orientation of the bound kinases and/or by increasing their accessibility to Ste20-dependent phosphorylation (or both). In accord with this model, the novel Ste5 mutants copurified with Ste7 and Fus3 in their activated state and their activation required Ste20. PMID:11071925

  5. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research. PMID:25732174

  6. p38MAPK activation is involved in androgen-independent proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by regulating IL-6 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Shida, Yohei [Division of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Igawa, Tsukasa [Division of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: tigawa@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Hakariya, Tomoaki [Division of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Sakai, Hideki [Division of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Kanetake, Hiroshi [Division of Nephro-Urology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)

    2007-02-16

    Increased levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) are frequently observed in patients with advanced, hormone-refractory prostate cancer. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 regulation is still largely unknown. Since prostate cancer gradually progresses to an androgen-independent state despite the stress caused by various therapeutic agents, we hypothesized the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) involvement in androgen-independent growth or IL-6 secretion of prostate cancer cells. Using PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells, we analyzed the role of SAPKs in IL-6 mediated cell growth and found that the p38MAPK and JNK are involved in androgen-independent cancer cell growth. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion by PC-3 and DU145 cells was significantly suppressed by SAPKs inhibitor, especially by p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK inhibitor, PD98059. These results raised the possibility that the IL-6 mediated androgen-independent proliferation of PC-3 and DU145 cells is regulated at least partly via SAPKs signaling pathway especially through p38MAPK activation.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? attenuates serotonin-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition involving ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyuan; Chen, Chunyan; Cheng, Gong; Liang, Lei; Yao, Xiaowei; Yang, Guang; You, Penghua; Shou, Xiling

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by inducing pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and inhibiting PASMC apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a crucial role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis of many cell types. Moreover, recently, loss of PPAR? has also been reported to be associated with the development of PAH. The present study is aimed to assess whether PPAR? is involved in 5-HT induced PASMC proliferation and apoptosis inhibition and the possible mechanism. We found that 5-HT could induce PASMC proliferation and inhibit PASMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that 5-HT negatively regulated PPAR? expression and gene promoter activity in PASMCs and 5-HT induced PASMC proliferation and apoptosis resistance could be abolished by PPAR? agonists and enhanced by PPAR? inhibitor. In addition, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway mediated the 5-HT-induced inhibition of PPAR? expression. Our results might provide novel insights into the mechanisms for the pro-remodeling action of 5-HT in pulmonary vasculature. PMID:25937083

  8. Evidence for the involvement of diacylglycerol kinase in the activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 by low oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, J; Jones, D R; Martin, S; San Juan, M A; Alfranca, A; Vidal, F; Vara, A; Mérida, I; Landázuri, M O

    2001-03-30

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) induces a gene expression program essential for the cellular adaptation to lowered oxygen environments. The intracellular mechanisms by which hypoxia induces HIF-1 remain poorly understood. Here we show that exposure of various cell types to hypoxia raises the intracellular level of phosphatidic acid primarily through the action of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Pharmacological inhibition of DGK activity through use of the specific DGK inhibitors and abrogated specifically HIF-1-dependent transcription analyzed with a HIF-1-responsive reporter plasmid. A more detailed analysis revealed that pharmacological inhibition of DGK activity prevented the hypoxia-dependent accumulation of the HIF-1alpha subunit and the subsequent HIF-1-DNA complex formation as well as hypoxia-induced activity of the HIF-1 transactivation domains localized to amino acids 530-582 and 775-826 of the HIF-1alpha subunit. Our results demonstrate for the first time that accumulation of phosphatidic acid through DGK underlines oxygen sensing and provide evidence for the involvement of this lipid kinase in the intracellular signaling that leads to HIF-1 activation. PMID:11136721

  9. Intracellular calcium and phospholipid turnover are not involved in the inhibition of iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase type II activity by T4.

