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Sample records for einstein eddington timescale

  1. Sources of stellar energy, Einstein Eddington timescale of gravitational contraction and eternally collapsing objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2006-11-01

    We point out that although conventional stars are primarily fed by burning of nuclear fuel at their cores, in a strict sense, the process of release of stored gravitational energy, known as, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) process is either also operational albeit at an arbitrary slow rate, or lying in wait to take over at the disruption of the nuclear channel. In fact, the latter mode of energy release is the true feature of any self-gravity bound object including stars. We also highlight the almost forgotten fact that Eddington was the first physicist to introduce special relativity into the problem and correctly insist that, actually, total energy stored in a star is not the mere Newtonian energy but the total mass energy ( E = Mc2). Accordingly, Eddington defined an "Einstein time scale" of Evolution where the maximum age of the Sun turned out to be tE ? 1.4 10 13 yr. This concept has a fundamental importance though we know now that Sun in its present form cannot survive for more than 10 billion years. We extend this concept by introducing general relativity and show that the minimum value of depletion of total mass-energy is tE = ? not only for Sun but for and sufficiently massive or dense object. We propose that this time scale be known in the name of "Einstein-Eddington". We also point out that, recently, it has been shown that as massive stars undergo continued collapse to become a Black Hole, first they become extremely relativistic radiation pressure supported stars. And the life time of such relativistic radiation pressure supported compact stars is indeed dictated by this Einstein-Eddington time scale whose concept is formally developed here. Since this observed time scale of this radiation pressure supported quasistatic state turns out to be infinite, such objects are called eternally collapsing objects (ECO). Further since ECOs are expected to have strong intrinsic magnetic field, they are also known as "Magnetospheric ECO" or MECO.

  2. Penrose diagrams for the Einstein, Eddington--Lemaitre, Eddington--Lemaitre--Bondi, and anti-de Sitter universes

    SciTech Connect

    Tipler, F.J.

    1986-02-01

    Penrose diagrams including the c boundary at infinity and the singularities for the Einstein, Eddington--Lemaitre, Eddington--Lemaitre--Bondi, and anti-de Sitter universes are constructed. Penrose diagrams for the Einstein, Eddington--Lemaitre, and anti-de Sitter universes have been published before, but these diagrams are incomplete in that the published diagrams do not contain the c-boundary points of the universes they are supposed to represent.

  3. EINSTein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilachinski, Andrew

    Artificial Life techniquesspecifically, multiagent-based models and evolutionary learning algorithmsprovide a powerful new approach to understanding some of the fundamental processes of war. This chapter introduces a simple artificial toy model of combat called EINSTein. EINSTein is designed to illustrate how certain aspects of land combat can be viewed as self-organized, emergent phenomena resulting from the dynamical web of interactions among notional combatants. EINSTein's bottom-up, synthesist approach to the modeling of combat stands in stark contrast to the more traditional top-down, or reductionist, approach taken by conventional military models, and it represents a step toward developing a complex systems theoretic toolbox for identifying, exploring, and possibly exploiting self-organized, emergent collective patterns of behavior on the real battlefield. A description of the model is provided, along with examples of emergent spatial patterns and behaviors.

  4. Eddingtons gravity in immersed spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azri, Hemza

    2015-03-01

    We formulate Eddingtons affine gravity in a spacetime that is immersed in a larger eight-dimensional space endowed with a hypercomplex structure. The dynamical equation of the first immersed Ricci-type tensor leads to gravitational field equations which include matter. We also study the dynamical effects of the second Ricci-type tensor when added to the Lagrangian density. A simple Lagrangian density constructed from a combination of the standard Ricci tensor and a new tensor field that appears due to the immersion, leads to gravitational equations in which the vacuum energy gravitates with a different cosmological strength as in Demir (2014 Phys. Rev. D 90 064017), rather than with Newtons constant. As a result, the tiny observed curvature is reproduced due to large hierarchies rather than fine tuning.

  5. Instability & Mass Loss near the Eddington Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S. P.; Shaviv, N. J.

    We review the physics of continuum-driven mass loss and its likely role in ? Carinae and LBVs. Unlike a line-driven wind, which is inherently limited by self-shadowing, continuum driving can in principle lead to mass-loss rates up to the "photon-tiring" limit, for which the entire luminosity is expended in lifting the outflow. We discuss how instabilities near the Eddington limit give rise to a clumped atmosphere, and how the associated "porosity" can regulate a continuum-driven flow. We also summarize recent time-dependent simulations in which a mass flow stagnates because it exceeds the tiring limit, leading to complex time-dependent inflow and outflow regions. Porosity-regulated continuum driving in super-Eddington epochs can probably explain the large, near tiring-limit mass loss inferred for LBV giant eruptions. However, while these extreme flows can persist over dynamically long periods, they cannot be sustained for an evolutionary timescale; so ultimately it is stellar structure and evolution that sets the overall mass loss.

  6. Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-12-21

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability. PMID:23368444

  7. Sub-Eddington star-forming regions are super-Eddington: momentum-driven outflows from supersonic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the turbulent gas in the star-forming regions of galaxies is unstable to wind formation via momentum deposition by radiation pressure or other momentum sources like supernova explosions, even if the system is below the average Eddington limit. This conclusion follows from the fact that the critical momentum injection rate per unit mass for unbinding gas from a self-gravitating system is proportional to the gas surface density and that a turbulent medium presents a broad distribution of column densities to the sources. For an average Eddington ratio of <Γ> ≃ 0.1 and for turbulent Mach numbers ≳ 30, we find that ˜1 per cent of the gas is ejected per dynamical time-scale at velocities larger than the local escape velocity. Because of the lognormal shape of the surface density distribution, the mass-loss rate is highly sensitive to the average Eddington ratio, reaching ˜20-40 per cent of the gas mass per dynamical time for <Γ> ≃ 1. Using this model we find a large scatter in the mass-loading factor for star-forming galaxies, ranging from ˜10-3-10, but with significant uncertainties. Implications for the efficiency of star formation in giant molecular clouds are highlighted. For radiation pressure feedback alone, we find an increasing star formation efficiency as a function of initial gas surface density. Uncertainties are discussed.

  8. "An expedition to heal the wounds of war". The 1919 eclipse and Eddington as Quaker adventurer.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew

    2003-03-01

    The 1919 eclipse expedition's confirmation of general relativity is often celebrated as a triumph of scientific internationalism. However, British scientific opinion during World War I leaned toward the permanent severance of intellectual ties with Germany. That the expedition came to be remembered as a progressive moment of internationalism was largely the result of the efforts of A. S. Eddington. A devout Quaker, Eddington imported into the scientific community the strategies being used by his coreligionists in the national dialogue: humanize the enemy through personal contact and dramatic projects that highlight the value of peace and cooperation. The essay also addresses the common misconception that Eddington's sympathy for Einstein led him intentionally to misinterpret the expedition's results. The evidence gives no reason to think that Eddington or his coworkers were anything but rigorous. Eddington's pacifism is reflected not in manipulated data but in the meaning of the expedition and the way it entered the collective memory as a celebration of international cooperation in the wake of war. PMID:12725104

  9. An expedition to heal the wounds of war. The 1919 eclipse and Eddington as Quaker adventurer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2003-03-01

    The 1919 eclipse expedition's confirmation of general relativity is often celebrated as a triumph of scientific internationalism. However, British scientific opinion during World War I leaned toward the permanent severance of intellectual ties with Germany. That the expedition came to be remembered as a progressive moment of internationalsm was largely the result of the efforts of A. S. Eddington. A devout Quaker, Eddington imported into the scientific community the strategies being used by his coreligionists in the national dialogue: humanize the enemy through personal contact and dramatic projects that highlight the value of peace and cooperation. The essay also addresses the common misconception that Eddington's sympathy for Einstein led him intentionally to misinterpret the expedition's results. The evidence gives no reason to think that Eddington or his coworkers were anything but rigorous. Eddington's pacifism is reflected not in manipulated data but in the meaning of the expedition and the way it entered the collective memory as a celebration of international cooperation in the wake of war.

  10. Eddington Inspired Born Infeld Theory: a New Look to the Matter-Coupling Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, T.; Steinhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss some consequences of changing the matter to gravity coupling without affecting the gravitational dynamics. The Einstein tensor is usually assumed to be proportional to the stress tensor due to the divergence free property of both object. This is not the only consistent way to couple matter to gravity; we explore some aspect of consistent modification to the matter/gravity coupling using the recently proposed Eddington inspired Born Infeld extension of gravity.

  11. COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: EFFECTS OF EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION AND QUASAR LIFETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Xinwu

    2010-12-10

    A power-law time-dependent light curve for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is expected by the self-regulated black hole growth scenario, in which the feedback of AGNs expels gas and shut down accretion. This is also supported by the observed power-law Eddington ratio distribution of AGNs. At high redshifts, the AGN life timescale is comparable with (or even shorter than) the age of the universe, which sets a constraint on the minimal Eddington ratio for AGNs on the assumption of a power-law AGN light curve. The black hole mass function (BHMF) of AGN relics is calculated by integrating the continuity equation of massive black hole number density on the assumption of the growth of massive black holes being dominated by mass accretion with a power-law Eddington ratio distribution for AGNs. The derived BHMF of AGN relics at z = 0 can fit the measured local mass function of the massive black holes in galaxies quite well, provided the radiative efficiency {approx}0.1 and a suitable power-law index for the Eddington ratio distribution are adopted. In our calculations of the black hole evolution, the duty cycle of AGN should be less than unity, which requires the quasar life timescale {tau}{sub Q} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 8} years.

  12. The virial theorem in Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Noelia S.; Santos, Janilo

    2015-12-01

    We consider the possibility that the Eddington-Born-Infeld (EBI) modified gravity provides an alternative explanation for the mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. For this purpose we derive the modified Einstein field equations, finding an additional "geometrical mass" term which provides an effective contribution to the gravitational binding energy. Using some approximations and assumptions for weak gravitational fields, and taking into account the collisionless relativistic Boltzmann equation, we derive a generalized version of the virial theorem in the framework of EBI gravity. We show that the "geometrical mass" term may account for the well known virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We also derive the velocity dispersion relation for galaxies in the clusters, which could provide an efficient method for testing EBI gravity from astrophysical observations.

  13. PHOTON FEEDBACK: SCREENING AND THE EDDINGTON LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Sironi, Lorenzo E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-08-01

    Bright star-forming galaxies radiate well below their Eddington limits. The value of the flux-mean opacity that mediates the radiation force onto matter is orders of magnitude smaller than the UV or optical dust opacity. On empirical grounds, it is shown that high-redshift ULIRGs radiate at two orders of magnitude below their Eddington limits, while the local starbursters M82 and Arp 220 radiate at a few percent of their Eddington limits. A model for the radiative transfer of UV and optical light in dust-rich environments is considered. Radiation pressure on dust does not greatly affect the large-scale gas dynamics of star-forming galaxies.

  14. Mass Loss Near the Eddington Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.

    2005-09-01

    We investigate whether ``continuum'' opacity near the Fe peak at log T = 5.2 can produce the great eruption of ? Car. Our simple estimates show that ? Car can be super-Eddington (? >1) well below the photosphere. The super-Eddington region is sufficiently extended that it can drive a very large mass loss rate (a few 0.1 M? yr-1) to well above the escape speed (several 100 km s-1). Furthermore once initiated, it appears plausible that continuum-driving may ``run away,'' approaching the photon tiring limit. This suggests continuum-driving may be capable of producing the great eruption.

  15. Eddington capture sphere around luminous relativistic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgus, Maciek

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the interplay of gravity and radiation in a static, spherically symmetric spacetime. Because of the spacetime curvature, balance between radiation pressure from spherical star and effective force of gravity may be established in a particular distance from the star surface, on so-called Eddington capture sphere. This is in contrast with the Newtonian scenario, for which Eddington luminosity of the radiation assures gravity-radiation balance at any radius. We explore properties of this relativistic equilibrium and the dynamics of test particles under radiation influence in the strong gravity regime.

  16. Chandrasekhar vs. Eddington - An Unanticipated Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    1982-01-01

    In the 1930s, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar found a fundamental parameter that determines the density of stars. Although recognized as a major discovery, it was generally unaccepted by astronomers because the work was ridiculed by a preeminent astronomer (Arthur Eddington). The controversy and current understanding of stellar evolution are discussed.…

  17. Chandrasekhar vs. Eddington - An Unanticipated Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    1982-01-01

    In the 1930s, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar found a fundamental parameter that determines the density of stars. Although recognized as a major discovery, it was generally unaccepted by astronomers because the work was ridiculed by a preeminent astronomer (Arthur Eddington). The controversy and current understanding of stellar evolution are discussed.

  18. Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.

    PubMed

    Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2010-07-01

    We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe. PMID:20867432

  19. The white dwarf affair: Chandrasekhar, Eddington and the limiting mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooneratne, Sakura

    A thesis describing and analysing the controversy between Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Arthur Stanley Eddington over the limiting mass of white dwarf stars. The aim of the thesis is to discover why the controversy occurred and to analyse the reasons behind Eddington's rejection of relativistic degeneracy and the limiting mass. The ultimate reason behind Eddington's attack on relativistic degeneracy was found to be Eddington's severe objection to singularities which was apparent long before Chandrasekhar's discovery of the limiting mass and occurred in three separate areas of research undertaken by Eddington during this period: astrophysics, cosmology, general relativity and Dirac's relativistic equation of the electron which led to Eddington's fundamental theory. The thesis will focus on the problem of the limiting mass of white dwarfs between 1929 and 1935 but will use the problem to analyse Eddington's view of singularities within the three different research areas spanning two decades from 1916 to 1936. The Chandrasekhar-Eddington controversy is set within Eddington's earlier controversies with James Jeans and Edward Arthur Milne who together with Eddington founded theoretical astrophysics during the 1920s. The thesis will examine the problem of white dwarfs within the context of the earlier controversies on stellar structure. As well as the technical analysis of the controversy, the thesis will also analyse the social dynamics and interactions within the astronomical community and their impact on the controversies. The aim of this thesis is to create a more complete picture of the Chandrasekhar-Eddington controversy by analysing Eddington's arguments for rejecting relativistic degeneracy, the limiting mass of white dwarfs and singularities not just within the context of astrophysics, but also cosmology, general relativity and quantum mechanics and to provide some new explanations as to why Eddington opposed relativistic degeneracy.

  20. Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Trence

    2011-07-15

    A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Baados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar. PMID:21838345

  1. BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: The Eddington Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to ~10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-σ relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  2. Eddington limit for a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The Eddington luminosity of a spherical source is usually defined for a uniformly extending normal plasma. We usually suppose that the gas can accrete to the central object at the sub-Eddington luminosity, while it would be blown off from the central luminous source in the super-Eddington case. We reconsider this central dogma of the Eddington limit under the radiative transfer effect for the purely scattering case, using analytical and numerical methods. For the translucent isolated gas cloud (stratus) with finite optical depth, the concept of the Eddington luminosity is drastically changed. In an heuristic way, we find that the critical condition is approximately expressed as ? = (1 + ?* + ?c)/2, where ? (=L/LE) is the central luminosity L normalized by the Eddington luminosity LE, ?c is the optical depth of the stratus, and ?* (=?{1-R_*^2/R^2}) is the direction cosine of the central object, R* being the radius of the central object, and R the distance from the central object. When the optical depth of the stratus is around unity, the classical Eddington limit roughly holds for the stratus; ? 1. However, when the optical depth is greater than unity, the critical condition becomes roughly ? ?c/2, and the stratus would infall on to the central source even at the highly super-Eddington luminosity. When the optical depth is less than unity, on the other hand, the critical condition reduces to ? ? (1 + ?*)/2, and the stratus could be blown off in some limited ranges, depending on ?*. This new concept of the Eddington limit for the isolated stratus could drastically change the accretion and outflow physics of highly inhomegeneous plasmas, with relevance for astrophysical jets and winds and supermassive black hole formation.

  3. BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew

    2013-05-20

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to {approx}10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-{sigma} relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  4. Centenarian Einstein

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)

  5. Einsteins dream

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein.

  6. Einstein's boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2005-02-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Albert Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the experiment was modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. This paper collects together several formulations of this thought experiment from the literature, analyzes and assesses it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem, and argues for "Einstein's Boxes" taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schrdinger's Cat.

  7. Celebrating Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.

  8. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  9. Black hole winds II: Hyper-Eddington winds and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew; Muldrew, Stuart I.

    2016-01-01

    We show that black holes supplied with mass at hyper-Eddington rates drive outflows with mildly sub-relativistic velocities. These are ˜0.1-0.2c for Eddington accretion factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100, and ˜1500 km s-1 for {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4. Winds like this are seen in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous sources (ULXs), strongly supporting the view that ULXs are stellar-mass compact binaries in hyper-Eddington accretion states. SS433 appears to be an extreme ULX system ({dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4) viewed from outside the main X-ray emission cone. For less-extreme Eddington factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100 the photospheric temperatures of the winds are ˜100 eV, consistent with the picture that the ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are ULXs seen outside the medium-energy X-ray beam, unifying the ULX/ULS populations and SS433 (actually a ULS but with photospheric emission too soft to detect). For supermassive black holes (SMBHs), feedback from hyper-Eddington accretion is significantly more powerful than the usual near-Eddington (`UFO') case, and if realized in nature would imply M - σ masses noticeably smaller than observed. We suggest that the likely warping of the accretion disc in such cases may lead to much of the disc mass being expelled, severely reducing the incidence of such strong feedback. We show that hyper-Eddington feedback from bright ULXs can have major effects on their host galaxies. This is likely to have important consequences for the formation and survival of small galaxies.

  10. Massive main-sequence stars evolving at the Eddington limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, D.; Grassitelli, L.; Langer, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Massive stars play a vital role in the Universe, however, their evolution even on the main-sequence is not yet well understood. Aims: Because of the steep mass-luminosity relation, massive main-sequence stars become extremely luminous. This brings their envelopes very close to the Eddington limit. We analyse stellar evolutionary models in which the Eddington limit is reached and exceeded, explore the rich diversity of physical phenomena that take place in their envelopes, and investigate their observational consequences. Methods: We use published grids of detailed stellar models, computed with a state-of-the-art, one-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code using LMC composition, to investigate the envelope properties of core hydrogen burning massive stars. Results: We find that the Eddington limit is almost never reached at the stellar surface, even for stars up to 500 M⊙. When we define an appropriate Eddington limit locally in the stellar envelope, we can show that most stars more massive than ~40 M⊙ actually exceed this limit, in particular, in the partial ionisation zones of iron, helium, or hydrogen. While most models adjust their structure such that the local Eddington limit is exceeded at most by a few per cent, our most extreme models do so by a factor of more than seven. We find that the local violation of the Eddington limit has severe consequences for the envelope structure, as it leads to envelope inflation, convection, density inversions, and, possibly to, pulsations. We find that all models with luminosities higher than 4 × 105L⊙, i.e. stars above ~40 M⊙ show inflation, with a radius increase of up to a factor of about 40. We find that the hot edge of the S Dor variability region coincides with a line beyond which our models are inflated by more than a factor of two, indicating a possible connection between S Dor variability and inflation. Furthermore, our coolest models show highly inflated envelopes with masses of up to several solar masses, and appear to be candidates for producing major luminous blue variable eruptions. Conclusions: Our models show that the Eddington limit is expected to be reached in all stars above ~40 M⊙ in the LMC, even in lower mass stars in the Galaxy, or in close binaries or rapid rotators. While our results do not support the idea of a direct super-Eddington wind driven by continuum photons, the consequences of the Eddington limit in the form of inflation, pulsations and possibly eruptions may well give rise to a significant enhancement of the time averaged mass-loss rate. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Einstein's meanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    What does Einstein have to do with subduction? Good question. Peaceful Lake Budi, lying at the heart of an Indian reservation in the Deep South of Chile, had subsided by two meters in the 1960 mega-thrust earthquake. This unique South American salt lake was hiding an awful secret: it was actually an oxbow, not a lake. But Einstein had realized in 1926 that meanders are natural freaks. Rivers will not flow uphill, yet - he claimed - they don't flow down the path of steepest descent either. This anomaly was put at the doorstep of a weak Coriolis Force. Thus Einstein problematized the dilemma of the earth sciences. How can a non-force produce margin-parallel compression in a convergent margin where extension is expected? In fact, where does the energy for meander formation come from? Good question . . . Even Wikipedia knows that Coriolis is not a “force” but an “effect”. So is the obliquity of plate convergence in subduction. Where did Einstein err, and where was he a pioneer? Coastal ablation plus alternating subsidence and emergence in giant earthquakes may yield an answer. Einstein, A. (1926). Die Ursache der Maeanderbildung der Flusslaeufe und das sogenannte Baersche Gesetz, Naturwissenschaften, 14, fascicle II.

  12. Wormhole geometries in Eddington-Inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.; Sushkov, Sergey V.

    2015-10-01

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity is a recently proposed modified theory of gravity, based on the classic work of Eddington and Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. In this paper, we consider the possibility that wormhole geometries are sustained in EiBI gravity. We present the gravitational field equations for an anisotropic stress-energy tensor and consider the generic conditions, for the auxiliary metric, at the wormhole throat. In addition to this, we obtain an exact solution for an asymptotically flat wormhole.

  13. Einstein's Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a

  14. Einstein Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for…

  15. Einstein Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for

  16. Einstein's Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  17. The super-Eddington nature of supermassive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotan, Calanit; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2012-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) are massive hydrogen objects that slowly radiate their gravitational binding energy. Such hypothetical primordial objects may have been the seed of the massive black holes (BHs) observed at the centre of galaxies. Under the standard picture, these objects can be approximately described as n = 3 polytropes, and they are expected to shine extremely close to their Eddington luminosity. Once however one considers the porosity induced by instabilities near the Eddington limit, which give rise to super-Eddington states, the standard picture should be modified. We study the structure, evolution and mass loss of these objects. We find the following. First, the evolution of SMSs is hastened due to their increased energy release. They accelerate continuum-driven winds. If there is no rotational stabilization, these winds are insufficient to evaporate the objects such that they can collapse to form supermassive BHs, however, they do prevent SMSs from emitting a copious amount of ionizing radiation. If the SMSs are rotationally stabilized, the winds evaporate the objects until a normal sub-Eddington star remains having a mass of a few ×100 M.

  18. The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, J. H.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Weinman, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Simple approximations, like the Eddington, are often incapable of coping with the highly asymmetric phase functions typical of particulate scattering. A simple yet accurate method called the delta-Eddington approximation is proposed for determining monochromatic radiative fluxes in an absorbing-scattering atmosphere. In this method, the governing phase function is approximated by a Dirac delta function forward scatter peak and a two-term expansion of the phase function. The fraction of scattering into the truncated forward peak is taken proportional to the square of the phase function asymmetry factor, which distinguishes the delta-Eddington approximation from others of similar nature. The transmission, reflection, and absorption predicted by the delta-Eddington approximation are compared with doubling method calculations for realistic ranges of optical depth, single-scattering albedo, surface albedo, sun angle and asymmetry factor. The approximation is shown to provide an accurate and analytically simple parameterization of radiation to replace the empirism currently encountered in many general circulation and climate models.

  19. Einstein's Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-10-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Einsteins Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Kosmologie Relativitatstheorie und zu Einsteins Wirken und Nachwirken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations, and wonders why some people do immediately grasp the meaning and consequence of newly proposed doctrines, whereas the bulk of the contemporaneous scientists respond in a rather low profile. T. Jung reviews Einstein's contribution to cosmology, leading to the Friedmann-Einstein and Einstein-de Sitter universes (with a detailed Appendix on the Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmology), and also presents the cosmological work of Selety, and his correspondence with Einstein. In a subsequent paper, H.-J. Schmidt comments on Einstein's criticism on de Sitter's solution of the Einstein field equations. Controversies with Einstein are elaborated by G. Singer (on Friedmann) and by K. Roessler (on Lemaitre). J. Renn and T. Sauer discuss Mandl's role in the publication history of Einstein's papers, notably Einstein's short paper on gravitational lensing. Finally, the book concludes with a contribution by D.B. Herrmann about the relationship between Einstein and Archenhold Observatory (where Einstein gave his first Berlin popular lecture in 1915), the transcription of H.-J. Treder's 1979 public address at the Einstein memorial plaque, and an inventory list of about 50 Einstein memorabilia - monuments, busts, plaques - compiled by W.R. Dick. This book is based on ideas approached in a historical context from the individual perspective of the authors. It is a real treasure trove of information and basic references on the history of GR, and it also covers quite some grounds with mathematical equations.

  1. Beyond Einstein

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Joel Primack

    2007-10-08

    The National Academy of Sciences was commissioned in 2006 to report on how to restart the Beyond Einstein program, which includes missions to understand dark energy, test general relativity, and observe gravity waves from merging supermassive black holes. This colloquium by one of the members of the recently released Academy study will explain the research strategy that the report proposes and its implications for continued U.S. participation in the exploration of the universe.

  2. Active Galactic Nuclei flicker on a characteristic timescale of 105 years: implications for black hole growth and AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Sartori, Lia F.; Berney, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The total duration of quasar phases has been estimated to be on the order of 100 Myr to 1 Gyr. However, black hole accretion may not be a smooth process and a long-lasting growth phase may actually be composed of maby brief 105 year accretion bursts, interspersed by low-Eddington phases and even quiescence. I present an observational argument for the 105 year timescale, discuss its implications as well as current observational efforts to map out the entire AGN lifecycle.

  3. Quasifision timescale: Zeptosecond versus attosecond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A.; Sikdar, A. K.; De, A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently a controversy has developed regarding the timescales of quasifission and fission processes of highly excited (EX > 50 MeV) transuranium and uranium-like nuclei. The mass-angle distributions of quasifission fragments indicate exponential decay law giving timescale of the order of 10-21 sec for the quasifission process, whereas for the similar reactions, timescale of the order of 10-18 sec were obtained from the crystal blocking technique. In the case of fission of highly excited uranium-like and transuranium nuclei, X-ray-fission fragment coincidence technique gives similar timescales ~10-18 sec, contradicting much shorter timescales obtained from nuclear techniques. We think the quantum decoherence time of the quasifission/fission decay process could be of the order of 10-18 sec and present a quantum mechanical explanation to resolve the puzzle.

  4. Sources X super-Eddington dans les Galaxies Proches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirioni, L.; Pakull, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Un certain nombre de galaxies proches abritent, en dehors de leur noyau, des sources X extrmement lumineuses qui, apparemment dpassent la limite d'Eddington d'un objet compact de quelques masses solaires. Nous avons ralis une tude photomtrique et spectroscopique d'un chantillon de ces sources X brillantes en utilisant pour cela le tlescope de 193 cm de l'OHP, le CFHT et le NTT de l'ESO. Ceci nous a permis de mettre en vidence l'association d'une source X avec une nbuleuse hautement ionise, il s'agit de la premire identification optique d'une source X super-Eddington. cette dcouverte est un argument en faveur de l'existence de trous noirs de plusieurs dizaines de masses solaires dans les systmes binaires. Nous avons galement dcouvert des nbuleuses annulaires de quelques centaines de parsecs apparemment excites par les sources X trs lumineuses.

