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Sample records for eimeria maxima recombinant

  1. Eimeria maxima microneme protein 2 delivered as DNA vaccine and recombinant protein induces immunity against experimental homogenous challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    E. maxima is one of the seven species of Eimeria that infects chicken. Until now, only a few antigenic genes of E. maxima have been reported. In the present study, the immune protective effects against E. maxima challenge of recombinant protein and DNA vaccine encoding EmMIC2 were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The experimental group of chickens was immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC2 or 200 μg rEmMIC2 protein while the control group of chickens was injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC2 antibody titers of both rEmMIC2 protein and pVAX1-MIC2 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P<0.05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation compared with the controls (P<0.05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC2 and rEmMIC2 protein displayed significantly high levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-4 (P<0.05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant protein and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss, increase oocyst, decrease ratio and provide ACIs of more than 165. All the above results suggested that immunization with EmMIC2 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. PMID:26072304

  2. Coccidian Merozoite Transcriptome Analysis From Eimeria Maxima In Comparison To Eimeria Tenella And Eimeria Acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the Eimeria spp. population that infect chickens as a model for coccidian biology, we aimed to survey the transcriptome of E. maxima and contrast it to the two other Eimeria spp. for which transcriptome data are available, E. tenella and E. acervulina. Examining specifically the asexual intra...

  3. Eimeria maxima recombinant Gam82 gametocyte antigen vaccine protects against coccidiosis and augments humoral and cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal infection with Eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis, stimulates protective immunity to subsequent colonization by the homologous parasite, whilst cross-protection against heterologous species is poor. As a first step toward the development of a broad specificity Eimeria vacci...

  4. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection. PMID:26012860

  5. Different susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing high concentrations of viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. ac...

  6. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immunoprotective protein IMP1 that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transc...

  7. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina infections using multivalent epitope DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Ren, Zhe; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-06-01

    Avian coccidiosis is mostly caused by mixed infection of several Eimeria species under natural conditions and immunity to avian coccidiosis is largely dependent on T-cell immune response. In this study, 14 T-cell epitope fragments from eight antigens of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) were ligated with pVAX1 producing 14 monovalent DNA vaccines, respectively. Protective immunity of the monovalent DNA vaccines was assessed by in vivo challenge experiments and then four most protective fragments of each species were chosen to construct multivalent epitope DNA vaccines with or without chicken IL-2 as genetic adjuvant. Protective efficacies of the epitope DNA vaccines on chickens against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were evaluated. The results showed that the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds. Especially, the multivalent epitope DNA vaccines of pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1 and pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1-IL-2 not only significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds, but also resulted in anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 170 against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina, which indicated they could induce protective immunity against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina. Our findings suggest the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines are the potential candidate multivalent vaccines against mixed infection of Eimeria. PMID:25921712

  8. Co-infection of chickens with Eimeria praecox and Eimeria maxima does not prevent development of immunity to Eimeria praecox or Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies revealed an ameliorating effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection, such that weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and intestinal lesions were nearly identical to uninfected or E. praecox-infected controls. The purpose of the present study was to determine if p...

  9. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  10. Characterization and localization of an Eimeria-specific protein in Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently completed analysis of Eimeria maxima transcriptome indentified a gene with homology to sequences expressed by E. tenella and E. acervulina but lacking homology with other organisms including other apicomplexans. This gene designated ESP codes for a protein with predicted molecular weight...

  11. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian Jijel province poultry farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in Eimeria recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and ITS1 PCR revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely E. acervulina and E. maxima. A pool of these is...

  12. EIMERIA PRAECOX INFECTION AMELIORATES EFFECTS OF E. MAXIMA INFECTION IN CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection was studied in susceptible chickens. Cinical signs of coccidiosis were assessed in single infections with E. praecox or E. maxima and dual infection with both Eimeria species. Compared to uninfected controls, groups infected with 104 E...

  13. ANTIBODIES TO EIMERIA MAXIMA GAMETOCYTE ANTIGENS CROSS-REACT WITH EIMERIA TENELLA AND E. ACERVULINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been shown previously that vaccination with gamete specific molecules in Eimeria maxima offers protection via transfer of maternal antibodies (anti-EmAPGA), not just against infection with E. maxima, but also against E. tenella and E. acervulina. Antibodies to the gamete proteins recognise t...

  14. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs. PMID:27270394

  15. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. PMID:26181095

  16. Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profili...

  17. Innate immune response to Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima in necrotic enteritis model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated various aspects of host immune responses using a disease model for necrotic enteritis (NE) in which the severity of lesions produced by Clostridium perfringens was increased, and the growth performance of broiler chickens was decreased by prior infection with Eimeria maxima. Qu...

  18. Anticoccidial effect of green tea-based diets against Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anticoccidial effects of green tea-based diets were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima a ubiquitous intestinal parasite of poultry that impares the growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Five-week old chickens were assigned to four groups (GT 0.5%, GT 2.0%, in...

  19. IMMUNE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO GENETICALLY DISPARATE FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES FOLLOWING EIMERIA MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the influence of genetic differences in the major histocopatibility complex (MHC) on susceptibility to avian coccidiosis, M5.1 and M15.2 B-haplotype congenic Fayoumi chickens were orally infected with live Eimeria maxima oocysts and body weight gain, fecal oocyst production, and expre...

  20. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk Ig Y antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is economically the most important parasitic disease of the poultry industry and is caused by intestinal infection with Eimeria spp. An alternative control strategy potentially applicable to intestinal diseases such as avian coccidiosis involves passive immunization using hyperimm...

  1. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina infections using DC-derived exosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) in the absence of soluble Ag. Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from E...

  2. In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

  3. Large-scale investigation of the parameters in response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, E; Bed'Hom, B; Juin, H; Hawken, R; Abrahamsen, M S; Elsen, J M; Servin, B; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Demeure, O

    2015-04-01

    Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract caused by members of the genera Eimeria and Isospora, is one of the most common and costly diseases in chicken. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the challenge and level of variability of measured parameters in chickens during the challenge with Eimeria maxima. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate which parameters are the most relevant indicators of the health status. Finally, the study also aimed to estimate accuracy of prediction for traits that cannot be measured on large scale (such as intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count) using parameters that can easily be measured on all animals. The study was performed in 2 parts: a pilot challenge on 240 animals followed by a large-scale challenge on 2,024 animals. In both experiments, animals were challenged with 50,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts at 16 d of age. In the pilot challenge, all animals were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit, and rectal temperature and, in addition, a subset of 48 animals was measured for oocyst count and the intestinal lesion score. All animals from the second challenge were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, and hematocrit whereas a subset of 184 animals was measured for intestinal lesion score, fecal oocyst count, blood parameters, and plasma protein content and composition. Most of the parameters measured were significantly affected by the challenge. Lesion scores for duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.001), oocyst count (P < 0.05), plasma coloration for the optical density values between 450 and 490 nm (P < 0.001), albumin (P < 0.001), α1-globulin (P < 0.01), α2-globulin (P < 0.001), α3-globulin (P < 0.01), and β2-globulin (P < 0.001) were the most strongly affected parameters and expressed the greatest levels of variation. Plasma protein profiles proved to be a new, reliable parameter for measuring response to Eimeria maxima. Prediction of intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst

  4. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104 E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  5. Eimeria maxima phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase: locus sequencing, characterization, and cross-phylum comparison.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mei-Yen; Pan, Mei-Zhen; Blake, Damer P; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Song, Beng-Kah

    2011-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) may play an important role in host-cell invasion by the Eimeria species, protozoan parasites which can cause severe intestinal disease in livestock. Here, we report the structural organization of the PIP5K gene in Eimeria maxima (Weybridge strain). Two E. maxima BAC clones carrying the E. maxima PIP5K (EmPIP5K) coding sequences were selected for shotgun sequencing, yielding a 9.1-kb genomic segment. The EmPIP5K coding region was initially identified using in silico gene-prediction approaches and subsequently confirmed by mapping rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR-generated cDNA sequence to its genomic segment. The putative EmPIP5K gene was located at position 710-8036 nt on the complimentary strand and comprised of 23 exons. Alignment of the 1147 amino acid sequence with previously annotated PIP5K proteins from other Apicomplexa species detected three conserved motifs encompassing the kinase core domain, which has been shown by previous protein deletion studies to be necessary for PIP5K protein function. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the putative EmPIP5K protein is orthologous to that of other Apicomplexa. Subsequent comparative gene structure characterization revealed events of intron loss/gain throughout the evolution of the apicomplexan PIP5K gene. Further scrutiny of the genomic structure revealed a possible trend towards "intron gain" between two of the motif regions. Our findings offer preliminary insights into the structural variations that have occurred during the evolution of the PIP5K locus and may aid in understanding the functional role of this gene in the cellular biology of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:20938684

  6. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES FOLLOWING EIMERIA MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two inbred chicken lines, M5.1 and M15.2 which are B-haplotype disparate Fayoumi chickens, show different disease phenotypes following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Weight loss was reduced and fecal parasite numbers were lower in M5.1 compared with M15.2 line birds. This study was conducted...

  7. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. PMID:20723543

  8. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine. PMID:25193050

  9. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  10. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  11. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  12. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima. PMID:25800683

  13. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641

  14. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE, GENETICALLY INBRED FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES THAT DIFFER IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare the gene expression profiles following Eimeria maxima infection between two B-complex congenic lines (lines M5.1 and M15.2) of Fayoumi chickens which display differences in disease resistance and innate immunity against avian coccidiosis. A cDNA microarray, const...

  15. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE, GENETICALLY INBRED FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES THAT DIFFER IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to discriminate the gene expression profiles following Eimeria maxima infection between two B complex congenic lines (lines M5.1 and M15.2) of Fayoumi chickens which display differences in disease resistance and innate immunity against avian coccidiosis. A cDNA microarray, ...

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of Eimeria maxima oocyst immunization with different strains of day-old broiler and roaster chickens.

    PubMed

    Danforth, H D; Watkins, K; Martin, A; Dekich, M

    1997-01-01

    The performances of three different strains of male and female broiler or roaster chickens immunized at 1 day of age with a drug-resistant field isolate of Eimeria maxima were evaluated in battery and floorpen immunization trials. No difference in immunization potential was seen between these strains or sexes of day-old chickens immunized with 2500 oocysts/bird of E. maxima and challenged at 10 days of age with 25,000 oocysts/bird of the same isolate in two separate battery trials. All immunized birds showed significant protection for the parameters of weight gain and midintestinal lesion scores at 7 days post challenge (PC) when compared with nonimmunized challenged controls. In two separate floorpen trials, one broiler bird strain (designated strain 2) immunized by the same procedure and challenged at 21 days of age with the equivalent of 25,000 oocysts/bird of the same isolate showed significant protection for weight gain and lesion scores at 7 days PC when compared with nonimmunized controls. Birds in these same floorpen experiments immunized with E. maxima and then fed three different anticoccidial shuttle diets (narasin and nicarbazin 90 grams/ton (g/t) in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45.4 g/t in grower feed; nicarbazin 113 g/t in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45.4 g/t in grower feed; and monensin 100 g/t in starter and grower feed) showed no interference with elicited immunity with E. maxima challenge for the same parameters measured. No significant difference was seen between any floorpen immunized bird groups for total weight gain at trial terminations (49 days of age). PMID:9454911

  17. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mi...

  18. Immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA oil-based adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria acervulina infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with one ...

  19. Changes in Immune-Related Gene Expression and Intestinal Lymphocyte Subpopulations Following Eimeria maxima Infection of Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis, a major intestinal parasitic disease of poultry, induces a cell-mediated immune response against the etiologic agent of the disease, Eimeria. In the current study, the expression levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory, Th1, and Th2 cytokines, as well as chemokines were me...

  20. Immunogenicity of recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains carrying a gene that encodes Eimeria tenella antigen S07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an attempt to develop an efficacious vaccine against avian coccidiosis, research was conducted using Type III Secretion System (TTSS) of Salmonella to deliver Eimeria antigens into the cytoplasm of host cells. Once delivered, recombinant protein may enter the MHC I antigen processing pathway for...

  1. DIFFERENTIAL CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO GENETICALLY DISPARATE CHICKEN LINES IN RESPONSE TO INFECTION WITH EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is major parasitic disease of poultry causing substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. This study investigated the immunological basis for the genetic control of host immune response to E. maxima infection. Two highly inbred lines of Fayoumi chickens with different ...

  2. DIFFERENTIAL IMMUNE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO GENETICALLY DISPARATE CHICKEN LINES DURING INFECTION BY EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two M5.1 and M15.2 B complex congenic lines of Fayoumi chickens were evaluated for body weight loss and fecal oocyst counts as parameters of avian coccidiosis. M51 chickens exhibited the resistance to E. maxima compared with M15.2. To correlate the differential responses of the M5.1 and M15.2 line...

  3. DIFFERENTIAL IMMUNE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO GENETICALLY DISPARATE FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES FOLLOWING EIMERIA MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two M5.1 and M15.2 B complex congenic lines of Fayoumi chickens were evaluated for body weight loss and fecal oocyst counts as parameters of avian coccidiosis. M5.1 chickens exhibited the resistance to E. maxima compared with M15.2. To correlate the differential responses of the M5.1 and M15.2 lin...

  4. Impact of glutamine and Oasis hatchling supplement on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers vaccinated and challenged with Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Yi, G F; Allee, G L; Knight, C D; Dibner, J J

    2005-02-01

    Seven hundred and twenty hatchling broilers were allotted to 12 treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 were fasted for 48 h posthatch; groups 3 and 4 were fasted for 48 h followed by ad libitum access to a 1% glutamine (Gln) diet; groups 5 and 6 had ad libitum access to a common diet; groups 7 and 8 had access to a 1% Gln diet posthatch; groups 9 and 10 were fed regular Oasis hatchling supplement; and groups 11 and 12 were fed Oasis sprayed with 1% Gln for the first 48 h posthatch. The birds in treatment groups 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12 were vaccinated with Eimeria maxima posthatch, and all birds were orally challenged with high dose E. maxima on d 22. During the first 2 wk, birds in group 7 had the highest gain and feed efficiency among treatments (P < 0.01). Compared with birds in the nonGln groups, birds in the Gln group had higher gain, feed efficiency, and livability (P < 0.05). Among the Fast (groups 1 to 4), Feed (groups 5 to 8), and Oasis (groups 9 to 12) groups, birds in the Feed groups had the highest gain during d 0 to 21 (P < 0.01). During d 22 to 28, birds in the Fast groups had the lowest BW and livability (P < 0.01), and the nonvaccinated birds had lower gain and feed efficiency relative to vaccinated birds (P < 0.01). Birds in the Feed and Oasis groups had higher villus height (VH) of mid small intestine than Fast groups at d 2 and 7 (P < 0.05), and nonvaccinated birds had higher VH than vaccinated birds (P < 0.01) at d 7 after hatch. On d 14, there were differences in serum interferon-gamma (P < 0.05) levels among treatments. During d 22 to 28, vaccinated birds had lower lesion scores in the mid small intestine than nonvaccinated birds (P < 0.01), and birds in the Feed or Oasis groups had lower lesion scores compared with the Fast groups (P < 0.02). These results indicated the importance of immediate access to feed posthatch, the beneficial effects of feeding Oasis hatching supplement and Gln after hatch, as well as the necessity of the vaccination

  5. Construction and Application of an Avian Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocyte cDNA Microarray for Gene Expression Profiling during Eimeria maxima Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are the primary immune effector cells in the gut and play a critical role in eliciting protective immunity to enteric pathogens such as Eimeria, the etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis. In this study, a library of genes expressed by intestinal IELs of ...

  6. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3–10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima. PMID:26641262

  7. A novel recombinant BCG vaccine encoding eimeria tenella rhomboid and chicken IL-2 induces protective immunity against coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Li, Jianhua; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-06-01

    A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

  8. A recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine encoding Eimeria acervulina antigen offers protection against E. acervulina challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous disease caused by several distinct species of intestinal protozoan parasite Eimeria spp.. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is critically important for protection against Eimeria, thus our approach utilizes bacterial Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) to deliver an antigen di...

  9. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo F D; Thamsborg, Stig M; Madeira, Alda M B N; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Magalhães, Pedro M; Demattê Filho, Luiz C; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John E

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than in broilers given vaccination, oregano and in negative controls. There was a trend for lower mortality (P = 0·08) in the later stage of the growing period (23-43 days) in broilers given the highest dosage of herbal mixture compared with broilers given chemical coccidiostats. In conclusion, the delivery strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed. PMID:24553078

  10. In ovo administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and the recombinant microneme protein MIC2 protects against Eimeria infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that short oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) exert a positive effect on weight loss and oocyst shedding associated with Eimeria infection when injected in vivo. The present work investigated the effects of in ovo vaccination with CpG...

  11. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING EIMERIA-INFECTED CHICKENS USING CDNA MICROARRAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by several Eimeria strains which infect different regions of the intestine inducing a strain-specific immunity. To investigate host immune response against two major Eimeria spp., we infected SC White-Leghorn chickens with E. acervulina and E. maxima and compared their gl...