    PubMed

    Juge-Aubry, C; Dôme, P; Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Capponi, A M; Burger, A G

    1991-01-01

    In glial cell cultures, iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase type II is stimulated by dibutyryl cAMP. Serum-free medium increases enzyme activity and prolongs the half-life of the enzyme. T4 and rT3 specifically inhibit this activity. We tested whether enzyme inactivation by T4 was mediated by changes in cytosolic free calcium concentration and/or phospholipid turnover. Intracellular calcium concentration was decreased either by chelation of extracellular calcium or by chelation of extracellular and intracellular calcium. Neither basal hypothyroid 5'-deiodinase activity nor its inactivation by T4 were modified in such experimental conditions, compared with control cells incubated in normal calcium-containing medium. T4 by itself had no effect on the cytosolic free calcium concentration for up to 20 min. Studies on phospholipid turnover included norepinephrine in parallel to T4 as positive stimulation control. While norepinephrine clearly accelerated phosphoinositide turnover, there was no effect of T4 on any phospholipid turnover. These results suggest that neither cytosolic free calcium nor phospholipid turnover is involved in T4-dependent modulation of 5'-deiodinase type II activity in astrocytes in culture. PMID:2000702

  10. Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Dehghani, Faramarz; Habazettl, Iris; Schomerus, Christof; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2006-07-01

    Cannabinoids modulate neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits by binding to cannabinoid receptors acting upon cAMP/Ca(2+)-mediated intracellular signaling cascades. The rat pineal represents an established model to investigate intracellular signaling processes because a well defined input, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, is transformed via cAMP/Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms into an easily detectable output signal, the biosynthesis of melatonin. Here we investigated the impact of cannabinoids on norepinephrine-regulated melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal. We demonstrated that treatment of cultured rat pineals with 9-carboxy-11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol or cannabinol significantly reduced norepinephrine-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity and melatonin biosynthesis. These effects were not mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and were not blocked by cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptor antagonists. The cannabinoids used did not affect norepinephrine-induced increases in cAMP/Ca(2+) levels. Notably, cannabinoids were found to directly inhibit AANAT activity in lysates of the pineal gland. This effect was specific in so far as cannabinoids did not influence the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the last enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades. PMID:16805813

  11. Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kuo, H.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jean, L.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, T.-H. [School of Applied Chemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-03-01

    Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents. Herein, we present an investigation regarding the anticancer potential of luteolin, a natural flavonoid, and the mechanism of its action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear staining assay, it showed that luteolin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Luteolin induced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activated CPP32. We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h. In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h. Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin. Finally, the apoptosis induced by luteolin was suppressed by a pretreatment with SP600125 via evaluating annexin V-FITC binding assay. These data suggest that luteolin induced apoptosis via mechanisms involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK.

  12. Signal transduction of adipokinetic hormones involves Ca2+ fluxes and depends on extracellular Ca2+ to potentiate cAMP-induced activation of glycogen phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Vroemen, S F; Van Marrewijk, W J; Schepers, C C; Van der Horst, D J

    1995-06-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-induced mobilization of insect fat body glycogen occurs through activation of glycogen phosphorylase. In the migratory locust, signal transduction of AKH-I, -II and -III has been shown to involve the formation of cAMP. In the present study, we show that both the elevation of fat body cAMP levels and the activation of phosphorylase by the three AKHs in vitro depend on the presence of extracellular Ca2+; in the absence of Ca2+ in the medium, no phosphorylase activation occurs, whereas a concentration of at least 1.5 mM Ca2+ in the medium is required for maximal activation by each of the hormones. Furthermore, we show that AKH-I, -II and -III increase the influx of extracellular calcium into the fat body, as well as the efflux of cytosolic calcium from the fat body into the medium within 1 min of incubation. Although the time courses of their effects and the maximal responses to massive doses (40 nM) of the three hormones do not differ, AKH-III induces the highest increase in Ca2+ efflux when applied in a physiological dose (4 nM). No difference in the levels of Ca2+ influx induced by 4 nM of the hormones was observed. Quantitative analysis of the data suggests that the AKH-induced influx is larger than the efflux, implying a net rise in the fat body Ca2+ concentration. PMID:8521460