  5. Eddington's Stellar Models and Early Twentieth Century Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisberg, Joann

    1991-06-01

    Between 1916 and 1926, Arthur Stanley Eddington developed models of the temperature, pressure and density in the interior of stars. The models generated a relationship between stellar mass and luminosity that agreed well with observation. Coupled with the evolutionary theory that astronomers then thought governed stars, the models explained the distribution of stars upon the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This thesis argues that Eddington's models were shaped by the cosmological concerns that had preoccupied the British astronomical community in the preceding decade. British astronomers participated in a program of statistical cosmology, spearheaded by the Dutch astronomer, J. C. Kapteyn, to map the universe by studying the distribution of stars in neighborhoods successively more distant from the sun. The parameters of chief concern in this program were proper motion, which was used to measure stellar distance, and luminosity, considered the most important inherent characteristic of a star. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell published an empirical diagram of stellar luminosity and spectral type, on which he based a new theory of the evolution of stars from bright, red giants to bright, blue giants, to faint red dwarfs. British astronomers recognized the theory and diagram as fruits of the statistical program, and they rapidly accepted its parameters as the ones a stellar model should generate. Prompted by his interest in cepheid variable stars to construct a model of stars in radiative equilibrium, Eddington's first concern was to reproduce the features of Russell's diagram. Russell's evolutionary theory played so large a role in Eddington's work that when his own mass -luminosity relationship threatened to overturn it, he tailored his theory of stellar energy generation to preserve it.

  6. Einstein, Picasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arthur I.

    2004-11-01

    How the 20th century’s most important scientist—Albert Einstein—and its most important artist—Pablo Picasso—made their greatest discoveries at almost the same time is a remarkable story: Einstein's relativity theory in 1905 and Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon two years later. A scientist and an artist confronted the same problem—the nature of time and simultaneity—and resolved it after realizing a new aesthetic. At the nascent moment of creativity boundaries dissolve between disciplines. This article explores the similarities in the early work of two of the greatest icons of Art and Science of the last century.

  7. Super-Eddington growth of the first black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, Edwige; Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs) at z ≳ 6 is still a subject of intense debate. If black holes (BHs) grow at their Eddington rate, they must start from ≳ 104 M⊙ seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas. Here we explore the alternative scenario where ˜100 M⊙ BH remnants of the first stars grow at super-Eddington rate via radiatively inefficient slim accretion disks. We use an improved version of the cosmological, data-constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSODUST, where we follow the evolution of nuclear BHs and gas cooling, disk and bulge formation of their host galaxies. Adopting SDSS J1148+5251 (J1148) at z = 6.4 as a prototype of luminous z ≳ 6 quasars, we find that ˜ 80% of its SMBH mass is grown by super-Eddington accretion, which can be sustained down to z ˜ 10 in dense, gas-rich environments. The average BH mass at z ˜ 20 is MBH ≳ 104 M⊙, comparable to that of direct collapse BHs. At z = 6.4 the AGN-driven mass outflow rate is consistent with the observations and the BH-to-bulge mass ratio is compatible with the local scaling relation. However, the stellar mass in the central 2.5 kpc is closer to the value inferred from CO observations. Finally, ˜20% of J1148 progenitors at z = 7.1 have BH luminosities and masses comparable to ULAS J1120+0641, suggesting that this quasar may be one of the progenitors of J1148.

  8. Spectral indices in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inyong; Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scalar and tensor spectral indices of the quadratic inflation model in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. We find that the EiBI corrections to the spectral indices are of second and first order in the slow-roll approximation for the scalar and tensor perturbations, respectively. This is very promising since the quadratic inflation model in general relativity provides a very nice fit for the spectral indices. Together with the suppression of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, EiBI inflation is agrees well with the observational data.

  9. FOREWORD: Modern Applications of Timescales Modern Applications of Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.; Lewandowski, W.

    2011-08-01

    The development of the first atomic frequency standard by Louis Essen in the 1950s is at the origin of the adoption of the atomic definition of the SI second by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967 and the consequent adoption of the atomic timescale. After the short reign of ephemeris time as the world's reference timescale from 1954 until 1967, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), synchronized to universal time UT1, appeared as the best compromise for satisfying the requests of all users. At the moment of the discussion on the adoption of an atomic timescale to replace ephemeris time, the possibility of having both an astronomical time and an atomic time to serve different purposes was discussed. In the words of Essen [1], this 'would cause endless confusion as well as involving duplication of equipment'. Forty years after the adoption of the definition of Coordinated Universal Time at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), we are close to the moment of making a decision on whether or not to decouple UTC from its tight link to the rotation of the Earth embodied in UT1. It has been a ten-year process of discussion, mainly at the ITU with the input of the International Astronomical Union, the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency and other organizations. The majority opinion supported the change based on developers and users of systems that need time synchronization to a stable and continuous reference timescale; others insist on the necessity of keeping the leap-second strategy for serving some applications or just for tradition. It is our hope that, as happened in the seventies, the most appropriate definition to serve all modern applications will be adopted with the consensus of the different sectors. The redirection of international timekeeping from astronomy to metrology can be considered the benchmark that started the era of modern timescales, all based on atomic properties. The aim of this special issue of Metrologia is to review timescales in use today, either the internationally recognized references or those adapted to some specific applications, to discuss new and future developments and to present the sometimes complex procedures for making international recommendations. We are grateful to our colleagues who, without exception, accepted our invitation to contribute to this special issue. Reference Henderson D 2005 Metrologia 42 S4-29 The pdf file contains an appendix: "Glossary of acronyms related to timescales used in this issue".

  10. Efficiency of super-Eddington magnetically-arrested accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Dai, Lixin; Avara, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested discs, where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin a/M = 0.8) accreting at 50 times Eddington shows a total efficiency 50 per cent when time-averaged and total efficiency ? 100 per cent in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disc, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency 40 per cent on the horizon and BZ efficiency 5 per cent by r 400rg (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at r 400rg with efficiency ? ? 15 per cent (luminosity L 50LEdd), similar to ? ? 12 per cent for a Novikov-Thorne thin disc and beyond ? ? 1 per cent seen in prior GRRMHD simulations or slim disc theory. Our simulations show how BH spin, magnetic field, and jet mass-loading affect these radiative and jet efficiencies.

  11. Development of a pulsar-based timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we summarise how pulsar observations have been used to create a highly stable timescale. We review recent work from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array team to create a timescale that has a stability comparable to existing atomic timescales. We discuss how this timescale will improve by combining data from more telescopes. We conclude by considering the long-term possibilities for pulsar-based timescales.

  12. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  13. Auf Einsteins Spuren IV Einstein in Prag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2004-09-01

    Im Dezember 1910 meldete das Prager Tageblatt die Berufung Albert Einsteins als Professor fr mathematische Physik an die Deutsche Universitt Prag. Doch erst im Januar unterzeichnete der sterreichische Kaiser Franz Joseph die Berufungsurkunde, und zum Frhjahrssemester 1911 nahm Einstein seine Ttigkeit in der Moldaumetropole auf.

  14. Einstein as Evaluator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulley, Darrel N.

    1982-01-01

    Like any other person, Albert Einstein was an informal evaluator, engaged in placing value on various aspects of his life, work, and the world. Based on Einstein's own statements, this paper speculates about what Einstein would have been like as a connoisseur evaluator, a conceptual evaluator, or a responsive evaluator. (Author/BW)

  15. Solar activity over different timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obridko, Vladimir; Nagovitsyn, Yuri

    The report deals with the General History of the Sun (multi-scale description of the long-term behavior of solar activity): the possibility of reconstruction. Time scales: 100-150 years - the Solar Service. 400 - instrumental observations. 1000-2000 years - indirect data (polar auroras, sunspots seen with the naked eye). Over-millennial scale (Holocene) -14? (10Be) Overview and comparison of data sets. General approaches to the problem of reconstruction of solar activity indices on a large timescale. North-South asymmetry of the sunspot formation activity. 200-year cycle over the evolution timescales.The relative contribution of the large-scale and low-latitude. components of the solar magnetic field to the general geomagnetic activity. Large-scale and low-latitude sources of geomagnetic disturbances.

  16. Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.

  17. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  18. Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a holy grail of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855

  19. Eddington-Malmquist bias in a cosmological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: In 1914, Eddington derived a formula for the difference between the mean absolute magnitudes of stars "in space" or gathered "from the sky". In 1920, Malmquist derived a general relation for this difference in Euclidean space. Here we study this statistical bias in cosmology, clarifying and expanding previous work. Methods: We derived the Malmquist relation within a general cosmological framework, including Friedmann's model, analogously to the way Malmquist showed in 1936 that his formula is also valid in the presence of extinction in Euclidean space. We also discuss some conceptual aspects that explain the wide scope of the bias relation. Results: The Malmquist formula for the intrinsic difference ? M ? m - M0 = -?M2{d ln{ a(m)}/{dm}} is also valid for observations made in an expanding Friedmann universe. This holds true for bolometric and finite-band magnitudes when a(m) refers to the distribution of observed (uncorrected for K-effect or z-dependent extinction) apparent magnitudes.

  20. Low-ionization Outflows in High Eddington Ratio Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Plauchu-Frayn, Ilse; del Olmo, Ascensin

    2013-02-01

    The broad Mg II ?2800 doublet has been frequently studied in connection with its potentially important role as a virial estimator of black hole mass in high-redshift quasars. An important task, therefore, is the identification of any line components that are likely related to broadening by non-virial motions. High signal-to-noise median composite spectra (binned in the "four-dimensional eigenvector 1" context of Sulentic et al.) were constructed for the brightest 680 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars in the 0.4 <= z <= 0.75 range where both Mg II ?2800 and H? are recorded in the same spectra. Composite spectra representing 90% of the quasars confirm previous findings that FWHM(Mg II ?2800) is about 20% narrower than FWHM(H?). The situation is clearly different for the most extreme (Population A) sources, which are the highest Eddington radiators in the sample. In the median spectra of these sources, FWHM Mg II ?2800 is equal to or greater than FWHM(H?) and shows a significant blueshift relative to H?. We interpret the Mg II ?2800 blueshift as the signature of a radiation-driven wind or outflow in the highest accreting quasars. In this interpretation, the Mg II ?2800 line widthaffected by blueshifted emissionis unsuitable for virial mass estimation in ?10% of quasars.

  1. Lorentzian wormholes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Rajibul

    2015-07-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a wide class of Lorentzian wormholes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity with a stress energy which does not violate the weak or null energy condition. The wormholes exist in a certain region of the parameter space. In fact, it is shown that there is a critical value of a parameter defined in our work, below which we have wormholes. Above the critical value, we have a regular black hole spacetime. We put a restriction on the equation of state parameter α (pθ=α ρ ) to have wormholes. We also put a lower limit on both the theory parameter |κ | and the throat radius, to restrict the tidal acceleration (at the throat) below one Earth gravity. As a special case of our general solution, we retrieve the wormhole supported by an electric field for a charge-to-mass ratio greater than the critical value (Q/M) c≈1.144 .

  2. Three dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is studied with the goal of finding new solutions. Beginning with cosmology, we obtain analytical and numerical solutions for the scale factor a(t), in spatially flat (k=0) and spatially curved (k=1) Friedmann-Roberston-Walker universes with (i) pressureless dust (P=0) and (ii) perfect fluid (P=(?)/(2)), as matter sources. When the theory parameter ?>0, our cosmological solutions are generically singular (except for the open universe, with a specific condition). On the other hand, for ?<0 we do find nonsingular cosmologies. We then move on towards finding static, circularly symmetric line elements with matter obeying (i) p=0 and (ii) p=(?)/(2). For p=0, the solution found is nonsingular for ?<0 with the matter-stress-energy representing inhomogeneous dust. For p=(?)/(2) we obtain nonsingular solutions, for all ?, and discuss some interesting characteristics of these solutions. Finally, we look at the rather simple p=-? case where the solutions are either de Sitter or anti-de Sitter or flat spacetime.

  3. Eddington-class flares and their distance from the central black hole in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georganopoulos, Markos; Rivas, David

    2014-08-01

    The distance from the central engine at which the bright gamma-ray flares of blazars take place is an open question with implications on our understanding of jet formation and collimation. In some cases, pair opacity arguments suggest that the detection of sub-TeV photons points to the emission taking place beyond the ~ 0.1 pc size broad line region. Here we show that for bright flares having beaming-corrected luminosity comparable to the Eddington luminosity (Eddington-class flares), strong deceleration due to Compton drag is expected if the flare takes place inside the 1-few pc molecular torus region. This is incompatible with the highly superluminal speeds these sources exhibit, requiring that Eddington-class flares take place beyond the molecular torus. We demonstrate this in the case of the MAGIC-detected source PKS 1222+21 (Aleksicet al. 2011), a source that exhibited Eddington-class flares in 2010 (Tanaka11).

  4. Bending space–time: a commentary on Dyson, Eddington and Davidson (1920) ‘A determination of the deflection of light by the Sun's gravitational field’

    PubMed Central

    Longair, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The famous eclipse expedition of 1919 to Sobral, Brazil, and the island of Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea, led by Dyson, Eddington and Davidson was a turning point in the history of relativity, not only because of its importance as a test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, but also because of the intense public interest which was aroused by the success of the expedition. The dramatic sequence of events which occurred is reviewed, as well as the long-term impact of its success. The gravitational bending of electromagnetic waves by massive bodies is a subject of the greatest importance for contemporary and future astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Examples of the potential impact of this key tool of modern observational astronomy are presented. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750149

  5. Bending space-time: a commentary on Dyson, Eddington and Davidson (1920) 'A determination of the deflection of light by the Sun's gravitational field'.

    PubMed

    Longair, Malcolm

    2015-04-13

    The famous eclipse expedition of 1919 to Sobral, Brazil, and the island of Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea, led by Dyson, Eddington and Davidson was a turning point in the history of relativity, not only because of its importance as a test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, but also because of the intense public interest which was aroused by the success of the expedition. The dramatic sequence of events which occurred is reviewed, as well as the long-term impact of its success. The gravitational bending of electromagnetic waves by massive bodies is a subject of the greatest importance for contemporary and future astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Examples of the potential impact of this key tool of modern observational astronomy are presented. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750149

  6. Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.

    PubMed

    Hines, Terence

    2014-07-01

    The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969

  7. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Young Galaxies from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine; Hainline, Kevin Nicholas; DiPompeo, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates, i.e. the Eddington ratio distribution, of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, it is matter of debate whether AGN follow a broad distribution in accretion rates, or if the distribution is more strongly peaked at characteristic Eddington ratios. Using a sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7, we test whether an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a broad Schechter function is in fact consistent with previous work that suggests instead that young galaxies in optical surveys have a more strongly peaked lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. Furthermore, we present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution of optically selected AGN is consistent with a power law with an exponential cutoff, as is observed in the X-rays. This work was supported in part by a NASA Jenkins Fellowship.

  8. Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair Hedges, S.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2003-01-01

    For decades, molecular clocks have helped to illuminate the evolutionary timescale of life, but now genomic data pose a challenge for time estimation methods. It is unclear how to integrate data from many genes, each potentially evolving under a different model of substitution and at a different rate. Current methods can be grouped by the way the data are handled (genes considered separately or combined into a 'supergene') and the way gene-specific rate models are applied (global versus local clock). There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, and the optimal method has not yet emerged. Fortunately, time estimates inferred using many genes or proteins have greater precision and appear to be robust to different approaches.

  9. Einstein, Bose and Bose-Einstein Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8??^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift fr Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8??^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  10. Generalized Einstein Relation in an aging colloidal glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou, Brengre; Gallet, Franois; Monceau, Pascal; Pottier, Nolle

    2008-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the Generalized Einstein Relation (GER), a particular form of a fluctuation-dissipation relation, in an out-of-equilibrium visco-elastic fluid. Micrometer beads, used as thermometers, are immersed in an aging colloidal glass to provide both fluctuation and dissipation measurements. The deviations from the Generalized Einstein Relation are derived as a function of frequency and aging time. The observed deviations are interpreted as directly related to the change in the glass relaxation times with aging time. In our scenario, deviations are observed in the regime where the observation timescale is of the order of a characteristic relaxation time of the glass.

  11. When Art Meets Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…

  12. Einstein Up in Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  13. Albert Einstein: The Violinist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Peregrine

    2005-05-01

    To the press of his time Albert Einstein was two parts renowned scientist, one jigger pacifist and Zionist fundraiser, and a dash amateur musician. These proportions persisted during 1979, the 100th anniversary of his birth, as writers in all media jostled each other as they recounted his achievements. Relativity tended to hog the show. Relatively little space was given to Einstein the musician.

  14. Einstein and Ehrenfest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Martin J.

    2005-03-01

    After Paul Ehrenfest's untimely death, Albert Einstein wrote about their first meeting more than twenty years earlier. ``Within a few hours we were true friends as though our dreams and aspirations were meant for each other.'' In fact, this warm friendship with a fellow theoretical physicist of his own age was unique in Einstein's life. I shall try to characterize it in this talk.

  15. Einstein Up in Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, John

    2015-11-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  16. Einstein for Everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Piccioni, Robert

    2010-10-05

    Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.

  17. Einstein for Everyone

    ScienceCinema

    Piccioni, Robert

    2014-06-25

    Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.

  18. When Art Meets Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,

  19. Rheology and timescales of welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe results from 15 high-temperature, constant strain rate and constant load deformation experiments on natural pyroclastic materials that simulate welding. Experiments were run on unconfined samples at temperatures between 835 and 900 C. Samples comprised 4.3 cm diameter, 6 cm length cores of sintered Rattlesnake Tuff rhyolite ash. Porosity of starting materials is 78%. The experiments used uniaxial load stresses of 0.2 to 5 MPa which corresponds to overburden depths of < 200 m in ignimbrite deposits. The experimental results track strain (porosity loss) and strain rate as a function of time at fixed conditions (load and temperature). Our results show that deformation of pyroclastic material has a strain dependent rheology. The effective viscosity (? e) of the samples increases during the experiment as strain acccumulates and porosity (? ) is reduced. We describe this behaviour using the relationship: (1) log ? e = log ? o - ? [? /(1-? )]. where effective viscosity is related to the viscosity of the framework material (melt), the sample porosity, and a fit-parameter for the material (? ). Our experimental work suggests a value of 0.63 for compaction of natural pyroclastic materials. Equation 1 is the basis for an empirical equation that describes the total strain during viscous compaction as a function of original porosity (? o), the viscosity of framework melt (? o),load (? ) and time: (2) \\epsilon = \\phi_{o} + (1-\\phi_{o})/\\alpha \\times ln [(\\alpha \\sigma \\Deltat)/(\\eta_{o} (1-\\phi_{o} ) + exp[-(\\alpha \\phi_{o})/(1 - \\phi_{o} ) ] ]. In this relationship, the values of ? o and ? o are physical properties of the specific deposit and load relates to the thickness of the deposit and the position (depth) of the sample. Eq. 2 can be used to predict ? vs. time paths to compare against the original experimental data and to model natural deposits. By rearranging the above equation to isolate time (? t) we predict the times required for strain accumulation (reduced ? ) during welding of natural pyroclastic deposits. We show that the timescales of welding for even moderate emplacement temperatures, relative to glass transition temperatures, can be very short (i.e., days) and within an order of magnitude of the timescales of deposition or assembly of large ignimbrite sheets.

  20. Rate constants, timescales, and free energy barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, Peter; Wales, David; Segall, Anca; Lai, Yi-An; Schn, J. Christian; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Andresen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    The traditional connection between rate constants and free energy landscapes is extended to define effective free energy landscapes relevant on any chosen timescale. Although the Eyring-Polanyi transition state theory specifies a fixed timescale of {? =h/kBT}, we introduce instead the timescale of interest for the system in question, e.g. the observation time. The utility of drawing such landscapes using a variety of timescales is illustrated by the example of Holliday junction resolution. The resulting free energy landscapes are easier to interpret, clearly reveal observation time dependent effects like coalescence of short-lived states, and reveal features of interest for the specific system more clearly.

  1. Einstein and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, John

    2005-03-01

    As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .

  2. Einstein and Millikan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Charlotte

    2005-03-01

    Albert Einstein traveled to America by boat during the great depression to consult with scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He was a theoretical physicist, a Nobel Prize winner, and a 20th century folk hero. Few members of the general public understood his theories, but they idolized him all the same. The invitation came from physicist Robert Millikan, who had initiated a visiting-scholars program at Caltech shortly after he became head of the school in 1921. Einstein's visits to the campus in 1931, 1932, and 1933 capped Millikan's campaign to make Caltech one of the physics capitals of the world. Mount Wilson astronomer Edwin Hubble's discovery that redshifts are proportional to their distances from the observer challenged Einstein's cosmological picture of a static universe. The big question at Caltech in 1931 was whether Einstein would give up his cosmological constant and accept the idea of an expanding universe. By day, Einstein discussed his theory and its interpretation at length with Richard Tolman, Hubble, and the other scientists on the campus. By night, Einstein filled his travel diary with his personal impressions. During his third visit, Einstein sidestepped as long as possible the question of whether conditions in Germany might prevent his return there. After the January 30 announcement that Hitler had become chancellor of Germany, the question could no longer be evaded. He postponed his return trip for a few weeks and then went to Belgium for several months instead of to Berlin. In the fall of 1933, Albert Einstein returned to the United States as an emigre and became a charter member of Abraham Flexner's new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Why did Einstein go to Princeton and not Pasadena?

  3. The ultraluminous state refined: spectral and temporal characteristics of super-Eddington accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, T.; Middleton, M.; Sutton, A.; Heil, L.; Walton, D.

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence - in particular the hard X-ray spectra obtained by NuSTAR - reveals that ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) behaviour is inconsistent with known sub-Eddington accretion modes, as would be expected for an intermediate-mass black hole. Instead, it appears that the majority of ULXs are powered by super-Eddington accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. The key question for ULXs then becomes: how does this super-Eddington accretion work? Here we present new results from ULX spectral and timing studies that delve deeper into their underlying physical mechanisms. We firstly show that the spectral and temporal characteristics of ULXs appear intrinsically interwoven, with high levels of variability apparent when the spectra are dominated by a soft component. It has been suggested that this component represents the emission from an optically-thick wind driven radiatively from the ULX; we examine evidence that may corroborate this model. Finally, we present a revised picture of super-Eddington processes in which we also consider how both mass accretion rate variability propagating through a super-Eddington disc, and scattering within the wind, might affect the X-ray characteristics as a function of accretion rate and of viewing angle. We show that its predictions are qualitatively similar to the observed behaviour of ULXs.

  4. A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STUDYING SUPER-EDDINGTON MASS TRANSFER IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Marcello, Dominic C.; Tohline, Joel E. E-mail: tohline@phys.lsu.edu

    2012-04-01

    We present a numerical method for the study of double white dwarf (DWD) binary systems at the onset of super-Eddington mass transfer. We incorporate the physics of ideal inviscid hydrodynamical flow, Newtonian self-gravity, and radiation transport on a three-dimensional uniformly rotating cylindrical Eulerian grid. Care has been taken to conserve the key physical quantities such as angular momentum and energy. Our new method conserves total energy to a higher degree of accuracy than other codes that are presently being used to model mass transfer in DWD systems. We present the results of verification tests and simulate the first 20 + orbits of a binary system of mass ratio q 0.7 at the onset of dynamically unstable direct impact mass transfer. The mass transfer rate quickly exceeds the critical Eddington limit by many orders of magnitude, and thus we are unable to model a trans-Eddington phase. It appears that radiation pressure does not significantly affect the accretion flow in the highly super-Eddington regime. An optically thick common envelope forms around the binary within a few orbits. Although this envelope quickly exceeds the spatial domain of the computational grid, the fraction of the common envelope that exceeds zero gravitational binding energy is extremely small, suggesting that radiation-driven mass loss is insignificant in this regime. It remains to be seen whether simulations that capture the trans-Eddington phase of such flows will lead to the same conclusion or show that substantial material gets expelled.

  5. Einstein and 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, John

    2005-05-01

    From March 17 to September 29, 1905, just over six months, Einstein wrote five papers that shifted the tectonic foundations of physics and changed the face of Nature. Three of these papers, the March paper presenting the particle of light, the May paper on Brownian motion, and the June paper on the Special Theory of Relativity are universally recognized as fundamental; however, the Brownian motion paper cannot be divorced from Einstein's April paper, A New Determination of the Dimensions of Molecules, and the September paper that gave the world its most famous equation, E = mc^2, cannot be separated from the June paper. These five papers reveal characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics.

  6. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  7. Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.

  8. Super-Eddington mechanical power of an accreting black hole in M83.

    PubMed

    Soria, R; Long, K S; Blair, W P; Godfrey, L; Kuntz, K D; Lenc, E; Stockdale, C; Winkler, P F

    2014-03-21

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 10(40) erg second(-1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment. PMID:24578533

  9. Albert Einstein Cancer Center

    Cancer.gov

    The clinical research activities of AECC are conducted primarily at the Montefiore Medical Center which houses the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care and encompasses participation from all the clinical oncologic academic disciplines.

  10. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  11. Einstein studies in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Yuri; Vizgin, Vladimir

    This volume presents a selection of the best contributions by Russian scholars - historians and philosophers of science - to the Einstein Studies industry, broadly construed. Many of the papers were first published in Russian, in the Einshteinovskiy Sbornik series (Einstein Studies) initiated by I. Tamm in 1966. This book explores the historical and foundational issues in general relativity and relativistic cosmology, Einstein's contributions to quantum theory of radiation, and the rise of Dirac's quantum electrodynamics. It also includes a detailed description of the physics colloquium Einstein established and coordinated in 1912- 1914 in Zürich. The contributors draw extensively on documentation previously unavailable to most scholars. Materials from various Russian archives shed new light on the famous exchange (regarding the first evolutionary cosmological models) between Einstein and Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920's and on the role of Boris Podolsky and Vladimir Fock in the emergence of quantum electrodynamics. The little-known correspondence between Einstein and a famous German pilot Paul Erhardt suggests that during World War I, the former was involved with aero- and hydrodynamics research and ways of improving airplane design. Other articles introduce new approaches to important foundational questions in general relativity and cosmology. Historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science will find much new and unexpected material in this engaging volume presenting the best of recent Russian scholarship in the field. The book is also very accessible to the general reader.

  12. 2010 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html

  13. The Varieties of Universal Expansion: Eddington and the Complexities of Early Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, M.