  12. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines co-infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with co-infection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic ente...

  13. Evaluation of immune protective efficacies of Eimeria tenella EtMic1 polypeptides with different domain recombination displayed on yeast surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peipei; Lv, Junfeng; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zhengtao; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, three different live oral vaccines using the EBY100/pCTCON-2 yeast surface display system with different Eimeria tenella microneme-1 (EtMic1) protein domain recombination were constructed and their protective efficacies against homologous challenge were compared by evaluating the body weight gains, relative growth rate, cecal lesion scores, oocyst output, oocyst decrease ratio, anti-coccidial index, the serum antibody levels and the proliferation ability of blood lymphocytes. The results indicated that all the three constructed live oral vaccines expressing different EtMic1 polypeptides provided excellent protection against homologous challenge by significantly increasing weight gains, reducing cecal lesions, achieving a high ACI, elevating specific antibody response and splenocyte proliferation ability compared with controls. The yeasts displaying the EtMic1 polypeptide-III (expressed TSP-2, TSP-3 and TSP-4 domains) provided better protection against challenge than the yeasts displaying either the EtMic1 polypeptide-I (expressed I-domain, TSP-1 and TSP-2) or polypeptide-II (expressed I-domain and all the five TSP domains) did. Considering the exclusion of antibiotic resistant gene in the system, the strain EBY100 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a better choice for coccidian antigen delivery. PMID:25956946

  14. Identification and characterization of an Eimeria-conserved protein in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Han, Hongyu; Li, Ting; Zhao, Qiping; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    The precocious lines of Eimeria spp. have unique phenotypes. However, the genetic basis of the precocious phenotype is still poorly understood. The identification of Eimeria genes controlling the precocious phenotype is of immense importance in the fight against coccidiosis. In the present study, a novel gene of Eimeria maxima was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on the expressed sequence tag (EST). Homologous genes were also found in Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Alignment of the amino acid sequences from E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina showed 80-86 % identity, demonstrating a conserved protein in different Eimeria spp. This gene, designated Eimeria-conserved protein (ECP), contained 235 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.4 kDa and had 100 % identity with one annotated protein from E. maxima (Emax_0517). Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of ECP at mRNA and protein level in E. tenella is developmentally regulated. Messenger RNA levels from the ECP gene were higher in sporozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and second-generation merozoites). Expression of ECP protein was detected in unsporulated oocysts, increased in abundance in sporulated oocysts, and was most prominent in sporozoites. Thereafter, the level of the ECP protein decreased, and no ECP-specific protein was detected in second-generation merozoites. Immunostaining with anti-rECP indicated that ECP is highly concentrated in both refractile bodies (RB) of free sporozoites, but is located at the apical end of the sporozoites after invasion of DF-1 cells. The specific staining of the ECP protein becomes more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreases in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of the function of ECP using specific antibodies reduced the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. Compared with the

  15. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis. PMID:26473679

  16. Sporulation dynamics of poultry Eimeria oocysts in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, P; Raman, M; Gomathinayagam, S

    2015-12-01

    The infective form of Eimeria is the highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the faeces of infected animals. Present study was carried out to understand the sporulation dynamics of six Eimeria oocysts viz. E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella in Chennai. Faecal samples of poultry were collected from various poultry farms located in and around Tamil Nadu. Oocysts of various Eimeria species were examined microscopically for sporulation on a 6 h interval basis till complete sporulation is acheived. The sporulation time recorded was 168, 120, 216, 192, 96 and 96 h for E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella respectively. It can be concluded on comparison with previous studies that humid weather conditions delay the sporulation time and dry weather and wet litter is the ideal condition for rapid sporulation. PMID:26688635

  17. Protective immunity against Eimeria tenella infection in chickens induced by immunization with a recombinant C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Wei, Wenjun; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-15

    Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exits in Eimeria tenella. Cloning and sequence analysis has predicted the antigen to be a novel membrane protein of apicomplexan parasites. In order to assess the immunogenicity of EtIMP1, a C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1 was expressed in a bacterial host system and was used to immunize chickens. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the subunit vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. The results suggested that the C-terminal derivative of EtIMP1 might be considered as a candidate in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. PMID:25464823

  18. The molecular characterization and immune protection of microneme 2 of Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhenChao; Liu, LianRui; Huang, JingWei; Wang, Shuai; Lu, MingMin; Song, XiaoKai; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Li, XiangRui

    2016-01-15

    Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) is an intestinal protozoon and few of its antigen genes were researched. In this study, the gene of E. acervulina microneme protein 2 (EaMIC2) was cloned and characterized. The degenerate primers for the conserved sequence of microneme protein 2 were designed based on Eimeria tenella microneme 2 (EtMIC2) (AF111839.1), Eimeria maxima microneme 2 (EmMIC2) (FR718971.1) and E. brunetti microneme 2 (EbMIC2) (AB723700.1) to amplify the conserved sequence of microneme protein 2. According to the conserved sequence, specific primers for the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were designed to amplify the 3'- and 5'-ends of EaMIC2. The full length cDNA of this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3'- and 5'-extremities and amplification by reverse transcription PCR. The sequence analysis revealed that the opening reading frame (ORF) of EaMIC2 was 882bp and encoded a protein of 293 amino acids with 29.81kDa. The most part of the mature protein (base: 82-882bp, amino acid: 28-293aa) of EaMIC2 (mpmEaMIC2) was inserted into pCold TF to produce recombinant mpmEaMIC2. Western blotting assay was used to analysis the immunogenicity of mpmEaMIC2 and the result showed that the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by the sera of chickens experimentally infected with E. acervulina, while the native protein in the somatic extract of sporozoites was as well detected by sera from rats immunized with the recombinant protein of mpmEaMIC2. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant protein mpmEaMIC2 indicated that this protein was expressed in the sporozoites and merozoites stages of E. acervulina. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of mpmEaMIC2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens. All the above results suggested that the EaMIC2 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could

  19. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    PubMed Central

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  20. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species. PMID:24508502

  1. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Thenmozhi, V; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Ayoade, Simeon; Fornace, Kimberly M; Jatau, Isa Danladi; Moftah, Abdalgader; Nolan, Matthew J; Sudhakar, N R; Adebambo, A O; Lawal, I A; Álvarez Zapata, Ramón; Awuni, Joseph A; Chapman, H David; Karimuribo, Esron; Mugasa, Claire M; Namangala, Boniface; Rushton, Jonathan; Suo, Xun; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Tewari, Anup K; Banerjee, Partha S; Dhinakar Raj, G; Raman, M; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2016-08-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp. remain largely unanswered. Here, we provide the broadest map yet of Eimeria occurrence for domestic chickens, confirming that all the known species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria tenella) are present in all six continents where chickens are found (including 21 countries). Analysis of 248 internal transcribed spacer sequences derived from 17 countries provided evidence of possible allopatric diversity for species such as E. tenella (FST values ⩽0.34) but not E. acervulina and E. mitis, and highlighted a trend towards widespread genetic variance. We found that three genetic variants described previously only in Australia and southern Africa (operational taxonomic units x, y and z) have a wide distribution across the southern, but not the northern hemisphere. While the drivers for such a polarised distribution of these operational taxonomic unit genotypes remains unclear, the occurrence of genetically variant Eimeria may pose a risk to food security and animal welfare in Europe and North America should these parasites spread to the northern hemisphere. PMID:27368611

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on local and systemic immune responses following immunization of chickens with an Eimeria recombinant protein. Chickens were fed ...

  3. Coccidial infections in commercial broilers: epidemiological aspects and comparison of Eimeria species identification by morphometric and polymerase chain reaction techniques.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Gjevre, Anne-Gerd; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G; Kaldhusdal, Magne

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology and the aetiology of coccidial infections in commercial broiler flocks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and morphometric identification of the Eimeria species were compared as means of differentiation in the field samples of faeces and litter. For morphometry, the Eimeria species were categorized into three groups based on lengths of the oocysts. Two random samples of commercial broilers were studied, one during 2000/01 and the other during 2003/04. The prophylactic regime (in-feed narasin), husbandry and methods applied were broadly the same for both subpopulations. Coccidial infection prevalence increased from approximately 45% to approximately 75% during this period, but infection levels (oocysts per gram of faeces) did not significantly change. There were substantial geographical differences in both prevalence and infection levels. A change in Eimeria species profile occurred during the study period. Five Eimeria species were identified at slaughter, by PCR targeting the ITS-1 region of the genome; Eimeria acervulina (100%), Eimeria tenella (77%), Eimeria maxima (25%), Eimeria praecox (10%) and Eimeria necatrix (2%). PCR and morphometric tentative identification were in complete agreement in only 49% of the cases. PMID:18393094

  4. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung H; Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Yoo, Jeongmi; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Jung, Byeong Y; Kwon, Jun H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through microscopic examination, it was determined that 78.7% of the tested farms were positive in Eimeria-infection. Seven Eimeria species were detected in all the positive farms by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region with species-specific primers. E. acervulina and E. tenella were the most prevalent, followed by E. brunetti and E. praecox (87.5, 62.5, 59.3, and 37.5% of the farms, respectively). Each of E. maxima, E. mitis, and E. necatrix was identified in 31.3% of the farms. Individual positive fecal samples contained multiple Eimeria species (mean=3.4). Since E. maxima is known to generate antigenic variants, cross-immunity was investigated for four isolates of E. maxima from the poultry farms in different regions of Korea. The extent of cross-protection varied from 54.3 to 100% against the heterologous isolates. The results obtained from this large-scale survey will be a useful reference for controlling coccidiosis in the poultry industry. PMID:20234110

  5. Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

    PubMed Central

    Györke, Adriana; Pop, Loredana; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species (E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina + E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella + E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives. PMID:24309007

  6. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed effic...

  7. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria Oocysts Protects Chickens Against Coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. te...

  8. Increased efficacy of Eimeria oocysts delivery by gel beads or spray vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel-beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect ...

  9. Effects of novel adjuvant complex/Eimeria profilin vaccine on intestinal host immune responses against live E. acervulina challenge infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a novel adjuvant; composed of Quil A, cholesterol, dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide, and Carbopol (QCDC), on protective immunity against avian coccidiosis following immunization with an Eimeria recombinant protein were determined. Broiler chickens were subcutaneously immunized w...

  10. Detection of four important Eimeria species by multiplex PCR in a single assay.

    PubMed

    You, Myung-Jo

    2014-06-01

    The oocysts of some of the recognized species of chicken coccidiosis are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly utilizing DNA-based technologies for the specific identification of Eimeria species. This study reports a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) for the simultaneous diagnosis of the Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria necatrix species, which infect domestic fowl. Primer pairs specific to each species were designed in order to generate a ladder of amplification products ranging from 20 to 25 bp, and a common optimum annealing temperature for these species was determined to be 52.5 °C. Sensitivity tests were performed for each species, showing a detection threshold of 1-5 pg. All the species were amplified homogeneously, and a homogenous band ladder was observed, indicating that the assay permitted the simultaneous detection of all the species in a single-tube reaction. In the phylogenic study, there was a clear species clustering, which was irrespective of geographical location, for all the ITS-1 sequences used. This multiplex PCR assay represents a rapid and potential cost-effective diagnostic method for the detection of some key Eimeria species that infect domestic fowl. PMID:24495953

  11. A simplified protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria species in field samples.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G

    2007-05-15

    This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive and efficient protocol for molecular identification of chicken Eimeria spp. in field samples. Various methods for each of the three steps of the protocol were evaluated: oocyst wall rupturing methods, DNA extraction methods, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR. We then compared and evaluated five complete protocols. Three series of oocyst suspensions of known number of oocysts from Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella were prepared and ground using glass beads or mini-pestle. DNA was extracted from ruptured oocysts using commercial systems (GeneReleaser, Qiagen Stoolkit and Prepman) or phenol-chloroform DNA extraction, followed by identification of species-specific ITS-1 sequences by optimised single species PCR assays. The Stoolkit and Prepman protocols showed insufficient repeatability, and the former was also expensive and relatively time-consuming. In contrast, both the GeneReleaser protocol and phenol-chloroform protocols were robust and sensitive, detecting less than 0.4 oocysts of each species per PCR. Finally, we evaluated our new protocol on 68 coccidia positive field samples. Our data suggests that rupturing the oocysts by mini-pestle grinding, preparing the DNA with GeneReleaser, followed by optimised single species PCR assays, makes a robust and sensitive procedure for identifying chicken Eimeria species in field samples. Importantly, it also provides minimal hands-on-time in the pre-PCR process, lower contamination risk and no handling of toxic chemicals. PMID:17386979

  12. The effects of shuttle programs upon the growth of broilers and the development of immunity to eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Hacker, A B

    1993-04-01

    A floor-pen trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different shuttle programs upon the growth of broilers to 8 wk of age. Nicarbazin, halofuginone, and robenidine, when included in the starter feed for 3 wk, were effective in preventing lesions due to Eimeria. The effects of medication upon performance were apparent, medicated groups gaining more weight by 6 wk and having a lower feed conversion at 6, 7, and 8 wk than the unmedicated controls. There were no significant differences in body weight at 6, 7, or 8 wk or feed conversion at 6 or 7 wk among the medicated groups, whether medication was withdrawn for 7 or 14 days. A decrease in the number of small and medium oocysts in the litter was observed as the trial progressed. Few large oocysts (Eimeria maxima) were seen in the medicated groups. Numbers of oocysts did not increase following withdrawal of medication. Birds from all medicated groups were challenged at 6 wk with oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, or Eimeria tenella. Weight gains were similar to that of the unchallenged controls, indicating that they had acquired immunity to these species of Eimeria. PMID:8479951

  13. Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-ediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host imm...

  14. Effects of probiotics and application methods on performance and response of broiler chickens to an Eimeria challenge.

    PubMed

    Ritzi, Miranda M; Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Dalloul, Rami A

    2014-11-01

    Coccidiosis is an inherent risk in the commercial broiler industry and inflicts devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative to the prophylactic use of anticoccidials in commercial production. This study evaluated the effects of probiotic applications (feed and water) on bird performance and resistance to a mixed Eimeria infection in commercial broilers. On day of hatch, 1,008 commercial male broilers (Cobb 500) were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (8 replicate floor pens; 21 birds/pen), including noninfected negative control (NEG), Eimeria-infected positive control (POS), anticoccidial control (0.01% salinomycin, SAL), intermittent high-dose water-applied probiotic (WPI), continuous low-dose water-applied probiotic (WPC), and feed-supplemented probiotic (FSP). On d 15, all birds except those in NEG were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Measurements were taken on d 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Fecal samples were collected from d 20 to 24 for oocyst counts, and lesion scores were evaluated on d 21. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.). Differences in experimental treatments were tested using Tukey's honestly significant difference following ANOVA with significance reported at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, NEG birds outperformed all other groups. For performance, the probiotic groups were comparable with the SAL-treated birds, except during the 6 d immediately following the Eimeria species challenge, where the SAL birds exhibited better performance. The WPC birds had lower duodenal and jejunal lesion scores, indicating a healthier intestine and enhanced resistance to Eimeria species compared with POS. Birds in the WPI treatment shed fewer oocysts in the feces, although this was not a trend for all of the probiotic treatment groups. The results of this study suggest probiotic supplementation without anticoccidials can

  15. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations. PMID:26423669

  16. Influence of whole wheat feeding on the development of coccidiosis in broilers challenged with Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Molan, A L

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of whole wheat (WW) feeding on performance, gizzard development, oocyst yield and intestinal lesion score of broilers challenged with Eimeria species. Diets (ground wheat (GW) and 300 g/kg WW replacing GW before or after pelleting) were offered ad libitum from day 1 or days 7-28 post-hatch. At 21 days of age, each dietary treatment was divided into two groups, one unchallenged control and the other inoculated with mixed species of coccidia (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella). The results showed that heavier gizzards and higher mortality were observed in WW-fed birds in comparison to GW-fed birds. Interestingly, the pattern of mortality in different dietary treatments paralleled changes in gizzard size. Based on increased mortality, it is concluded that WW feeding exacerbated the severity of coccidiosis infection, possibly via a mechanism involving enhanced gizzard development. PMID:25796367

  17. Downregulation of Chicken Interleukin-17 Receptor A during Eimeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo H.; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R.; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H.; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S.

    2014-01-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection. PMID:24980970

  18. An Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and the TLR-5 agonist Salmonella typhimurium FliC flagellin

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Jingxia; Tang, Xinming; Tao, Geru; Han, Qian; Suo, Xun; Wu, Wenxue

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We found a new protective protein – (IMPI) in Eimeria tenella. •EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein is an effective immunogen against Eimeria infection. •Flagellin can be as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens. -- Abstract: Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exits in Eimeria tenella. But its structure and immunogenicity in E. tenella are still unknown. In this study, IMPI in E. tenella was predicted to be a membrane protein. To evaluate immunogenicity of IMPI in E. tenella, a chimeric subunit vaccine consisting of E. tenella IMP1 (EtIMP1) and a molecular adjuvant (a truncated flagellin, FliC) was constructed and over-expressed in Escherichia coli and its efficacy against E. tenella infection was evaluated. Three-week-old AA broiler chickens were vaccinated with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC fusion protein resulted in stronger cellular immune responses than immunization with only recombinant EtIMP1 with adjuvant. The clinical effect of the EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant was also greater than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, which was evidenced by the differences between the two groups in body weight gain, oocyst output and caecal lesions of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggested that the EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. This is the first demonstration of antigen-specific protective immunity against avian coccidiosis using a recombinant flagellin as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens.