  13. Apoptosis Induction by the Total Flavonoids from Arachniodes exilis in HepG2 Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction Involving MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chaomei; Wei, Han; Yin, Changchang; Ruan, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    Arachniodes exilis is used as a folk medicine in China and proved to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and sedative activities. In the present study, the antitumor effect of the total flavonoids of A. exilis (TFAE) against HepG2 cells was evaluated. The results showed that TFAE inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dosage- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining results showed that TFAE could significantly increase the apoptosis ratio of HepG2 cells, which is accompanied with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Western blotting indicated that TFAE downregulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increased cytochrome c release, and activated the caspases-3 and -9. Further analysis showed that TFAE stimulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, treatment with NAC (reactive oxygen species scavenger) and MAPK-specific inhibitors (SP600125 and SB203580) could reverse the changes of these apoptotic-related proteins. These results suggested that TFAE possessed potential anticancer activity in HepG2 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction involving MAPK pathway. PMID:24976852

  14. DDX60 Is Involved in RIG-I-Dependent and Independent Antiviral Responses, and Its Function Is Attenuated by Virus-Induced EGFR Activation.

    PubMed

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Miyashita, Moeko; Okamoto, Masaaki; Morioka, Yuka; Okabe, Masaru; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-05-26

    RIG-I-mediated type I interferon (IFN) production and nuclease-mediated viral RNA degradation are essential for antiviral innate immune responses. DDX60 is an IFN-inducible cytoplasmic helicase. Here, we report that DDX60 is a sentinel for both RIG-I activation and viral RNA degradation. We show that DDX60 is an upstream factor of RIG-I that activates RIG-I signaling in a ligand-specific manner. DDX60 knockout attenuates RIG-I signaling and significantly reduces virus-induced type I IFN production in vivo. In addition, we show that DDX60 is involved in RIG-I-independent viral RNA degradation. DDX60 and RIG-I adaptor MAVS double-knockout mice reveal a role for DDX60-dependent RNA degradation in antiviral responses. Several viruses induced DDX60 phosphorylation via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), leading to attenuation of the DDX60 antiviral activities. Our results define DDX60 as a sentinel for cytoplasmic antiviral response, which is counteracted by virus-mediated EGF receptor activation. PMID:25981042

  15. Expression of adhesion molecules and ligands for activating and costimulatory receptors involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity in a large panel of human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Casado, Javier G; Pawelec, Graham; Morgado, Sara; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Delgado, Elena; Gayoso, Inmaculada; Duran, Esther; Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of the interactions between MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic effector cells and solid tumour cells is essential for introducing more effective NK cell-based immunotherapy protocols into clinical practise. Here, to begin to obtain an overview of the possible universe of molecules that could be involved in the interactions between immune effector cells and melanoma, we analyse the surface expression of adhesion and costimulatory molecules and of ligands for NK-activating receptors on a large panel of cell lines from the "European Searchable Tumour Cell Line and Data Bank" (ESTDAB, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/estdab/ ) and discuss their potential role in the immune response against this tumour. We show that most melanoma cell lines express not only adhesion molecules that are likely to favour their interaction with cells of the immune system, but also their interaction with endothelial cells potentially increasing their invasiveness and metastatic capacity. A high percentage of melanoma cell lines also express ligands for the NK-activating receptor NKG2D; whereas, the majority express MICA/B molecules, ULBP expression, however, was rarely found. In addition to these molecules, we also found that CD155 (poliovirus receptor, PVR) is expressed by the majority of melanoma cell lines, whereas CD112 (Nectin-2) expression was rare. These molecules are DNAM-1 ligands, a costimulatory molecule involved in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production that also mediates costimulatory signals for triggering naïve T cell differentiation. The phenotypical characterisation of adhesion molecules and ligands for receptors involved in cell cytotoxicity on a large series of melanoma cell lines will contribute to the identification of markers useful for the development of new immunotherapy strategies. PMID:19259667

  16. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in ?-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the ?-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of ?-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation. PMID:25487891

  17. Ischemic factor-induced increases in cerebral microvascular endothelial cell Na/H exchange activity and abundance: evidence for involvement of ERK1/2 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Natalie; Lam, Tina I; Wallace, Breanna K; Klug, Nicholas R; Anderson, Steven E; O'Donnell, Martha E