    2013-04-01

    A.S. Eddington was one of the handful of astronomers conversant with the many observational and theoretical factors at play in early 20th-century cosmology. Early relativistic cosmology touched on deep issues in several fields, and these diverse disciplinary requirements gave rise to a great deal of confusion about precisely what expansion meant and what implications that had for the construction of cosmological models. Eddington's efforts to resolve these difficulties help show the profound technical, conceptual, and philosophical difficulties that attended early ideas regarding an expanding universe.

  14. Explaining variance in black carbon's aging timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, L.; Riemer, N.; Bond, T. C.

    2015-03-01

    The size and composition of particles containing black carbon (BC) are modified soon after emission by condensation of semivolatile substances and coagulation with other particles, known collectively as "aging" processes. Although this change in particle properties is widely recognized, the timescale for transformation is not well constrained. In this work, we simulated aerosol aging with the particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC (Particle Monte Carlo - Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) and extracted aging timescales based on changes in particle cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We simulated nearly 300 scenarios and, through a regression analysis, identified the key parameters driving the value of the aging timescale. We show that BC's aging timescale spans from hours to weeks, depending on the local environmental conditions and the characteristics of the fresh BC-containing particles. Although the simulations presented in this study included many processes and particle interactions, we show that 80% of the variance in the aging timescale is explained by only a few key parameters. The condensation aging timescale decreased with the flux of condensing aerosol and was shortest for the largest fresh particles, while the coagulation aging timescale decreased with the total number concentration of large (D >100 nm), CCN-active particles and was shortest for the smallest fresh particles. Therefore, both condensation and coagulation play important roles in aging, and their relative impact depends on the particle size range.

  15. Einstein flow and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouneiher, J.

    2015-07-01

    The recent evolution of the observational technics and the development of new tools in cosmology and gravitation have a significant impact on the study of the cosmological models. In particular, the qualitative and numerical methods used in dynamical system and elsewhere, enable the resolution of some difficult problems and allow the analysis of different cosmological models even with a limited number of symmetries. On the other hand, following Einstein point of view the manifold ? and the metric should be built simultaneously when solving Einsteins equation R?? -1 2Rg?? = T??. From this point of view, the only kinematic condition imposed is that at each point of space-time, the tangent space is endowed with a metric (which is a Minkowski metric in the physical case of pseudo-Riemannian manifolds and an Euclidean one in the Riemannian analogous problem). Then the field (g??) describes the way these metrics depend on the point in a smooth way and the Einstein equation is the dynamical constraint on g??. So, we have to imagine an infinite continuous family of copies of the same Minkowski or Euclidean space and to find a way to sew together these infinitesimal pieces into a manifold, by respecting Einsteins equation. Thus, Einstein field equations do not fix once and for all the global topology. 34 Given this freedom in the topology of the space-time manifold, a question arises as to how free the choice of these topologies may be and how one may hope to determine them, which in turn is intimately related to the observational consequences of the space-time possessing nontrivial topologies. Therefore, in this paper we will use a different qualitative dynamical methods to determine the actual topology of the space-time.

  16. Probing the hard and intermediate states of X-ray binaries using short time-scale variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, Chris J.; McHardy, Ian M.

    2016-02-01

    Below an accretion rate of approximately a few per cent of the Eddington accretion rate, X-ray binary systems are not usually found in the soft spectral state. However, at accretion rates a factor of a few lower still, in the hard state, there is another spectral transition which is well observed but not well understood. Below ˜0.5-1 per cent of the Eddington accretion rate (dot{m}_crit), the spectral index hardens with increasing accretion rate, but above dot{m}_crit, although still in the hard state, the spectral index softens with increasing accretion rate. Here we use a combination of X-ray spectral fitting and a study of short time-scale spectral variability to examine the behaviour of three well-known X-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4 and XTE J1118+480. In Cygnus X-1 we find separate hard and soft continuum components, and show using root-mean-square (rms) spectra that the soft component dominates the variability. The spectral transition at dot{m}_crit is clearly present in the hard-state hardness-intensity diagrams of Cygnus X-1. Above dot{m}_crit, GX 339-4 shows similar softer-when-brighter behaviour at both long and short time-scales. Similarly, XTE J1118+480, which remains well below dot{m}_crit, is harder-when-brighter behaviour on all time-scales. We interpret these results in terms of two continuum components: a hard power-law which dominates the spectra when the accretion rate is low, probably arising from Comptonisation of cyclo-synchrotron photons from the corona, and a soft power-law which dominates at higher accretion rates, arising from Comptonisation of seed photons from the accretion disc.

  17. Einstein and Bose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-04-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8??^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift fr Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8??^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  18. Conversations With Albert Einstein. II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)

  19. Exact solutions of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, Malcolm A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Einstein's General Relativity is the leading theory of space-time and gravity: it is highly nonlinear. Exact solutions of Einstein's equations thus model gravitating systems and enable exploration of the mathematics and physics of the theory.

  20. Personal Recollections of Albert Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszkowski, Steven

    2005-03-01

    My grandparents were good friends of Albert Einstein in Berlin. Later my parents also were on friendly terms with him. I had the opportunity to meet Einstein four times after my parents and I came to the United States in 1940. My parents and I, on occasion, had correspondence with Einstein and took a few photos of him. Albert Einstein had considerable influence on my development and style of doing physics, as I will discuss.

  1. Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; Delhez, Eric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Using the concepts of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), we compute timescales related to the water renewal in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands/Belgium). Three different timescales are used to better understand and characterize the dynamics of the estuary: the age of the renewing water, the residence time and the exposure time. The residence time is the time taken by a water parcel to leave the estuary for the first time while the exposure time is the total time spent by a water parcel in the estuary including re-entries. The age of a renewing water parcel is defined as the time elapsed since it entered the estuary. The renewing water was split into three types: the water originating from the sea, the water originating from the upstream fresh tidal rivers and the water originating from the different canals and docks connected to the estuary. Every timescale is computed at any time and position by means of the finite-element, unstructured-mesh model SLIM. This results in movies of the timescale fields (shown as Supplementary material), allowing a detailed analysis of their spatial and temporal variabilities. The effect of the M2 tide and the discharge regime (winter, summer or average situation) on the timescales is also investigated. Tidally-averaged timescales vary little over the width of the estuary and hence exhibit a virtually one-dimensional behaviour. However, around these average values, the timescales can vary hugely over a tidal cycle, with amplitudes that significantly depend on the space coordinates. The reason thereof has yet to be elucidated. These results underscore the need for two- or three-dimensional models with high temporal resolution for investigating the dynamics of the Scheldt Estuary.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jrgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinstenwell documented, well written, and fascinating to readdescribes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observersAdams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and othersworking with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as the Vulcan hypothesis, Evershed's Earth effect, and D C Miller's ether drift experiments. In particular, the sections on the history of the Californian observatories, their leading personalities, the differing attitudes of American and European scientists, and the influence of World War 1 on science, add interesting and informative aspects to the narrative. Those sections which report logistic and instrumental details of, for example, eclipse expeditions, were (to me) somewhat tiring. A weakness seems to be that the scientific importance of relativity problems is not stated clearly. On p43, the reader learns that Curtis quoted de Sitter's theoretical result of 7.15'' per century for Mercury's anomalous perihelion shift, but it is not mentioned that this value was due only to the special-relativistic variation of mass with velocity and already known to be much smaller than the observed value given on p88 and explained by general relativity, which includes, in particular, space curvature. In connection with light bending, the 'factor 2' is mentioned in several places without the explanation that this doubling is due to space curvature, the principal new effect whose observation created such a stir in 1919. Moreover, technical terms, for example absolute space, inertial frame, state of rest and (anomalous) dispersion, are used without explanation. Besides, readers interested as much in science as in its history would probably have appreciated a brief account of the present state of knowledge concerning the issues treated in this book and related ones. There are a few deplorable errors, for example the spectrum of the Andromeda nebula is shifted not towards the red, but towards the blue (p12); Eddington's limb deflection is given (p144) as 0.61'', while the correct value is 1.61''; misprints like that on p147 (coefficient of dr), mistaking the astronomer Soldner (not Solden) for a physicist (p164). On p34 one reads 'Minkowski did not really grasp the physical implications of Einstein's work'a strange judgment which contradicts the historical record. Thus reader

  3. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…

  4. From Newton to Einstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)

  5. Einstein in My Hometown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamola, Karl

    2005-12-01

    During the 22 years Albert Einstein lived and worked in the United States, he frequently took long summer vacations. Generally he chose quiet, out-of-the-way vacation spots, and because of his love of sailing, places close to bodies of water. Among other locations, he vacationed at Saranac Lake in upstate New York, the Rhode Island coast, and, during the summers of 1937-39, at Nassau Point on the North Fork of Long Island. Nassau Point is a part of the small town of Cutchogue and is located on Peconic Bay, about 90 miles from New York City. It was an ideal spot for Einstein both because it was off the beaten path and because of the outstanding sailing conditions on Peconic Bay. Einstein rented a cabin just a stone's throw from the bay. I myself have a special interest in Cutchogue because it's the place where I was born and where I spent the first few years of my life. Unfortunately, I came along five or six years too late to have actually seen Einstein there, but he did have encounters with some of my older friends and relatives.

  6. Einstein in Western Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Francis M.

    2005-04-01

    Albert Einstein vacationed for two weeks in September 1946 at Deep Creek Lake in western Maryland. It was a well-kept secret. This paper describes his ordinary and yet so extraordinary visit, its historical context, his daily routine, and some interesting stories that reveal his simplicity, humanity, and unique sense of humor.

  7. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  8. The Einstein Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lffler, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics, along with modules for initial data, analysis and computational infrastructure. These modules have been developed and improved over many years by many different researchers. The Einstein Toolkit is supported by a distributed model, combining core support of software, tools, and documentation in its own repositories and through partnerships with other developers who contribute open software and coordinate together on development. As of January 2012 it has 68 registered members from 30 research groups world-wide. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.

  9. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This

  10. Einstein and Friedman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Viktor

    The focus of the present article is Friedman's 1922 letter to Einstein accompanied by additional evidence throwing light on their debate, and the great roles played by Yuri Krutkov and Paul Ehrenfest, both of whom Einstein knew very well (see Frenkel 1970). The debate began soon after the appearance of Friedman's first article showing the possibility of a nonstationary solution of the cosmological problem (thus laying the foundation for the theory of an expanding universe). Einstein replied to Friedman with a note in which, as aptly observed by Fock, "he said, somewhat condescendingly, that Friedman's results seemed suspicious to him, and that he had found a mistake in them which, when corrected, reduced Friedman's solution to a stationary one" (Friedman 1966). Great people's delusions are always instructive, especially when dealing with fundamental problems. The honesty of great men can also be exemplary: the debate came to an end after the publication of Einstein's second note, in which he stressed the importance of Friedman's work.

  11. Are biological and astrophysical timescales truly uncorrelated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragi?evi?, I.; ?irkovi?, M. M.

    2003-10-01

    A well-known argument due to Brandon Carter suggests that intelligent life in the Galaxy is much rarer than a conventional probabilistic reasoning would suggest. A crucial assumption in that application of the anthropic reasoning is that the biological timescales for the development of life and intelligence are entirely independent ("uncorrelated") of astrophysical timescales for habitability of planetary ecospheres around Main Sequence stars. This assumption may be too naive extrapolation from our state of relative ignorance. We discuss the impact of several plausible mechanisms inducing a correlation between the two timescales, some of them of fairly recent origin, such as the impact of local ("galactic") gamma-ray bursts. Although the results are still far from conclusive, due mainly to our poor understanding of biogenesis and noogenesis, we hope to set up a long-term research programme aimed at addressing these uncertainties in a quantitative manner.

  12. Revisit the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity from sub-Eddington to quiescent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Qingwen

    2015-11-01

    It is very controversial whether radio-X-ray correlation as defined in low-hard state of X-ray binaries (XRBs) can extend to quiescent state (e.g. X-ray luminosity less than a critical value of LX,c 10-5.5LEdd) or not. In this work, we collect a sample of XRBs and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) with wide distribution of Eddington ratios (LX/LEdd 10-9-10-3) to re-explore the Fundamental Plane between 5 GHz radio luminosity, LR, 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity, LX, and black hole (BH) mass, MBH, namely log LR = ?Xlog LX + ?Mlog MBH + constant. For the whole sample, we confirm the former Fundamental Plane of Merloni et al. and Falcke et al. that ?X 0.6 and ?M 0.8 even after including more quiescent BHs. The quiescent BHs follow the Fundamental Plane very well, and, however, FR I radio galaxies follow a steeper track comparing other BH sources. After excluding FR Is, we investigate the Fundamental Plane for BHs in quiescent state with LX < LX,c and sub-Eddington BHs with LX > LX,c, respectively, and both sub-samples have a similar slope, ?X 0.6, which support that quiescent BHs may behave similar to those in low-hard state. We further select two sub-samples of AGNs with BH mass in a narrow range (FR Is with MBH = 108.80.4 and other LLAGNs with MBH = 108.00.4) to simulate the behaviour of a single supermassive BH evolving from sub-Eddington to quiescent state. We find that the highly sub-Eddington sources with LX/LEdd 10-6-10-9 still roughly stay on the extension of radio-X-ray correlation as defined by other sub-Eddington BHs. Our results are consistent with several recent observations in XRBs that the radio-X-ray correlation as defined in low-hard state can extend to highly sub-Eddington quiescent state.

  13. Super-Eddington Stellar Winds Driven by Near-Surface Energy Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-02-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g., unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in the giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem v_crit˜ (dot{E} G)^{1/5} (where dot{E} is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(rh). For vcrit ≳ vesc(rh) the wind kinetic power at large radii dot{E}_w ˜ dot{E}. For vcrit ≲ vesc(rh), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus dot{E}_w ≲ dot{E}. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation diffusion using FLASH and one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radiation diffusion using MESA are in good agreement with the analytic predictions. The photon luminosity from the wind is itself super-Eddington but in many cases the photon luminosity is likely dominated by `internal shocks' in the wind. We discuss the application of our models to eruptive mass loss from massive stars and argue that the wind models described here can account for the broad properties of LBV outflows and the enhanced mass loss in the years prior to Type IIn core-collapse supernovae.

  14. A SUPER-EDDINGTON WIND SCENARIO FOR THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xin; Chen, Xuefei; Chen, Hai-liang; Han, Zhanwen; Denissenkov, Pavel A. E-mail: cxf@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    The accretion of hydrogen-rich material on to carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) is crucial for understanding Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) from the single-degenerate model, but this process has not been well understood due to the numerical difficulties in treating H and He flashes during the accretion. For CO WD masses from 0.5 to 1.378 M {sub ☉} and accretion rates in the range from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, we simulated the accretion of solar-composition material on to CO WDs using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code of MESA. For comparison with steady-state models, we first ignored the contribution from nuclear burning to the luminosity when determining the Eddington accretion rate, and found that the properties of H burning in our accreting CO WD models are similar to those from the steady-state models, except that the critical accretion rates at which the WDs turn into red giants or H-shell flashes occur on their surfaces are slightly higher than those from the steady-state models. However, the super-Eddington wind is triggered at much lower accretion rates than previously thought, when the contribution of nuclear burning to the total luminosity is included. This super-Eddington wind naturally prevents the CO WDs with high accretion rates from becoming red giants, thus presenting an alternative to the optically thick wind proposed by Hachisu et al. Furthermore, the super-Eddington wind works in low-metallicity environments, which may explain SNe Ia observed at high redshifts.

  15. The luminosity function of quasars in a merger model with allowance for the Eddington limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.; Krivitskii, D. S.

    1995-09-01

    The role of the Eddington luminosity in a model of activity proposed earlier (Katz and Kontorovich 1990a,b, 1991) based on momentum compensation during galaxy mergers (Toomre 1972) is discussed. In spite of the fundamental dependence of the probability of merging on galaxy mass, this quantity is nearly constant, supporting the consistency obtained earlier between the observed mass functions for galaxies and the luminosity functions for quasars in a merger model.

  16. Let's Challenge the Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamics: 5 Relativistic Variable Eddington Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2008-12-01

    The field of the relativistic radiation hydrodynamics is very wide and deep but fundamental for various relativistic astrophysical phenomena. However, its moment formalism is insufficient and imperfect. Thus, it is necessary to do many fundamental researches, and there remain many treasures and orbs to be found. In this final article the author introduces the analytical approach to derive the form of a relativistic variable Eddington factor in the plane-parallel vertical flow.

  17. SnapShot: Timescales in Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Maya; Bar-On, Yinon; Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron

    2016-03-10

    Knowing key timescales enables us to quickly gain intuition, perform sanity checks and serves as a sixth sense in understanding how cells grow and communicate. This SnapShot briefly communicates some of the insights we collected about rates and durations of these processes from thinking about cell biology by the numbers. PMID:26967295

  18. Mid-infrared-selected quasars. I. Virial black hole mass and eddington ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y. Sophia; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Papovich, Casey

    2014-08-20

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR; 24 μm) broad-emission-line (BEL; type 1) quasars in the 22 deg{sup 2} SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with S {sub 24} > 400 μJy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) < 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extending the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at z ∼ 1.4 and recovers a significant and constant (20%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which were not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of z < 3 quasars at i > 19.1. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The supermassive black hole mass shows evidence of downsizing, although the Eddington ratios remain constant at 1 < z < 4. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at z < 1 show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  19. Mid-infrared-selected Quasars. I. Virial Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. Sophia; Elvis, Martin; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Omont, Alain; Papovich, Casey

    2014-08-01

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR; 24 ?m) broad-emission-line (BEL; type 1) quasars in the 22 deg2 SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with S 24 > 400 ?Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) < 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extending the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at z ~ 1.4 and recovers a significant and constant (20%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which were not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of z < 3 quasars at i > 19.1. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The supermassive black hole mass shows evidence of downsizing, although the Eddington ratios remain constant at 1 < z < 4. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at z < 1 show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  20. Continuum-Driven Winds from Super-Eddington Stars: A Tale of Two Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Owocki, S. P.; Shaviv, N. J.

    2008-03-01

    Continuum driving is an effective method to drive a strong stellar wind. It is governed by two limits: the Eddington limit and the photon-tiring limit. A star must exceed the effective Eddington limit for continuum driving to overcome the stellar gravity. The photon-tiring limit places an upper limit on the mass loss rate that can be driven to infinity, given the energy available in the radiation field of the star. Since continuum driving does not require the presence of metals in the stellar atmosphere it is particularly suited to removing mass from low- and zero-metallicity stars and can play a crucial part in their evolution. Using a porosity length formalism we compute numerical simulations of super-Eddington, continuum driven winds to explore their behavior for stars both below and above the photon-tiring limit. We find that below the photon tiring limit, continuum driving can produce a large, steady mass loss rate at velocities on the order of the escape velocity. If the star exceeds the photon-tiring limit, a steady solution is no longer possible. While the effective mass loss rate is still very large, the wind velocity is much smaller.

  1. The theory of steady-state super-Eddington winds and its application to novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaviv, Nir J.

    2001-09-01

    We present a model for steady-state winds of systems with super-Eddington luminosities. These radiatively driven winds are expected to be optically thick and clumpy as they arise from an instability-driven porous atmosphere. The model is then applied to derive the mass loss observed in bright classical novae. The main results are as follows. (i) A general relation between the mass-loss rate and the total luminosity in super-Eddington systems. (ii) A natural explanation of the long-duration super-Eddington outflows that are clearly observed in at least two cases (Novae LMC 1988 #1 and FH Serpentis). (iii) A qualitative agreement between the prediction and observations of the mass loss and temperature evolution. (iv) An agreement between the predicted average integrated mass loss of novae as a function of white dwarf mass and its observations. (v) A natural explanation for the `transition phase' of novae. (vi) Agreement with ? Carinae, which was used to double check the theory: the prediction for the mass shed in the star's great eruption agrees with observations to within the measurement error.

  2. Einstein's Real "biggest Blunder"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2012-10-01

    Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term Λ, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes.

  3. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign. PMID:12712903

  4. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  5. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  6. The ultraluminous state revisited: fractional variability and spectral shape as diagnostics of super-Eddington accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Middleton, Matthew J.

    2013-10-01

    Although we are nearing a consensus that most ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) below 1041 erg s-1 represent stellar mass black holes accreting in a super-Eddington `ultraluminous' accretion state, little is yet established of the physics of this extreme accretion mode. Here, we use a combined X-ray spectral and timing analysis of an XMM-Newton sample of ULXs to investigate this new accretion regime. We start by suggesting an empirical classification scheme that separates ULXs into three classes based on the spectral morphologies observed by Gladstone et al.: a singly peaked broadened disc class, and two-component hard ultraluminous and soft ultraluminous regimes, with the spectra of the latter two classes dominated by the harder and softer component, respectively. We find that at the lowest luminosities (LX < 3 1039 erg s-1) the ULX population is dominated by sources with broadened disc spectra, whilst ULXs with two-component spectra are seen almost exclusively at higher luminosities, suggestive of a distinction between Eddington and super-Eddington accretion modes. We find high levels of fractional variability are limited to ULXs with soft ultraluminous spectra, and a couple of the broadened disc sources. Furthermore, the variability in these sources is strongest at high energies, suggesting it originates in the harder of the two spectral components. We argue that these properties are consistent with current models of super-Eddington emission, where a massive radiatively driven wind forms a funnel-like geometry around the central regions of the accretion flow. As the wind provides the soft spectral component this suggests that inclination is the key determinant in the observed two-component X-ray spectra, which is very strongly supported by the variability results if this originates due to clumpy material at the edge of the wind intermittently obscuring our line-of-sight to the spectrally hard central regions of the ULX. The pattern of spectral variability with luminosity in two ULXs that straddle the hard/soft ultraluminous regime boundary is consistent with the wind increasing at higher accretion rates, and thus narrowing the opening angle of the funnel. Hence, this work suggests that most ULXs can be explained as stellar mass black holes accreting at and above the Eddington limit, with their observed characteristics dominated by two variables: accretion rate and inclination.

  7. Einstein, Bohr, and Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrdinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a simple controversy, which is after all almost eighty years old and has been settled today. In fact, the concept introduced in this debate, that of entanglement, lies at the heart of many very important developments of modern quantum physics, in particular all those linked to quantum information (Chapter 8). Moreover, we shall see that the phenomenon of non-local correlations compels us to revise in depth our space-time representation of quantum processes. These are the two reasons why a whole chapter is devoted to this debate.

  8. Einstein from "B" to "Z"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, John

    Einstein from 'B' to 'Z' is a unique collection of 37 published and unpublished papers on Albert Einstein that have been written by John Stachel, a physicist and historian of science. Stachel has written about Einstein - the man, his philosophy, and his work - for more than 40 years. The articles included in this volume will present a coherent picture of the new view of Einstein which is emerging from recent detailed documentation and studies of activities and work during Einstein's formative years about which so many old and new myths abound. Stachel's special introduction to the collection will explicitly tie together the themes implicit in the papers. This work will be of particular interest to historians of 20th century science, students and practitioners of physics, and the apparently large section of the general reading public that continues to be fascinated with Einstein. It will serve as an excellent reference text. The essays are grouped thematically into the following areas: 1. The human side. 2. Editing the Einstein papers. 3. Surveys of Einstein's work. 4. Special relativity. 5. General relativity. 6. Quantum theory. 7. Einstein and others. 8. Book reviews.

  9. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  10. Timescales of Land Surface Evapotranspiration Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Russell; Entekhabi, Dara; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

    1997-01-01

    Soil and vegetation exert strong control over the evapotranspiration rate, which couples the land surface water and energy balances. A method is presented to quantify the timescale of this surface control using daily general circulation model (GCM) simulation values of evapotranspiration and precipitation. By equating the time history of evaporation efficiency (ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration) to the convolution of precipitation and a unit kernel (temporal weighting function), response functions are generated that can be used to characterize the timescales of evapotranspiration response for the land surface model (LSM) component of GCMS. The technique is applied to the output of two multiyear simulations of a GCM, one using a Surface-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) scheme and the other a Bucket LSM. The derived response functions show that the Bucket LSM's response is significantly slower than that of the SVAT across the globe. The analysis also shows how the timescales of interception reservoir evaporation, bare soil evaporation, and vegetation transpiration differ within the SVAT LSM.

  11. Measuring quenching timescales in green valley galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini Gonçalves, Thiago; Martin, Christopher; Nogueira-Cavalcante, Joao Paulo; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-08-01

    What are the processes that halt star formation in galaxies? The clear bimodality in galaxy colors tells us that there must be a mechanism - or combination of mechanisms - responsible for the swift transformation of star-forming galaxies into passively evolving objects, but it is remarkably difficult to identify what these mechanisms might be in each case. In that sense, a measurement of quenching timescales might help identify which mechanisms are more efficient in moving galaxies from the blue cloud into the red sequence. In this talk I will discuss our spectroscopic studies of green valley galaxies (i.e. galaxies currently undergoing this transition) and our determination of quenching timescales in these cases. Comparisons between our samples at low and high redshift show that galaxies were transitioning faster at earlier times, probably due to more violent processes taking place at such epochs. We can also distinguish between different morphologies in our sample, and are able to determine that galaxies with signs of secular evolution show slower quenching timescales. Finally, I will discuss our new method which determines the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rates for individual galaxies, which allows for a precise characterization of star formation histories and its correlation with other physical properties such as AGN activity or local environment.

  12. The Einstein Dossiers: Science and Politics - Einstein's Berlin Period with an Appendix on Einstein's FBI File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern.

  13. Modeling coupled avulsion and earthquake timescale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    River avulsions and earthquakes can be hazardous events, and many researchers work to better understand and predict their timescales. Improvements in the understanding of the intrinsic processes of deposition and strain accumulation that lead to these events have resulted in better constraints on the timescales of each process individually. There are however several mechanisms by which these two systems may plausibly become linked. River deposition and avulsion can affect the stress on underlying faults through differential loading by sediment or water. Conversely, earthquakes can affect river avulsion patterns through altering the topography. These interactions may alter the event recurrence timescales, but this dynamic has not yet been explored. We present results of a simple numerical model, in which two systems have intrinsic rates of approach to failure thresholds, but the state of one system contributes to the other's approach to failure through coupling functions. The model is first explored for the simplest case of two linear approaches to failure, and linearly proportional coupling terms. Intriguing coupling dynamics emerge: the system settles into cycles of repeating earthquake and avulsion timescales, which are approached at an exponential decay rate that depends on the coupling terms. The ratio of the number of events of each type and the timescale values also depend on the coupling coefficients and the threshold values. We then adapt the model to a more complex and realistic scenario, in which a river avulses between either side of a fault, with parameters corresponding to the Brahmaputra River / Dauki fault system in Bangladesh. Here the tectonic activity alters the topography by gradually subsiding during the interseismic time, and abruptly increasing during an earthquake. The river strengthens the fault by sediment loading when in one path, and weakens it when in the other. We show this coupling can significantly affect earthquake and avulsion recurrence times. We also find a significant probability of event co-occurrence, where avulsions are induced by earthquakes. This model sets up a framework for the study of earthquakes and avulsions as a coupled dynamical system, and shows the importance of understanding this dynamic for prediction of hazard recurrence intervals.