  19. Pyruvate Metabolism in Sarcina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Dorothy G.; Canale-Parola, E.

    1967-01-01

    The mechanisms of pyruvate cleavage and hydrogen production by Sarcina maxima were studied. It was found that a phosphoroclastic system for pyruvate oxidation, similar to that occurring in saccharolytic clostridia, is present in S. maxima. Cleavage of pyruvate by extracts of the latter organism resulted in the formation of acetyl phosphate, CO2, and electrons which were transferred to ferredoxin. Formate was not an intermediate in this system. Pyruvate oxidation was coupled with ferredoxin-dependent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) reduction. A hydrogenase, active in particulate extracts of S. maxima, did not accept electrons from reduced ferredoxin. Formate was detected as a fermentation product when S. maxima was grown in media buffered with CaCO3. Whole cells and extracts degraded formate to H2 and CO2. The evidence suggests that electrons generated by ferredoxin-linked pyruvate oxidation by S. maxima are not used for H2 production, but that they serve for the reduction of NADP. Reduced NADP may be utilized by the organisms for synthesis of cell material. Production of H2 by S. maxima may occur through a pyruvate clastic system similar to that present in coliform bacteria. PMID:4383134

  20. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  1. Evaluation of novel adjuvant Eimeria profilin complex on intestinal host immune responses against live E. acervulina challenge infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of two novel adjuvants, QCDC (Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol) and QCDCRT (QCDC/Bay R1005/cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG) emulsified with profilin, a conserved Eimeria recombinant protein, against avian coccidiosis were determined in broiler chickens. Chickens we...

  2. Efficacy of diclazuril in comparison with chemical and ionophorous anticoccidials against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Conway, D P; Mathis, G F; Johnson, J; Schwartz, M; Baldwin, C

    2001-04-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted with commercial broiler chickens to measure the efficacy of 1 ppm diclazuril in the starter or grower diet in shuttle programs with 66 ppm salinomycin. Study 1 compared a salinomycin to diclazuril (starter to grower diet) shuttle treatment with salinomycin to salinomycin, salinomycin to 100 ppm monensin, salinomycin to 99.8 ppm lasalocid, and unmedicated treatments. Study 2 compared a diclazuril to salinomycin (starter to grower) shuttle treatment with 125 ppm nicarbazin to salinomycin, 79.2 ppm narasin + nicarbazin to salinomycin, 125 ppm zoalene to salinomycin, and unmedicated treatments. Fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly allotted to each of 10 pens per treatment in each study using a randomized complete block design. Starter (Days 0 to 21) and grower (Days 22 to 37) diets in each study contained 55 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate. The finisher diet (Days 38 to 42) in each study was unmedicated. Birds were inoculated via their feed on Day 22 (Study 1) or Day 15 (Study 2) with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Four birds per pen (two male and two female) were randomly selected in each study for coccidial lesion scores on Day 6 postinoculation. These studies demonstrated that the use of 1 ppm diclazuril in shuttle programs was highly efficacious against a mixed inoculum of Eimeria spp. in comparison with nicarbazin, narasin + nicarbazin, and zoalene in starter diets and salinomycin, monensin, and lasalocid in grower diets. PMID:11297280

  3. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  4. Cytokine gene expression profile in Fayoumi chicken after Eimeria maxima infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry causing substantial economic losses. This study was conducted to investigate the cytokines related with the resistance against coccidiosis. Two breeding lines of Fayoumi chicken were evaluated for the expression of 9 cytokine genes: IFN-gamma, IFN...

  5. MAXIMA: Observations of CMB anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabii, Bahman

    This document describes the Millimeter Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array (MAXIMA), a balloon-borne experiment measuring the temperature anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 10 ' to 5°. MAXIMA data are used to discriminate between cosmological models and to determine cosmological parameters. MAXIMA maps the CMB using 16 bolometric detectors observing in spectral bands centered at 150 GHz, 230 GHz, and 410 GHz, with 10 ' resolution at all frequencies. The combined receiver sensitivity to CMB anisotropy is ˜40 μK sec , the best reported by any CMB experiment. Systematic errors are rejected by using four uncorrelated spatial modulations, multiple independent CMB observations, heavily baffled optics, and strong spectral discrimination. Observation patterns are well cross-linked and optimized for the extraction of cosmological information. Pointing is reconstructed to an accuracy of 1'. Absolute calibration uncertainty of 3 4% is the best achieved by any sub-orbital CMB experiment. Two MAXIMA flights were launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine Texas in 1998 and 1999. During a total of 8.5 hours of CMB observations, 300 deg2 of the sky were mapped, with ˜50 deg2 overlap between the two flights. The observed region was selected for low foreground emission and post-flight data analysis confirms that foreground contamination is negligible. Cosmological results are presented from the 1998 flight, MAXIMA-I , in which 122 deg2 of sky were mapped over 3 hours. A maximum likelihood map with 3' pixelization is obtained from the three most sensitive and best tested detectors. The angular power spectrum derived from this map shows a narrow peak near ℓ = 200, and is consistent with inflationary Big Bang models. Within these models, cosmological parameters are estimated, including total density Ωtot = 0.9+0.18-0.16 , baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.033 ± 0.013, and power spectrum normalization C

  6. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  7. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  8. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Microneme 5 of Eimeria acervulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ZhenChao; Huang, JingWei; Li, MengHui; Sui, YuXia; Wang, Shuai; Liu, LianRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Li, XiangRui

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the microneme 5 gene of Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) (EaMIC5) was cloned and characterized. Specific primers for the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were designed based on the expressed sequence tag (EST, GenBank Accession No. EH386430.1) to amplify the 3′- and 5′-ends of EaMIC5. The full length cDNA of this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3′- and 5′-extremities and amplification by reverse transcription PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of EaMIC5 was 336 bp and encoded a protein of 111 amino acids with 12.18 kDa. The ORF was inserted into pET-32a (+) to produce recombinant EaMIC5. Using western blotting assay, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by the sera of chicks experimentally infected with E. acervulina, while the native protein in the somatic extract of sporozoites was as well detected by sera from rats immunized with the recombinant protein of EaMIC5. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant protein EaMIC5 indicated that this protein was expressed in the sporozoites and merozoites stages of E. acervulina. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of EaMIC5 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens, and presented anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 160. All the above results suggested that the EaMIC5 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against this parasite. PMID:25531898

  9. Dependence of maxima in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, H.; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the dependence among large values of a spatial process of maxima trough a coefficient that can be applied in natural, technical and societal extreme phenomena. Its main properties are: a) k locations can be taken into account; b) it takes values in [0,1] and higher values indicate stronger dependence; c) it is independent of the univariate marginal distributions of the random field; d) it can be related with other coefficients in the literature such as the tail dependence and the extremal coefficients; e) it agrees with the concordance property for multivariate distributions; f) it has as a particular case the variogram from geostatistics; g) it can be easily estimated. We illustrate the application of the introduced coefficient with the estimation of the degree of dependence among large values of the amount of tritium in drinking water for tree cities.

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and chicken CD40 ligand.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Qiu, Jianhan; Qin, Mei; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong

    2015-05-30

    The CD40 ligand (CD40L) has shown potential as a powerful immunological adjuvant in various studies. Here, the efficacy of a chimeric subunit vaccine, consisting of Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 (EtIMP1) and chicken CD40L, was evaluated against E. tenella infection. The recombinant EtIMP1-CD40L was purified from E. coli over-expressing this protein. Chickens were vaccinated with EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein resulted in stronger IFN-γ secretion and IgA response than that with only recombinant EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. The clinical effect (cecal lesions, body weights gain, and oocysts shedding) of the EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant was also better than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, as evidenced by the difference between the two groups in the oocyst output of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggest that the EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. PMID:25840621

  11. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

  12. A molecular survey of Eimeria in chickens across Australia.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Rosamond M; Morgan, Jess A T

    2015-11-30

    Coccidiosis is a costly enteric disease of chickens caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. Disease diagnosis and management is complicated since there are multiple Eimeria species infecting chickens and mixed species infections are common. Current control measures are only partially effective and this, combined with concerns over vaccine efficacy and increasing drug resistance, demonstrates a need for improved coccidiosis diagnosis and control. Before improvements can be made, it is important to understand the species commonly infecting poultry flocks in both backyard and commercial enterprises. The aim of this project was to conduct a survey and assessment of poultry Eimeria across Australia using genetic markers, and create a collection of isolates for each Eimeria species. A total of 260 samples (faecal or caecal) was obtained, and survey results showed that Eimeria taxa were present in 98% of commercial and 81% of backyard flocks. The distribution of each Eimeria species was widespread across Australia, with representatives of all species being found in every state and territory, and the Eimeria species predominating in commercial flocks differed from those in backyard flocks. Three operational taxonomic units also occurred frequently in commercial flocks highlighting the need to understand the impact of these uncharacterised species on poultry production. As Eimeria infections were also frequent in backyard flocks, there is a potential for backyard flocks to act as reservoirs for disease, especially as the industry moves towards free range production systems. This Eimeria collection will be an important genetic resource which is the crucial first step in the development of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and the development of new live vaccines which ultimately will provide savings to the industry in terms of more efficient coccidiosis management. PMID:26467277

  13. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria species affecting naturally infected Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Teixeira, M; Albuquerque, G R

    2011-01-01

    We used PCR to test various protocols and define a technique for DNA extraction directly from chicken-shed stool samples for the identification of Eimeria species that parasitize birds. It was possible to extract and amplify DNA of seven Eimeria species from field stool samples, using both protocols tested; extractions made with phenol/chloroform protocols gave the best results. The primers were specific and sensitive, allowing amplification of samples containing as few as 20 oocysts, both in individual and in a multiplex PCR. Individualized PCR with the phenol/chloroform DNA extraction protocol detected a larger number of Eimeria species. Molecular diagnosis was found to be practical and precise, and can be used for monitoring and epidemiological studies of Eimeria. PMID:21710449

  14. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  15. Studies of resistance to anticoccidials in Eimeria field isolates and pure Eimeria strains.

    PubMed

    Stephen, B; Rommel, M; Daugschies, A; Haberkorn, A

    1997-04-01

    Ten Eimeria field isolates from North Germany were studied in battery tests for sensitivity to selected anticoccidials. A high percentage of the Eimeria field isolates (9 out of 10) showed resistance to anticoccidials, mostly multiple resistance. Partial or complete resistance to maduramicin was found in 7 field isolates, to monensin in 6, to salinomycin in 5, to nicarbazin in 8, to halofuginone in 7, to robenidine and toltrazuril in 1, and to diclazuril in 2 field isolates. Multiple resistance had developed in 7 of the 10 isolates. Cross-resistance between maduramicin, monensin, and salinomycin occurred in 5 Eimeria isolates. One isolate showed cross-resistance between diclazuril and toltrazuril. From the resistant isolates 15 pure E. acerculina and 5 pure E. brunetti strains were obtained by single oocyst infections. Seven of the E. acerculina and 4 of the E. brunetti strains showed resistance or partial resistance that was also present in the original isolate. Ten of 11 resistant strains were multiply resistant. PMID:9187026

  16. The epizootiology of Eimeria infections in commercial broiler chickens where anticoccidial drug programs were employed in six successive flocks to control coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Barta, J R; Hafeez, M A; Matsler, P; Rathinam, T; Raccoursier, M

    2016-08-01

    The course of natural Eimeria infections in 6 successive broiler flocks at a commercial farm comprising 4 houses, where different anticoccidial drug programs were employed, was studied by counting the number of oocysts in the litter at weekly intervals. The course of infection in all flocks followed a bell shaped curve in which oocyst numbers, initially low, increased to a peak ranging from 36 × 10(3) to 74 × 10(3) oocysts/g (OPG) of litter around 3 to 4 wk of age. Numbers subsequently declined to 3 × 10(3) to 15 × 10(3) OPG. Oocysts could be detected between flocks when birds were not present. Species of Eimeria identified included E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella Despite the presence of large numbers of oocysts in the litter, coccidial lesions were not observed in the intestines of the birds. The performance of broilers at the study site was comparable to that of other farms in the area where birds from the same settlement were reared to a similar age using the same drug programs. The results indicate the ubiquitous nature of Eimeria spp. infections in commercial broilers despite prophylactic medication. PMID:27053624

  17. Identification and immunogenicity of microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) of Eimeria brunetti.

    PubMed

    Hoan, Tran Duc; Zhang, Zhenchao; Huang, Jingwei; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-03-01

    There have been only a few antigen genes of Eimeria brunetti reported up to now. In this study, the gene encoding the microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) was isolated from oocysts of E. brunetti by RT-PCR and the immunogenicity of recombinant EbMIC2 was observed. The EbMIC2 was cloned into vector pMD19-T for sequencing. The sequence was compared with the published EbMIC2 gene from GenBank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were 99.43 and 98.63%, respectively. The correct recombinant pMD-EbMIC2 plasmid was inserted into the pET-28a (+) expressing vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed product was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results indicated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein was recognized strongly by serum from naturally infected chicken with E. brunetti. Rat rcEbMIC2 antisera bound to bands of about 36 kDa in the somatic extract of E. brunetti sporozoites. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 was constructed and then the efficacies of recombinant plasmid and recombinant protein were evaluated. The results of IgG antibody level and cytokines concentration suggested that recombinant EbMIC2 could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein and recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented high anti-coccidial index. All results suggested that EbMIC2 could become an effective candidate for the development of new vaccine against E. brunetti infection. PMID:26743188

  18. In vivo effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide on Eimeria infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dalloul, Rami A; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Okamura, Masashi; Xie, Hang; Min, Wongi; Ding, Xicheng; Heckert, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    Poultry coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry and, until now, no recombinant vaccine has been developed. Short oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) have been shown to be effective immunoprotective agents and vaccine adjuvants in mammalian systems. Their use in poultry to protect against intracellular parasites has not been reported to date. The present work investigated the effects of CpG ODN treatment on host susceptibility to Eimeria infection in two chicken strains with different genetic background, SC and TK. The data show that CpG ODN enhanced the birds' resistance to coccidiosis in a normally susceptible chicken strain (TK), as shown by reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain. CpG treatment had a differential effect on body weight gains and serum antibody responses, depending on the chicken strain and ODN dose, delivery route, and backbone. This study shows for the first time that CpG ODNs could be used as immunoprotective agents in Eimeria-infected chickens to enhance resistance to the pathogen and improve performance. Future research is needed to optimize their use alone and as vaccine adjuvants that may lead to better and more efficient vaccine applications. PMID:15666859

  19. Effects of feed additives and mixed eimeria species infection on intestinal microbial ecology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Hume, M E; Clemente-Hernández, S; Oviedo-Rondón, E O

    2006-12-01

    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic

  20. Analysis of transcripts expressed by intracellular stages of Eimeria acervulina using expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by seven species belonging to the genus Eimeria. Even though coccidiosis is a complex disease that can be caused by any combination of these species most of the molecular research concerning chicken Eimeria has been limited to Eimeria tenella. This study describes...

  1. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.