    2014-05-15

    Brain edema forms rapidly in the early hours of ischemic stroke by increased secretion of Na, Cl, and water into the brain across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), together with swelling of astrocytes as they take up the ions and water crossing the BBB. Our previous studies provide evidence that luminal BBB Na-K-Cl cotransport (NKCC) and Na/H exchange (NHE) participate in ischemia-induced edema formation. NKCC1 and two NHE isoforms, NHE1 and NHE2, reside predominantly at the luminal BBB membrane. NKCC and NHE activities of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) are rapidly stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP, and inhibition of NKCC and NHE activities by bumetanide and HOE642, respectively, reduces brain Na uptake and edema in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. The present study was conducted to further explore BBB NHE responses to ischemia. We examined whether ischemic factor-stimulated NHE activity is sustained over several hours, when the majority of edema forms during stroke. We also examined whether ischemic factors alter NHE1 and/or NHE2 protein abundance. Finally, we conducted initial studies of ERK1/2 MAP kinase involvement in BBB NHE and NKCC responses to ischemic factors. We found that hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP increase CMEC NHE activity through 5 h and that NHE1, but not NHE2, abundance is increased by 1- to 5-h exposures to these factors. Furthermore, we found that these factors rapidly increase BBB ERK1/2 activity and that ERK1/2 inhibition reduces or abolishes ischemic factor stimulation of NKCC and NHE activities. PMID:24647544

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are involved in the quinolinic acid, but not in the malonate pro-oxidative activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Puntel, Robson Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2005-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the neurotoxicity of a variety of agents that interact with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here we investigated in a comparative way the pro-oxidative effects of quinolinic acid (QA) and malonate, two neurotoxic substances that act through distinct primary molecular mechanisms on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) by brain homogenates. In fact, QA is thought to activate directly the NMDA receptor, whereas malonate seems to act primarily by inhibiting oxidative metabolism. The malonate-induced TBARS formation was not modified by cyanide (CN-) or 2,4-dinitrophenol. MK-801 did not reduce basal or malonate induced-TBARS production in fresh tissues preparations. However, in heat-treated preparations a significant effect of MK-801 against basal TBARS production was observed, but not on the malonate induced-TBARS production. QA induced-TBARS production was significantly prevented by MK-801 either in fresh or heat-treated preparations. The antioxidant effect of MK-801 on basal and QA-induced TBARS production increased as the temperatures used to treat S1 were increased. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was inhibited by malonate but not by QA. Malonate was able to chelate iron(II) and the malonate-iron complex(es) is(are) active as measured by its(their) activity on deoxyribose degradation assay. These findings indicate that direct interactions of malonate with NMDA receptors are not involved in malonate pro-oxidative activity in vitro. QA pro-oxidative activity in vitro was related, at least in part, to its capability in stimulate NMDA receptors. Taken together, these findings indicated that malonate pro-oxidative activity in vitro could be attributed to its capability of changing the ratio Fe2+/Fe3+, which is essential to TBARS production. PMID:16018587

  19. Ischemic factor-induced increases in cerebral microvascular endothelial cell Na/H exchange activity and abundance: evidence for involvement of ERK1/2 MAP kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Natalie; Lam, Tina I.; Wallace, Breanna K.; Klug, Nicholas R.; Anderson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema forms rapidly in the early hours of ischemic stroke by increased secretion of Na, Cl, and water into the brain across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), together with swelling of astrocytes as they take up the ions and water crossing the BBB. Our previous studies provide evidence that luminal BBB Na-K-Cl cotransport (NKCC) and Na/H exchange (NHE) participate in ischemia-induced edema formation. NKCC1 and two NHE isoforms, NHE1 and NHE2, reside predominantly at the luminal BBB membrane. NKCC and NHE activities of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) are rapidly stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP, and inhibition of NKCC and NHE activities by bumetanide and HOE642, respectively, reduces brain Na uptake and edema in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. The present study was conducted to further explore BBB NHE responses to ischemia. We examined whether ischemic factor-stimulated NHE activity is sustained over several hours, when the majority of edema forms during stroke. We also examined whether ischemic factors alter NHE1 and/or NHE2 protein abundance. Finally, we conducted initial studies of ERK1/2 MAP kinase involvement in BBB NHE and NKCC responses to ischemic factors. We found that hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP increase CMEC NHE activity through 5 h and that NHE1, but not NHE2, abundance is increased by 1- to 5-h exposures to these factors. Furthermore, we found that these factors rapidly increase BBB ERK1/2 activity and that ERK1/2 inhibition reduces or abolishes ischemic factor stimulation of NKCC and NHE activities. PMID:24647544