  14. Einstein spectra of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.

  15. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Mglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  16. Albert Einstein 1879-1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)

  17. Einstein and the "Crucial" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Gerald

    1969-01-01

    Examines the widespread view that it was the crucial Michelson-Morley experiment that led Einstein to formulate the special relativity theory. From Einstein's writings, evidence is presented that no such direct genetic connection exists. The author suggests that the historian of science must resist the experimenticist's fallacy of imposing a

  18. Formation of Millisecond Pulsars with Heavy White Dwarf Companions: Extreme Mass Transfer on Subthermal Timescales.

    PubMed

    Tauris; van Den Heuvel EP; Savonije

    2000-02-20

    We have performed detailed numerical calculations of the nonconservative evolution of close X-ray binary systems with intermediate-mass (2.0-6.0 M middle dot in circle) donor stars and a 1.3 M middle dot in circle accreting neutron star. We calculated the thermal response of the donor star to mass loss in order to determine its stability and follow the evolution of the mass transfer. Under the assumption of the "isotropic reemission model," we demonstrate that in many cases it is possible for the binary to prevent a spiral-in and survive a highly super-Eddington mass transfer phase (1timescale if the convective envelope of the donor star is not too deep. These systems thus provide a new formation channel for binary millisecond pulsars with heavy CO white dwarfs and relatively short orbital periods (3-50 days). However, we conclude that to produce a binary pulsar with a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf or Porb approximately 1 day (e.g., PSR B0655+64) the above scenario does not work, and a spiral-in phase is still considered the most plausible scenario for the formation of such a system. PMID:10655173

  19. Accretion-driven evolution of black holes: Eddington ratios, duty cycles and active galaxy fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Weinberg, David H.; Miralda-Escud, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    We develop semi-empirical models of the supermassive black hole and active galactic nucleus (AGN) populations, which incorporate the black hole growth implied by the observed AGN luminosity function assuming a radiative efficiency ? and a distribution of Eddington ratios ?. By generalizing these continuity-equation models to allow a distribution P(? | MBH, z), we are able to draw on constraints from observationally estimated ? distributions and active galaxy fractions while accounting for the luminosity thresholds of observational samples. We consider models with a Gaussian distribution of log ? and Gaussians augmented with a power-law tail to low ?. Within our framework, reproducing the high observed AGN fractions at low redshift requires a characteristic Eddington ratio ?c that declines at late times, and matching observed Eddington ratio distributions requires a P(?) that broadens at low redshift. To reproduce the observed increase of AGN fraction with black hole or galaxy mass, we also require a ?c that decreases with increasing black hole mass, reducing the AGN luminosity associated with the most massive black holes. Finally, achieving a good match to the high-mass end of the local black hole mass function requires an increased radiative efficiency at high black hole mass. We discuss the potential impact of black hole mergers or a ?-dependent bolometric correction, and we compute evolutionary predictions for black hole and galaxy specific accretion rates. Despite the flexibility of our framework, no one model provides a good fit to all the data we consider; it is particularly difficult to reconcile the relatively narrow ? distributions and low duty cycles estimated for luminous broad-line AGN with the broader ? distributions and higher duty cycles found in more widely selected AGN samples, which typically have lower luminosity thresholds.

  20. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  1. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  2. Numerical simulations of continuum-driven winds of super-Eddington stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Owocki, S. P.; Shaviv, N. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations of continuum-driven winds of stars that exceed the Eddington limit and compare these against predictions from earlier analytical solutions. Our models are based on the assumption that the stellar atmosphere consists of clumped matter, where the individual clumps have a much larger optical thickness than the matter between the clumps. This `porosity' of the stellar atmosphere reduces the coupling between radiation and matter, since photons tend to escape through the more tenuous gas between the clumps. This allows a star that formally exceeds the Eddington limit to remain stable, yet produce a steady outflow from the region where the clumps become optically thin. We have made a parameter study of wind models for a variety of input conditions in order to explore the properties of continuum-driven winds. The results show that the numerical simulations reproduce quite closely the analytical scalings. The mass-loss rates produced in our models are much larger than can be achieved by line driving. This makes continuum driving a good mechanism to explain the large mass-loss and flow speeds of giant outbursts, as observed in ? Carinae and other luminous blue variable stars. Continuum driving may also be important in population III stars, since line driving becomes ineffective at low metallicities. We also explore the effect of photon tiring and the limits it places on the wind parameters.

  3. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  4. Diffractive Interstellar Scintillation Timescales and Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.; Rickett, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    We derive general relationships between the observed timescale of diffractive interstellar scintillations and the physical velocities of the observer, the source, and the scattering medium. Our treatment applies exclusively to saturated scintillations of point sources in the strong scattering regime. We show how scintillation observations may be combined with other observables (proper motion and dispersion measure) to yield (1) improvements in galactic models for the free-electron density and (2) estimates of the distance and transverse velocity of individual pulsars. We explicitly consider cases of current astrophysical interest, including hypervelocity pulsars too far above the Galactic plane to allow distance estimates from dispersion measures alone. We also briefly consider scintillations of extragalactic sources, including gamma-ray burst sources at great distances from the Galaxy.

  5. Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joel

    1979-01-01

    Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)

  6. Quantifying population structure on short timescales.

    PubMed

    Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Lens, Luc; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Van Dongen, Stefan; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2012-07-01

    Quantifying the contribution of the various processes that influence population genetic structure is important, but difficult. One of the reasons is that no single measure appropriately quantifies all aspects of genetic structure. An increasing number of studies is analysing population structure using the statistic D, which measures genetic differentiation, next to G(ST) , which quantifies the standardized variance in allele frequencies among populations. Few studies have evaluated which statistic is most appropriate in particular situations. In this study, we evaluated which index is more suitable in quantifying postglacial divergence between three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations from Western Europe. Population structure on this short timescale (10?000 generations) is probably shaped by colonization history, followed by migration and drift. Using microsatellite markers and anticipating that D and G(ST) might have different capacities to reveal these processes, we evaluated population structure at two levels: (i) between lowland and upland populations, aiming to infer historical processes; and (ii) among upland populations, aiming to quantify contemporary processes. In the first case, only D revealed clear clusters of populations, putatively indicative of population ancestry. In the second case, only G(ST) was indicative for the balance between migration and drift. Simulations of colonization and subsequent divergence in a hierarchical stepping stone model confirmed this discrepancy, which becomes particularly strong for markers with moderate to high mutation rates. We conclude that on short timescales, and across strong clines in population size and connectivity, D is useful to infer colonization history, whereas G(ST) is sensitive to more recent demographic events. PMID:22646231

  7. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  8. Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.

    1995-05-01

    The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.

  9. Einstein and the twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'.

  10. The NASA Beyond Einstein Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is part of NASA s Beyond Einstein program. This program seeks to answer the questions What Powered the Big Bang?, What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?, and What is Dark Energy?. LISA IS the first mission to be launched in this new program. This paper will give an overview of the Beyond Einstein program, its current status and where LISA fits in.

  11. The NASA Beyond Einstein Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.

  12. Einstein's 1919 View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2012-10-01

    When Rutherford discovered the nuclear force in 1919, he felt the force he discovered reflected some deviation of Newtonian gravity. Einstein too in his 1919 paper published the failure of the general relativity and Newtonian gravity to explain nuclear force and, in his concluding remarks, he retracted his earlier introduction of the cosmological constant. Consistent with his genius, we modify Newtonian gravity as probabilistic gravity using natural Planck units for a realistic study of nature. The result is capable of expressing both (1) nuclear force [strong coupling], and (2) Newtonian gravity in one equation, implying in general, in layman's words, that gravity is the cumulative effect of all quantum mechanical forces which are impossible to measure at long distances. Non discovery of graviton and quantum gravity silently support our findings. Continuing to climb on the shoulders of the giants enables us to see horizons otherwise unseen, as reflected in our book: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality,'' and physics/0210040, where we derive the fine structure constant as a function of the age of the universe in Planck times consistent with Gamow's hint, using natural logarithm consistent with Feynman's hint.

  13. The Einstein Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  14. A Super-Eddington, Compton-Thick Wind in GRO J1655-40?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Rahoui, Farid; Homan, Jeroen; Buxton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed at high spectral resolution with the Chandra HETGS, revealing a spectrum rich with blueshifted absorption lines of elements ranging from oxygen to nickel, including exotic metals like titanium and scandium. It has been argued that magnetic fields must be responsible for the dense accretion disk wind that produces these deep absorption lines. But questions about this outburst remain, because the presence of this exotic wind coincides with extremely soft and curved X-ray spectra, remarkable X-ray variability, and bright, unexpected optical/infrared emission that varies on the orbital period. I will argue that the unusual features of this "hypersoft state" are natural consequences of a super-Eddington Compton-thick wind from the disk.

  15. Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2014-09-01

    We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous, anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of the universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential does not increase faster than the quadratic power for large-field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in the early universe, contrary to the case of general relativity.

  16. A radiative transfer scheme for cosmological reionization based on a local Eddington tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Dominique; Teyssier, Romain

    2008-06-01

    A radiative transfer scheme is presented, based on a moment description of the equation of radiative transfer and the so-called `M1 closure model' for the Eddington tensor. This model features a strictly hyperbolic transport step for radiation: it has been implemented using standard Godunov-like techniques in a new code called ATON. Coupled to simple models of ionization chemistry and photoheating, ATON is able to reproduce the results of other schemes on a various set of standard tests such as the expansion of a HII region, the shielding of the radiation by dense clumps and cosmological ionization by multiple sources. Being simple yet robust, such a scheme is intended to be naturally and easily included in grid-based cosmological fluid solvers.

  17. Schwarzschild radial perturbations in Eddington-Finkelstein and Painlev-Gullstrand coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Dennis; Perlick, Volker

    2015-05-01

    In a previous paper, we have considered the Regge-Wheeler equation for fields of spin s = 0, 1 or 2 on the Schwarzschild spacetime in coordinates that are regular at the horizon. In particular, we have constructed in Eddington-Finkelstein (EF) coordinates exact solutions in terms of series that are regular at the horizon and converge on the entire open domain from the central singularity to infinity. Here, we extend this earlier work in two different directions. First, we consider in EF coordinates a massive scalar field that can serve as a dark matter candidate. Second, we extend the treatment of the massless case to Painlev-Gullstrand (PG) coordinates, which are associated with radially infalling observers.

  18. Conservative 3+1 general relativistic variable Eddington tensor radiation transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Endeve, Eirik; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2013-05-01

    We present conservative 3+1 general relativistic variable Eddington tensor radiation transport equations, including greater elaboration of the momentum space divergence (that is, the energy derivative term) than in previous work. These equations are intended for use in simulations involving numerical relativity, particularly in the absence of spherical symmetry. The independent variables are the lab frame coordinate basis spacetime position coordinates and the particle energy measured in the comoving frame. With an eye towards astrophysical applicationssuch as core-collapse supernovae and compact object mergersin which the fluid includes nuclei and/or nuclear matter at finite temperature, and in which the transported particles are neutrinos, we pay special attention to the consistency of four-momentum and lepton number exchange between neutrinos and the fluid, showing the term-by-term cancellations that must occur for this consistency to be achieved.

  19. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  20. The Star Formation Laws of Eddington-limited Star-forming Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.

    2013-03-01

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation (?gas and \\dot{\\Sigma }_{\\ast }, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where ?gas >~ 104 M ? pc-2, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes (?1 for the K-S law and ?0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L TIR) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L TIR can yield an estimate of the average \\dot{\\Sigma }_{\\ast } that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average ?gas for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor (?CO) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of ?gas that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  1. SN Hunt 248: a super-Eddington outburst from a massive cool hypergiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon C.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Graham, Melissa L.; Zheng, WeiKang; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Howell, D. Andrew; Arcavi, Iair

    2015-02-01

    We present observations of SN Hunt 248, a new supernova (SN) impostor in NGC 5806, which began a multistage outburst in 2014 May. The `2014a' discovery brightening exhibited an absolute magnitude of M ≈ -12 and the spectral characteristics of a cool, dense outflow, including P Cygni lines of Fe II, H I, and Na I, and line blanketing from metals. The source rapidly climbed and peaked at M ≈ -15 mag after two additional weeks. During this bright `2014b' phase the spectrum became dominated by Balmer emission and a stronger blue continuum, similar to the SN impostor SN 1997bs. Archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope between 1997 and 2005 reveal a luminous (4 × 105 L⊙) variable precursor star. Its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is consistent with a massive (Minit ≈ 30 M⊙) cool hypergiant having an extremely dense wind and an Eddington ratio (Γ) just below unity. At the onset of the 2014a brightening, however, the object was super-Eddington (Γ = 4-12). The subsequent boost in luminosity during the 2014b phase probably resulted from circumstellar interaction. SN Hunt 248 provides the first case of a cool hypergiant undergoing a giant eruption reminiscent of outbursts from luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This lends support to the hypothesis that some cool hypergiants, such as ρ Cas, could be LBVs masquerading under a pseudo-photosphere created by their extremely dense winds. Moreover, SN Hunt 248 demonstrates that eruptions stemming from such stars can rival in peak luminosity the giant outbursts of much more massive systems like η Car.

  2. SN Hunt 248: a super-Eddington outburst from a massive cool hypergiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Graham, Melissa Lynn; Zheng, WeiKang; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Howell, Dale Andrew; Arcavi, Iair

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of SN Hunt 248, a new supernova (SN) impostor in NGC 5806, which began a multi-stage outburst in May 2014. The "2014a" discovery brightening exhibited an absolute magnitude of M ? -12 and the spectral characteristics of a cool dense outflow, with P-Cygni lines of H?, Fe II, and Na I. The source rapidly climbed and peaked at M ? -15 mag after two additional weeks. During this bright "2014b'' phase the spectrum became hotter, dominated by Balmer emission and a stronger blue continuum, similar to the SN impostor SN 1997bs. Archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope between 1997 and 2005 reveal a luminous (4105 L?) variable precursor star. Its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is consistent with a massive (Minit ? 30 M?) cool hypergiant having an extremely dense wind and an Eddington ratio (?) just below unity. At the onset of the 2014a brightening, however, the object was super-Eddington (? = 4 - 12). The subsequent boost in luminosity during the 2014b phase probably resulted from circumstellar interaction. SN Hunt 248 provides the first case of a cool hypergiant undergoing a giant eruption reminiscent of outbursts from luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This lends support to the hypothesis that some cool hypergiants, such as ?Cas, could be LBVs masquerading under a pseudo-photosphere created by their extremely dense winds. Moreover, SN Hunt 248 demonstrates that eruptions stemming from such stars can rival in peak luminosity the giant outbursts of much more massive systems like ?Car.

  3. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio μ in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ≥ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for μ ≲ 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on μ. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –1/3}, prevails at small μ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger μ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ≈ 0.024 μ{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Δa {sub cl,} {sub int} ≅ 1.2 μ{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Δa {sub cl,} {sub ext} ≅ 1.7 μ{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  4. SHORT TIMESCALE VARIATIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF ANTARES A

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, T.; Gray, David F.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze three years of high-resolution spectroscopic data and find radial velocity variations with a characteristic timescale of 100 6 days that are nearly sinusoidal. Simultaneous variations in line-depth ratios imply temperature variations of up to 100 K. No photometric variation is seen on a 100 day timescale. The timescale of the variation and its resonant nature suggest solar-like oscillations driven by large-scale convection.

  5. Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Comastri, A.; Simmons, B. D.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.; Shankar, F.; Lutz, D.; Trump, J. R.; Maiolino, R.; Gilli, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Puccetti, S.; Salvato, M.; Impey, C. D.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Berta, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.

    2012-09-01

    Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of both X-ray selected broad-line (Type-1) and narrow-line (Type-2) active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the XMM-Newton survey in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field are presented. The sample is composed of 929 AGN (382 Type-1 AGN and 547 Type-2 AGN) and it covers a wide range of redshifts, X-ray luminosities and absorbing column densities. About 65 per cent of the sources are spectroscopically identified as either Type-1 or Type-2 AGN (83 and 52 per cent, respectively), while accurate photometric redshifts are available for the rest of the sample. The study of such a large sample of X-ray selected AGN with a high-quality multiwavelength coverage from the far-infrared (now with the inclusion of Herschel data at 100 and 160 ?m) to the optical-ultraviolet allows us to obtain accurate estimates of bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections and Eddington ratios. The kbol - Lbol relations derived in this work are calibrated for the first time against a sizable AGN sample, and rely on observed redshifts, X-ray luminosities and column density distributions. We find that kbol is significantly lower at high Lbol with respect to previous estimates by Marconi et al. and Hopkins et al. Black hole (BH) masses and Eddington ratios are available for 170 Type-1 AGN, while BH masses for Type-2 AGN are computed for 481 objects using the BH mass-stellar mass relation and the morphological information. We confirm a trend between kbol and ?Edd, with lower hard X-ray bolometric corrections at lower Eddington ratios for both Type-1 and Type-2 AGN. We find that, on average, the Eddington ratio increases with redshift for all types of AGN at any given MBH, while no clear evolution with redshift is seen at any given Lbol.

  6. Empirical distributions of Chinese stock returns at different microscopic timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    We study the distributions of event-time returns and clock-time returns at different microscopic timescales using ultra-high-frequency data extracted from the limit-order books of 23 stocks traded in the Chinese stock market in 2003. We find that the returns at the one-trade timescale obey the inverse cubic law. For larger timescales (2-32 trades and 1-5 min), the returns follow the Student distribution with power-law tails. With the decrease in timescale, the tail becomes fatter, which is consistent with the variational theory in Turbulence.

  7. TWO TIMESCALE DISPERSAL OF MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2013-11-20

    Protoplanetary disks are likely to be threaded by a weak net flux of vertical magnetic field that is a remnant of the much larger fluxes present in molecular cloud cores. If this flux is approximately conserved its dynamical importance will increase as mass is accreted, initially by stimulating magnetorotational disk turbulence and subsequently by enabling wind angular momentum loss. We use fits to numerical simulations of ambipolar dominated disk turbulence to construct simplified one-dimensional evolution models for weakly magnetized protoplanetary disks. We show that the late onset of significant angular momentum loss in a wind can give rise to ''two timescale'' disk evolution in which a long phase of viscous evolution precedes rapid dispersal as the wind becomes dominant. The wide dispersion in disk lifetimes could therefore be due to varying initial levels of net flux. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind triggered dispersal differs from photoevaporative dispersal in predicting mass loss from small (<1 AU) scales, where thermal winds are suppressed. Our specific models are based on a limited set of simulations that remain uncertain, but qualitatively similar evolution appears likely if mass is lost from disks more quickly than flux, and if MHD winds become important as the plasma ? decreases.

  8. Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. Y.

    1995-12-01

    Einstein's radiation formula is supported by the Taylor-Hulse experiment, but its derivation is not self-consistent. Furthermore, as discovered by Einstein, his radiation formula is not compatible with his field equation. As suggested by Einstein's own remark, modifications to the source tensor are necessary. Based on the Taylor-Hulse experiment, in this paper a theory is developed within the theoretical framework of general relativity within which the radiation formula remains the same for binary stars. Concurrently, it is determined that, because of radiation, the source tensor is not zero in a vacuum. Antigravity coupling, suggested by Pauli as a possibility, is a necessary feature. In addition, it is shown that the current theory of linearized gravity is not valid for radiation.

  9. Formation Timescales of the Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, M. T.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of valley networks across much of the ancient surface of Mars [e.g. 1] together with the locations and morphologies of the Martian deltas [e.g. 2] and ancient paleolakes [e.g. 3, 4], provides strong evidence that the Martian surface environment was once capable of sustaining long-lived flowing water. Many of the larger Martian valley networks exhibit characteristics consistent with their formation primarily from surface runoff of precipitated water [5-7]. Their formation likely followed similar processes as those that formed terrestrial river valleys, including the gradual erosion and transport of sediment downstream by bed load, suspended load, and wash load processes. When quantifying flow rates on Mars, some researchers have modified the Manning equation for depth- and width-averaged flow velocity in an attempt to better-fit Martian conditions [e.g. 3, 8-10]. These attempts, however, often result in flow velocities on Mars that are overestimated by up to a factor of two [10]. An alternative to the Manning equation that is often overlooked in the planetary science community is the Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) equation [11], which, unlike the Manning equation, maintains a dependence on the acceleration due to gravity. Although the D-W equation relies on a dimensionless friction function that has been fitted to terrestrial data, it is not a constant like the Manning coefficient. Rather, the D-W friction factor is a function of bed slope, flow depth, and median grain size [e.g. 8, 10, 12-14], and therefore it is better suited to model flow velocity on Mars. In this work, we investigate the formation timescales of the Martian valley networks through the use of four different sediment transport models [14], the D-W equation for average flow velocity, and a variety of parameters to encompass a range of possible formation conditions. This is done specific to each of eight large valley networks, all of which have crater densities that place their formation in the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian [15, 16], approximately 3.6 to 3.8 billion years ago. The preferred model scenario includes bankfull flows of 4-5 m depths corresponding to precipitation rates of 5 to 36 mm/day, depending on the valley network, and occurring intermittently 5% of the time. Results of the preferred model include formation timescales of 104 years (3°S, 5°E) to 108 years (east branch of Naktong Valles and 6°S, 45°E). References: [1] Hynek et al. (2010) JGR, doi:10.1029/2009JE003548; [2] Di Achille and Hynek (2010) Nature Geoscience, 3, 459-463; [3] Irwin et al. (2005) JGR, 110, E12S15; [4] Fassett and Head (2008) Icarus, 198, 37-56; [5] Craddock and Howard (2002) JGR, 107, 5111; [6] Howard et al. (2005) JGR, 110, E12S14; [7] Barnhart et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01003; [8] Komar (1979) Icarus, 37, 156-181; [9] Goldspiel and Squyres (1991) Icarus, 89, 392-410; [10] Wilson et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E09003; [11] Leopold et al. (1964) Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology, 522pp; [12] Bathurst (1993) in Channel Network Hydrology, eds. Beven and Kirkby, p69-98; [13] Komar (1980) Icarus, 42, 317-329; [14] Kleinhans (2005) JGR, 110, E12003; [15] Fassett and Head (2008) Icarus, 195, 61-89; [16] Hoke and Hynek (2009) JGR, 114, E08002.

  10. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric annular mode timescales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. R.; Hitchcock, P.; Shepherd, T. G.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2012-04-01

    The annular modes are the dominant modes of variability in the extra-tropical circulation of each hemisphere. In the troposphere they represent latitudinal migrations of the eddy driven mid-latitude jets. Many climate forcings such as ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gas concentrations result in circulation changes that project strongly onto these modes. It is therefore important that the dynamics behind annular mode variability be understood and that such variability be captured correctly in climate models. Observational evidence suggests that stratospheric variability enhances annular mode timescales, although it is difficult to prove this unambiguously as other factors, such as tropospheric jet structure, vary alongside stratospheric variability. Here, experiments with the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) will be presented. A free running simulation is compared with a simulation in which the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is nudged toward the climatology of the free simulation. These two simulations have identical climatologies but one has zonal mean stratospheric variability and the other does not. This allows us to clearly demonstrate that stratospheric zonal-mean variability significantly enhances tropospheric annular mode persistence. A common bias among climate models is that they tend to exhibit much too persistent Southern Annular Mode anomalies in the summer season. While some of this bias is attributable to stratospheric zonal-mean biases in late spring/early summer, these model experiments also reveal that, atleast for the case of CMAM, a significant proportion of this bias is internal to the troposphere. This potentially has important consequences for the ability of global climate models to simulate SH climate change in this season. Possible causes of this bias will be discussed.

  11. Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The texts of four speeches, given at the 1979 Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy held in Rome, are presented. Each address relates to some aspect of the life and times of Albert Einstein. (SA)

  12. Solitary wave solutions to the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Letelier, P.S.

    1985-02-01

    The soliton solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations generated by the special class of Einstein--Rosen metrics described by linear combinations of homogeneous solutions to the usual cylindrically symmetric wave equation are studied.

  13. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  14. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Zhen-Ya E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ?10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  15. Writing and Being Written: Issues of Identity across Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Amy; Ivanic, Roz

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for the differentiation according to timescales of aspects of writer identity. It presents a framework for investigating the discoursal construction of writer identity that develops the categories proposed by Ivanic in two ways. First, it distinguishes aspects of writer identity according to the timescales over which they

  16. Processing Timescales as an Organizing Principle for Primate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Janice; Hasson, Uri; Honey, Christopher J

    2015-10-21

    An emerging view posits a timescale-based cortical topography, with integration windows increasing from sensory to association areas. In this issue, Chaudhuri et al. (2015) present a cortical model wherein a hierarchy of timescales arises from local and inter-regional circuit dynamics. PMID:26494274

  17. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members

  18. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…

  19. On the Radiative Efficiencies, Eddington Ratios, and Duty Cycles of Luminous High-redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Crocce, Martin; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Fosalba, Pablo; Weinberg, David H.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the characteristic radiative efficiency epsilon, Eddington ratio λ, and duty cycle P 0 of high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawing on measurements of the AGN luminosity function at z = 3-6 and, especially, on recent measurements of quasar clustering at z = 3-4.5 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The free parameters of our models are epsilon, λ, and the normalization, scatter, and redshift evolution of the relation between black hole (BH) mass M BH and halo virial velocity V vir. We compute the luminosity function from the implied growth of the BH mass function and the quasar correlation length from the bias of the host halos. We test our adopted formulae for the halo mass function and halo bias against measurements from the large N-body simulation developed by the MICE collaboration. The strong clustering of AGNs observed at z = 3 and, especially, at z = 4 implies that massive BHs reside in rare, massive dark matter halos. Reproducing the observed luminosity function then requires high efficiency epsilon and/or low Eddington ratio λ, with a lower limit (based on 2σ agreement with the measured z = 4 correlation length) epsilon >~ 0.7λ/(1 + 0.7λ), implying epsilon >~ 0.17 for λ>0.25. Successful models predict high duty cycles, P 0 ~ 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9 at z = 3.1, 4.5, and 6, respectively, and they require that the fraction of halo baryons locked in the central BH is much larger than the locally observed value. The rapid drop in the abundance of the massive and rare host halos at z > 7 implies a proportionally rapid decline in the number density of luminous quasars, much stronger than simple extrapolations of the z = 3-6 luminosity function would predict. For example, our most successful model predicts that the highest redshift quasar in the sky with true bolometric luminosity L > 1047.5 erg s-1 should be at z ~ 7.5, and that all quasars with higher apparent luminosities would have to be magnified by lensing.