    2007-09-01

    For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  2. Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria acervulina macrophage migration inhibitory factor (E.MIF) induce partial protection against experimental Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Zhang, Ruirui; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-09-01

    Chimeric DNA vaccines co-expressing Eimeria acervulina macrophage migration inhibitory factor (E.MIF) and chicken IL-2 (IL-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were constructed and their efficacies against E. acervulina were evaluated. The open reading frame (ORF) of E.MIF was cloned from E. acervulina merozoites and subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 with chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 to construct the DNA vaccines pVAX-E.MIF-IFN-γ, pVAX-E.MIF-IL-2 and pVAX-E.MIF. The in vivo transfection of the target genes was detected by use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Immunizations were carried out by vaccinating chickens twice with a dose rate of 100 μg intramuscularly. Seven days post second immunization, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 1 × 105 sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina. Seven days later, the duodenum was collected. The results showed that the target genes were expressed effectively in vivo. DNA vaccines and the recombinant E.MIF protein could alleviate body weight loss and duodenal lesions significantly compared to the control groups. Furthermore, pVAX-E.MIF-IL-2 and pVAX-E.MIF-IFN-γ induced anticoccidial indexs (ACIs) of 179.12 and 170, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-E.MIF (ACI = 162.31). Our results demonstrated that E.MIF is a potential vaccine candidate against E. acervulina and chicken IFN-γ or IL- 2 may be used as genetic adjuvants to improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis. PMID:26204190

  3. New approaches for morphological diagnosis of bovine Eimeria species: a study on a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Florião, Mônica Mateus; Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Bovine eimeriosis or coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp. which is related to gastrointestinal disorders and, in some cases, death. The current work aimed to identify and provide detailed morphological characteristic features of the different Eimeria spp. parasites of crossbred cows of a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil, offering tools for the diagnosis of bovine eimeriosis. Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ildefonsoi, and Eimeria zuernii were identified. The application of line regressions and ANOVA provided a means for the identification of these species. Finally, the current work proposes a dichotomous key to assist in the morphologic identification of bovine Eimeria spp. oocysts. PMID:26873157

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis. PMID:24328820

  5. Intestinal microbial ecology of broilers vaccinated and challenged with mixed Eimeria species, and supplemented with essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Hume, M E; Hernández, C; Clemente-Hernández, S

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal microbiota is an important component in the development of defense mechanisms in the gut mucosa. This project determined the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) of broilers vaccinated at first day of age with live oocysts of Eimeria species and fed diets supplemented with 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated-uninfected (UU) control; 2) unmedicated-infected (UI) control; 3) vaccinated with Advent cocci-vaccine and without feed additive (COV) supplements; 4) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CP; and 5) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CA. The EO blends were added at 100 ppm to the same basal diets. Chicks were gavage-infected at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before the infection and 7 d after the challenge, pooled in 6 samples, and frozen. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of amplicon patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci infection. The EO blends CP and CA did affect MC in all gut sections. The cocci-infection caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). The CP-supplemented birds had higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC in duodenal and ileal (73.3, 81.8%) than COV (66.4, 66.5%). However, COV broilers had the smallest changes in cecal MC after infection (79.5% SC). We concluded that cocci-vaccination causes small changes in intestinal MC, but challenge causes drastic shifts. The EO blend supplementation modulates MC in cocci-vaccinated broilers, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed coccidia infection

  6. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin-L-like peptidase in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renqiang; Ma, Xueting; Liu, Aijun; Zhang, Lei; Cai, Jianping; Wang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Avian coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria spp., is one of the major parasitic diseases in birds. Cysteine protease is a major virulence factor in parasitic protozoa, and it may be a suitable chemotherapeutic target and vaccine candidate molecule. A 100 amino acid (aa.) partial sequence of cathepsin L, which is a cysteine protease, was reported by Katrib et al. (Ac. No. CDJ41293) (2012). A 219 aa. sequence was reported by Reid et al. (Ac. No. AFV92863) (2013). However, the open reading frame (ORF) was not reported. In this study, a full sequence of a cathepsin-L-like peptidase in Eimeria tenella (EtcatL) was obtained and its biochemical characterizations and expression profiles were analyzed across different stages of the parasite's life cycle. Results showed that the EtcatL gene encodes a protein 470 aa. in length, with 47 and 49% identity to Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria acervulina. Considering the close phylogenetic relationship, TgcatL (PDB. ID 3F75) was selected for use as a template for homology modeling with quality factors of 90.9. Gelatin SDS-PAGE showed it to exert protease activity at ≈38 and ≈26 kDa. Further analysis showed the kinetic parameters of the recombinant peptidase to be K m  = 8.9 μM and V max = 5.7 RFU/s μM at pH 5.5 containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) in the reaction matrix, and the IC50 value of E64 was 65.32 ± 3.02 nM. The recombinant protein was active from 25 to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 42 °C. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed it to be expressed mainly at the endogenous stages and the initial phase of the sporulation. The protective experiment showed that chickens immunized with 100 and 200 μg rEtcatL had reduction of weight loss values 48.7 and 57.9% those of infected controls, respectively. Their reduction of lesion scores (RLS) were 25.0 and 47.2% that of control chickens, and relative oocyst production (ROP) was 39.6 and 15.5% that of control chickens. These results indicate that the EtcatL can be

  7. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Su, S; Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Wong, E A

    2015-03-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. The growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide in broilers challenged with either E. acervulina, E. maxima or E. tenella. The genes examined included digestive enzymes (APN and SI), peptide and amino acid transporters (PepT1, ASCT1, b(0,+)AT/rBAT, B(0)AT, CAT1, CAT2, EAAT3, LAT1, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2), sugar transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1), zinc transporter (ZnT1) and an antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2). Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca were collected 7 days post challenge. E. acervulina challenge resulted in downregulation of various nutrient transporters or LEAP2 in the duodenum and ceca, but not the jejunum or ileum. E. maxima challenge produced both downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in all three segments of the small intestine and ceca. E. tenella challenge resulted in the downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in the jejunum, ileum and ceca, but not the duodenum. At the respective target tissue, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella infection caused common downregulation of APN, b(0,+)AT, rBAT, EAAT3, SI, GLUT2, GLUT5, ZnT1 and LEAP2. The downregulation of nutrient transporters would result in a decrease in the efficiency of protein and polysaccharide digestion and uptake, which may partially explain the weight loss. The downregulation of nutrient transporters may also be a cellular response to reduced expression of the host defense protein LEAP2, which would

  8. Vaccination of rabbits against coccidiosis using precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media in Benin.

    PubMed

    Akpo, Y; Kpodékon, M T; Djago, Y; Licois, D; Youssao, I A K

    2012-02-28

    Three groups of twelve 35-day-old rabbits were used for the experiment. Two groups were vaccinated with a mixture of precocious lines of Eimeria magna and Eimeria media originating from corresponding wild strains isolated in Benin. One group benefited of a booster whereas the second one was kept without booster. A third non-vaccinated group was used as control. All groups were challenged per os with an equal mixture of the wild strains of E. magna and E. media at a dose of 104 oocysts per animal. Three weeks after the challenge inoculation, no case of diarrhoea was recorded in the two groups of vaccinated rabbits, as compared to the non-vaccinated rabbits that developed diarrhoea. No mortality was recorded in the three groups. During the patent period, oocyst output of vaccinated rabbits was significantly lower than that of control animals (P<0.01), confirming a good immunogenic characteristic of the precocious lines. No booster effect was noticed for the boost vaccinated group. The daily weigh gain of the two groups of vaccinated rabbits was significantly higher than that of the non-vaccinated rabbits (P<0.05). Consequently the precocious lines of Benin origin turned out to be immunogenic and therefore constitute good potential candidates for vaccine production for this country. PMID:21890276

  9. Immunohistochemical study of S100-like protein in Eimeria brunetti and Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    López-Bernad, F; del Cacho, E; Gallego, M; Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C

    2000-02-29

    We have investigated the expression of a calcium-binding protein, the S100 protein, in Eimeria brunetti and Eimeria acervulina stages. For this purpose, paraffin sections of distal ileum and bursa of Fabricius or duodenum from experimentally infected chickens were treated with anti-alpha-S100 (anti-alpha subunit of S100 protein) and anti-beta-S100 (anti-beta subunit of S100 protein) monoclonal antibodies and anti-S100 whole molecule polyclonal antibody. The avidin-biotin peroxidase method was used to demonstrate immunoreactivity. In the ileum, our results reveal a positive immunoreaction for the beta subunit and S100 whole molecule within the macrogametes of E. brunetti, whereas they were devoid of immunostaining after treatment of the paraffin sections with the anti-alpha-S100 antiserum. Schizonts and oocysts of E. brunetti and all the E. acervulina stages gave a negative reaction after treatment with any of the three antiserum used in the study. This result indicated that the S100 protein molecules within these stages were not recognized by the antibodies, suggesting that these molecules are different from those identified in macrogametes of E. brunetti. By contrast, in the epithelial cells, lining the lumen of the bursa of Fabricius, macrogametes of E. brunetti were stained by the three antibodies used. These results may indicate the existence of metabolic adaptations that enable the parasite to invade tissue sites different from those where the parasite usually develops. PMID:10681017

  10. Molecular and morphological characterization of Eimeria in game birds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is generally known as a disease of economic importance in chickens. However, Eimeria species also negatively impacts the game bird industry. Here we present data generated from litter samples collected from two farms experiencing coccidiosis in chukars and pheasants. From morphological...

  11. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Eimeria from turkeys and gamebirds, and the implication on the evolutionary relationships OF Eimeria FROM galliforme birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the evolutionary relationships of Eimeria that infect galliforme birds, the 18s rDNA gene, and a portion of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) were amplified from Eimeria that infect turkeys, chukars, and pheasants. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences suggests th...

  12. Protective immunity against Eimeria tenella infection in chickens following oral immunization with Bacillus subtilis expressing Eimeria tenella 3-1E protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiwei; Shi, Yanyun; Deng, Bin; Mao, Xiangfei; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

    2015-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to construct recombinant Bacillus subtilis WB600 expressing Eimeria tenella 3-1E protein to investigate the oral immunization protective effects against E. tenella. The merozoite surface antigen 3-1E gene of E. tenella was introduced into the pBS-H1 expression vector with a novel signal peptide sequence. After the electro-transformation, the expression of objective protein in B. subtilis WB600 was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the recombinant B. subtilis strain with the ability of high-level secretion of 3-1E was constructed successfully. Seven-day-old broiler chickens were orally vaccinated with B. subtilis WB600 harboring 3-1E (B.S-pBS-H1-3-1E) or B. subtilis WB600 with empty plasmid (B.S-pBS-H1) 10 days prior to challenge with sporulated E. tenella oocysts. The results showed the recombinant B. subtilis strain with the ability of high-level secretion of 3-1E was constructed successfully. Vaccination with B.S-pBS-H1-3-1E strain significantly increased the anti-coccidial index and reduced cecal lesion scores compared with the positive control group (chickens were challenged with sporulated E. tenella oocysts without oral administration of B.S-pBS-H1-3-1E strain) and B.S-pBS-H1 group. Ceca mucosal sIgA, secretion, and IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10 level after challenge were greater in the B.S-pBS-H1-3-1E group than in the positive control group. Taken together, these results indicated that B. subtilis WB600 harboring 3-1E protein induces protective immunity against E. tenella. PMID:25994313

  13. The complete mitochondrial genomes of five Eimeria species infecting domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis caused by members of the genus Eimeria can cause enormous economic impact worldwide, but the genetics, epidemiology and biology of these parasites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of five Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic rabbits. The complete mt genomes of Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria media, Eimeria vejdovskyi and Eimeria irresidua were 6261bp, 6258bp, 6168bp, 6254bp, 6259bp in length, respectively. All of the mt genomes consist of 3 genes for proteins (cytb, cox1, and cox3), 14 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 11 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, but no transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order of the mt genomes is similar to that of Plasmodium, but distinct from Haemosporida and Theileria. Phylogenetic analyses based on full nucleotide sequences using Bayesian analysis revealed that the monophyly of the Eimeria of rabbits was strongly statistically supported with a Bayesian posterior probabilities. These data provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of the Eimeria species, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits. PMID:26358270

  14. Molecular detection of field isolates of Turkey Eimeria by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2015-07-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria spp. were isolated from litter samples obtained from 30 commercial turkey farms. Genomic DNA was extracted from clean oocysts, and polymerase chain amplification of the species-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was performed for five species of turkey Eimeria. The species tested were Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria gallopavonis. All DNA samples were positive for E. meleagrimitis, nine were positive for E. adenoeides, two were positive for E. dispersa, and none for E. meleagridis and E. gallopavonis. E. meleagrimitis occurred as a single species in 21 (70 %) of the farms while 9 (30 %) farms had a mixed species with E. meleagrimitis and E. adenoeides and 2 (7 %) were triple positive with E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoeides, and E. dispersa. This is the first account of the field prevalence of turkey Eimeria species using molecular methods. PMID:26017345

  15. A simple and efficient method for isolation of a single Eimeria oocyst from poultry litter using a micromanipulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken, which is the host for seven species of Eimeria, typically is infected simultaneously by multiple Eimeria species and the oocysts of coccidia are excreted in the feces. A prerequisite for investigation of individual Eimeria species is to isolate a single oocyst from fecal samples. A nov...

  16. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission. PMID:25700644

  17. Sensitivity of avian Eimeria spp. to seven chemical and five ionophore anticoccidials in five Belgian integrated broiler operations.

    PubMed

    Peeters, J E; Derijcke, J; Verlinden, M; Wyffels, R

    1994-01-01

    Coccidia were isolated from 122 Belgian broiler farms without clinical coccidiosis. Shuttle programs including robenidin or nicarbazine in the starter (7-14 days) followed by an ionophore or diclazuril in the grower ration were most commonly used. Out of 215 coccidiosis-positive groups, 146 Eimeria acervulina, 65 E. maxima, and 88 E. tenella isolates were tested without further laboratory propagation in 17 sensitivity profiles. For each profile, oocytes were pooled from 9 +/- 4 farms (mean +/- SD) that used the same anticoccidial program and that belonged to the same integrated broiler operation. Each suspension contained an equal number of isolates and oocyst numbers from each farm tested. Each profile included an unmedicated uninfected group, an unmedicated infected group, and 11 medicated infected groups, consisting each of three replicates of three Ross chicks. Medication started at 8 days of age, and each inoculated bird received 50,000 sporulated oocysts at 10 days. Results were related to the anticoccidial program that had been in use. Chemical drugs showed the highest activity against Eimeria, whereas ionophores were less efficacious. Of the latter, monensin (110 ppm) was least active; narasin (70 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), and maduramicin (5 ppm) took an intermediate position, and lasalocid (90 ppm) was most active. A 50% improvement in weight gain was obtained in 7 to 10 out of 17 profiles with 100 + 8.35 ppm clopidol/methylbenzoquate (10), 125 ppm nicarbazin (9), 3 ppm halofuginone (8), and 1 ppm diclazuril (7). A 50% improvement in feed conversion was obtained in 7 to 11 profiles with nicarbazin (11), halofuginone (10), diclazuril (9), 33 ppm robenidine (9), clopidol/methylbenzoquate (7), and lasalocid (7). Based on relative oocyst output, the highest activity against E. acervulina was obtained with clopidol/methylbenzoquate (8/16); the highest activity against E. maxima was obtained with lasalocid (6/6), diclazuril (5/6), and halofuginone (5/6); and

  18. Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. field isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2003-08-01

    Fifteen Eimeria spp. field isolates sampled on Dutch broiler farms were subjected to an Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test (AST) in a battery cage study. Four isolates dated from 1996, another four from 1999 and the last seven isolates from 2001. The selected anticoccidial drugs were monensin, narasin, salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin, diclazuril, halofuginone, maduramicin and meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate. Maduramicin and halofuginone were not included in the ASTs of 1999 and 2001, while meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate was not tested in 1996 and 1999. Eimeria acervulina present in each of the four 1996 field isolates showed resistance for almost all products tested except maduramicin (1/4) and salinomycin (114), which appeared to be reduced sensitive. In 1999 the same species presented a similar resistance pattern for most products, although reduced sensitivity occurred for salinomycin (1/4), and sensitivity was found for diclazuril (2/4), monensin (1/4) and narasin (1/4). In the year 2001 increased sensitivity to various products was found. Higher sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate (7/7) and salinomycin and narasin (both 4/7), followed by nicarbazin (3/7) and monensin (2/7). Reduced sensitivity was found for monensin (3/7), lasalocid (2/7), salinomycin and narasin (1/7). E. maxima was only found in one field isolate per year. The E. maxima from 1996 was resistant to all products except narasin (sensitive) and halofuginone (reduced sensitive). In 1999 this species was reduced sensitive to narasin and lasalocid, showing resistance for the other products. The strain originating from the 2001 isolate was reduced sensitive to most products except monensin and narasin (resistant). Full sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate. E. tenella was present in one isolate of 1996, two of 1999 and four isolates of 2001. The AST of 1996 showed reduced sensitivity for nicarbazin, and sensitive to narasin, maduramicin and halofuginone. All

  19. Maxima and O-C Diagrams for 489 Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Maxima for 489 Mira stars have been compiled. They were computed with data from AAVSO, AFOEV, VSOLJ, and BAA-VSS and collected from published maxima. The result is presented in a mysql database and on web pages with O-C diagrams, periods and some statistical information for each star.

  20. Unique Responses of the Avian Macrophage to Different Species of Eimeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is recognized as the major parasitic disease of poultry and is caused by the apicomplexan protozoa Eimeria. Increasing evidence shows the complexity of the host immune response to Eimeria and microarray technology presents a powerful tool for the study of such an intricate biological pr...

  1. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria acervulina-challenged layers and broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria-infected chickens develop lesions in the intestinal mucosa, which result in reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. This growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient tran...

  2. Evaluation of next generation sequencing for the analysis of Eimeria communities in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Elke T; Lott, Matthew J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Power, Michelle L

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are well-established for studying bacterial communities but not yet for microbial eukaryotes. Parasite communities remain poorly studied, due in part to the lack of reliable and accessible molecular methods to analyse eukaryotic communities. We aimed to develop and evaluate a methodology to analyse communities of the protozoan parasite Eimeria from populations of the Australian marsupial Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby) using NGS. An oocyst purification method for small sample sizes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the 18S rRNA locus targeting Eimeria was developed and optimised prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A data analysis approach was developed by modifying methods from bacterial metagenomics and utilising existing Eimeria sequences in GenBank. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assignment at a high similarity threshold (97%) was more accurate at assigning Eimeria contigs into Eimeria OTUs but at a lower threshold (95%) there was greater resolution between OTU consensus sequences. The assessment of two amplification PCR methods prior to Illumina MiSeq, single and nested PCR, determined that single PCR was more sensitive to Eimeria as more Eimeria OTUs were detected in single amplicons. We have developed a simple and cost-effective approach to a data analysis pipeline for community analysis of eukaryotic organisms using Eimeria communities as a model. The pipeline provides a basis for evaluation using other eukaryotic organisms and potential for diverse community analysis studies. PMID:26944624

  3. INVESTIGATION OF INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO THREE DIFFERENT EIMERIA SPECIES USING CHICKEN CDNA MACROPHAGE MICROARRAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is recognized as the major parasitic disease of poultry and is caused by the apicomplexan protozoa Eimeria. Increasing evidence shows the complexity of the host immune response to Eimeria and microarray technology presents a powerful tool for the study of such an intricate biological pr...