  20. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  1. On the Einstein equivalence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle, the cornerstone of our present day understanding of gravity, is used to explore a deeper connection between the deflection of starlight by a spinning object and the Lense-Thirring dragging of inertial frames. It is also noted that experiment has not established that the gravitomagnetic coupling to currents of particle rest-mass energy, to currents of electromagnetic energy, and to currents of all other types of energy are identical as predicted by the Einstein equivalence principle. The detailed analysis of how atomic physics experiments originated by Hughes and by Drever can constrain such possible violations of the Einstein equivalence principle is given. Atomic clocks are also important tools used to test local Lorentz invariance and hence one important aspect of Einstein equivalence principle. The sensitivity of atomic clocks to preferred-frame effects is studied here for the first time, and the behavior of the hydrogen-maser clocks of the Gravity Probe A experiment is analyzed to illustrate use of the techniques involved.

  2. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial

  3. Spatial Bose-Einstein Condensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masut, Remo; Mullin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes three examples of spatial Bose-Einstein condensations in which the particles macroscopically occupy the lowest localized state of an inhomogeneous external potential. The three cases are (1) a box with a small square potential well inside, (2) a harmonic oscillator potential, and (3) randomly sized trapping potentials caused by

  4. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  5. Black hole solution and strong gravitational lensing in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2015-06-01

    A new theory of gravity called Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. This theory leads to some exciting new features, such as free of cosmological singularities. In this paper, we first obtain a charged EiBI black hole solution with a nonvanishing cosmological constant when the electromagnetic field is included in. Then based on it, we study the strong gravitational lensing by the asymptotic flat charged EiBI black hole. The strong deflection limit coefficients and observables are shown to closely depend on the additional coupling parameter in the EiBI gravity. It is found that, compared with the corresponding charged black hole in general relativity, the positive coupling parameter will shrink the black hole horizon and photon sphere. Moreover, the coupling parameter will decrease the angular position and relative magnitudes of the relativistic images, while increase the angular separation, which may shine new light on testing such gravity theory in near future by the astronomical instruments.

  6. Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld gravity with a trace term

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Che -Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2016-01-22

    In this study, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term gμνR being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric gμν . This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which weremore » not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic “quasi-sudden” singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.« less

  7. Primordial power spectra of Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld inflation in strong gravity limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inyong; Singh, Naveen K.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the scalar and the tensor perturbations of the φ2 inflation model in the strong-gravity limit of Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory. In order to consider the strong EiBI-gravity effect, we take the value of κ large, where κ is the EiBI theory parameter. The energy density of the Universe at the early stage is very high, and the Universe is in a strong-gravity regime. Therefore, the perturbation feature is not altered from what was investigated earlier. At the attractor inflationary stage, however, the feature is changed in the strong EiBI-gravity limit. The correction to the scalar perturbation in this limit comes mainly via the background matter field, while that to the tensor perturbation comes directly from the gravity (κ ) effect. The change in the value of the scalar spectrum is little compared with that in the weak EiBI-gravity limit, or in general relativity. The form of the tensor spectrum is the same as that in the weak limit, but the value of the spectrum can be suppressed down to zero in the strong limit. Therefore, the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio can also be suppressed in the same way, which makes the φ2 model in EiBI theory viable.

  8. Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes as long-lived cosmological standards.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Valls-Gabaud, David; Hu, Chen; Netzer, Hagai

    2013-02-22

    Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) reach saturated luminosities above a certain accretion rate due to photon trapping and advection in slim accretion disks. We show that these SEAMBHs could provide a new tool for estimating cosmological distances if they are properly identified by hard x-ray observations, in particular by the slope of their 2-10 keV continuum. To verify this idea we obtained black hole mass estimates and x-ray data for a sample of 60 narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies that we consider to be the most promising SEAMBH candidates. We demonstrate that the distances derived by the new method for the objects in the sample get closer to the standard luminosity distances as the hard x-ray continuum gets steeper. The results allow us to analyze the requirements for using the method in future samples of active black holes and to demonstrate that the expected uncertainty, given large enough samples, can make them into a useful, new cosmological ruler. PMID:23473126

  9. Non Grey Radiative Transfer in the Photospheric Convection: Validity of the Eddington Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the physical processes taking place in the solar photosphere. Based on 3D hydrodynamic simulations including a detailed radiation transfer scheme, we investigate thermodynamic structures and radiation fields in solar surface convection. As a starting model, the initial stratification in the outer envelope calculated using the solar calibrations in the context of the standard stellar theory. When the numerical fluid becomes thermally relaxed, the thermodynamic structure of the steady-state turbulent flow was explicitly collected. Particularly, a non-grey radiative transfer incorporating the opacity distribution function was considered in our calculations. In addition, we evaluate the classical approximations that are usually adopted in the one-dimensional stellar structure models. We numerically reconfirm that radiation fields are well represented by the asymptotic characteristics of the Eddington approximation (the diffusion limit and the streaming limit). However, this classical approximation underestimates radiation energy in the shallow layers near the surface, which implies that a reliable treatment of the non-grey line opacities is crucial for the accurate description of the photospheric convection phenomenon.

  10. On the generalized wormhole in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Amarjit; Potapov, Alexander A.; Lukmanova, Regina; Izmailov, Ramil; Nandi, Kamal K.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we wish to investigate certain observable effects in the recently obtained wormhole solution of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory, which generalizes the zero-mass Ellis-Bronnikov wormhole of general relativity. The solutions of EiBI theory contain an extra parameter κ having the inverse dimension of the cosmological constant Λ, and which is expected to modify various general relativistic observables such as the masses of wormhole mouths, tidal forces and light deflection. A remarkable result is that a non-zero κ could prevent the tidal forces in the geodesic orthonormal frame from becoming arbitrarily large near a small throat radius ({r}0˜ 0) contrary to what happens near a small Schwarzschild horizon radius (M˜ 0). The role of κ in the flare-out and energy conditions is also analyzed, which reveals that the energy conditions are violated. We show that the exotic matter in the EiBI wormhole cannot be interpreted as a phantom (ω =\\frac{{p}{{r}}}{ρ }\\lt -1) or ghost field ϕ of general relativity due to the fact that both ρ and p r are negative for all κ.

  11. A GODUNOV METHOD FOR MULTIDIMENSIONAL RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS BASED ON A VARIABLE EDDINGTON TENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2012-03-01

    We describe a numerical algorithm to integrate the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics in multidimensions using Godunov methods. This algorithm solves the radiation moment equations in the mixed frame, without invoking any diffusion-like approximations. The moment equations are closed using a variable Eddington tensor whose components are calculated from a formal solution of the transfer equation at a large number of angles using the method of short characteristics. We use a comprehensive test suite to verify the algorithm, including convergence tests of radiation-modified linear acoustic and magnetosonic waves, the structure of radiation-modified shocks, and two-dimensional tests of photon bubble instability and the ablation of dense clouds by an intense radiation field. These tests cover a very wide range of regimes, including both optically thick and thin flows, and ratios of the radiation to gas pressure of at least 10{sup -4}-10{sup 4}. Across most of the parameter space, we find that the method is accurate. However, the tests also reveal there are regimes where the method needs improvement, for example when both the radiation pressure and absorption opacity are very large. We suggest modifications to the algorithm that will improve the accuracy in this case. We discuss the advantages of this method over those based on flux-limited diffusion. In particular, we find that the method is not only substantially more accurate, but often no more expensive than the diffusion approximation for our intended applications.

  12. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Phenomenology of nonlinear gravity-matter coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Delsate, Térence; Cardoso, Vitor

    2012-04-01

    Viable corrections to the matter sector of Poisson’s equation may result in qualitatively different astrophysical phenomenology, for example, the gravitational collapse and the properties of compact objects can change drastically. We discuss a class of modified nonrelativistic theories and focus on a relativistic completion, Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. This recently proposed theory is equivalent to General Relativity in vacuum, but its nontrivial coupling to matter prevents singularities in early cosmology and in the nonrelativistic collapse of noninteracting particles. We extend our previous analysis, discussing further developments. We present a full numerical study of spherically symmetric nonrelativistic gravitational collapse of dust. For any positive coupling, the final state of the collapse is a regular pressureless star rather than a singularity. We also argue that there is no Chandrasekhar limit for the mass of a nonrelativistic white dwarf in this theory. Finally, we extend our previous results in the fully relativistic theory by constructing static and slowly rotating compact stars governed by nuclear-physics inspired equations of state. In the relativistic theory, there exists an upper bound on the mass of compact objects, suggesting that black holes can still be formed in the relativistic collapse.

  13. Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld Gravity with a Trace Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term g_{μ ν }R being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric g_{μ ν }. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.

  14. Super-Eddington wind scenario for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae: Accreting He-rich matter onto white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Liu, D.-D.; Cui, X.; Han, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). However, the mass accretion process onto CO WDs is still not completely understood. Aims: In this paper, we study the accretion of He-rich matter onto CO WDs and explore a scenario in which a strong wind forms on the surface of the WD if the total luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit. Methods: Using a stellar evolution code called modules for experiments in stellar astrophysics (MESA), we simulated the He accretion process onto CO WDs for WDs with masses of 0.6-1.35 M⊙ and various accretion rates of 10-8-10-5 M⊙ yr-1. Results: If the contribution of the total luminosity is included when determining the Eddington accretion rate, then a super-Eddington wind could be triggered at relatively lower accretion rates than those of previous studies based on steady-state models. The super-Eddington wind can prevent the WDs with high accretion rates from evolving into red-giant-like He stars. We found that the contributions from thermal energy of the WD are non-negligible, judging by our simulations, even though the nuclear burning energy is the dominating source of luminosity. We also provide the limits of the steady He-burning regime in which the WDs do not lose any accreted matter and increase their mass steadily, and calculated the mass retention efficiency during He layer flashes for various WD masses and accretion rates. These obtained results can be used in future binary population synthesis computations.

  15. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Shen, Yue

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetto, E.

    2007-07-01

    Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour (pp 17--21, 48--52 and related endnotes): had Henri Poincaré constructed a special relativistic dynamics before Einstein? There is a long debate on this subject in the literature. Damour's answer is negative and his conclusions seem related to the conservation of a myth of Einstein, that is, the rise of special relativity is considered as a creatio ex nihilo within Einstein's mind and Einstein is considered as the only genius able to conceive the relativity of time. Poincaré's texts are undervalued and misunderstood by Damour's cutting quotations from their context. Damour never quotes La Science et l'Hypothèse (1902): we know it was read by Einstein and here Poincaré first (within chapters already published as separate papers in 1900) stated the relativity of time and of simultaneity. Damour never quotes Poincaré's paper published on 5 June 1905, La dynamique de l'èlectron, which presents the first relativistic dynamics, invariant by Lorentz transformations. Poincaré's (July 1905) introduction of a quadrimensional space-time is considered by Damour only a mathematical artifice (p 51) and Damour never said that Minkowski took this idea from Poincaré! Poincaré's interpretation of relativistic time implies that it is not an illusion but a complex net of different real flows related to different processes. Poincaré and Einstein had different conceptions of Nature at the root of special relativity: respectively an electromagnetic conception (Poincaré) and a semi-mechanist one (Einstein). Thus, the (philosophical) meaning of relativity can be very different from the one presented by Damour. Furthermore, Damour accepts Kantian philosophy as a key to understanding relativity and quantum theories. This perspective seems to me very anachronistic and based on a misunderstanding: an interpretation of 20th century physical theories (relativity and quantum physics) is given within the framework of an 18th century philosophical perspective, created to give a foundation to Newton's theory. Relativity and quantum physics imply a breakdown of Kantian philosophy (see, for instance, G Bachelard's La Philosophie du Non). Relativity of space and time was considered possible only by overcoming the epistemological obstacle of Kantian idealistic foundation of Euclidean geometry and of Newton's absolute space and time. Relativity and quantum theories turn up not only the hierarchy between mathematics and physics, but also between epistemology (and logic) and physics: quantum physics implies not only a new conception of an indeterminate and unpredictable Nature, but a quantum logic too, that is, it implies a change in our way of thinking and knowing. When will the revolutionary impact of 20th century physics be reduced (by physicists themselves) to an already given philosophical framework?

  17. Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions over Multiple Timescales: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the shape of the persistence model error distribution for ten different wind plants in the ERCOT system over multiple timescales. Comparisons are made between the experimental distribution shape and that of the normal distribution.

  18. CHEMICAL TIMESCALES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HIGHLY ECCENTRIC EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon

    2012-09-20

    Close-in exoplanets with highly eccentric orbits are subject to large variations in incoming stellar flux between periapse and apoapse. These variations may lead to large swings in atmospheric temperature, which in turn may cause changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere from higher CO abundances at periapse to higher CH{sub 4} abundances at apoapse. Here, we examine chemical timescales for CO{r_reversible}CH{sub 4} interconversion compared to orbital timescales and vertical mixing timescales for the highly eccentric exoplanets HAT-P-2b and CoRoT-10b. As exoplanet atmospheres cool, the chemical timescales for CO{r_reversible}CH{sub 4} tend to exceed orbital and/or vertical mixing timescales, leading to quenching. The relative roles of orbit-induced thermal quenching and vertical quenching depend upon mixing timescales relative to orbital timescales. For both HAT-P-2b and CoRoT-10b, vertical quenching will determine disequilibrium CO{r_reversible}CH{sub 4} chemistry at faster vertical mixing rates (K{sub zz} > 10{sup 7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}), whereas orbit-induced thermal quenching may play a significant role at slower mixing rates (K{sub zz} < 10{sup 7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). The general abundance and chemical timescale results-calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and metallicity-can be applied for different atmospheric profiles in order to estimate the quench level and disequilibrium abundances of CO and CH{sub 4} on hydrogen-dominated exoplanets. Observations of CO and CH{sub 4} on highly eccentric exoplanets may yield important clues to the chemical and dynamical properties of their atmospheres.

  19. Characteristic Ultraviolet/Optical Timescales in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Stefan; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    The UV/optical light curves of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may be roughly characterized by a periodic fractional flux variations of approx. 10% on timescales of 1 month. The physical mechanism(s) responsible remain ill defined. We present a structure function analysis, i.e., measure the power distribution over a range of timescales tau, of 13 AGNs to constrain the origin of UV/optical emission. On timescales tau approx. 5- 60 days, the mean UV and optical power density spectra (PDS) are equivalent. This may suggest that the underlying energy generating mechanism is identical. The combined W/optical PDS is P(f) proportional to f(sup -alpha)- with alpha = 2.13(sup +0.22, sub -0.06). For sources with measured X-ray PDS indices, we find they are indistinguishable from their UV/optical counterparts. This supports scenarios whereby X-rays are generated via Compton upscattering of UV photons, to later radiatively drive optical variations. At the same time, we present evidence for characteristic variability timescales tau(sub char) of approx. 5-100 days in 10 sources. These variability timescales combined with reverberation based masses M suggest a M - tau(sub char) relationship; higher mass systems have larger characteristic timescales. The UV tau(sub char) may possibly reflect dynamical or accretion disk thermal timescales. We find suggestive evidence for a dichotomy, at tau approx. 30 days and M approx. l0(exp 7) solar mass, between short- and long-time scale optical variations. These optical variations may be attributable to dynamical and accretion disk thermal or starburst activity timescales, respectively.

  20. A Porosity-Length Formalism for Photon-Tiring-limited Mass Loss from Stars above the Eddington Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stanley P.; Gayley, Kenneth G.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2004-11-01

    We examine radiatively driven mass loss from stars near and above the Eddington limit. Building on the standard CAK theory of driving by scattering in an ensemble of lines with a power-law distribution of opacity, we first show that the formal divergence of such line-driven mass loss as a star approaches the Eddington limit is actually limited by the ``photon tiring'' associated with the work needed to lift material out of the star's gravitational potential. We also examine such tiring in simple continuum-driven models in which a specified outward increase in opacity causes a net outward acceleration above the radius where the generalized Eddington parameter exceeds unity. When the density at this radius implies a mass loss too close to the tiring limit, the overall result is flow stagnation at a finite radius. Since escape of a net steady wind is precluded, such circumstances are expected to lead to extensive variability and spatial structure. After briefly reviewing convective and other instabilities that also can be expected to lead to extensive structure in the envelope and atmosphere of a star near or above the Eddington limit, we investigate how the porosity of such a structured medium can reduce the effective coupling between the matter and radiation. Introducing a new ``porosity-length'' formalism, we derive a simple scaling for the reduced effective opacity and use this to derive an associated scaling for the porosity-moderated, continuum-driven mass-loss rate from stars that formally exceed the Eddington limit. For a simple super-Eddington model with a single porosity length that is assumed to be on the order of the gravitational scale height, the overall mass loss is similar to that derived in previous porosity models, given roughly by L*/a*c (where L* is the stellar luminosity and c and a* are the speed of light and the atmospheric sound speed). This is much higher than is typical of line-driven winds but is still only a few percent of the tiring limit. To obtain still stronger mass loss that approaches observationally inferred values near this limit, we draw on an analogy with the power-law distribution of line-opacity in the standard CAK model of line-driven winds and thereby introduce a ``power-law-porosity'' model in which the associated structure has a broad range of scales. We show that for power indices ?p<1, the mass-loss rate can be enhanced over the single-scale model by a factor that increases with the Eddington parameter as ?-1+1/?p. For lower ?p (~0.5-0.6) and/or moderately large ? (>3-4), such models lead to mass-loss rates that approach the photon-tiring limit. Together with the ability to drive quite fast outflow speeds (of order the surface escape speed), the derived, near-tiring-limited mass loss offers a potential dynamical basis to explain the observationally inferred large mass loss and flow speeds of giant outbursts in ? Carinae and other luminous blue variable stars.

  1. Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi

    2011-02-15

    We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g{sub {mu}{nu}=}C(R)g{sub {mu}{nu}} with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.

  2. Parameterized Beyond-Einstein Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric; Linder, Eric V.; Cahn, Robert N.

    2007-09-17

    A single parameter, the gravitational growth index gamma, succeeds in characterizing the growth of density perturbations in the linear regime separately from the effects of the cosmic expansion. The parameter is restricted to a very narrow range for models of dark energy obeying the laws of general relativity but can take on distinctly different values in models of beyond-Einstein gravity. Motivated by the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for testing gravity, we analytically derive and extend the gravitational growth index, or Minimal Modified Gravity, approach to parameterizing beyond-Einstein cosmology. The analytic formalism demonstrates how to apply the growth index parameter to early dark energy, time-varying gravity, DGP braneworld gravity, and some scalar-tensor gravity.

  3. Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.

    2007-06-01

    We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.

  4. A Baryonic Effect on the Merger Timescale of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the merger timescales of galaxy clusters is important for understanding the cluster merger process and further understanding the formation and evolution of the large-scale structure of the universe. In this paper, we explore a baryonic effect on the merger timescale of galaxy clusters by using hydrodynamical simulations. We find that the baryons play an important role in accelerating the merger process. The merger timescale decreases upon increasing the gas fraction of galaxy clusters. For example, the merger timescale is shortened by a factor of up to 3 for merging clusters with gas fractions of 0.15, compared with the timescale obtained with 0 gas fractions. The baryonic effect is significant for a wide range of merger parameters and is particularly more significant for nearly head-on mergers and high merging velocities. The baryonic effect on the merger timescale of galaxy clusters is expected to have an impact on the structure formation in the universe, such as the cluster mass function and massive substructures in galaxy clusters, and a bias of “no-gas” may exist in the results obtained from the dark matter-only cosmological simulations.

  5. Stability within Jupiter's polar auroral 'Swirl region' over moderate timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, Tom S.; Clarke, John T.; Melin, Henrik; Miller, Steve; Nichols, Jon D.; O'Donoghue, James; Johnson, Rosie E.; Connerney, John E. P.; Satoh, Takehiko; Perry, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's Swirl region, poleward of the main auroral emission, has been characterised in previous observations as having highly variable auroral emission, changing dramatically across the region on a two-minute timescale, the typical integration time for UV images. This variability has made comparisons with H3+ emission difficult. Here, we show that the Swirl region in H3+ images is characterised by relatively stable emission, often with an arc of emission on the boundary between the Swirl and Dark regions. Coadding multiple UV images taken over the approximate lifetime of the H3+ molecule in the ionosphere, show similar structures to those observed in the H3+ images. Our analysis shows that UV auroral morphology within Jupiter's Swirl region is only highly variable on short timescales of ∼100 s, an intrinsic property of the particle precipitation process, but this variability drops away on timescales of 5-15 min. On moderate timescales between 10 and 100 min, the Swirl region is stable, evolving through as yet unknown underlying magnetospheric interactions. This shows that observing the UV aurora over timescales 5-15 min resolves clear auroral structures that will help us understand the magnetospheric origin of these features, and that calculating the variability over different timescales, especially >15 min, provides a new and important new tool in our understanding of Jupiter's polar aurora.

  6. Reservoir timescales for anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B C; Gaffin, S R; Tubiello, F N; Oppenheimer, M

    1994-11-01

    Non-steady state timescales are complicated and their application to specific geophysical systems requires a common theoretical foundation. We first extend reservoir theory by quantifying the difference between turnover time and transit time (or residence time) for time-dependent systems under any mixing conditions. We explicitly demonstrate the errors which result from assuming these timescales are equal, which is only true at steady state. We also derive a new response function which allows the calculation of age distributions and timescales for well-mixed reservoirs away from steady state, and differentiate between timescales based on gross and net fluxes. These theoretical results are particularly important to tracer-calibrated "box models" currently used to study the carbon cycle, which usually approximate reservoirs as well-mixed. We then apply the results to the important case of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, since timescales describing its behavior are commonly used but ambiguously defined. All relevant timescales, including lifetime, transit time, and adjustment time, are precisely defined and calculated from data and models. Apparent discrepancies between the current, empirically determined turnover time of 30-60 years and longer model-derived estimates of expected lifetime and adjustment time are explained within this theoretical framework. We also discuss the results in light of policy issues related to global warming, in particular since any comparisons of the "lifetimes" of different greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC's etc.) must use a consistent definition to be meaningful. PMID:11541520

  7. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-08-15

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z {approx} 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is {approx}10{sup 4} times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only {approx}10{sup 2} times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  8. A global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of super-eddington accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2014-12-01

    We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ∼220 L {sub Edd}/c {sup 2} and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ∼20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ∼10 L {sub Edd}. This yields a radiative efficiency ∼4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  9. Comparison of inversion codes for polarized line formation in MHD simulations. I. Milne-Eddington codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. M.; Lites, B. W.; Lagg, A.; Rezaei, R.; Rempel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Milne-Eddington (M-E) inversion codes for the radiative transfer equation are the most widely used tools to infer the magnetic field from observations of the polarization signals in photospheric and chromospheric spectral lines. Unfortunately, a comprehensive comparison between the different M-E codes available to the solar physics community is still missing, and so is a physical interpretation of their inferences. In this contribution we offer a comparison between three of those codes (VFISV, ASP/HAO, and HeLIx+). These codes are used to invert synthetic Stokes profiles that were previously obtained from realistic non-grey three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (3D MHD) simulations. The results of the inversion are compared with each other and with those from the MHD simulations. In the first case, the M-E codes retrieve values for the magnetic field strength, inclination and line-of-sight velocity that agree with each other within ?B ? 35 (Gauss), ?? ? 1.2, and ?v ? 10 m s-1, respectively. Additionally, M-E inversion codes agree with the numerical simulations, when compared at a fixed optical depth, within ?B ? 130 (Gauss), ?? ? 5, and ?v ? 320 m s-1. Finally, we show that employing generalized response functions to determine the height at which M-E codes measure physical parameters is more meaningful than comparing at a fixed geometrical height or optical depth. In this case the differences between M-E inferences and the 3D MHD simulations decrease to ?B ? 90 (Gauss), ?? ? 3, and ?v ? 90 m s-1.

  10. Entropic corrections to Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2011-04-15

    Considering the general quantum corrections to the area law of black hole entropy and adopting the viewpoint that gravity interprets as an entropic force, we derive the modified forms of Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory of gravitation and Einstein field equations. As two special cases we study the logarithmic and power-law corrections to entropy and find the explicit form of the obtained modified equations.

  11. Wheeler-Einstein-Mach spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, J.A.

    1981-07-15

    We define the Wheeler-Einstein-Mach (WEM) spacetimes to be those which contain a closed Cauchy surface, are inextendible, and satisfy field equations with a well-posed Cauchy problem. We show that a WEM spacetime can be reconstructed from the ''York data'' on any given closed (constant mean curvature) hypersurface contained in that spacetime. This result is the strongest and most precise statement to date of Wheeler's version of Mach's principle. We discuss Machian and other properties of the WEM spacetimes.

  12. Multisoliton solutions to Einstein's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ibaez, J.; Verdaguer, E.

    1985-01-15

    We discuss a multisoliton solution to Einstein's equations in vacuum. The solution is interpreted as many gravitational solitons propagating and colliding on a homogeneous cosmological background. Following a previous letter, we characterize the solitons by their localizability and by their peculiar properties under collisions. Furthermore, we define an associated frame-dependent velocity field which illustrates the solitonic character of these gravitational solitons in the classical sense.

  13. Reprint of Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; Delhez, Eric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Using the concepts of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), we compute timescales related to the water renewal in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands/Belgium). Three different timescales are used to better understand and characterize the dynamics of the estuary: the age of the renewing water, the residence time and the exposure time. The residence time is the time taken by a water parcel to leave the estuary for the first time while the exposure time is the total time spent by a water parcel in the estuary including re-entries. The age of a renewing water parcel is defined as the time elapsed since it entered the estuary. The renewing water was split into three types: the water originating from the sea, the water originating from the upstream fresh tidal rivers and the water originating from the different canals and docks connected to the estuary. Every timescale is computed at any time and position by means of the finite-element, unstructured-mesh model SLIM. This results in movies of the timescale fields (shown as Supplementary material), allowing a detailed analysis of their spatial and temporal variabilities. The effect of the M2 tide and the discharge regime (winter, summer or average situation) on the timescales is also investigated.Tidally-averaged timescales vary little over the width of the estuary and hence exhibit a virtually one-dimensional behaviour. However, around these average values, the timescales can vary hugely over a tidal cycle, with amplitudes that significantly depend on the space coordinates. The reason thereof has yet to be elucidated. These results underscore the need for two- or three-dimensional models with high temporal resolution for investigating the dynamics of the Scheldt Estuary.

  14. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed studies, Einstein's travels and their impact on the dissemination of relativity theory are examined. These activities as well as Einstein's own popular writings are interpreted in the context of his understanding of science as part of human culture.

  15. Timescales of Soil Moisture Anomalies: Results from Two GCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Milly, P. C. D.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Suarez, Max J.

    1999-01-01

    Soil moisture anomalies dissipate over timescales that may span weeks to months. Characterizing the geographical and seasonal variations in these timescales can have important practical benefit; significant soil moisture "memory" allows long-lead forecasts of soil moisture, which have been found in recent studies to be essential for useful Ion--lead forecasts of precipitation in many regions. In this talk, we will present and compare the soil moisture timescales derived in two separate general circulation model (GCM) studies. Both studies employ multiple ensembles of short-term climate simulations. Timescales at a given point are effectively estimated by determining how quickly the soil moisture distribution generated in one ensemble of simulations (characterized by a unique set of initial soil moisture conditions) approaches that produced by another ensemble (characterized by a different set of initial soil moisture conditions). The talk will include a discussion of why the timescales produced by the two GCMs differ in some regions, and it will also describe the impact of soil moisture memory on simulated precipitation.

  16. Eddington Ratio Distribution of X-Ray-selected Broad-line AGNs at 1.0 < z < 2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Gnther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ? 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the AGN cosmic downsizing phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  17. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: nuclear physics constraints and the validity of the continuous fluid approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the classical non-relativistic limit of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity. We show that strong bounds on the value of the only additional parameter of the theory ?, with respect to general relativity, may be obtained by requiring that gravity plays a subdominant role compared to electromagnetic interactions inside atomic nuclei. We also discuss the validity of the continuous fluid approximation used in this and other astrophysical and cosmological studies. We argue that although the continuous fluid approximation is expected to be valid in the case of sufficiently smooth density distributions, its use should eventually be validated at a quantum level.

  18. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: nuclear physics constraints and the validity of the continuous fluid approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Avelino, P.P.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the classical non-relativistic limit of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity. We show that strong bounds on the value of the only additional parameter of the theory κ, with respect to general relativity, may be obtained by requiring that gravity plays a subdominant role compared to electromagnetic interactions inside atomic nuclei. We also discuss the validity of the continuous fluid approximation used in this and other astrophysical and cosmological studies. We argue that although the continuous fluid approximation is expected to be valid in the case of sufficiently smooth density distributions, its use should eventually be validated at a quantum level.

  19. Super- and sub-Eddington accreting massive black holes: A comparison of slim and thin accretion discs through study of the spectral energy distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló-Mor, N.; Netzer, H.; Kaspi, S.

    2016-02-01

    We employ optical and UV observations to present SEDs for two reverberation-mapped samples of super-Eddington and sub-Eddington AGN with similar luminosity distributions. The samples are fitted with accretion disc models in order to look for SED differences that depend on the Eddington ratio. The fitting takes into account measured BH mass and accretion rates, BH spin and intrinsic reddening of the sources. All objects in both groups can be fitted by thin AD models over the range 0.2-1 μm with reddening as a free parameter. The intrinsic reddening required to fit the data are relatively small, E(B - V) ≤ 0.2 mag, except for one source. Super-Eddington AGN seem to require more reddening. The distribution of E(B - V) is similar to what is observed in larger AGN samples. The best fit disc models recover very well the BH mass and accretion for the two groups. However, the SEDs are very different, with super-Eddington sources requiring much more luminous far-UV continuum. The exact amount depends on the possible saturation of the UV radiation in slim discs. In particular, we derive for the super-Eddington sources a typical bolometric correction at 5100Å of 60-150 compared with a median of ˜20 for the sub-Eddington AGN. The measured torus luminosity relative to λLλ(5100Å) are similar in both groups. The αOX distribution is similar too. However, we find extremely small torus covering factors for super-Eddington sources, an order of magnitude smaller than those of sub-Eddington AGN. The small differences between the groups regarding the spectral range 0.2-22 μm, and the significant differences related to the part of the SED that we cannot observe may be consistent with some slim disc models. An alternative explanation is that present day slim-disc models over-estimate the far UV luminosity of such objects by a large amount.

  20. Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.

  1. A Two-Timescale Discretization Scheme for Collocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun; Conway, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a two-timescale discretization scheme for collocation is presented. This scheme allows a larger discretization to be utilized for smoothly varying state variables and a second finer discretization to be utilized for state variables having higher frequency dynamics. As such. the discretization scheme can be tailored to the dynamics of the particular state variables. In so doing. the size of the overall Nonlinear Programming (NLP) problem can be reduced significantly. Two two-timescale discretization architecture schemes are described. Comparison of results between the two-timescale method and conventional collocation show very good agreement. Differences of less than 0.5 percent are observed. Consequently. a significant reduction (by two-thirds) in the number of NLP parameters and iterations required for convergence can be achieved without sacrificing solution accuracy.

  2. BINARY ASTEROID ENCOUNTERS WITH TERRESTRIAL PLANETS: TIMESCALES AND EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-15

    Many asteroids that make close encounters with terrestrial planets are in a binary configuration. Here, we calculate the relevant encounter timescales and investigate the effects of encounters on a binary's mutual orbit. We use a combination of analytical and numerical approaches with a wide range of initial conditions. Our test cases include generic binaries with close, moderate, and wide separations, as well as seven well-characterized near-Earth binaries. We find that close approaches (<10 Earth radii) occur for almost all binaries on 1-10 million year timescales. At such distances, our results suggest substantial modifications to a binary's semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, which we quantify. Encounters within 30 Earth radii typically occur on sub-million year timescales and significantly affect the wider binaries. Important processes in the lives of near-Earth binaries, such as tidal and radiative evolution, can be altered or stopped by planetary encounters.

  3. Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...

  4. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Tobias H.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed sensory-motor contingency) before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i) integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii) used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii) used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping) or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping) of sensory-motor contingencies. This conclusion has implications for neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies of perceptual decision-making. PMID:26068458

  5. Global Models of Intermediate Timescale Variability on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years a number of advances in both observation and theory have increased our understanding of the solar interior and how to model it. For climate studies, the timescale of interest for changes in the Sun ranges from decades to centuries. Some of the theoretical advances that will contribute to the building of global models of the Sun's variability on intermediate timescales are described. The current constraints on the important components are discussed. Finally a short discussion presenting some implications for input to climate modeling is presented.

  6. Relativistic fireballs - Energy conversion and time-scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.

    1992-01-01

    The expansion energy of a relativistic fireball can be reconverted into radiation when it interacts with an external medium. For expansion with Lorentz factors greater than or approximately equal to 1000 into a typical galactic environment, the corresponding time-scale in the frame of the observer is of the order of seconds. This mechanism would operate in any cosmological scenario of gamma-ray bursts involving initial energies of order a percent of a stellar rest mass, and implies photon energies and time-scales compatible with those observed in gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Interstellar Diamond Xenon and Timescales of Supernova Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Ulrich

    1996-05-01

    The composition of isotopically anomalous Xe-H carried by interstellar diamonds in meteorites can be quantitatively explained by standard r-process nucleosynthesis, if a separation of xenon from iodine and tellurium precursors is accomplished on a timescale of a few hours after termination of the process. Such a separation process would also qualitatively account for features of Xe-L and Kr-H, and the low abundance of non-noble gas trace elements. Possible mechanisms include precondensation, loss from the diamonds upon ?-decay of precursors, and charge state separation. Whether one of these mechanisms is a viable option in supernova environments on the required timescale remains to be investigated.

  8. What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    2007-01-01

    People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is

  9. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Jrgen

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed

  10. Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian

    2009-01-01

    A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the

  11. People Interview: Continuing Einstein's great work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    INTERVIEW Continuing Einstein's great work Dr Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author and popularizer of science. He is the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory) and continues Einstein's search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory. David Smith speaks to him about inspiration and education.

  12. Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian

    2009-01-01

    A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…

  13. What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    2007-01-01

    People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…

  14. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…

  15. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charles L

    2005-02-11

    Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics. PMID:15705841

  16. Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.

  17. The Luminosity Function of Quasars (active Galactic Nuclei) in a Merging Model with the Eddington Limit Taken Into Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.; Krivitsky, D. S.

    The influence of Eddington's limit on the active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity function within the framework of a phenomenological activity model (Kats and Kontorovich, 1990, 1991) based on angular momentum compensation in the process of galaxy merging is investigated. In particular, it is shown that in spite of the essential dependence of the galaxy merging probability on their masses in the most important and interesting case it behaves effectively as a constant, so that the abovementioned (Kats and Kontorovich, 1991) correspondence between the observed galaxy mass function (Binggeli et al., 1988) and quasar luminosity function power exponents (Boyle et al., 1988; Koo and Kron, 1988; Cristiani et al., 1993) for a constant merger probability takes place in reality. A break in the power-law dependence of the luminosity function due to Eddington's restriction (cf. Dibai, 1981; Padovani and Rafanelli, 1988) is obtained in certain cases. Possible correlation between masses of black holes in AGN and masses of their host galaxies is discussed. A more detailed paper containing the results presented at this conference was published in Pis'ma v Astron. Zh. (Kontorovich and Krivitsky, 1995). Here we have added also some additional notes and references.

  18. Correlations of the IR Luminosity and Eddington Ratio with a Hard X-ray Selected Sample of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzy, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    We use the SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample of hard x-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of 0.03 and the 2MASS J and K band photometry to examine the correlation of hard x-ray emission to Eddington ratio as well as the relationship of the J and K band nuclear luminosity to the hard x-ray luminosity. The BAT sample is almost unbiased by the effects of obscuration and thus offers the first large unbiased sample for the examination of correlations between different wavelength bands. We find that the near-IR nuclear J and K band luminosity is related to the BAT (14 - 195 keV) luminosity over a factor of 10(exp 3) in luminosity (L(sub IR) approx.equals L(sub BAT)(sup 1.25) and thus is unlikely to be due to dust. We also find that the Eddington ratio is proportional to the x-ray luminosity. This new result should be a strong constraint on models of the formation of the broad band continuum.

  19. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred on the newly discovered Einstein ring. The image quality ("seeing") of the R-band image is exceptional (0.5") and the image reveals the lensing system in stunning details. The central dot is the lens, a quiescent massive galaxy that distort the light emitted by background sources. The large arc surrounding the central lens is a part of the Einstein-ring created by a background source finely aligned with the lens. The reddish colour indicates that the redshift of the system is very large. FORS2 spectroscopy of the lensing system yield a redshift close to 1 for the lens (we see the lens as it was when the universe was half its present size), and a record-breaking redshift z=3.8 for a background source of such brightness, hence we see the object (a star forming galaxy) as it was when the universe was only 12% of its present age. The lensing model indicates that the light of the source is magnified at least 13 times. The right panel shows the reconstructed image based on the model of the lens and the source, showing the ring to extend over 3/4 of a circle. "There are only a very few optical rings or arcs known, and even less so in which the lens and the source are at large distance, i.e. more than about 7,000 million light-years away (or half the present age of the Universe)", says Rémi Cabanac, former ESO Fellow and now working at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. "Moreover, very few are nearly complete", he adds. But in the case of this newly found cosmic ring, the images show it to extend to almost 3/4 of a circle. The lensing galaxy is located at a distance of about 8,000 million light-years from us, while the source galaxy whose light is distorted, is much farther away, at 12,000 million light-years. Thus, we see this galaxy as it was when the universe was only 12% of its present age. The lens magnifies the source almost 13 times. The observations reveal the galaxy acting as a lens to be a rather quiet galaxy, 40,000 light-years wide, with an old stellar population. The far away lensed galaxy, however, is extremely active, having recently experienced bursts of star formation. It is a compact galaxy, 7,000 light-years across. "Because the gravitational pull of matter bends the path of light rays, astronomical objects - stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters - can act like lenses, which magnify and severely distort the images of galaxies behind them, producing weird pictures as in a hall of mirrors", explains Chris Lidman (ESO), co-discover of the new cosmic mirage. In the most extreme case, where the foreground lensing galaxy and the background galaxy are perfectly lined up, the image of the background galaxy is stretched into a ring. Such an image is known as an Einstein ring, because the formula for the bending of light, first described in the early twentieth century by Chwolson and Link, uses Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Gravitational lensing provides a very useful tool with which to study the Universe. As "weighing scales", it provides a measure of the mass within the lensing body, and as a "magnifying glass", it allows us to see details in objects which would otherwise be beyond the reach of current telescopes. From the image, co-worker David Valls-Gabaud (CFHT), using state-of-the-art modelling algorithms, could deduce the mass of the galaxy acting as a lens - it is almost one million million suns. More information The paper describing this research has been published as a Letter to the Editor in Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 436, L21-L25 ("Discovery of a high-redshift Einstein ring", by R.A. Cabanac, D. Valls-Gabaud, A.O. Jaunsen, C. Lidman, and H. Jerjen). The paper is available for download in PDF format from the A&A web site.

  20. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is

  1. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  2. Understanding Protoplanetary Disk Structure through the Timescale of its Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Herbst, William; Megeath, S. Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Robert

    2012-12-01

    While most of our knowledge of protoplanetary disks is based on single snapshots of many systems, their evolution is in fact highly dynamic on short timescales. Previous surveys have found that the majority of young stellar objects are variable in the infrared, due to large structural perturbations of the inner disk, over the course of weeks and months. These studies of large samples of objects over two month observing windows have not been able to completely constrain the physical source of these fluctuations. We propose to use the variability timescale as a novel method for understanding the underlying physics processes setting the protoplanetary disk structure. With roughly one observation per day for 200 days, a more intensive monitoring campaign than has been previously attempted, we can distinguish between variability on the stellar rotation period (related to variable heating by star spots), the dynamical timescale (related to MRI effects and perturbation by a companion) and the thermal timescale (related to thermal waves in the disk). By focusing on a small field within the 2 Myr Chameleon star-forming region, we will obtain detailed light curves for ~16 young stellar objects, including a 15 Jupiter mass brown dwarf with a disk. This type of intensive, long baseline monitoring has not been attempted in the past, is only feasible with the observing capabilities of Spitzer, and has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of young stellar object evolution.

  3. The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. X.; Wang, B.; Cheng, H.; Fasullo, J.; Guo, Z. T.; Kiefer, T.; Liu, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Monsoon has earned increasing attention from the climate community since the last century, yet only recently have regional monsoons been recognized as a global system. It remains a debated issue, however, as to what extent and at which timescales the global monsoon can be viewed as a major mode of climate variability. For this purpose, a PAGES (Past Global Changes) working group (WG) was set up to investigate the concept of the global monsoon and its future research directions. The WG's synthesis is presented here. On the basis of observation and proxy data, the WG found that the regional monsoons can vary coherently, although not perfectly, at various timescales, varying between interannual, interdecadal, centennial, millennial, orbital and tectonic timescales, conforming to the global monsoon concept across timescales. Within the global monsoon system, each subsystem has its own features, depending on its geographic and topographic conditions. Discrimination between global and regional components in the monsoon system is a key to revealing the driving factors in monsoon variations; hence, the global monsoon concept helps to enhance our understanding and to improve future projections of the regional monsoons. This paper starts with a historical review of the global monsoon concept in both modern and paleo-climatology, and an assessment of monsoon proxies used in regional and global scales. The main body of the paper is devoted to a summary of observation data at various timescales, providing evidence of the coherent global monsoon system. The paper concludes with a projection of future monsoon shifts in a warming world. The synthesis will be followed by a companion paper addressing driving mechanisms and outstanding issues in global monsoon studies.

  4. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan; Ott, Juergen; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  5. Timescale analysis of rule-based biochemical reaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.; Finley, Stacey D.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of information within a cell is governed by a series of protein-protein interactions that can be described as a reaction network. Mathematical models of biochemical reaction networks can be constructed by repetitively applying specific rules that define how reactants interact and what new species are formed upon reaction. To aid in understanding the underlying biochemistry, timescale analysis is one method developed to prune the size of the reaction network. In this work, we extend the methods associated with timescale analysis to reaction rules instead of the species contained within the network. To illustrate this approach, we applied timescale analysis to a simple receptor-ligand binding model and a rule-based model of Interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling in näive CD4+ T cells. The IL-12 signaling pathway includes multiple protein-protein interactions that collectively transmit information; however, the level of mechanistic detail sufficient to capture the observed dynamics has not been justified based upon the available data. The analysis correctly predicted that reactions associated with JAK2 and TYK2 binding to their corresponding receptor exist at a pseudo-equilibrium. In contrast, reactions associated with ligand binding and receptor turnover regulate cellular response to IL-12. An empirical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the uncertainty in the timescales. This approach complements existing rank- and flux-based methods that can be used to interrogate complex reaction networks. Ultimately, timescale analysis of rule-based models is a computational tool that can be used to reveal the biochemical steps that regulate signaling dynamics. PMID:21954150

  6. Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao

    2014-10-01

    Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446

  7. A comment on the relations between Einstein and Hilbert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1984-03-01

    A newly discovered letter written by Albert Einstein to a close friend, Heinrich Zangger, reveals Einstein's reaction to David Hilbert's work on the gravitational field equations in the theory of general relativity. Hilbert's work was done at the same time as Einstein's, and for a short while, Einstein felt that Hilbert had come close to plagiarizing.

  8. [Boltzmann's principle and Einstein's first quantum theories].

    PubMed

    Navarro Veguillas, Luis; Prez Canals, Enric

    2002-01-01

    The crucial role played by statistical mechanics in Einstein's work on quantum theory has been repeatedly stressed. Nevertheless, in this paper we argue that Einstein's attitude to Boltzmann's principle was more complex than is usually understood. In fact, there are significant differences and nuances that in our opinion have yet to be sufficiently considered, in the various interpretations and uses Einstein made of this principle in his work on quantum theory, more specifically between 1905 and the First Solvay Conference, in 1911. PMID:12678079

  9. HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Brodwin, Mark; Narayan, Ramesh; Kenter, Almus; Caldwell, Nelson; Anderson, Michael E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Dey, Arjun; Brown, Michael J. I.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Cool, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBooetes Survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show only modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3-10 h {sup -1} Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with M {sub halo} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have very low Eddington ratios {lambda} {approx}< 10{sup -3}; (2) X-ray-selected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the 'green valley' of color-magnitude space and are clustered similar to the typical AGES galaxies (M {sub halo} {approx} 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), with 10{sup -3} {approx}< {lambda} {approx}< 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (M {sub halo} {approx}< 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have {lambda}>10{sup -2}. We interpret these results in terms of a simple model of AGN and galaxy evolution, whereby a 'quasar' phase and the growth of the stellar bulge occurs when a galaxy's dark matter halo reaches a critical mass between {approx}10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M {sub sun}. After this event, star formation ceases and AGN accretion shifts from radiatively efficient (optical- and IR-bright) to radiatively inefficient (optically faint, radio-bright) modes.

  10. OWL representation of the geologic timescale implementing stratigraphic best practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The geologic timescale is a cornerstone of the earth sciences. Versions are available from many sources, with the following being of particular interest: (i) The official International Stratigraphic Chart (ISC) is maintained by the International Commission for Stratigraphy (ICS), following principles developed over the last 40 years. ICS provides the data underlying the chart as part of a specialized software package, and the chart itself as a PDF using the standard colours; (ii) ITC Enschede has developed a representation of the timescale as a thesaurus in SKOS, used in a Web Map Service delivery system; (iii) JPL's SWEET ontology includes a geologic timescale. This takes full advantage of the capabilities of OWL. However, each of these has limitations - The ISC falls down because of incompatibility with web technologies; - While SKOS supports multilingual labelling, SKOS does not adequately support timescale semantics, in particular since it does not include ordering relationships; - The SWEET version (as of version 2) is not fully aligned to the model used by ICS, in particular not recognizing the role of the Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP). Furthermore, it is distributed as static documents, rather than through a dynamic API using SPARQL. The representation presented in this paper overcomes all of these limitations as follows: - the timescale model is formulated as an OWL ontology - the ontology is directly derived from the UML representation of the ICS best practice proposed by Cox & Richard [2005], and subsequently included as the Geologic Timescale package in GeoSciML (http://www.geosciml.org); this includes links to GSSPs as per the ICS process - key properties in the ontology are also asserted to be subProperties of SKOS properties (topConcept and broader/narrower relations) in order to support SKOS-based queries; SKOS labelling is used to support multi-lingual naming and synonyms - the International Stratigraphic Chart is implemented as a set of instances of classes from the ontology, and published through a SPARQL end-point - the elements of the Stratigraphic chart are linked to the corresponding elements in SWEET (Raskin et al., 2011) and DBpedia to support traceability between different commonly accessed representations. The ontology builds on standard geospatial information models, including the Observations and Measurements model (ISO 19156), and GeoSciML. This allows the ages given in the chart to be linked to the evidence basis found in the associated GeoSciML features.

  11. The timescales of magma evolution at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Philipp A.; Regelous, Marcel; Beier, Christoph; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Nebel, Oliver; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-ocean ridges by decompression melting of the upper mantle as it upwells due to plate separation. Decades of research on active spreading ridges have led to a growing understanding of the complex magmatic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes linked to the formation of new oceanic igneous crust. However, less is known about the timescales of magmatic processes at mid-ocean ridges, including melting in and melt extraction from the mantle, fractional crystallisation, crustal assimilation and/or magma mixing. In this paper, we review the timescales of magmatic processes by integrating radiometric dating, chemical and petrological observations of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and geophysical models. These different lines of evidence suggest that melt extraction and migration, and crystallisation and mixing processes occur over timescales of 1 to 10,000 a. High-resolution geochemical stratigraphic profiles of the oceanic crust using drill-core samples further show that at fast-spreading ridges, adjacent flow units may differ in age by only a few 100 a. We use existing chemical data and new major- and trace-element analyses of fresh MORB glasses from drill-cores in ancient Atlantic and Pacific crust, together with model stratigraphic ages to investigate how lava chemistry changes over 10 to 100 ka periods, the timescale of crustal accretion at spreading ridges which is recorded in the basalt stratigraphy in drilled sections through the oceanic crust. We show that drilled MORBs have compositions that are similar to those of young MORB glasses dredged from active spreading ridges (lavas that will eventually be preserved in the lowermost part of the extrusive section covered by younger flows), showing that the dredged samples are indeed representative of the bulk oceanic crust. Model stratigraphic ages calculated for individual flows in boreholes, together with the geochemical stratigraphy of the drilled sections, show that at fast-spreading ridges, magma compositions vary over < 100 to 1000 a, likely due to variations in the relative rates of crystallisation and melt recharge. However, on longer timescales of 10 to 100 ka, variations in the composition of the primitive melt feeding the ridge lead to chemical variations in the erupted lavas, likely as a function of thermal and/or chemical heterogeneity of the mantle source. The further understanding of these temporal variations in magma composition, especially at shorter timescales of less than a few centuries, is a promising area for future research.

  12. Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, Nurten

    Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is generally supportive of models where most BAL absorption arises at radii of 10--1000 light days. Average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight is a few thousand years which is long compared to the orbital time of the accretion disk at the wind-launching radius. We have examined if BAL variations on several timescales depend upon quasar properties, including quasar luminosity, Eddington luminosity ratio, black hole mass, redshift, and radio loudness. Within the ranges of these properties spanned by our sample, we do not find any strong dependences. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. I present a study investigating the dependence of C IV BAL properties and variation characteristics on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption. Results of this study show that C IV BAL trough shapes, depths, velocity widths and strengths show a strong dependence on the presence of Si IV and Al III BAL troughs at corresponding velocities. Similarly, the variation characteristics and depth variation profiles of C IV BAL troughs also show a strong connection to BAL troughs in these transitions. Using these ions as a basic tracer of ionization level of the absorbing gas, systematic measurements of variability and profiles for a large sample of C IV , Si IV, and Al III BAL troughs present observational evidences of the relation between ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows. Utilizing observational investigations on a large BAL quasar sample, we show that ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows show correlated object-to-object differences. We present a detailed comparison between the observational results of this study and the well studied disk-wind model of quasar outflows, which suggests that the wind is launched from the accretion disk at 1016--1017 cm and radiatively driven by UV line pressure. Results of this study show that lines-of-sight with different viewing inclinations successfully explain the characteristics and the differences between those three C IV trough groups with a good agreement to our observational findings.

  13. Stability of the Einstein static universe in Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect

    Atazadeh, K.

    2014-06-01

    The existence and stability of the Einstein static solution have been built in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. We show that this solution in the presence of perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is cyclically stable around a center equilibrium point. Thus, study of this solution is interesting because it supports non-singular emergent cosmological models in which the early universe oscillates indeterminately about an initial Einstein static solution and is thus past eternal.

  14. Quasi-periodicities at Year-like Timescales in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.; Treves, A.

    2016-03-01

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  15. Satellite animations reveal ocean surface dynamics for shortest timescales ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeckis, Richard; Zhu, Paul Chang Tong; Chen, Shuangian

    Scientists can now monitor the displacement and evolution of ocean surface thermal patterns on a shorter timescale than ever before possible, thanks to a new satellite detection method. Animations of daily composites of sea surface temperature (SST) from GOES [Menzel and Purdom, 1994 are allowing even a first-time observer to instantly recognize the relevant patterns at timescales from several hours to several months.Meteorologists have used GOES effectively to monitor cloud motions and to track storms, and now oceanographers can benefit too. Each individual daily composite is still partly cloud covered, but rapid display provides the appearance of continuity. So by viewing the composites rapidly the human eye can separate the fast moving residual clouds from the slower moving SST patterns associated with ocean currents, eddies, and upwelling.

  16. Two-timescale adiabatic expansion of a scalar field model

    SciTech Connect

    Mino, Yasushi; Price, Richard H.

    2008-03-15

    The analysis of gravitational wave data may require greater accuracy than is afforded by the adiabatic approximation to the trajectory of and field produced by a particle moving in curved spacetime. Higher accuracy is available with a two-timescale approach using as an expansion parameter the ratio of orbital time to radiation reaction time. To avoid apparent divergences at large distances, the details of the method are important, especially the choice of the foliation, the spacetime surfaces on which the orbital elements are taken to be constant. Here we apply the two-timescale approach to a simple linear model to demonstrate the details of the method. In particular we use it to show that a null foliation avoids large-distance divergences in the first-order post-adiabatic approximation, and we argue that this will be true more generally for a null foliation.

  17. Stability and (quasi)localization of gravitational fluctuations in an Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld brane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi-Ming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Ke; Gu, Bao-Min; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2014-11-01

    The stability and localization of the gravitational perturbations for a special brane system in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity were studied in Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 124053 (2012)]. In this paper, we show that the gravitational perturbations for a general brane system are stable, the four-dimensional graviton (massless KK graviton) can be localized on the brane, and the mass spectra of massive KK gravitons are gapless and continuous. Two models are constructed as examples. In the first model, which is a generalization of Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 124053 (2012)], the brane has no inner structure and there is no gravitational resonance (quasilocalized KK gravitons). In the second one, the background scalar field is a double kink when the parameter in the model approaches its critical value. Correspondingly, the brane has inner structure and some gravitational resonances appear.