  4. The effects of simple and disposable chicken cages for experimental Eimeria infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During experimental Eimeria infection in chickens, facilities are contaminated by fecal oocysts which are known to be highly resistance to both chemical and enzymatic treatments. Thus, studies on experimental Eimeria infection have been limited by requirement of complete elimination of residual oocy...

  5. Pyrosequencing analysis of Salinomycin and Eimeria spp. challenge-induced changes in broiler cecal microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eimeria spp. invade and damage the intestinal cell lining of broilers, resulting in cell necrosis and secondary bacterial infections. The current work investigates the effect of anticoccidial agents, salinomycin in combination with roxarsone, and Eimeria challenge on the composition of broiler ceca...

  6. A rapid method for determining salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and mone...

  7. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  8. Novel Eimeria sp. isolated from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Bennett, Mark D; Eliott, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2013-02-01

    A novel Eimeria sp. was identified in faeces collected from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) housed at the Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Western Australia. Oocysts measure 17.0×15.0 μm with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.13. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences indicated that the novel Eimeria sp. shared the highest genetic similarity to Eimeria antrozoi and Eimeria rioarribaensis from vespertilionid bats from North America (≥98.9%). At the COI locus, bat-derived sequences were not available and phylogenetic analysis placed the novel Eimeria sp. in a clade by itself and shared 98.8% similarity with the rodent-derived species E. falciformis and E. vermiformis. This suggests that the isolate from the King's skink's faeces was probably derived from a mammal, possibly a rodent or a bat. PMID:23201218

  9. Molecular Characterization and Immune Protection of a New Conserved Hypothetical Protein of Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qi; Huang, Bing; Dong, Hui; Zhao, Qiping; Zhu, Shunhai; Liang, Siting; Li, Sha; Yang, Sihan; Han, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Eimeria tenella have been sequenced, but >70% of these genes are currently categorized as having an unknown function or annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins, and few of them have been studied. In the present study, a conserved hypothetical protein gene of E. tenella, designated EtCHP559, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA 5'-ends (5'RACE) based on the expressed sequence tag (EST). The 1746-bp full-length cDNA of EtCHP559 contained a 1224-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 407-amino acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 46.04 kDa. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that EtCHP559 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second generation merozoites). The ORF was inserted into pCold-TF to produce recombinant EtCHP559. Using western blotting, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by rabbit serum against E. tenella sporozoites. Immunolocalization by using EtCHP559 antibody showed that EtCHP559 was mainly distributed on the parasite surface in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region after sporozoites were incubated in complete medium. The EtCHP559 became uniformly dispersed in immature and mature schizonts. Inhibition of EtCHP559 function using anti-rEtCHP559 polyclonal antibody reduced the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells by >70%. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EtCHP559 significantly increased the average body weight gain, reduced the oocyst outputs, alleviated cecal lesions of the infected chickens, and resulted in anticoccidial index >160 against E. tenella. These results suggest that EtCHP559 plays an important role in sporozoite invasion and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. tenella. PMID:27309852

  10. First amplification of Eimeria hessei DNA from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) and its phylogenetic relationships with Eimeria species from other bats and rodents.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Eve; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tournant, Pierline; Capelli, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Although coccidian parasites of the genus Eimeria are among the best-documented parasites in bats, few Eimeria species found in bats have been characterised using molecular tools, and none of the characterised species are found in European countries. Phylogenetic relationships of Eimeria species that parasitise bats and rodents can be related to the morphology of oocysts, independently from host range, suggesting that these species are derived from common ancestors. In the present study, we isolated a partial sequence of the Eimeria hessei 18S rRNA gene from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), a European bat species. Droppings from lesser horseshoe bats were collected from 11 maternity roosts located in France that were positive for the presence of the parasite. Through morphological characterisation, the oocysts detected in the lesser horseshoe bat droppings were confirmed to be E. hessei. The unique E. hessei sequence obtained through molecular analysis belonged to a clade that includes both rodent and bat Eimeria species. However, the E. hessei oocysts isolated from the bat droppings did not show morphological similarities to rodent Eimeria species. PMID:24594259

  11. Expression and identification of the ADF-linker-3-1E gene of Eimeria acervulina of chicken.

    PubMed

    Yuelan, Zhao; Yiwei, Liu; Liyuan, Liu; Yue, Zhao; Wenbo, Cao; Yongzhan, Bao; Jianhua, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Coccidiosis is a widely distributed disease with higher mortality and morbidity, which is caused by several species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria and recognized as a serious challenge for the poultry industry. This research was conducted to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E of Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) of the chicken and test the bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein. The ADF-linker-3-1E gene of E. acervulina of the chicken was cloned by splicing by overlap extension by the polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR) and then inserted into the pET32a(+) to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) competent cells and then induced by IPTG (0.6 mmol/L). The expressed product in the culture medium was identified by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein was tested by Western blotting. The result showed that the amplified ADF-linker-3-1E gene was about 1346 bp. The PCR amplification with the recombinant plasmid pET-32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E as a template resulted in a special band of 1346 bp. The digested products resulted in two fragments of 1346 bp target fragment and 5.9 kb pET-32a(+)-vector fragment. The results indicated that the ADF-linker3-1E gene was successfully inserted into the pET-32a(+)-vector. The expressed products in the culture medium resulted in a single band of approximately 54.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting analysis indicated that the recombinant protein could be reacted specifically with His-Tag(2A8) Mouse mAb. This study indicated that the ADF-linker-3-1E protein with good bioactivity was successfully obtained, which laid a foundation for the exploitation of the nuclear vaccine by using the ADF-linker-3-1E protein. PMID:26767375

  12. The asymptotic distribution of maxima in bivariate samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Tsokos, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    The joint distribution (as n tends to infinity) of the maxima of a sample of n independent observations of a bivariate random variable (X,Y) is studied. A method is developed for deriving the asymptotic distribution of the maxima, assuming that X and Y possess asymptotic extreme-value distributions and that the probability element dF(x,y) can be expanded in a canonical series. Applied both to the bivariate normal distribution and to the bivariate gamma and compound correlated bivariate Poisson distributions, the method shows that maxima from all these distributions are asymptotically uncorrelated.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion. PMID:24906988

  14. Identification of a telomeric DNA-binding protein in Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Zhipeng; Cheng, Baiqi; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Guocai; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-09-01

    Coccidiosis is considered to be a major problem for the poultry industry, and coccidiosis control is yet urgent. Due to the roles in telomere length regulation and end protection, telomere-binding proteins have been considered as a good target for drug design. In this work, a putative Gbp1p that is similar to telomeric DNA-binding protein Gbp (G-strand binding protein) of Cryptosporidium parvum, was searched in the database of Eimeria tenella. Sequence analysis indicated E.tenella Gbp1p (EtGbp1p) has significant sequence similarity to other eukaryotic Gbps in their RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated recombinant EtGbp1p bound G-rich telomeric DNA, but not C-rich or double-stranded telomeric DNA sequences. Competition and antibody supershift assays confirmed the interaction of DNA-protein complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that EtGbp1p interacted with telomeric DNA in vivo. Collectively, these evidences suggest that EtGbp1p represents a G-rich single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein in E.tenella. PMID:25128826

  15. Transgenic Eimeria tenella as a vaccine vehicle: expressing TgSAG1 elicits protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens and mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinming; Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Tao, Geru; Suo, Jingxia; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-01

    The surface antigen 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgSAG1) is a major immunodominant antigen and is widely considered an ideal candidate for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Eimeria tenella, an affinis apicomplexan parasite with T. gondii, is a potential vaccine vector carrying exogenous antigens that stimulates specific immune responses. Here, we engineered TgSAG1 into E. tenella and obtained a stably transfected E. tenella line (Et-TgSAG1). We found TgSAG1 localized on the cell surface of Et-TgSAG1, which is similar to its native distribution in T. gondii tachyzoites. We immunized the chickens with Et-TgSAG1 orally and detected TgSAG1-specific immune responses, which partly reduced T. gondii infection. In the mouse model, we immunized the mice with Et-TgSAG1 sporozoites intraperitoneally and challenged them with T. gondii tachyzoites RH strain. We found that the mice immunized with Et-TgSAG1 showed a TgSAG1 specific Th 1-dominant immune response and a prolonged survival time compared with wild-type E. tenella and non-immunized mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Et-TgSAG1, utilized as a recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis, could be applied in both chickens and mice. Our findings also provide a promising persuasion for the development of transgenic Eimeria as vaccine vectors for use in birds and mammals. PMID:27387302

  16. Transgenic Eimeria tenella as a vaccine vehicle: expressing TgSAG1 elicits protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens and mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinming; Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Tao, Geru; Suo, Jingxia; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-01

    The surface antigen 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgSAG1) is a major immunodominant antigen and is widely considered an ideal candidate for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Eimeria tenella, an affinis apicomplexan parasite with T. gondii, is a potential vaccine vector carrying exogenous antigens that stimulates specific immune responses. Here, we engineered TgSAG1 into E. tenella and obtained a stably transfected E. tenella line (Et-TgSAG1). We found TgSAG1 localized on the cell surface of Et-TgSAG1, which is similar to its native distribution in T. gondii tachyzoites. We immunized the chickens with Et-TgSAG1 orally and detected TgSAG1-specific immune responses, which partly reduced T. gondii infection. In the mouse model, we immunized the mice with Et-TgSAG1 sporozoites intraperitoneally and challenged them with T. gondii tachyzoites RH strain. We found that the mice immunized with Et-TgSAG1 showed a TgSAG1 specific Th 1-dominant immune response and a prolonged survival time compared with wild-type E. tenella and non-immunized mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Et-TgSAG1, utilized as a recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis, could be applied in both chickens and mice. Our findings also provide a promising persuasion for the development of transgenic Eimeria as vaccine vectors for use in birds and mammals. PMID:27387302

  17. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  18. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia. PMID:19926224

  19. Sequence-based genotyping clarifies conflicting historical morphometric and biological data for 5 Eimeria species infecting turkeys.

    PubMed

    El-Sherry, S; Ogedengbe, M E; Hafeez, M A; Sayf-Al-Din, M; Gad, N; Barta, J R

    2015-02-01

    Unlike with Eimeria species infecting chickens, specific identification and nomenclature of Eimeria species infecting turkeys is complicated, and in the absence of molecular data, imprecise. In an attempt to reconcile contradictory data reported on oocyst morphometrics and biological descriptions of various Eimeria species infecting turkey, we established single oocyst derived lines of 5 important Eimeria species infecting turkeys, Eimeria meleagrimitis (USMN08-01 strain), Eimeria adenoeides (Guelph strain), Eimeria gallopavonis (Weybridge strain), Eimeria meleagridis (USAR97-01 strain), and Eimeria dispersa (Briston strain). Short portions (514 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI) from each were amplified and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences showed sufficient species-specific sequence variation to recommend these short mt COI sequences as species-specific markers. Uniformity of oocyst features (dimensions and oocyst structure) of each pure line was observed. Additional morphological features of the oocysts of these species are described as useful for the microscopic differentiation of these Eimeria species. Combined molecular and morphometric data on these single species lines compared with the original species descriptions and more recent data have helped to clarify some confusing, and sometimes conflicting, features associated with these Eimeria spp. For example, these new data suggest that the KCH and KR strains of E. adenoeides reported previously represent 2 distinct species, E. adenoeides and E. meleagridis, respectively. Likewise, analysis of the Weybridge strain of E. adenoeides, which has long been used as a reference strain in various studies conducted on the pathogenicity of E. adenoeides, indicates that this coccidium is actually a strain of E. gallopavonis. We highly recommend mt COI sequence-based genotyping be incorporated into all studies using Eimeria spp. of turkeys to confirm species identifications and so

  20. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arabkhazaeli, F; Nabian, S; Modirsaneii, M; Mansoori, B; Rahbari, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsible for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characterization is important for epizootiological studies. Methods Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poultry houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broiler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were recorded and analyzed by the Duncan's test. Results In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographical regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates. PMID:22347310

  1. Porcine enteritis associated with Eimeria spinosa Henry, 1931 infection.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; Neiger, Regg; Hildreth, Michael

    2002-12-01

    Coccidia of the genus Eimeria are present in most pigs raised on dirt in the United States. They are generally considered nonpathogenic in weaned pigs. Oocysts of Eimeria spinosa Henry, 1931 were observed in tissue sections and intestinal contents of a weaned male pig that died suddenly on a farm in Iowa. Microscopically, necrotizing enteritis associated with many thick-walled coccidial oocysts was present in intestinal sections. Examination of intestinal contents demonstrated oocysts that were thick-walled and had small projections on the surface of the oocyst wall, characteristic of E. spinasa Henry, 1931 of swine. Twenty-live oocysts in intestinal contents measured 20.4 by 14.2 microm. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in the pig by culture methods, but lesions suggestive of salmonellosis were observed in some tissues. The specific cause of death was not determined; however, E. spinosa infection was considered to have contributed to the death of this pig. The results suggest that E. spinosa may be pathogenic for pigs. PMID:12539745

  2. Anticoccidial activities of Chitosan on Eimeria papillata-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2016-07-01

    Eimeria spp. multiply within the intestinal tract causing severe inflammatory responses. Chitosan (CS), meanwhile, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in different experimental models. Here, we investigated the effect of CS on the outcome of inflammation caused by Eimeria papillata in the mouse intestine. Investigations were undertaken into the oocyst output in feces and developmental stages and goblet cells in intestinal tissue. Assays for lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also performed. T cells in intestinal tissue were counted using immunohistochemistry while total IgA in serum or intestinal wash was assayed using ELISA. In addition, mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 were detected using real-time PCR. The data indicated a reduction in both oocyst output and in the number of parasite developmental stages following CS treatment, while the goblet cell hypoplasia in infected mice was also inhibited. CS decreased lipid peroxidation, NO, and MPO but did not alter the T cell count or IgA levels in comparison to the infected group. The expression of TNF-α and TGF-β decreased but IL-10 and IL-4 increased after CS treatment in comparison to the non-treated infected group. In conclusion, CS showed anti-inflammatory and protective effects against E. papillata infection. PMID:27041340

  3. λ Recombination and Recombineering.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kenan C

    2016-05-01

    The bacteriophage λ Red homologous recombination system has been studied over the past 50 years as a model system to define the mechanistic details of how organisms exchange DNA segments that share extended regions of homology. The λ Red system proved useful as a system to study because recombinants could be easily generated by co-infection of genetically marked phages. What emerged from these studies was the recognition that replication of phage DNA was required for substantial Red-promoted recombination in vivo, and the critical role that double-stranded DNA ends play in allowing the Red proteins access to the phage DNA chromosomes. In the past 16 years, however, the λ Red recombination system has gained a new notoriety. When expressed independently of other λ functions, the Red system is able to promote recombination of linear DNA containing limited regions of homology (∼50 bp) with the Escherichia coli chromosome, a process known as recombineering. This review explains how the Red system works during a phage infection, and how it is utilized to make chromosomal modifications of E. coli with such efficiency that it changed the nature and number of genetic manipulations possible, leading to advances in bacterial genomics, metabolic engineering, and eukaryotic genetics. PMID:27223821

  4. The Induction of Protective Immunity against Experimental Eimeria tenella Infection using Serum Exosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrition malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells and containing parasit...

  5. The prevalence of ovine Eimeria infection in Rudsar, North of Iran, (2011-2012).

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, S R; Khedri, J; Ghashghaei, O; Mohammadyari, N; Sharifi, H

    2016-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Eimeria infection in sheep in Rudsar, North of Iran, in period of 1 year (March 2011 to March 2012). The samples (approximately 3-5 grams of faeces) were collected from the rectum of 270 sheep and transferred to the parasitology laboratory. Eimeria species were identified following sporulation of faeces in a thin layer of 2.5 % potassium dichromate for one or 2 weeks at 27 °C. Out of 270 faecal samples examined, 170[(63.0 %; 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 56.9-68.7)] were positive for Eimeria spp. Five species of Eimeria, including E. ahsata, E. ovina, E. crandallis, E. parva and E. ovinoidalis were identified in faecal samples by modified McMaster technique. The most frequent species was E. crandallis. Sheep were considered in four age groups (less than 1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-3 years old and over 3 years old).The results also indicated that less than 1 year old sheep have greater infection ratio as compare with older animals. Female had significantly higher prevalence of Eimeria than male. Higher infection was seen in females compare to males and in winter compare to summer. Parasitological gross and microscopic examinations revealed Eimeria infection is common in sheep of Rudsar, North Iran. PMID:27605817

  6. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming. PMID:25185667

  7. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. PMID:25660426

  8. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa) Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Wiedmer, Stefanie; Hanig, Sacha; Entzeroth, Rolf; Kurth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus) concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species. PMID:23862053

  9. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed. PMID:10960478

  10. The cosmic microwave background after MAXIMA and BOOMERANG

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul L.

    2000-12-01

    The first release of data from the MAXIMA and BOOMERANG experiments has introduced a new era of precision cosmology. The two data sets are essentially independent, consistent and complementary. In a joint effort by the two teams, the two data sets were combined and then used to test cosmological models and determine values of cosmological constants. These results are available because of the success of bolometric detection techniques. The experimental approach is described with references to the MAXIMA-1 experiment. Important new cosmological experiments at far infrared and millimeter wavelengths require major improvements in bolometric techniques. A new technology, the voltage-biased superconducting bolometer, promises to provide the required experimental power.

  11. In vitro efficacy of allicin on chicken Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Thabet, Ahmed; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2015-10-01

    Chicken coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease caused by Eimeria spp. It is controlled and treated using chemical anticoccidial agents. Development of partial or complete resistance toward these anticoccidials is considered a major problem in poultry industry. Allicin is an organosulfur compound produced as a result of the reaction between alliin and alliinase after hacking of garlic. In this study, tenfold dilution from 180 mg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml of allicin in distilled water was tested against E. tenella in vitro. The percent of inhibition in allicin was from 99.9 to 71.53% using 180 mg/ml and 180 ng/ml, respectively. The percent of inhibition was 56.24% using 1.8 ng/ml. We used allicin as a treatment from plants against chicken coccidiosis; however, in vivo study should be performed to confirm these results. PMID:26264230

  12. Identification and characterization of secreted proteins in Eimeria tenella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramlee, Intan Azlinda; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2015-09-01

    Eimeria tenella is a protozoan parasite that causes coccidiosis, an economically important disease in the poultry industry. The characterization of proteins that are secreted by parasites have been shown to play important roles in parasite invasion and are considered to be potential control agents. In this study, 775 proteins potentially secreted by E. tenella were identified. These proteins were further filtered to remove mitochondrial proteins. Out of 763 putative secreted proteins, 259 proteins possess transmembrane domains while another 150 proteins have GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchors. Homology search revealed that 315 and 448 proteins have matches with known and hypothetical proteins in the database, respectively. Within this data set, previously characterized secretory proteins such as micronemes, rhoptry kinases and dense granules were detected.

  13. Establishment of Eimeria tenella (local isolate) in chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, L.; Zhao, Q.; Zhu, S.; Han, H.; Dong, H.; Huang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Development of an in vitro Eimeria (E.) tenella model could be valuable as a tool for vaccine, coccidiostats or molecular biology research. 1.0 × 104 sporozoites per 0.1 mL were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of ten-day-old chicken embryos. The complete lifecycle of E. tenella was accomplished in eight-nine days at 37 °C and 70% humidity. The addition of 100 U insulin to the embryos could remarkably improve the output of oocysts. The development of the parasite within the embryos was systematically observed, allowing guidelines to be set regarding the appropriate times at which different developmental stages of the parasite may be sampled. PMID:22910673

  14. Comparison between a live, attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and an anticoccidial ionophore, on performance of broilers raised with or without a growth promoter, in an initially Eimeria-free environment.

    PubMed

    Waldenstedt, L; Lundén, A; Elwinger, K; Thebo, P; Uggla, A

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of vaccination with Paracox, a live, attenuated vaccine against avian coccidiosis, on broilers isolated from extraneous Eimeria parasites. The study involved 3200 broiler chickens raised in floor pens similar to commercial conditions, but in an initially Eimeria-free environment. Forty percent of the chickens were vaccinated at 3 days of age and given either a basal unmedicated feed or a feed supplemented with the feed antibiotic virginiamycin. Unvaccinated birds were given either the basal feed or feed supplemented either with virginiamycin or the anticoccidial ionophore narasin. At slaughter at 36 days of age vaccinated birds had a lower live weight than non-vaccinated birds. The difference was 4.6% in unmedicated, and 6.0% in virginiamycin medicated chickens. Feed conversion ratio at slaughter was 2.5% higher for unmedicated vaccinated birds, and 1.3% higher for virginiamycin medicated vaccinated birds, compared to respective non-vaccinated groups. There was no significant difference in overall performance of unvaccinated birds given narasin as compared to virginiamycin. At 10 days post vaccination vaccinated birds had a higher number of Clostridium perfringens in the caeca, but there was no difference thereafter. Throughout the experiment, caecal clostridial counts were considerably higher in vaccinated unmedicated birds than in unvaccinated birds given narasin. The number of oocysts shed in the vaccinated groups was very low, but during a subsequent challenge with E. maxima and E. tenella the birds' immunity was found to be satisfactory. PMID:10418192

  15. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  16. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  17. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major disease of poultry caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria acervulina mainly infects the duodenum, causing lesions in epithelial tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E. acervulina infection on the expression of 18 nutrient transport...

  18. COMPARISON OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESONSES FROM AVIAN GUT TISSUES AFTER EIMERIA ACERVULINA AND E. MAXIMA INFECTIONS USING cDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the host response during pathogen infection will extend our knowledge of pathogenesis and enhance the development of novel preventive methodologies against important infectious diseases. Microarray technology is a powerful tool to analyze host transcriptional responses. Coccidiosis re...

  19. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  20. Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Broiler Chickens Coinfected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens Using an Animal Model of Necrotic Enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) infection in commercial poultry has been increasing at an alarming rate. While pre-exposure of chickens to coccidia infections is believed to be one of the major risk factors leading to NE, the underlying mechanisms of CP ...

  1. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M; De Souza, M C

    2008-12-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo Hůrková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the some chelonid from Amazonian Brazil. PMID:19202760

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria species in Philippine bats.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Sano, Kaori; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Alviola, Philip; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Alvarez, James; Une, Yumi; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Sugiura, Yuki; Kato, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Bats are naturally infected with zoonotic pathogens; thus, they are potential reservoirs of parasites. We investigated the species and genotype distribution as well as prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria in Philippine bats. We captured and examined 45 bats; four were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and seven were positive for Eimeria spp. We detected Cryptosporidium bat genotype II from Ptenochirus jagori. Three other Cryptosporidium sequences, detected from Rhinolophus inops, Cynopterus brachyotis, and Eonycteris spelaea, could not be classified as any known species or genotype; we therefore propose the novel genotype Cryptosporidium bat genotypes V, VI, and VII. Bat genotype V is associated with human cryptosporidiosis clade, and therefore, this genotype may be transmissible to humans. Among the Eimeria sequences, BE3 detected from Scotophilus kuhlii was classified with known bat and rodent clades; however, other sequences detected from C. brachyotis, E. spelaea, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and R. inops could not be classified with known Eimeria species. These isolates might represent a new genotype. Our findings demonstrate that the bats of the Philippines represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium and Eimeria spp. PMID:26833326

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  4. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  5. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  6. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  7. Differential sensitivity theory applied to movement of maxima responses. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Parks, C.V.; Cacuci, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Differential sensitivity theory (DST) is a recently developed methodology to evaluate response derivatives dR/d..cap alpha.. by using adjoint functions which correspond to the differentiated (with respect to an arbitrary parameter ..cap alpha..) linear or nonlinear physical system of equations. However, for many problems, where responses of importance are local maxima such as peak temperature, power, or heat flux, changes in the phase space location of the peak itself are of interest. This summary will present the DST procedure for predicting phase space shifts of maxima responses as applied to the MELT-III fast reactor safety code. An FFTF protected transient involving a $.23/s ramp reactivity insertion with scram on high power was selected for investigation.

  8. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-07-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy{close_quote}s pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith{close_quote}s model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa. PMID:26099978

  11. Zinc Supplementation against Eimeria acervulina-Induced Oxidative Damage in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V.; Gabrashanska, Margarita; Koinarski, Ventsislav; Yaneva, Zvezdelina

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the dietary supplements of Zn containing diet on the antioxidant status in chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina. The antioxidant status was monitored via determination of MDA concentrations and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities, as well as vitamin E, vitamin C, Cu, and Zn in liver, muscle, and serum. The results showed increased MDA (P < .05), CAT (P < .001), and decreased SOD (P < .001) in the infected birds. Significant changes in Cu and Zn concentrations and dramatically reduction of vitamin C and E concentrations in the infected chickens were found. The observed deviations in the studied enzymes and nonenzymatic parameters evidence the occurrence of oxidative stress following the infection and impaired antioxidant status of chickens, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Our results proved the ameliorating role of CuZn(OH)3Cl (0.170 g per kg food) against Eimeria acervulina-induced oxidative damage in infected chickens. PMID:21461390

  12. Prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Salmonella spp. and Eimeria spp. in healthy and diarrheic pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Jin Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Kim, Sang Hun; Min, Wongi; Chang, Hong Hee; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Suk

    2012-02-01

    A total of 170 fresh fecal samples (healthy; n=137, diarrheic; n=33) were collected from pet rabbits. By using PCR and formol-ether concentration method, a total 13/137 healthy rabbit feces were positive for L. intracellularis, 6/137 for Salmonella, and 13/137 for Eimeria. On the other hand, a total 17/33 diarrheic rabbit fecal samples were positive for L. intracellularis, 10/33 for Salmonella, and 21/33 for Eimeria. From these results, more than 20% of clinically normal and 97% of diarrheic rabbits were positive for single or concurrent infection of three pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the prevalence of the microorganisms L. intracellularis, Salmonella and Eimeria in pet rabbits. PMID:21959895

  13. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  14. Simultaneous identification and DNA barcoding of six Eimeria species infecting turkeys using PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Mian A; Shivaramaiah, Srichaitanya; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Cobean, Julie; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    Species-specific PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus were generated that allow for the specific identification of the most common Eimeria species infecting turkeys (i.e., Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria innocua). PCR reaction chemistries were optimized with respect to divalent cation (MgCl2) and dNTP concentrations, as well as PCR cycling conditions (particularly anneal temperature for primers). Genomic DNA samples from single oocyst-derived lines of six Eimeria species were tested to establish specificity and sensitivity of these newly designed primer pairs. A mixed 60-ng total DNA sample containing 10 ng of each of the six Eimeria species was used as DNA template to demonstrate specific amplification of the correct product using each of the species-specific primer pairs. Ten nanograms of each of the five non-target Eimeria species was pooled to provide a non-target, control DNA sample suitable to test the specificity of each primer pair. The amplifications of the COI region with species-specific primer pairs from pooled samples yielded products of expected sizes (209 to 1,012 bp) and no amplification of non-target Eimeria sp. DNA was detected using the non-target, control DNA samples. These primer pairs specific for Eimeria spp. of turkeys did not amplify any of the seven Eimeria species infecting chickens. The newly developed PCR primers can be used as a diagnostic tool capable of specifically identifying six turkey Eimeria species; additionally, sequencing of the PCR amplification products yields sequence-based genotyping data suitable for identification and molecular phylogenetics. PMID:25678350

  15. Experimental Eimeria debliecki infections in nursing and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Boosinger, T R

    1987-06-01

    Three litters of six, 3-day-old nursing pigs were inoculated via a stomach tube with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6) or 5.0 X 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria debliecki and four groups of six, 4-week-old weaned pigs were inoculated with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) or 1.0 X 10(7) sporulated oocysts of E. debliecki to determine its pathogenicity. Clinical coccidiosis or deaths did not result from infections. Infections were confined to the jejunum and occasionally the duodenum. Microscopic lesions of mild to moderate villous atrophy were observed in one nursing pig given 5.0 X 10(6) oocysts and three weaned pigs given 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) and 1.0 X 10(7) oocysts and examined 5 days post-inoculation. Pathogenic bacteria or viruses were not demonstrated in any pigs. Results of this study indicate that E. debliecki is not a cause of neonatal or weaning diarrhea in pigs. PMID:3629902

  16. Partial purification and characterization of an aminopeptidase from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Miska, K B; Barfield, R C

    2005-12-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated the expression in Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts of an aminopeptidase (AP) with strong homology to AP N. To further understand the role of proteases during development, we investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of E. tenella AP. Greater than 95% AP activity was present in a soluble extract during sporulation of oocysts with highest activity in fully sporulated oocysts. The AP activity was inhibited by the AP inhibitors bestatin and 1,6-phenanthroline, but not by serine protease inhibitors. The AP had specificity for synthetic endopeptidase substrates that contain arginine, alanine, or glycine at the N terminus. Partial purification of the enzyme yielded a major protein band with an Mr of about 106 kDa and an isoelectric point (Ip) of 5.1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the gene for AP is expressed during sporulation, but expression is absent or greatly reduced in the sporozoites and merozoites. On the basis of the deduced gene structure, the predicted Mr is 110 kDa with a pI of 5.59. Database search indicates that the E. tenella AP shares significant homology with the AP from Apicomplexan taxa: Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis. Together, these results confirm the presence of a cytosolic AP related to AP N, which is expressed and active during sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. PMID:16539006

  17. Eimeria leuckarti infections in sport horses in Northwest Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülegen, Ender; Girisgin, Oya; Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Cirak, Veli Yilgor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine sport horses in Northwest Turkey for Eimeria (E.) leuckarti infections. Between 2004 and 2008 fecal samples from 549 horses of different age, breed and sex of 21 farms were examined for E. leuckarti oocysts using a qualitative method which involved centrifugation/flotation and saturated sugar solution as medium. The prevalence of infection was evaluated relative to host age, sex, breed and pasture availability. 16 (2.9%) horses were found to be infected with E. leuckarti, whilst infected horses were located in nine (42.8%) farms. Younger horses (< 1 year old) were more frequently infected than older ones. However, breed, sex and availability of pasture were not identified as factors influencing the prevalence. As a main conclusion, compared with the low infection rate found in individual horses, E. leuckarti was highly prevalent at the farm level which possess a permanent risk of infection of especially younger horses at these premises. This study reports for the first time on the prevalence of E. leuckarti in sport horses from farms in Northwest Turkey. PMID:26904897

  18. Ultrastructural effects of acetamizuril on endogenous phases of Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Chen, Huiya; Fei, Chenzhong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Mi; Zhang, Keyu; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Tao; Xue, Feiqun

    2016-03-01

    To explore the primary stage or site of action of acetamizuril (AZL), a novel triazine anticoccidial compound, the ultrastructural development of Eimeria tenella at different endogenous stages was studied in experimentally infected chickens treated with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg AZL. As a result of drug action, the differentiations of second-generation schizonts and microgamonts were largely inhibited and merozoites became irregular in shape. Meanwhile, the outer membrane blistering and perinuclear space enlargement were obvious in the second-generation schizonts and microgamonts, which were never observed in the classic triazine anticoccidiosis drug diclazuril-treated E. tenella. The chromatin aggregation, anachromasis, and marginalization were visible in merozoites and microgamonts. Furthermore, the abnormal evagination of microgametes finally resulted in the degeneration of microgamonts and the failure of subsequent fertilization. The most marked micromorphological alteration occurring in the macrogamonts was the WFB2. Even if the fertilization occurred, the formation of oocyst wall became malformed and the zygote proceeded to the obvious degeneration. In addition, mitochondria swelling and cytoplasm vacuolization were discerned in respective intracellular stages, while endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi body swelling was less seen. These alterations may be the causes leading to the final death of E. tenella and also provide some information for further exploring the mechanism of action of AZL at the molecular level. PMID:26706906

  19. Endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Lima, J D

    2000-06-01

    The endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis was studied in 9 coccidia-free goat kids inoculated with 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg body weight. Kids were killed 4, 7 (2 animals), 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, and 22 days after inoculation (DAI). In tissue sections of the intestines stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy, 2 generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found. The first generation of meronts developed in cells deep in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum. Mature giant meronts (299.4x243.8 microm) found 16 DAI were visible to the naked eye and contained a large number of crescent-shaped merozoites. The second generation of meronts developed in the epithelial cells of crypts of the ileum and above the host cell nuclei. Mature meronts (11.5x10.1 microm) with 18-28 comma-shaped merozoites were first seen 16 DAI. Gametogenesis took place in epithelial cells of the crypts and villi of the terminal part of the ileum, cecum, and colon. Macrogametes (27.8x17.6 microm), mature microgamonts (21.3x17.0 microm), microgametes, and oocysts (30.5x19.4 microm) were found 19 DAI. Sexual stages were below the host cell nucleus. PMID:10864235