  18. Inner structure of black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: The role of mass inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the interior dynamics of accreting black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum, showing that accretion can have an enormous impact on their inner structure. We find that, unlike in general relativity, there is a minimum accretion rate below which the mass inflation instability, which drives the center-of-mass streaming density to exponentially high values in an extremely short interval of time, does not occur. We further show that, above this threshold, mass inflation takes place inside black holes much in the same way as in general relativity, but is brought to a halt at an energy density which is, in general, much smaller than the fundamental energy density of the theory. We conjecture that some of these results may be a common feature of modified gravity theories in which significant deviations from general relativity manifest themselves at high densities.

  19. Multiple timescales in the adaptation of the rotational VOR.

    PubMed

    Colagiorgio, Paolo; Bertolini, Giovanni; Bockisch, Christopher J; Straumann, Dominik; Ramat, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Goal-directed movements, such as pointing and saccades, have been shown to share similar neural architectures, in spite of the different neuromuscular systems producing them. Such structure involve an inverse model of the actuator being controlled, which produces the commands innervating the muscles, and a forward model of the actuator, which predicts the sensory consequences of such commands and allows online movement corrections. Recent studies have shown that goal-directed movements also share similar motor-learning and motor-memory mechanisms, which are based on multiple timescales. The hypothesis that also the rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR) may be based on a similar architecture has been presented recently. We hypothesize that multiple timescales are the brain's solution to the plasticity-stability dilemma, allowing adaptation to temporary and sudden changes while keeping stable motor-control abilities. If that were the case, then we would also expect the adaptation of reflex movements to follow the same principles. Thus we studied rVOR gain adaptation in eight healthy human subjects using a custom paradigm aimed at investigating the existence of spontaneous recovery, which we considered as the hallmark of multiple timescales in motor learning. Our experimental results show that spontaneous recovery occurred in six of eight subjects. Thus we developed a mathematical model of rVOR adaptation based on two hidden-states processes, which adapts the cerebellar-forward model of the ocular motor plant, and show that it accurately simulates our experimental data on rVOR gain adaptation, whereas a single timescale learning process fails to do so. PMID:25744882

  20. Timescale algorithms combining cesium clocks and hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) atomic timescale, formerly based on an ensemble of cesium clocks, is now produced by an ensemble of cesium clocks and hydrogen masers. In order to optimize stability and reliability, equal clock weighting has been replaced by a procedure reflecting the relative, time-varying noise characteristics of the two different types of clocks. Correlation of frequency drift is required, and residual drift is avoided by the eventual complete deweighting of the masers.

  1. The effects of clock errors on timescale stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A.

    1995-01-01

    The weighting scheme for the cesium clocks and hydrogen masers constituting the USNO timing ensemble is reexamined from an empirical standpoint of maximizing both frequency accuracy and timescale uniformity. The utility of a sliding-weight relation between the masers and the cesiums is reaffirmed, but improvement is found if one incorporates inverse Allan variances for sampling times of 12 and 6 hours for the cesiums and masers, respectively, with some dependence on clock model.

  2. The happiest thought of Einstein's life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, M.

    It is a commonly told story that Einstein formulated his famous principle of equivalence when thinking about what happens in a freely falling elevator, and that it was an original idea of his genius distinguished by the rare capability to see deep problems in the most ordinary things. In the reading of Einstein's and Ernst Mach's works the author has discovered that it was not a physicist in an elevator which led to the principle of equivalence but rather somebody falling from a roof; moreover, the idea behind the principle was not invented by Einstein himself but rather read by him from the book by Mach entitled The Science of Mechanics. The influence this book had on young Einstein is very well known.

  3. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  4. Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodle, Walter S.

    1985-01-01

    The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)

  5. The creativity of Einstein and astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldovich, Y. B.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of Einstein's scientific achievements for the 100th anniversary of his birth is presented. His works dealing with thermodynamics are described, along with his quantum theory of radiation. Most of the article discusses his general theory of relativity.

  6. Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

  7. Timescales of fluvial response to climate and tectonic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Earth's landscapes are composed of connected elements such as hillslopes, bedrock and alluvial rivers, alluvial fans and floodplains for example. Because these entities are dominated by different processes, they might respond in different ways and at different rates to external forcings depending on the nature, magnitude and time scale of changes. Knowledge of those response times is fundamental if we want to extract past climate and tectonics from landscape forms and sedimentary archives. Moreover, the interactions between different landscape elements and their response times also control the response of the landscape as a whole, and the delivery of sediment flux to the basins. Here we review the timescales of fluvial response to perturbations in bedrock and alluvial rivers and discuss the implications for delivery of sediment to basins over multi-millenial timescales. We first use existing relationships for bedrock rivers to study their response to climatic and tectonic perturbations. For alluvial rivers, we consider a simple 1D alluvial reach with a single grain size and an equilibrium slope determined by classical bedload relations. Upstream perturbations of grain size, sediment concentration and water discharge induce river aggradation or degradation according to their effect on river equilibrium slope. While minimum aggradation time can be computed analytically as a function of slope change and sediment supply, the time necessary to degrade to a lower equilibrium slope may be only a function of the timescale of the perturbation in a transport-limited system. We explore the field of natural rivers and their possible response to upstream perturbations.

  8. SIMULATED PERFORMANCE OF TIMESCALE METRICS FOR APERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cody, Ann Marie

    2015-01-10

    Aperiodic variability is a characteristic feature of young stars, massive stars, and active galactic nuclei. With the recent proliferation of time-domain surveys, it is increasingly essential to develop methods to quantify and analyze aperiodic variability. We develop three timescale metrics that have been little used in astronomy—Δm-Δt plots, peak-finding, and Gaussian process regression—and present simulations comparing their effectiveness across a range of aperiodic light curve shapes, characteristic timescales, observing cadences, and signal to noise ratios. We find that Gaussian process regression is easily confused by noise and by irregular sampling, even when the model being fit reflects the process underlying the light curve, but that Δm-Δt plots and peak-finding can coarsely characterize timescales across a broad region of parameter space. We make public the software we used for our simulations, both in the spirit of open research and to allow others to carry out analogous simulations for their own observing programs.

  9. Markov dynamic models for long-timescale protein motion

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsung-Han; Hsu, David; Latombe, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a well-established method for studying protein motion at the atomic scale. However, it is computationally intensive and generates massive amounts of data. One way of addressing the dual challenges of computation efficiency and data analysis is to construct simplified models of long-timescale protein motion from MD simulation data. In this direction, we propose to use Markov models with hidden states, in which the Markovian states represent potentially overlapping probabilistic distributions over protein conformations. We also propose a principled criterion for evaluating the quality of a model by its ability to predict long-timescale protein motions. Our method was tested on 2D synthetic energy landscapes and two extensively studied peptides, alanine dipeptide and the villin headpiece subdomain (HP-35 NleNle). One interesting finding is that although a widely accepted model of alanine dipeptide contains six states, a simpler model with only three states is equally good for predicting long-timescale motions. We also used the constructed Markov models to estimate important kinetic and dynamic quantities for protein folding, in particular, mean first-passage time. The results are consistent with available experimental measurements. Contact: chiangts@comp.nus.edu.sg PMID:20529916

  10. Timescales of alluvial fan development by precipitation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, John J.; Warner, Nicholas H.; Goddard, Kate; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2011-09-01

    Dozens of large, low-gradient alluvial fans are present within impact crater basins on the cratered highlands of Mars. The timescales and climate conditions that were required to generate such fans are unknown, but testable through our understanding of terrestrial hill slope erosion in the presence of precipitation. Previous estimates of fan formation time vary from years to millions of years. Here, we use an idealised physical model of 2-D catchment-fan evolution to present a framework within which the development of Martian alluvial fans should be considered. We simplify the erosional and depositional system so that there are only three variables: erodibility due to gravity, amount of water runoff due to precipitation, and catchment-fan boundary elevation. Within this framework, to generate large, low-gradient (<6°) alluvial fans on Mars requires significant periods of erosion due to runoff. We suggest two climate scenarios, either: (1) rates of precipitation that are similar to arid terrestrial climates over timescales of 107 to 108 yr or (2) a shorter duration of semiarid to temperate climate conditions over a period on the order of 106 yr. Hyper-arid conditions generate low-gradient alluvial fans under conditions of a topographically lowered fan-catchment boundary and only over timescales >108 yr if the substrate is extremely erodible relative to terrestrial examples.

  11. Quasar Jets on the kpc scale: Fast and Super-Eddington or Slow and Multi-TeV Accelerators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.

    2014-08-01

    A long-standing debate exists around the nature of the anomalously high X-ray emission from the kpc-scale resolved quasar jet emission, which is related to the question of their speeds on the kpc scale. Are they fast (Lorentz factors ~10-20) and powerful (in many cases super-Eddington) or slow, sub-Eddington, and multi-TeV particle accelerators?. This question has direct bearing on the physics of cluster heating by powerful jets. Also, the slow jet case implies that the beaming-corrected radiated power of the jet on kpc scales may be comparable to, or even exceed that of the blazar (core) emission, with important implications for the GeV background radiation and the heating of intergalactic gas by TeV photons. The widely accepted model for producing the high X-ray emission has been a highly-relativistic kpc-scale jet producing inverse Compton emission by up-scattering the cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB), though the X-rays could also be synchrotron emission from a multi-TeV electron population accelerated in situ, as both models can reproduce the observed radio to X-ray spectra. We present very recent work by our group, showing that IC/CMB model is ruled out in at least two cases. In both 3C 273 PKS 0637-752, the uniquely determined GeV flux predicted by the IC/CMB model overproduces the 99.9% flux limits obtained from recent Fermi gamma-ray observations.

  12. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  13. The Quanta in Einstein's 1905 Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Christian; Provost, Jean-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    The formulation of the second postulate in Einstein's 1905 relativity theory, as well as the words used to describe light in the course of the article are more intelligible if one has in mind the dual vision of Einstein concerning the nature of light. The invariance of c does not lead only to a revolution of the concept of time, but is also a necessity for the relativistic invariance of the quanta theory of March 1905.

  14. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2007-05-30

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  15. Einstein, Mach, and the Fortunes of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, David

    2005-04-01

    Early in his life, Albert Einstein considered himself a devoted student of the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. Mach's famous critiques of Newton's absolute space and time -- most notably Mach's explanation of Newton's bucket experiment -- held a strong sway over Einstein as he struggled to formulate general relativity. Einstein was convinced that his emerging theory of gravity should be consistent with Mach's principle, which states that local inertial effects arise due to gravitational interactions with distant matter. Once completed, Einstein's general relativity enjoyed two decades of worldwide attention, only to fall out of physicists' interest during the 1930s and 1940s, when topics like nuclear physics claimed center stage. Gravity began to return to the limelight during the 1950s and especially the 1960s, and once again Mach proved to be a major spur: Princeton physicists Carl Brans and Robert Dicke introduced a rival theory of gravity in 1961 which they argued satisfied Mach's principle better than Einstein's general relativity did. The Brans-Dicke theory, and the new generation of experiments designed to test its predictions against those of general relativity, played a major role in bringing Einstein's beloved topic back to the center of physics.

  16. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  17. Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They found no evidence that gravity is different from General Relativity on scales larger than 130 million light years. This limit corresponds to a hundred-fold improvement on the bounds of the modified gravitational force's range that can be set without using the cluster data. "This is the strongest ever constraint set on an alternative to General Relativity on such large distance scales," said Schmidt. "Our results show that we can probe gravity stringently on cosmological scales by using observations of galaxy clusters." The reason for this dramatic improvement in constraints can be traced to the greatly enhanced gravitational forces acting in clusters as opposed to the universal background expansion of the universe. The cluster-growth technique also promises to be a good probe of other modified gravity scenarios, such as models motivated by higher-dimensional theories and string theory. A second, independent study also bolsters General Relativity by directly testing it across cosmological distances and times. Up until now, General Relativity had been verified only using experiments from laboratory to Solar System scales, leaving the door open to the possibility that General Relativity breaks down on much larger scales. To probe this question, a group at Stanford University compared Chandra observations of how rapidly galaxy clusters have grown over time to the predictions of General Relativity. The result is nearly complete agreement between observation and theory. "Einstein's theory succeeds again, this time in calculating how many massive clusters have formed under gravity's pull over the last five billion years," said David Rapetti of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led the new study. "Excitingly and reassuringly, our results are the most robust consistency test of General Relativity yet carried out on cosmological scales." Rapetti and his colleagues based their results on a sample of 238 clusters detected across the whole sky by the now-defunct ROSAT X-ray telescope. These data were enhanced by detailed mass measurements for 71 distant clusters using Chandra, and 23 relatively nearby clusters using ROSAT, and combined with studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, the distribution of galaxies and distance estimates to galaxy clusters. Galaxy clusters are important objects in the quest to understand the Universe as a whole. Because the observations of the masses of galaxy clusters are directly sensitive to the properties of gravity, they provide crucial information. Other techniques such as observations of supernovas or the distribution of galaxies measure cosmic distances, which depend only on the expansion rate of the universe. In contrast, the cluster technique used by Rapetti and his colleagues measure in addition the growth rate of the cosmic structure, as driven by gravity. "Cosmic acceleration represents a great challenge to our modern understanding of physics," said Rapetti's co-author Adam Mantz of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. "Measurements of acceleration have highlighted how little we know about gravity at cosmic scales, but we're now starting to push back our ignorance." The paper by Fabian Schmidt was published in Physics Review D, Volume 80 in October 2009 and is co-authored by Alexey Vikhlinin of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Wayne Hu of the University of Chicago, Illinois. The paper by David Rapetti was recently accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and is co-authored by Mantz, Steve Allen of KIPAC at Stanford and Harald Ebeling of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  18. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early time cosmology and the big bang, as well as TeV-scale gravity models testable at the Large Hadron Collider. On different grounds, Monte-Carlo studies of the gravitational partition function based on the discrete causal dynamical triangulations approach provide an a priori independent avenue towards unveiling the non-perturbative features of gravity. As a highlight, detailed simulations established that the phase diagram underlying causal dynamical triangulations contains a phase where the triangulations naturally give rise to four-dimensional, macroscopic universes. Moreover, there are indications for a second-order phase transition that naturally forms the discrete analog of the non-Gaussian fixed point seen in the continuum computations. Thus there is a good chance that the discrete and continuum computations will converge to the same fundamental physics. This focus issue collects a series of papers that outline the current frontiers of the gravitational asymptotic safety program. We hope that readers get an impression of the depth and variety of this research area as well as our excitement about the new and ongoing developments. References [1] Weinberg S 1979 General Relativity, an Einstein Centenary Survey ed S W Hawking and W Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

  19. Compaction and contraction: Densification timescales of porous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Scheu, B.; Vasseur, J.; kennedy, B.; Lavallee, Y.; Jones, T.; Hess, K.; Heap, M. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic explosive volcanic eruptions are often thought to be characterised by the formation and subsequent destruction of a dense, less-permeable plug. We investigated the timescales and deformation mechanisms that could lead to the formation of a denser plug or volcanic dome. We experimentally simulated conditions conducive to (1) high porosity magma compaction and (2) sintering of heterogeneous distributions of pyroclasts. Both of these processes likely play a role in conduit densification. High porosity magmas are texturally unstable when the included gas phase becomes connected and thereby depressurises at shallow levels. Within a scenario of syn-eruptive, decompression-driven vesiculation and crack network development during highly explosive events such as cyclic Vulcanian eruptions, unerupted magma that has developed high porosity in the vent will densify if the volcanic conduit temperatures remain high enough to suppress a significant melt viscosity increase. Further, fragmented material falling back into a hot volcanic conduit or that is forced into cracks in dense magma (tuffisites) will sinter and densify over similar timescales. We explore this densification timescale experimentally by returning erupted pumice (February 2010, Soufriere Hills volcano) to magmatic temperatures and measuring the evolution of the pore network via helium pycnometry, ultrasonic wave velocities and volumetric determinations. We find that magma can recover the high densities and low porosities typical of dome-forming magma over timescales proportional to 1) the viscosity of the melt phase, 2) the melt surface tension and 3) a measure of the dominant pore geometry and distribution. On this basis, we present a unique expression for the evolution of porosity or density as a function of the structural relaxation time of the melt phase. Finally, gas permeability and Lattice Boltzmann simulations on rendered pore volumes from 3D X-Ray computed micro-tomography elucidate the changing efficiency with which pore pressure can be dissipated during ductile densification. These tools enable a discussion of likely scenarios for the explosive-effusive transition, evolving suspension rheology and the repose interval of cyclic eruptions as well as the testing of current conceptual models of dense plug formation.

  20. Stellar differential rotation and coronal time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, G. P. S.; Jardine, M. M.; Mackay, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the time-scales of evolution of stellar coronae in response to surface differential rotation and diffusion. To quantify this, we study both the formation time and lifetime of a magnetic flux rope in a decaying bipolar active region. We apply a magnetic flux transport model to prescribe the evolution of the stellar photospheric field, and use this to drive the evolution of the coronal magnetic field via a magnetofrictional technique. Increasing the differential rotation (i.e. decreasing the equator-pole lap time) decreases the flux rope formation time. We find that the formation time is dependent upon the lap time and the surface diffusion time-scale through the relation ?_Form ? ?{?_Lap?_Diff}. In contrast, the lifetimes of flux ropes are proportional to the lap time (?Life??Lap). With this, flux ropes on stars with a differential rotation of more than eight times the solar value have a lifetime of less than 2 d. As a consequence, we propose that features such as solar-like quiescent prominences may not be easily observable on such stars, as the lifetimes of the flux ropes which host the cool plasma are very short. We conclude that such high differential rotation stars may have very dynamical coronae.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Theoretical models for bridging timescales in polymer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenza, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of macromolecules are characterized by the presence of several length scales and related timescales in which relevant phenomena take place. This defines the complex nature of the liquid and renders its theoretical treatment a difficult matter. The necessity of developing theoretical approaches that can describe in a comprehensive manner properties observed at many different length scales is a fundamental challenge in polymer physics. This review paper summarizes some key problems arising from this challenge and different approaches taken so far in attempting to solve them. Theoretical models play a pivotal role in building the infrastructure that allows one to model these multiscale properties. We present methods for coarse-graining the structure of soft-matter systems, which provide effective potentials that are input to multiscale simulations. We also present methods for coarse-graining the dynamics of macromolecules in dilute solutions and in the melt state. Although much progress has already been made, obtaining comprehensive theoretical tools that are efficient and reliable in predicting complex fluid dynamics across many timescales of interest still remains an open challenge.

  2. Mean meridional circulation driven by eddy forcings of different timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the mean meridional circulation (MMC) forced by the eddy fluxes of heat and momentum is examined using a simple two-level model of the zonal-mean atmosphere. Analytical solutions have been obtained, which show that analyses of the eddy-induced MMC using the Kuo-Eliassen equations are most appropriate for high-frequency fluctuations. For steady-state or low-frequency fluctuations, the eddy-fluxes will lead to changes in the zonal-mean zonal wind and temperature. These changes in the zonal-mean state will induce changes in frictional dissipation and diabetic heating, which (together with the eddy-fluxes) are constrained to satisfy a generalization of the Eliassen-Palm theorem and will also act as source terms to the Kou-Eliassen equation. The inclusion of these induced terms usually leads to a significant enhancement in the diagnosed intensity of the MMC. This can explain why previous studies of the MMC found a much weaker eddy-induced Ferrel cell than that observed when the induced frictional and diabetic heating terms were left out and the eddy fluxes were only used as source terms. The relevant timescale separating the high- and low-frequency limits is found to be the radiative timescale in the model. 38 refs., 4 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Interpreting characteristic drainage timescale variability across Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, S. W.; Koutsouris, A.

    2013-12-01

    We derived the characteristic drainage timescale (K) from river discharge records across the Kilombero Valley in central Tanzania to explore seasonal variability and spatiotemporal patterns in dominant hydrologic processes. This was done using streamflow recession analysis to isolate storage-discharge relationships drawing from hydraulic groundwater theory. Such an approach may be advantageous in this and other data limited environments as it allows utilization of streamflow records with large time gaps and limited consistency. The observed K values during the wet season and for the relatively smaller catchments draining upland positions are consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory (e.g., K = 45 15 days). In the dry season, however, the timescales estimated for these catchments are larger than expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. Further, larger catchments draining part of the valley bottom, which is dominated by wetlands, never exhibited K values consistent with those expected from hydraulic groundwater theory. These hydrometric results are consistent with initial hydrologic tracer investigations with implications for the transit times of water moving through this upland-wetland seasonally-connected region and resultant regional groundwater recharge. Identifying these spatiotemporal shifts (i.e., isolating when general hydraulic groundwater theory may not be valid) facilitates process representation relevant for improved hydrologic modeling and water resources management in regions like Kilombero Valley.

  4. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  5. A statistical relation between the X-ray spectral index and Eddington ratio of active galactic nuclei in deep surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Mainieri, V.; Ueda, Y.; Schramm, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Nagao, T.; Steinhardt, C.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Treister, E.; Shemmer, O.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Ho, L. C.; Lanzuisi, G.; Lusso, E.; Nandra, K.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.; Akiyama, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Civano, F.; Del Moro, A.; Doi, A.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Laird, E. S.; Masters, D.; Mignoli, M.; Ohta, K.; Schawinski, K.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2013-08-01

    We present an investigation into how well the properties of the accretion flow on to a supermassive black hole may be coupled to those of the overlying hot corona. To do so, we specifically measure the characteristic spectral index, ?, of a power-law energy distribution, over an energy range of 2-10 keV, for X-ray selected, broad-lined radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) up to z 2 in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S). We test the previously reported dependence between ? and black hole mass, full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and Eddington ratio using a sample of AGN covering a broad range in these parameters based on both the Mg II and H? emission lines with the later afforded by recent near-infrared spectroscopic observations using Subaru/Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph. We calculate the Eddington ratios, ?Edd, for sources where a bolometric luminosity (LBol) has been presented in the literature, based on spectral energy distribution fitting, or, for sources where these data do not exist, we calculate LBol using a bolometric correction to the X-ray luminosity, derived from a relationship between the bolometric correction and LX/L3000. From a sample of 69 X-ray bright sources (>250 counts), where ? can be measured with greatest precision, with an estimate of LBol, we find a statistically significant correlation between ? and ?Edd, which is highly significant with a chance probability of 6.59 10-8. A statistically significant correlation between ? and the FWHM of the optical lines is confirmed, but at lower significance than with ?Edd indicating that ?Edd is the key parameter driving conditions in the corona. Linear regression analysis reveals that ? = (0.32 0.05) log10?Edd + (2.27 0.06) and ? = (-0.69 0.11) log10(FWHM/km s-1) + (4.44 0.42). Our results on ?-?Edd are in very good agreement with previous results. While the ?-?Edd relationship means that X-ray spectroscopy may be used to estimate black hole accretion rate, considerable dispersion in the correlation does not make this viable for single sources, however could be valuable for large X-ray spectral samples, such as those to be produced by eROSITA.

  6. Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rife, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).

  7. Albert Einstein - And the Frontiers of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    1997-11-01

    Albert Einstein did not impress his first teachers. They found him a dreamy child without an especially promising future. But some time in his early years he developed what he called "wonder" about the world. Later in life, he remembered two instances from his childhood--his fascination at age five with a compass and his introduction to the lucidity and certainty of geometry--that may have been the first signs of what was to come. From these ordinary beginnings, Einstein became one of the greatest scientific thinkers of all time. This illuminating biography describes in understandable language the experiments and revolutionary theories that flowed from Einstein's imagination and intellect--from his theory of relativity, which changed our conception of the universe and our place in it, to his search for a unified field theory that would explain all of the forces in the universe.

  8. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-09-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's speed-independent. This paper explores the history of "relativistic mass," emphasizing Einstein's public role and private thoughts. We show how the concept of speed-dependent mass mistakenly evolved out of a tangle of ideas despite Einstein's prescient reluctance. Along the way there will be previously unrevealed surprises (e.g., Einstein never derived the expression for "relativistic mass," and privately disapproved of it).

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Knemann, T; Mntinga, H; Lmmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hnsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713

  10. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  11. Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)

  12. Einstein. Ein Genie und sein überfordertes Publikum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. P.

    Dieses Buch ist keine herkömmliche Biographie von Albert Einstein - vielmehr untersucht der Autor anhand charakteristischer Stationen in Einsteins Leben, dessen Denken und die Reaktionen seiner Zeitgenossen.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Rietzler, A; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F

    2012-05-25

    We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of 168Er, containing up to 710(4) atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse. PMID:23003221

  14. Einstein - Peace Now!: Visions and Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Reiner; Krieger, David

    2005-09-01

    Einstein was not only an extraordinary scientist, but also a person who faced his social responsibilities determinedly. The main focus of this book is put on topical articles by Scientific and Peace Nobel Prize laureates, prominent scientists and those committed to peace issues and justice, as well as citizens engagement for peace. Among the contributors are more than 10 Nobel Prize laureates, such as Mikhail Gorbachev, Walter Kohn, Joseph Rotblat, Alexander Ginzburg or Hans Bethe. This unique collection of intellectual thoughts on Einstein's vision of peace addresses a thoughtful, concerned and courageous audience, and was compiled to encourage and envision ways towards a more peaceful society.

  15. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Joo Gama; Barabsi, Albert-Lszl

    2005-10-01

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.

  16. Secrets of the Old One: Einstein, 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    Beginning on the 18th of March, 1905,at approximately eight week intervals, the noted German physics journal Annalen der Physik received three hand-written manuscripts from a relatively unknown patent examiner in Bern. The patent examiner was the twenty-six year old Albert Einstein and the three papers would set the agenda for twentieth century physics. A fourth short paper was received by the journal on the 27th of September. It contained Einstein's derivation of the formula E=mc2. These papers with their many technological ramifications changed our lives in the twentieth century and beyond.

  17. Was Einstein Right? A Centennial Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein formulated general relativity 100 years ago. Although it is generally considered a great triumph, the theory's early years were characterized by conceptual confusion, empirical uncertainties and a lack of relevance to ordinary physics. But in recent decades, a remarkably diverse set of precision experiments has established it as the "standard model" for gravitational physics. Yet it might not be the final word. We review a century of measurements that have verified general relativity, and describe some of the opportunities and challenges involved in testing Einstein's great theory in strong-field regimes and in gravitational waves.

  18. Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.

  19. Solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2001-11-01

    The mean field model for repulsive and attractive Bose- Einstein condensates is solved exactly in three experimentally relevant contexts in quasi-one-dimension: box and periodic boundary conditions; decay of the wavefunction in a classically forbidden region; and a generalized periodic potential. All such solutions are related to soliton trains. Analytic stationary solutions are then applied to present Bose-Einstein condensate experiments. It is demonstrated numerically that soliton trains should be observable with the right choice of parameters. A specific experimental prescription for creating solitons is provided and predictions are made concerning soliton properties, vortex creation, and stability in optical lattices.