  20. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Eimeria tenella hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingfei; Liao, Shenquan; Zhang, Longxian; Wu, Caiyan; Qi, Nanshan; Lv, Minna; Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianfei; Xie, Mingquan; Zhu, Guan; Cai, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Hexokinase (HK) is one of the key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. In the present study, we cloned the HK gene from the coccidian Eimeria tenella (EtHK), expressed EtHK as a His-tagged fusion protein, and characterized its primary biochemical features. Mutagenesis confirmed that residues S159, N216, and D217 are essential or important to the EtHK catalytic activity. EtHK exhibited high affinity for D-glucose (Km = 0.67 to 0.79 mM), but was also able to utilize 2-deoxy-D-glucose (Km = 5.66 mM), D-fructose (Km = 13.76 mM), and D-mannose (Km = 25.41 mM). We also observed that quercetin and mangiferin could inhibit the EtHK enzyme activity (IC50 values = 6.52 and 85.82 μM, respectively). Among the two inhibitors, mangiferin also inhibited the growth of E. tenella in vitro (MIC50 = 0.12 μM). These observations suggest that EtHK may be explored as potential drug target, and mangiferin and its analogs may be explored for developing anti-coccidial therapeutics. PMID:27150971

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. PMID:26751874

  2. Year-long presence of Eimeria echidnae and absence of Eimeria tachyglossi in captive short-beaked echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John J; Johnson, Robert; Vogelnest, Larry; Phalen, David N; Whittington, Richard; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The short-beaked echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ) is 1 of 5 extant species of monotreme, found only in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to identify the species of coccidia present and establish a range of subclinical Eimeria spp. (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) oocyst shedding in echidnas from eastern Australia over 18 mo. The coccidia were detected in 89% (49/55) of fecal samples from 12 long-term monitored and healthy captive echidnas, 75% (3/4) of 4 healthy long-term captive echidnas, 83% (5/6) of 6 short-term captive echidnas, and 60% (6/10) of 10 wild echidnas. Echidnas captive for 4 to 23 yr shed 100-46,000 oocysts g(-1) of E. echidnae and remained clinically healthy during this study. Sub-adult and adult wild, and short-term captive, echidnas shed oocysts of both E. echidnae and E. tachyglossi . The lack of coccidia in juvenile short-beaked echidnas suggests these animals are probably non-immune and should not be placed in environments heavily contaminated with oocysts. In addition, no oocysts were found in captive long-beaked echidnas ( Zaglossus bartoni bartoni , n  =  2) housed at Taronga Zoo. This study represents an important step in understanding the host-parasite interaction between coccidia and short-beaked echidnas. PMID:22236183

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  4. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  5. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  6. Medical image fusion by wavelet transform modulus maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihong, Qu; Dali, Zhang; Pingfan, Yan

    2001-08-01

    Medical image fusion has been used to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data. In this research, we propose a novel method for multimodality medical image fusion. Using wavelet transform, we achieved a fusion scheme. Afusion rule is proposed and used for calculating the wavelet transformation modulus maxima of input images at different bandwidths and levels. To evaluate the fusion result, a metric based on mutual information (MI) is presented for measuring fusion effect. The performances of other two methods of image fusion based on wavelet transform are briefly described for comparison. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fusion scheme.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of a Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Like Protein of Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC). BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55–59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells. These results

  8. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  9. Eimeria galateai sp. n. from the Paradise Kingfisher, and Eimeria duncani sp. n. from the Sacred Kingfisher in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Varghese, T

    1977-05-01

    Eimeria galateai sp. n. from the paradise kingfisher (Tanysiptera galatea Gray) and Eimeria duncani sp. n. from the sacred kingfisher (Halcyon sancta Vigors & Horsfield) have been described from Papua New Guinea. Four of 11 paradise kingfishers were infected with E. galateai oocysts, measuring 13 (11-16) X 9 (8-11) micron. The oocysts were ovoid with nipple-like protrusion at one pole. Micropyle and polar granule were absent, while oocyst residuum (5 X 4 micron) was present. Sporocysts, measuring 5 (4-6) X 2 micron, were elongate-ovoid, and had a distinct convex Stieda body; the sporocyst residuum was absent. Two of 9 sacred kingfishers were infected with ovoid-truncated, 22 (19-25) X 16 (12-18) micron oocysts of E. duncani. Polar granule (5 X 2) was present in the oocysts, but there was no micropyle or oocyst residuum. Sporocysts were ovoid, measuring 9 (8-10) X 5 (4-6) micron, with a prominent Stieda body, and granular sporocyst residuum. Eimeria galateai and E. duncani are the first species of this genus to be described from birds of the order Coraciiformes. PMID:881649

  10. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  11. Application of gel-bead technology for delivering Eimeria oocysts to day-old broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods of preventing outbreaks of avian coccidiosis involve medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals or by vaccination of chicks with low doses of Eimeria oocysts in ovo or by spray vaccination just after hatch. Our data indicates that the uniformity and efficiency of...

  12. Isolates of Eimeria tenella: studies on resistance to ionophorous anticoccidial drugs.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D

    1986-09-01

    Four isolates of Eimeria tenella obtained from the field were partially resistant to monensin. This resistance was not lost after 10 passages in unmedicated chickens, indicating that it was stable. One of the four isolates was examined and found to be resistant also to narasin, salinomycin and lasalocid. PMID:3775121

  13. Effects of high hydrostatis pressure on Eimeria Acervulina pathogenicity, immunogenicity and structural integrity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eimeria acervulina is a protozoan parasite that can cause intestinal lesions and reduced weight gain in chickens. E. acervulina oocysts were treated by high hydrostatic pressure and evaluated for pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and structural integrity. Pressure treatment of E. acervulina oocysts a...

  14. IL-17A regulates Eimeria tenella schizont maturation and migration in avian coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although IL17A is associated with the immunological control of various infectious diseases, its role in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better dissect the role of IL17A in host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis, a neutralizing antibody (Ab) to chi...

  15. Observations on the gross pathology of Eimeria praecox infections in chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenge infections with 1 x 13, 5 x 10 4 ,1 x 10 5 ,or 5 x 10 5 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria praecox caused moderate but significant weight gain reduction at all doses. Substantial reduction in plasma carotenoids, and moderate but significant increased in plasma NO2-+NO3- only at the two highe...

  16. Development of an in vitro assay for monensin and salinomycin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying ionophore drugs and synthetic chemicals to poultry feed has been used for over 50 years to control avian coccidiosis. While this strategy has been and continues to be effective, drug resistance has prompted alternatives such as drug rotation or vaccination with live Eimeria oocysts. Often...

  17. Enhanced egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites by splenic lymphocytes from coccidia-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular paras...

  18. Expression of innate immunity genes during Eimeria praecox infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal colonization of avian species by Eimeria parasites results in the enteric disease, coccidiosis. A study was carried out to assess the immunological effects of E. praecox infection on the gut of infected chickens. In experiment 1, birds were orally gavaged with 50,000 E. praecox oocysts;...

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the Eimeria tenella microneme protein MIC2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Apicomplexan pathogens of the species Eimeria cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease of chickens, which has a major economic impact on the poultry industry. Members of the phylum Apicomplexa share an assortment of unique secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules) that me...

  20. Characterization of the antigen SO7 during development of Eimeria tenella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental expression of the antigen SO7, which has been previously shown to protect chickens against infection by several Eimeria species, was investigated. Using RT-PCR, mRNA for SO7 was found to be restricted primarily to unsporulated oocysts (0hr). Western blot (WB) analysis with an ant...

  1. Understanding species-dependant host response to Eimeria spp using comparative transcriptional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding comparative host immune response to different species of Eimeria will lead to enhanced insights on the nature of pathology caused by various coccidian species. To accomplish this, we investigated relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal i...

  2. Application of Eimeria-specific plymerase chain reaction to study coccidiosis on commercial broiler operations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species distribution and drug sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from different types of commercial broiler operations. In the first study, litter samples were collected from two groups of broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis ...

  3. Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

  4. Comparison of Global Transcriptional Responses of Chicken Following Primary and Secondary Eimeria acervulina Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the current study, we compared chicken gene transcriptional profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA). Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated ...

  5. KINETIC CHANGES IN IMMUNE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION AND INTESTINAL LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS FOLLOWING E. MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis, a major intestinal parasitic disease of poultry, induces a cell-mediated immune response against the etiologic agent of the disease, Eimeria. In the current study, the expression levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory, Th1, and Th2 cytokines, as well as chemokines and int...

  6. Clustering of extreme events created by multiple correlated maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Davide; Freitas, Ana Cristina Moreira; Freitas, Jorge Milhazes; Rodrigues, Fagner B.

    2016-02-01

    We consider stochastic processes arising from dynamical systems by evaluating an observable function along the orbits of the system. The novelty is that we will consider observables achieving a global maximum value (possible infinite) at multiple points with special emphasis for the case where these maximal points are correlated or bound by belonging to the same orbit of a certain chosen point. These multiple correlated maxima can be seen as a new mechanism creating clustering of extreme observations, i.e., the occurrence of several extreme observations concentrated in the time frame. We recall that clustering was intimately connected with periodicity when the maximum was achieved at a single point. We will study this mechanism for creating clustering and will address the existence of limiting Extreme Value Laws, the repercussions on the value of the Extremal Index, the impact on the limit of Rare Events Points Processes, the influence on clustering patterns and the competition of domains of attraction. We also consider briefly and for comparison purposes multiple uncorrelated maxima. The systems considered include expanding maps of the interval such as Rychlik maps but also maps with an indifferent fixed point such as Manneville-Pomeau maps.

  7. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients. PMID:26782493

  8. Enhanced Egress of Intracellular Eimeria tenella Sporozoites by Splenic Lymphocytes from Coccidian-Infected Chickens▿

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Abdelnabi, Ghada H.; Lee, Sung H.; Li, Guangxing; Jin, Hong; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment. PMID:21628515

  9. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  10. Cloning and characterization of three Eimeria tenella lipid phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  11. Cloning and Characterization of Three Eimeria tenella Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  12. Theoretical study on the absorption maxima of real GFPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Azuma; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsuya; Sakurai, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state calculations for the real green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its mutants, including the wild-type GFP, Y66F, blue fluorescent protein, and cyan fluorescent protein, were carried out at the INDO/S-CIS//ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G∗∗:AMBER) level. The numbers of singly excited configuration state functions at INDO/S-CIS were over 20 million. The calculated absorption maxima were in good agreement with the experimental data with a computational error of ⩽15 nm. For the wild-type GFP, INDO/S-CIS yielded a bathochromic shift of 38 nm with respect to its model chromophore in vacuo, which was also in good agreement with the extrapolated experimental shift of 45 nm.

  13. Acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols from Myristica maxima Warb.

    PubMed

    Othman, Muhamad Aqmal; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-06-01

    Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:27072985

  14. Maxima of two random walks: universal statistics of lead changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows as {π }-1{ln}t in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as {t}-1/4{({ln}t)}n for Brownian motion and as {t}-β (μ ){({ln}t)}n for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent β \\equiv β (μ ) varies continuously with the Lévy index when 0\\lt μ \\lt 2, and remains constant β =1/4 for μ \\gt 2.

  15. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells. PMID:24743937

  16. Construction of Eimeria tenella multi-epitope DNA vaccines and their protective efficacies against experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Huang, Xinmei; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-08-15

    The search for effective vaccines against chicken coccidiosis remains a challenge because of the complex organisms with multiple life cycle stages of Eimeria. Combination of T-cell epitopes from different stages of Eimeria life cycle could be an optimal strategy to overcome the antigen complexity of the parasite. In this study, 4 fragments with concentrated T-cell epitopes from the sporozoite antigen SO7 and the merozoite antigen MZ5-7 of Eimeria tenella were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 in different forms, with or without chicken cytokines IL-2 or IFN-γ genes as genetic adjuvants, to construct multistage, multi-epitope DNA vaccines against Eimeria tenella. Transcription and expression of the multi-epitope DNA vaccines in vivo were detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot. On the basis of survival rate, lesion score, body weight gain, oocyst decrease ratio and the anti-coccidial index (ACI), Animal experiments were carried out to evaluate the protective efficacy against Eimeria tenella. Results showed the constructed DNA vaccines were transcribed and translated successfully in vivo. Animal experiment showed that the multi-epitopes DNA vaccines were more effective to stimulate immune response than single fragment. Compared with the DNA vaccines composed with less T-cell epitopes, DNA vaccine pVAX1-m1-m2-s1-s2 containing 4 fragments with concentrated T-epitopes provided the highest ACI of 180.39. DNA vaccines composed of antigens from two developmental stages were more effective than the single-stage ones. Especially DNA vaccine pVAX1-m1-m2-s1-s2 provided the most effective protection with the ACI of 180.39. Furthermore, cytokines IL-2 or IFN-γ could improve the efficacy of the multi-epitope DNA vaccines significantly. Overall, pVAX1-m1-m2-s1-s2-IFN-γ provided the most effective protection with the ACI of 189.92. The multi-epitope DNA vaccines revealed in this study provide new candidates for Eimeria vaccine development

  17. Analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the dynamics of bovine Eimeria spp. from central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Grzybek, Maciej; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Studzińska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Klockiewicz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Eimeria infections are common in cattle worldwide, however, little is known about the invasion dynamics of this unicellular parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze intrinsic (host age) and extrinsic (herd size and management system) factors influencing the dynamics of Eimeria spp. found in calves from CE Poland. Fecal samples were collected from 356 calves from different types of management systems and from different herd sizes. Flotation and McMaster method were used for parasitological investigation. Oocysts were differentiated on the basis of morphological criteria. Eight Eimeria species were identified and mean species richness (MSR) was significantly affected by host age. The highest MSR was noted for middle age animals. There was an association between species, with a highly significant co-occurrence of Eimeria bovis with Eimeria zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying E. zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying Eimeria canadensis. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. reached 52.8% and was significantly affected by the age of cows, with the highest prevalence in animals between 5-10 months old. The most prevalent species were E. bovis (37.4%), E. zuernii (19.9%) and E. canadensis (12.1%). The prevalence of E. bovis was affected by host age (the highest prevalence in age class 2 animals) and management type (the highest prevalence in individuals raised in groups). The prevalence of E. zuernii was affected by age (the lowest prevalence was noted in the oldest individuals) and herd size (individuals infected were present only in the middle and large size herds), whereas the prevalence of E. canadensis was affected by all three factors. Overall, mean OPG of the combined Eimeria spp. was 458.84 (37.93) and differed significantly between age classes. Mean OPGs were generally low for young and mature animals but high for middle age

  18. Oral antibody to interleukin-10 reduces growth rate depression due to Eimeria spp. infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sand, Jordan M; Arendt, Maria K; Repasy, Alec; Deniz, Gűlay; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Eimeria spp. must be controlled in floor-reared poultry to prevent the onset of coccidiosis. Here we use an oral antibody to chicken IL-10 to prevent growth depression due to Eimeria spp. infection. Egg antibody directed against an antigenic peptide of IL-10 was produced in laying hens and measured using an ELISA. In the first experiment, egg yolk powder containing antibody to chicken IL-10 (vlpramqt conjugate) (anti-IL-10 yolk powder) was fed at 3.4 g/kg feed to determine growth response following mixed Eimeria spp. challenge. Chicks were fed either anti-IL-10 antibodies or control antibodies and challenged (d3) with either sterile saline or a 10× attenuated Eimeria spp. vaccine. Control-fed and Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 8.8% slower than those challenged with saline (P < 0.04), whereas anti-IL-10-fed Eimeria challenged chicks were not different from untreated controls. In the second trial a dose response was performed with doses of either 0 (control antibody), 0.34-, or 3.4-g anti-IL-10 yolk powder/kg feed. Control-fed, Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 10.6% slower than control saline-challenged chicks (P < 0.05); however, anti-IL-10-fed chicks fed either dose of anti-IL-10 were not different from saline-challenged chicks. Finally, the effect of anti-IL-10 on acquired immunity was investigated. Chicks were fed control or anti-IL-10 yolk powder and vaccinated with a 1× dose of Eimeria vaccine at d 3. After 14 d, antibody was removed from the diet. Chicks were either saline or 10× Eimeria challenged at d 17. We found that the anti-IL-10-fed chickens did not show a reduction in growth due to challenge; hence anti-IL-10 does not appear to affect adaptive immunity during the primary immunization. Overall, use of an antibody to IL-10 is a novel method in preventing adverse effects of Eimeria spp. infection in poultry. PMID:26772659

  19. Eimeria from bats of the world: a new species in Tomopeas ravus from Peru.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W; Barkley, L J

    1985-04-01

    Two of 17 (12%) crevice bats, Tomopeas ravus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from Peru had coccidian oocysts in their feces when examined. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tomopea n. sp. are ellipsoid to subspheroid, 30.6 X 24.6 (26-34 X 20-28) micron with ovoid sporocysts 13.9 X 9.0 (12-15 X 8-10) micron. A micropyle and substieda body are absent, but polar bodies, oocyst and sporocyst residua, and small, indistinct Stieda bodies are present. The oocyst wall is thick, approximately equal to 1.5 micron and consists of 2 layers, the outermost being rough and mammillated. This is only the 13th eimerian to be described from bats worldwide. The currently recognized species of Eimeria are listed, and a possible New World-Old World phyletic split within the genus is described. PMID:3998959

  20. Cosmological Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wan Yan

    2008-11-01

    In this thesis we focus on studying the physics of cosmological recombination and how the details of recombination affect the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We present a detailed calculation of the spectral line distortions on the CMB spectrum arising from the Lyman-alpha and the lowest two-photon transitions in the recombination of hydrogen (H), and the corresponding lines from helium (He). The peak of these distortions mainly comes from the Lyman-alpha transition and occurs at about 170 microns, which is the Wien part of the CMB. The major theoretical limitation for extracting cosmological parameters from the CMB sky lies in the precision with which we can calculate the cosmological recombination process. With this motivation, we perform a multi-level calculation of the recombination of H and He with the addition of the spin-forbidden transition for neutral helium (He I), plus the higher order two-photon transitions for H and among singlet states of He I. We find that the inclusion of the spin-forbidden transition results in more than a percent change in the ionization fraction, while the other transitions give much smaller effects. Last we modify RECFAST by introducing one more parameter to reproduce recent numerical results for the speed-up of helium recombination. Together with the existing hydrogen `fudge factor', we vary these two parameters to account for the remaining dominant uncertainties in cosmological recombination. By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method with Planck forecast data, we find that we need to determine the parameters to better than 10% for He I and 1% for H, in order to obtain negligible effects on the cosmological parameters.

  1. Two new Eimeria species parasitic in corncrakes (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jeanes, C; Vaughan-Higgins, R; Green, R E; Sainsbury, A W; Marshall, R N; Blake, D P

    2013-08-01

    In this study we describe 2 new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) parasites isolated from the feces of corncrake (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae), bred in captivity in the U.K. Oocysts of Eimeria crecis n. sp. were approximately spherical and measured 15.3 μm (13-18) × 14.3 (12-16), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria nenei n. sp. were ellipsoidal and measured 23.6 (21-26) × 18.1 (17-20), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.3. A micropyle and polar granule were present. Surveying free-living, wild adult corncrakes in Scotland (U.K.) demonstrated both parasite species to be widespread. These are the first species described to infect the corncrake, and they are distinct from those previously found to infect members of the closely related crane family (Gruiformes: Gruidae). Partial amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 indicated a close relationship between the 2 proposed new species as a group distinct from the Eimeria species known to infect cranes. These newly identified parasite species have been associated with enteric disease in corncrakes being prepared for reproduction in captivity and reintroduction into England (U.K.). PMID:23347228

  2. Avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and intestinal immune responses to Eimeria parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Lillehoj, H S; Trout, J M

    1996-01-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal infection caused by intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to several different species of Eimeria, seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of livestock and poultry. Host immune responses to coccidial infection are complex. Animals infected with Eimeria spp. produce parasite-specific antibodies in both the circulation and mucosal secretions. However, it appears that antibody-mediated responses play a minor role in protection against coccidiosis. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in resistance to infection. T lymphocytes appear to respond to coccidial infection through both cytokine production and a direct cytotoxic attack on infected cells. The exact mechanisms by which T cells eliminate the parasites, however, remain unclear. Although limited information is available on the intestinal immune system of chickens, gut lymphoid tissues have evolved specialized features that reflect their role as the first line of defense at mucosal surfaces, including both immunoregulatory cells and effector cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the avian intestinal immune system and mucosal immune responses to Eimeria spp., providing an overview of the complex cellular and molecular events involved in intestinal immune responses to enteric pathogens. PMID:8809465

  3. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). PMID:26773377

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthastrea maxima (Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Vacherie, Benoît; Benzoni, Francesca; Barbe, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scleractinian coral Acanthastrea maxima has been obtained, representing the first sequenced mitogenome of a member of the Lobophylliidae. The mitochondrial genome is 18,278  bp in length, the longest sequence among the robust corals sequenced mitogenome to date. The overall GC composition (33.7%) and the gene arrangement are similar to those of the other scleractinian corals, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rnl and rns) and 2 tRNA genes (tRNA-Met and tRNA-Trp). All genes except tRNA-Trp, atp8, cox1, tRNA-Met and rnl are engulfed by a large group I intron in the nad5 gene. A second group I intron of 1077 bp in length is inserted in the cox1 gene and it encodes a putative homing endonuclease. There are four regions of gene overlaps totalling 22 bp and nine intergenic spacer regions for a total of 2220 bp, of which the cox3-cox2 region may correspond to the putative control region. PMID:24938099

  5. Maxima of two random walks: Universal statistics of lead changes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-04-18

    In this study, we investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows asmore » $${\\pi }^{-1}\\mathrm{ln}t$$ in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as $${t}^{-1/4}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for Brownian motion and as $${t}^{-\\beta (\\mu )}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent $$\\beta \\equiv \\beta (\\mu )$$ varies continuously with the Lévy index when $$0\\lt \\mu \\lt 2$$, and remains constant $$\\beta =1/4$$ for $$\\mu \\gt 2$$.« less

  6. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  7. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF EIMERIA POPULTATIONS IN RELATION TO PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF BROILDER CHICKEN FARMS IN ARKANSAS AND NORTH CAROLINA, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of coccidiosis outbreaks on the productivity of broiler chicken farms can be substantial, depending on the severity of disease caused by the particular species and strain of Eimeria. Polymorphism in the strains of Eimeria species infecting chickens may confer variation in the pathogenici...

  8. Insights into the genome structure and copy-number variation of Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eimeria is a genus of parasites in the same phylum (Apicomplexa) as human parasites such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium. As an apicomplexan whose life-cycle involves a single host, Eimeria is a convenient model for understanding this group of organisms. Although the genomes of the Apicomplexa are diverse, that of Eimeria is unique in being composed of large alternating blocks of sequence with very different characteristics - an arrangement seen in no other organism. This arrangement has impeded efforts to fully sequence the genome of Eimeria, which remains the last of the major apicomplexans to be fully analyzed. In order to increase the value of the genome sequence data and aid in the effort to gain a better understanding of the Eimeria tenella genome, we constructed a whole genome map for the parasite. Results A total of 1245 contigs representing 70.0% of the whole genome assembly sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) were selected and subjected to marker selection. Subsequently, 2482 HAPPY markers were developed and typed. Of these, 795 were considered as usable markers, and utilized in the construction of a HAPPY map. Markers developed from chromosomally-assigned genes were then integrated into the HAPPY map and this aided the assignment of a number of linkage groups to their respective chromosomes. BAC-end sequences and contigs from whole genome sequencing were also integrated to improve and validate the HAPPY map. This resulted in an integrated HAPPY map consisting of 60 linkage groups that covers approximately half of the estimated 60 Mb genome. Further analysis suggests that the segmental organization first seen in Chromosome 1 is present throughout the genome, with repeat-poor (P) regions alternating with repeat-rich (R) regions. Evidence of copy-number variation between strains was also uncovered. Conclusions This paper describes the application of a whole genome mapping method to improve the assembly

  9. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assays for the Species-specific Detection of Eimeria that Infect Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Barkway, Christopher P.; Pocock, Rebecca L.; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P.

    2015-01-01

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm’s anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable. PMID:25741643

  10. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, H. A.; Lawal, I. A.; Okubanjo, O. O.; Wakawa, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites) in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont) of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study. PMID:26464933

  11. Detailed study of anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algae biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1986-07-01

    Biomass of the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima was converted to methane using continuous stirred tank digesters with an energy conversion efficiency of 59%. Digesters were operated using once-a-day feeding with a retention time (theta) between 5 and 40 days, volatile solid concentrations (Sto) between 20 and 100 kg VS/cubic m, and temperatures between 15 and 52/sup 0/C. The results indicated a maximum methane yield of 0.35 cubic m (STP)/kg VS added at theta = 30 days and Sto = 20 kg VS/cubic m. Under such conditions, the energy conversion of the algal biomass to methane was 59%. The maximum methane production rate of 0.80 cubic m (STP)/cubic m day was obtained with theta = 20 days and Sto = 100 kg VS/cubic m. The mesophilic condition at 35/sup 0/C produced the maximum methane yield and production rate. The process was stable and characterized by a high production of volatile acids (up to 23,200 mg/l), alkalinity (up to 20,000 mg/l), and ammonia (up to 7000 mg/l), and the high protein content of the biomass produced a well-buffered environment which reduced inhibitory effects. At higher loading rates, the inhibition of methanogenic bacteria was observed, but there was no clear-cut evidence that such a phenomenon was due to nonionized volatile acids or gaseous ammonia. The kinetic analysis using the model proposed by Chen and Hashimoto indicated that the minimum retention time was seven days. The optimum retention time increased gradually from 11 to 16 days with an increase in the initial volatile solid concentration. The kinetic constant K decreased with the improvement in the digester performance and increased in parallel with the ammonia concentration in the culture media. 32 references.

  12. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  13. The effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels on apoptosis of chick embryo cecal cells by Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha-sha; Zheng, Ming-xue; Xu, Huan-cheng; Cui, Xiao-zhen; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Wen-long; Bai, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels on apoptosis induced by Eimeria tenella. At 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after Eimeria tenella infection, TUNEL assays and translation of phosphatidyl serines to the host cell plasma membrane surface showed that diazoxide-treated chick embryo cecal cells underwent less apoptosis (P <0.05), while light microscopy showed that infection rates of treated cells were higher (P <0.01) than untreated cells. Caspase 9 and caspase 3 of infected cells were activated less (P <0.01) in diazoxide-treated cells than untreated cells. These results indicate that opening mitoKATP channels can protect chick embryo cecal cells from mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by Eimeria tenella by inhibiting activations of caspase 9 and caspase 3. PMID:25744434

  14. Description and phylogeny of a new species of Eimeria from double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) near Fort Gaines, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Gibbs, Samantha E J

    2006-04-01

    The renal parasite Eimeria auritusi has caused several mortality events in double-crested cormorants (DCC; Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Midwest and southeastern United States. This parasite has only been detected during large-scale outbreaks, and its presence and prevalence in healthy populations of cormorants is unknown. In this study, 80 DCC were collected from the Chattahoochee River near Fort Gaines, Georgia, and examined for kidney and intestinal coccidia. Eighteen (22.5%) and 56 (70%) of the DCC were positive for E. auritusi and a new species of intestinal Eimeria, respectively. Oocysts of the new intestinal Eimeria species had a thin colorless wall, were ovoid with rare bumps on the outer surface, and measured 17.1 microm +/- 1.5 x 14.7 microm +/- 1.0 (16-18.5 x 13-17), with an average length:width ratio of 1.17 microm (1.03-1.29). A prominent micropyle (4-4.5 microm) was present, and a large oval-to-round polar body (2.5 microm) was located beneath the micropyle. Sporocysts were ovoid and measured 9.6 microm +/- 0.6 x 5.9 microm +/- 0.5 (8.5-10.5 x 5-6.5), with an average length:width ratio of 1.63 (1.3-1.82) with small stieda body present. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that the 2 DCC Eimeria species and 2 Eimeria species from cranes were in a separate group from other Eimeriidae. These data indicate that E. auritusi and this new species of intestinal Eimeria are prevalent in this apparently healthy DCC population. The cause of renal coccidiosis outbreaks in other populations of cormorants is unknown but could be due to crowding or stress during the winter months or some other associated pathogen or immunosuppressor that might predispose individuals to clinical disease. PMID:16729699

  15. Biosynthesis of Sterols and Triterpenoids in Tissue Cultures of Cucurbita maxima.

    PubMed

    Caputo, O; Delprino, L; Viola, F; Caramiello, R; Balliano, G

    1983-11-01

    The biosynthesis of sterols and triterpenoids in CUCURBITA MAXIMA was studied by analysis of unsaponifiable fraction of tissues from different development stages of the plant (seeds, seedlings, adult plant and tissue culture) and by feeding germinating seeds and tissue cultures with [2- (14)C]-acetate. Synthesis of cucurbitacins does not occur in callus tissues of CUCURBITA MAXIMA, whereas a wide variety of 4,4-dimethylsterols present in these tissues testifies of a high level of squaleneoxide cyclase activity in growing callus. The peculiarity of Cucurbitaceae among the higher plants is also discussed comparing the side chain biosynthesis of sterols in CUCURBITA MAXIMA to that operating in other higher plants. PMID:17405044

  16. In vivo and in vitro efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Eimeria spp in lambs.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, Anastasios; Regos, Ionela; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Treuter, Dieter; Joachim, Anja; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2012-08-13

    The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against ovine coccidia was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. In 3 in vivo trials weaned lambs were allocated into two treatment groups receiving diets with either lucerne (Medicago sativa) or sainfoin. During the trials, which lasted for 7 (trial 1) or 8 weeks (trials 2 and 3), oocysts per gram of faeces (OPGs), faecal scores and weight gain were recorded. In two of the experiments (trials 1 and 3) a reduction in the mean oocyst excretion rates was observed, starting three to four weeks after sainfoin hay feeding. This reduction ranged between 21.3% (trial 1) and 61.7% (trial 3) compared to the control values. As a result, a decrease in the total number of oocysts excreted (expressed as the mean area under the curve of the OPG) was observed from week 4 to the end of the two trials, respectively (trial 1: 42.6% reduction, p=0.05; trial 3: 52.4% reduction, p=0.06). The results did not show any significant diet effect on lamb growth rates and faecal scores. In the in vitro experiments the effect of 39 sainfoin extracts were tested in an oocyst sporulation inhibition assay. The Eimeria oocysts sporulation inhibition throughout the experiments did not exceed 10.7%, showing that extracts of this forages do not have a significant inhibitory effect on Eimeria oocyst sporulation. This was an initial attempt to investigate a possible anticoccidial effect of sainfoin and further studies are needed in order to better understand its mode of action against Eimeria. PMID:22482929

  17. Efficacy of chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella 5401 and chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 against coccidiosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Huang, Xinmei; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-09-01

    Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-γ, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100 µg of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200 µg of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90 kDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis. PMID:26008611

  18. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  19. Suppression of phytopathogenic fungi by hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Samkeun; Cha, Byeong Jin

    2007-12-01

    The hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf exhibited antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PMID:17573203

  20. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  1. Eimeria azul sp. n. (protozoa: Eimeriidae) from the eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1979-06-01

    Eimeria azul sp. n. is described from the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, in central Pennsylvania. The oval oocysts are 19.5--27.0 micrometer by 15.0--19.0 (mean - 22.9 X 16.7 micrometer). The fusiform sporocysts are 7.8--14.0 micrometer by 3.3--6.5 micrometer (mean = 11.8 X 5.8 micrometer). A Stieda Body is present. There is no micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule. The sporocyst has a residuum which is variable in appearance. The oocysts are characterized by a blue tint when viewed with an apochromatic objective lens. PMID:480068

  2. [Eimeria leuckarti infections in foals and their mothers in upper Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Beelitz, P; Rieder, N; Gothe, R

    1994-08-01

    In this epidemiological study 30 mares and their foals from seven farms in Upper Bavaria were investigated. Eimeria-leuckarti-oocysts were found in 24 foals (80%), but only in one mare. Oocysts were first detected 28 days post partum at the earliest and 191 days post partum at the latest. In foals, excretion of oocysts usually occurred intermittently with coproscopically negative intervals of up to 15 weeks, and was most frequent in June (8 foals), July (17 foals), and August (10 foals). With the exception of two animals which had mild diarrhoea, the oocyst-shedding foals showed no clinical signs. PMID:7940517

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  4. Is sporozoite refractile body protein expression different in Eimeria acervulina sporozoites isolated from non-immune versus immune chickens?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hallmark of Eimeria infection in avians is the establishment of immunity against clinical signs of coccidiosis. Resistant birds experience improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency and lack intestinal lesions. Oocysts excretion is reduced, but not eliminated, in such immune chickens. ...

  5. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  6. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  7. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  8. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  9. Richness, origin and structure of an Eimeria community in a population of Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduced into Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, S; Hofmannová, L; Girardello, M; Modry, D

    2010-07-01

    The composition and structure of a community of Eimeria was investigated in a population of Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduced into Italy. Eight Eimeria species were found, of which all but 1 had North American origins and were presumably introduced into Italy together with imported cottontails. The success of cottontails in spreading microparasites is probably related to their massive release for hunting purposes. Nearly all cottontails were infected with at least 1 Eimeria species, with bimonthly prevalence ranging from 0-6.3% (E. leporis) to 42.9-89.3% (E. environ). Bayesian model averaging and multivariate techniques were used to investigate the relationships between the occurrence of each parasite and the structure of the relative community. Among the host parameters, only sex was found to be associated with the prevalence of E. honessi, while the rest of the parameters were only weakly correlated with prevalence and species richness. This indicates that individual phenotypic host characteristics are probably less important than environmental factors in determining levels of parasite prevalence and diversity. The community of Eimeria species was probably structured by competition, with less species co-occurrence than expected under a null hypothesis. This was made evident by the low co-occurrence of E. environ and E. neoirresidua with E. poudrei, E. honessi, and E. maior. PMID:20233489

  10. Induction of Protective Immunity against Eimeria tenella Infection using Antigen-loaded Dendritic Cells (DC) and DC-derived Exosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eimeria is a protozoan parasite which causes coccidiosis, a major parasitic disease of poultry that is indigenous to most regions of the world and causes intestinal damage with reduced body weight gain. Conventional disease control methods have relied on prophylactic chemotherapy, but alternative m...