  20. Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.

  1. New inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on sphere bundles over Einstein-Khler manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L, H.; Page, Don N.; Pope, C. N.

    2004-07-01

    We construct new complete, compact, inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on Sm+2 sphere bundles over 2n-dimensional Einstein-Khler spaces K2n, for all n?1 and all m?1. We also obtain complete, compact, inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on warped products of Sm with S2 bundles over K2n, for m>1. Additionally, we construct new complete, non-compact Ricci-flat metrics with topologies Sm times R2 bundles over K2n that generalise the higher-dimensional Taub-BOLT metrics, and with topologies SmR2n+2 that generalise the higher-dimensional Taub-NUT metrics, again for m>1.

  2. Einstein and a century of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raine, D. J.

    2005-09-01

    In a world overabundant in information, a subject is defined by its iconography. Physics is the falling apple, the planetary atom, the laser, the mushroom cloud and the image of the later Einstein - images that represent, respectively, gravity, atomic theory, quantum theory, mass-energy and the scientist who had a hand in all four. It is therefore appropriate that World Year of Physics is called Einstein Year in the UK. Of course one can argue that progress in science depends on the contributions of many people; that there are other geniuses in physics, even some colourful personalities. Nevertheless there are fundamental reasons why Einstein's early achievements stand out even in their company. When at last the thought came to him that 'time itself was suspect', Einstein had found a new insight into the nature of the physical universe. It is this: that the universal properties of material objects tell us about the nature of space and time, and it is through these properties, not philosophical logic or common sense, that we discover the structure of spacetime. The later Einstein turned this successful formula on its head and sought to use the properties of spacetime to define those of material objects, thereby seeking to abolish matter entirely in favour of geometry. Before I introduce this special feature of European Journal of Physics I will say a few words about what is not here. Like all great geniuses Einstein can be seen as the climax of what went before him and the initiation of what was to follow. Looking back we can see the influence of Mach's positivism, according to which the role of science is to relate observations to other observations; hence only observations can tell us what is 'real'. But Einstein also grew up with the family electromechanical businesses, which testifies to the reality of the Maxwellian electromagnetic fields: thus only theory can tell us what is real! As is well known, Einstein himself refused to accept the full consequences of this pivotal insight into the role of theory when it came to quantum mechanics. Much has been written about this and we do not add to it in this collection. Quantum theory is a consistent description of nature whatever Einstein may think of 'god' for making it so. Many of us would side with Einstein in hoping it will yet turn out not to be a complete description. This will not happen, as Einstein hoped throughout his later work, from a return to classical field theory. But quantum behaviour is a universal property of matter and may therefore be expected, according to Einstein's way of thought, to have a geometrical origin. The advent of non-commutative quantum geometries may turn out to be a step in this direction. My own introduction to Einstein's physics was through what has come to be known as Mach's principle. My research supervisor, Dennis Sciama, in what he always claimed was probably Einstein's last significant scientific conversation, talked with him on this subject, during which Einstein explained that he had abandoned the idea of Mach's principle. This principle had been a guiding thought in the development of general relativity, but superfluous to its final exposition. It can be interpreted variously as the determination of the local compass of inertia by the distant stars, the non-rotation of the Universe or, more restrictedly, as requiring a critical density universe (to generate the right amount of inertia). This last formulation amounts to Gρτ2 approx 1, where ρ is the density of the Universe at time τ. This appears to be a classical expression, which would probably be sufficient to relegate Mach's principle to mere historical interest along with the classical unified field theories. It is also usually considered to be accounted for by inflation, which drives the Universe to Ω=1. However, we can also think of the expression as saying that the Universe has a Planck mass in a Planck volume at the Planck time: G=(hc / G)1/2(c3 / Gh)3/2(Gh / c5)=1. This suggests that Mach's principle may yet have a surprising role in expressing the fact that the Universe contains sufficient matter to exist as a classical system: that is, that it contains sufficient material degrees of freedom to allow quantum decoherence to occur. It would at least be a nice irony if Mach's principle turned out to be a necessary quantum condition for the existence of a classical universe! Coming now to the papers in this special feature, these include several that treat historical aspects of relativity. Brown offers us a novel insight into Einstein's ambivalence about the status of special relativity in providing a mechanism for the contraction hypothesis. Trainer looks at the way in which Einstein presented a brief account of relativity in a lecture that he gave in Glasgow in 1933. Galvangno and Giribet look at Einstein's approach to the representation of particles within general relativity, or variants thereof, while Battimelli provides an account of attempts at unification of electromagnetism and relativity from the point of view of the origin of mass. In their contribution, Guerra and de Abreu look again at the relationship between the constancy of the speed of light and the nature of time that was central to Einstein's thinking. Next we come to a group of papers that look at educational issues. Einstein's equation E = mc2 is now iconic even if general knowledge quizzes that ask what the c stands for miss the entire point of the equation! Thomas starts from the way in which perceptions of relativity still focus on this equation as the essential ingredient of nuclear power and the need to disabuse even students of physics of this notion. He also looks at how we can in fact demonstrate the significance of the equation to a lay audience. I have added a short note on friction, another topic that confuses teachers and students alike, that throws up problems to which the solutions are contained in Einstein's Brownian motion paper. The Open University in the UK has been teaching relativity to distance-learners for forty years; Lambourne writes about the experience that has been gained. Finally, I have always been intrigued by the opprobrium that Einstein seems to attract from crank authors. I no longer regularly receive such nonsense to referee, I assume because the internet is now awash with 'publication' opportunities for anti-Einstein articles. I do believe however that the work of these authors throws light on the way science works and I have tried to illustrate this thesis briefly in the final paper of this collection.

  3. NuSTAR J095551+6940.8: a highly magnetized neutron star with super-Eddington mass accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Simone; Perna, Rosalba; Stella, Luigi

    2015-05-01

    The identification of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) X-2 in M82 as an accreting pulsar has shed new light on the nature of a subset of ULXs, while rising new questions on the nature of the super-Eddington accretion. Here, by numerically solving the torque equation of the accreting pulsar within the framework of the magnetically threaded-disc scenario, we show that three classes of solutions, corresponding to different values of the magnetic field, are mathematically allowed. We argue that the highest magnetic field one, corresponding to B ˜ 1013 G, is favoured based on physical considerations and the observed properties of the source. In particular, that is the only solution which can account for the observed variations in dot{P} (over four time intervals) without requiring major changes in dot{M}, which would be at odds with the approximately constant X-ray emission of the source during the same time. For this solution, we find that the source can only accommodate a moderate amount of beaming, 0.5 ≲ b < 1. Last, we show that the upper limit on the luminosity, LX < 2.5 × 1038 erg s-1 from archival observations, is consistent with a highly magnetized neutron star being in the propeller phase at that time.

  4. XMM-Newton Observations of the Super-Eddington Intermediate-Mass Black Hole: RX J1140.1+0307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Done, C.; Ward, M.

    2015-07-01

    RX J1140.1+0307 is an intriguing IMBH. Last year we obtained data from two new observations of this source with XMM-Newton to study its spectral components and variability. Here we report the latest results from all three XMM-Newton observations of this source. We find the data show a strong soft X-ray component superimposed on a steep 2-10 keV power law, where the power law is more variable than the soft X-ray in high frequency. These properties are similar to a special group of NLS1s such as PG 1244+026 and RE J1034+396, making it natural to assume that the accretion flow in all these sources is at L˜L_{Edd}. We tried various methods to constrain its black hole mass, and conformed M<1.E+6 Msun. With the mass being so small, the variable optical flux requires a mass accretion rate of L/L$_{Edd}˜10 through the outer disk. Such high mass accretion rate would dramatically over-predicts the observed X-ray flux unless there is substantial energy loss through winds and/or advection, as is expected at such highly super-Eddington rates. But this is inconsistent with the X-ray spectral and variability properties, leaving us an unsolved puzzle about the formation mechanism of its X-ray spectra.

  5. The relationship between the Eddington limit, the observed upper luminosity limit for massive stars, and the luminous blue variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The observed upper luminosity limits in the Galaxy and the LMC are compared with the Eddington limit as estimated for plane-parallel LTE model atmospheres which include the full effects of metal line opacities in the ultraviolet. It is shown that the Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit corresponds to the locus of extremely low effective gravities. This result suggests that stars approaching the HD limit will suffer high mass-loss rates because of the reduction of the effective gravity due to radiation pressure. These high mass-loss rates ultimtely lead to the core mass fraction reaching its critical value and the reversal of the stellar evolution tracks. It is shown that radiation pressure, as an agent for producing enhanced mass loss near the HD limit, can in a natural way explain the kink in the HD limit near T(eff) roughly 10,000 K and the upper luminosity limit for yellow and red supergiants. The high mass-loss rates of the luminous blue variables, their location in the HR diagram, and their evolutionary stage are also discussed.

  6. Geometric structure of multiple time-scale nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Sanjay

    A new methodology to analyze time-scale structure of smooth finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems is developed. This approach does not assume apriori knowledge of slow and fast variables for special coordinates that simplify the form of the nonlinear dynamics. Conventional approaches to analyze time-scale structure of nonlinear dynamics such as singular perturbation theory proceed from such specialized apriori knowledge which is often not obtainable. Our approach proceeds from spectral analysis of the linear variational dynamics associated with the nonlinear system. The variational dynamics govern the flow on the tangent bundle to the state-space. We decompose the tangent space at each point into spectral subspaces which separate tangent vectors that evolve at different spectral rates. The existence of such measures of spectral rates and corresponding subspaces is established by Sacker and Sell. We have developed a scheme to computationally determine these spectral measures using finite-time Lyapunov exponents and associated direction fields. In the asymptotic limit, the infinite-time Lyapunov direction fields are shown to satisfy useful invariance properties. As a consequence they are shown to uniquely define an invariant spectral filtration, i.e., a collection of nested distributions which are invariant under the nonlinear flow. Using these results, we establish the consistency of these spectral measures with well known results in special cases such as linear time-invariant systems and periodic linear time-varying systems. Differential equations that govern the propagation of Lyapunov directions along orbits of the nonlinear flow are derived using the invariance properties. Methods to apply these spectral analysis tools to construct coordinate transformations that decompose the variational flow are developed. When the Frobenius theorem is applicable, we also show methods to construct a nonlinear transformation of coordinates from the Lyapunov direction fields to decompose the nonlinear dynamics into slow and fast subsystems. In fact, this procedure can be used to transform the two time-scale nonlinear dynamics into a singularly perturbed standard form. Application of these methods for reducing the order of nonlinear dynamics, locating the slow manifold in the state-space and solving boundary value problems arising from hypersensitive optimal control problems is discussed. Several simple examples are used to demonstrate the methods and elucidate the main concepts.

  7. Timescales of texture development in a cooling lava dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, F. W.; Nichols, A. R. L.; Kennedy, B. M.; Oze, C.

    2013-08-01

    Crystal growth and crack development in cooling lava domes are both capable of redistributing and mobilizing water. Cracking and hydration decrease the stability of a dome, which may lead to hazards including partial dome collapse and block and ash flows. By examining the distribution of water around crystals and cracks, we identify and confine temperature and timescales of texture development in glassy rocks of volcanic domes. Four generations of textures have been identified: type a: spherulites, type b: cracks associated with spherulite growth, type c: perlitic cracks, and type d: disparate cracks. High-resolution imaging using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) performed on samples from the Ngongotaha dome, New Zealand, show an increase in H2O of up to 450% along gradients of around 100 μm up to 300 μm in length from perlitic cracks, spherulitic cracks and in haloes around spherulites. No gradients in water concentrations across the disparate cracks are present. Water diffusion models show potential timescale-temperature couples that coincide with textural observations and previous studies, and allow us to develop a conceptual model of spherulite growth and cracking in a cooling lava dome. Spherulite growth starts around the glass transition temperature (Tg) when the viscous melt cools to a brittle solid and proceeds with cracking related to volume changes at slightly lower temperatures and shorter timescales (days to weeks) compared to spherulite growth. Perlitic cracking happens at T≪Tg, allowing hydration of a permeable network within weeks to months. Low temperature (≲50 °C) cracks could not be hydrated in the time since eruption (≃230 ka). Our data show that textures in cooling glass develop during cooling below Tg within days, producing cracks and crystals that create inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of water. The lengthscales of water diffusion away from spherulites, spherulite cracks, and perlite cracks suggest that most of the rehydration of melt/glass occurs at relatively high temperatures (>400 °C). Lack of evidence for water diffusion around other cracks suggests minor low-temperature meteoric water rehydration following emplacement.

  8. Timescales for permeability reduction and strength recovery in densifying magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Transitions between effusive and explosive behaviour are routine for many active volcanoes. The permeability of the system, thought to help regulate eruption style, is likely therefore in a state of constant change. Viscous densification of conduit magma during effusive periods, resulting in physical and textural property modifications, may reduce permeability to that preparatory for an explosive eruption. We present here a study designed to estimate timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery during viscous magma densification by coupling measurements of permeability and strength (using samples from a suite of variably welded, yet compositionally identical, volcanic deposits) with a rheological model for viscous compaction and a micromechanical model, respectively. Bayesian Information Criterion analysis confirms that our porosity-permeability data are best described by two power laws that intersect at a porosity of 0.155 (the "changepoint" porosity). Above and below this changepoint, the permeability-porosity relationship has a power law exponent of 8.8 and 1.0, respectively. Quantitative pore size analysis and micromechanical modelling highlight that the high exponent above the changepoint is due to the closure of wide (∼200-300 μm) inter-granular flow channels during viscous densification and that, below the changepoint, the fluid pathway is restricted to narrow (∼50 μm) channels. The large number of such narrow channels allows porosity loss without considerable permeability reduction, explaining the switch to a lower exponent. Using these data, our modelling predicts a permeability reduction of four orders of magnitude (for volcanically relevant temperatures and depths) and a strength increase of a factor of six on the order of days to weeks. This discrepancy suggests that, while the viscous densification of conduit magma will inhibit outgassing efficiency over time, the regions of the conduit prone to fracturing, such as the margins, will likely persistently re-fracture and keep the conduit margin permeable. The modelling therefore supports the notion that repeated fracture-healing cycles are responsible for the successive low-magnitude earthquakes associated with silicic dome extrusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the transition from effusive to explosive behaviour may rest on the competition between permeability reduction within the conduit and outgassing through fractures at the conduit margin. If the conditions for explosive behaviour are satisfied, the magma densification clock will be reset and the process will start again. The timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery presented in this study may aid our understanding of the permeability evolution of conduit margin fractures, magma fracture-healing cycles, surface outgassing cycles, and the timescales required for pore pressure augmentation and the initiation of explosive eruptions.

  9. Comparison of tropical cyclogenesis indices on seasonal to interannual timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menkes, Christophe E.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Marchesiello, Patrick; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Lefvre, Jrme; Chauvin, Fabrice; Royer, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performances of four cyclogenesis indices against observed tropical cyclone genesis on a global scale over the period 1979-2001. These indices are: the Genesis Potential Index; the Yearly Genesis Parameter; the Modified Yearly Convective Genesis Potential Index; and the Tippett et al. Index (J Clim, 2011), hereafter referred to as TCS. Choosing ERA40, NCEP2, NCEP or JRA25 reanalysis to calculate these indices can yield regional differences but overall does not change the main conclusions arising from this study. By contrast, differences between indices are large and vary depending on the regions and on the timescales considered. All indices except the TCS show an equatorward bias in mean cyclogenesis, especially in the northern hemisphere where this bias can reach 5. Mean simulated genesis numbers for all indices exhibit large regional discrepancies, which can commonly reach up to 50%. For the seasonal timescales on which the indices are historically fitted, performances also vary widely in terms of amplitude although in general they all reproduce the cyclogenesis seasonality adequately. At the seasonal scale, the TCS seems to be the best fitted index overall. The most striking feature at interannual scales is the inability of all indices to reproduce the observed cyclogenesis amplitude. The indices also lack the ability to reproduce the general interannual phase variability, but they do, however, acceptably reproduce the phase variability linked to El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)a major driver of tropical cyclones interannual variations. In terms of cyclogenesis mechanisms that can be inferred from the analysis of the index terms, there are wide variations from one index to another at seasonal and interannual timescales and caution is advised when using these terms from one index only. They do, however, show a very good coherence at ENSO scale thus inspiring confidence in the mechanism interpretations that can be obtained by the use of any index. Finally, part of the gap between the observed and simulated cyclogenesis amplitudes may be attributable to stochastic processes, which cannot be inferred from environmental indices that only represent a potential for cyclogenesis.

  10. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. H? Time Lags and Implications for Super-Eddington Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Huang, Ying-Ke; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Yang-Wei; Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Kaspi, Shai; Ho, Luis C.; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We have completed two years of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with very high accretion rates. In this paper, we report on the result of the second phase of the campaign, during 2013-2014, and the measurements of five new H? time lags out of eight monitored AGNs. All five objects were identified as super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs). The highest measured accretion rates for the objects in this campaign are \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ? 200, where \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ={{\\dot{M}}\\bullet }/{{L}Edd}{{c}-2}, {{\\dot{M}}\\bullet } is the mass accretion rates, {{L}Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the speed of light. We find that the H? time lags in SEAMBHs are significantly shorter than those measured in sub-Eddington AGNs, and the deviations increase with increasing accretion rates. Thus, the relationship between broad-line region size ({{R}_{H? }}) and optical luminosity at 5100 , {{R}_{H? }}-{{L}5100}, requires accretion rate as an additional parameter. We propose that much of the effect may be due to the strong anisotropy of the emitted slim-disk radiation. Scaling {{R}_{H? }} by the gravitational radius of the black hole (BH), we define a new radius-mass parameter (Y) and show that it saturates at a critical accretion rate of \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} {{}c}=6 30, indicating a transition from thin to slim accretion disk and a saturated luminosity of the slim disks. The parameter Y is a very useful probe for understanding the various types of accretion onto massive BHs. We briefly comment on implications to the general population of super-Eddington AGNs in the universe and applications to cosmology.

  11. Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2005-01-01

    Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…

  12. Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault

    We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.

  13. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN THE SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON-STAR MASSES AND RADII FROM THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURSTS. II. EDDINGTON LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Guever, Tolga; Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of thermonuclear bursts observed from low-mass X-ray binaries offer a unique tool to measure neutron-star masses and radii. In this paper, we continue our systematic analysis of all the X-ray bursts observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from X-ray binaries. We determine the events that show clear evidence for photospheric radius expansion and measure the Eddington limits for these accreting neutron stars using the bolometric fluxes attained at the touchdown moments of each X-ray burst. We employ a Bayesian technique to investigate the degree to which the Eddington limit for each source remains constant between bursts. We find that for sources with a large number of radius expansion bursts, systematic uncertainties are at a 5%-10% level. Moreover, in six sources with only pairs of Eddington-limited bursts, the distribution of fluxes is consistent with a {approx}10% fractional dispersion. This indicates that the spectroscopic measurements of neutron-star masses and radii using thermonuclear X-ray bursts can reach the level of accuracy required to distinguish between different neutron-star equations of state, provided that uncertainties related to the overall flux calibration of X-ray detectors are of comparable magnitude.

  14. Reconstructing disturbances and their biogeochemical consequences over multiple timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Higuera, Philip E.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Perakis, Steven S.; Mack, Michelle C.; Alexander, Heather; Battles, John; Biondi, Franco; Buma, Brian; Colombaroli, Daniele; Enders, Sara K.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Marshall, John; McGlone, Matt; Morris, Jesse L.; Nave, Lucas E.; Shuman, Bryan; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Urrego, Dunia H.; Wardle, David A.; Williams, Christopher J.; Williams, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing changes in disturbance regimes are predicted to cause acute changes in ecosystem structure and function in the coming decades, but many aspects of these predictions are uncertain. A key challenge is to improve the predictability of postdisturbance biogeochemical trajectories at the ecosystem level. Ecosystem ecologists and paleoecologists have generated complementary data sets about disturbance (type, severity, frequency) and ecosystem response (net primary productivity, nutrient cycling) spanning decadal to millennial timescales. Here, we take the first steps toward a full integration of these data sets by reviewing how disturbances are reconstructed using dendrochronological and sedimentary archives and by summarizing the conceptual frameworks for carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic responses to disturbances. Key research priorities include further development of paleoecological techniques that reconstruct both disturbances and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. In addition, mechanistic detail from disturbance experiments, long-term observations, and chronosequences can help increase the understanding of ecosystem resilience.

  15. Memory on multiple time-scales in an Abelian sandpile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien; Webster, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    We report results of a numerical analysis of the memory effects in two-dimensional Abelian sandpiles. It is found that a sandpile forgets its instantaneous configuration in two distinct stages: a fast stage and a slow stage, whose durations roughly scale as N and N2 respectively, where N is the linear size of the sandpile. We confirm the presence of the longer time-scale by an independent diagnostic based on analysing emission probabilities of a hidden Markov model applied to a time-averaged sequence of avalanche sizes. The application of hidden Markov modelling to the output of sandpiles is novel. It discriminates effectively between a sandpile time series and a shuffled control time series with the same time-averaged event statistics and hence deserves further development as a pattern-recognition tool for Abelian sandpiles.

  16. Timescale for trans-Planckian collisions in Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Mandar; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Nakao, Ken-ichi; Kimura, Masashi; Harada, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    We make a critical comparison between ultra-high-energy particle collisions around an extremal Kerr black hole and that around an over-spinning Kerr singularity, mainly focusing on the issue of the timescale of collisions. We show that the time required for two massive particles with the proton mass or two massless particles of GeV energies to collide around the Kerr black hole with Planck energy is several orders of magnitude longer than the age of the Universe for astro-physically relevant masses of black holes, whereas time required in the over-spinning case is of the order of ten million years, which is much shorter than the age of the Universe. Thus, from the point of view of observation of Planck scale collisions, the over-spinning Kerr geometry, subject to their occurrence, has distinct advantage over their black-hole counterparts.

  17. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies. PMID:25408692

  18. From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies. PMID:25408692

  19. DYNAMICAL MASS SEGREGATION ON A VERY SHORT TIMESCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Parker, Richard J.; De Grijs, Richard; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2009-08-01

    We discuss the observations and theory of star cluster formation to argue that clusters form dynamically cool (subvirial) and with substructure. We then perform an ensemble of simulations of cool, clumpy (fractal) clusters and show that they often dynamically mass segregate on timescales far shorter than expected from simple models. The mass segregation comes about through the production of a short-lived, but very dense core. This shows that in clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster the stars {>=} 4 M{sub sun} can dynamically mass segregate within the current age of the cluster. Therefore, the observed mass segregation in apparently dynamically young clusters need not be primordial, but could be the result of rapid and violent early dynamical evolution.

  20. Serotonergic neurons signal reward and punishment on multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin's function in the brain is unclear. One challenge in testing the numerous hypotheses about serotonin's function has been observing the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in animals engaged in behavioral tasks. We recorded the activity of dorsal raphe neurons while mice experienced a task in which rewards and punishments varied across blocks of trials. We 'tagged' serotonergic neurons with the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 and identified them based on their responses to light. We found three main features of serotonergic neuron activity: (1) a large fraction of serotonergic neurons modulated their tonic firing rates over the course of minutes during reward vs punishment blocks; (2) most were phasically excited by punishments; and (3) a subset was phasically excited by reward-predicting cues. By contrast, dopaminergic neurons did not show firing rate changes across blocks of trials. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons signal information about reward and punishment on multiple timescales. PMID:25714923

  1. Constraining the Satellite Quenching Timescale at z < 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Wimberly, M. Katy; Cooper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable success at modeling the evolution of massive galaxies over cosmic time, modern hydrodynamic and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation generally fail to reproduce the properties of low-mass galaxies. This shortcoming in our theoretical picture is largely driven by an inability to understand the physics of satellite (or "environmental") quenching. Using abundance matching prescriptions to populate large dissipationless N-body simulations, including the Bolshoi Simulation, we study the dependence of satellite properties on cluster-centric distance within massive host halos at z < 1.5, focusing on the potential physical mechanisms that may be at play in suppressing star formation in the satellite population. Our results illustrate the potential power of ongoing cluster surveys, such as the multi-year GOGREEN Survey at Gemini Observatories, to constrain the quenching timescale over more than half of cosmic time.

  2. Validating Computational Cognitive Process Models across Multiple Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher; Gluck, Kevin; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Model comparison is vital to evaluating progress in the fields of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and cognitive architecture. As they mature, AGI and cognitive architectures will become increasingly capable of providing a single model that completes a multitude of tasks, some of which the model was not specifically engineered to perform. These models will be expected to operate for extended periods of time and serve functional roles in real-world contexts. Questions arise regarding how to evaluate such models appropriately, including issues pertaining to model comparison and validation. In this paper, we specifically address model validation across multiple levels of abstraction, using an existing computational process model of unmanned aerial vehicle basic maneuvering to illustrate the relationship between validity and timescales of analysis.

  3. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, A.; Antigüedad, I.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2) in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003-2008). Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events) to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC) during some of the monitored storm events (28 events) was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge) the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase) for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters) of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the catchment is being studied more deeply.

  4. Imprint of modified Einsteins gravity on white dwarfs: Unifying Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-11-01

    We establish the importance of modified Einsteins gravity (MG) in white dwarfs (WDs) for the first time in the literature. We show that MG leads to significantly sub- and super-Chandrasekhar limiting mass WDs, depending on a single model parameter. However, conventional WDs on approaching Chandrasekhars limit are expected to trigger Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa), a key to unravel the evolutionary history of the universe. Nevertheless, observations of several peculiar, under- and over-luminous SNeIa argue for the limiting mass widely different from Chandrasekhars limit. Explosions of MG induced sub- and super-Chandrasekhar limiting mass WDs explain under- and over-luminous SNeIa respectively, thus unifying these two apparently disjoint sub-classes. Our discovery questions both the global validity of Einsteins gravity and the uniqueness of Chandrasekhars limit.

  5. Bose-Einstein condensate in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrath, T.P.; Schreck, F.; Hanssen, J.L.; Chuu, C.-S.; Raizen, M.G.

    2005-04-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates have been produced in an optical box trap. This optical trap type has strong confinement in two directions comparable to that which is possible in an optical lattice, yet produces individual condensates rather than the thousands typical of a lattice. The box trap is integrated with single-atom detection capability, paving the way for studies of quantum atom statistics.

  6. Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2009-04-13

    We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.

  7. Chromohydrodynamics in Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect

    Amorim, R.

    1986-05-15

    The complete dynamical system for a classical fluid endowed with non-Abelian charge density is obtained by using variational techniques. Spin density appears in a natural way, as a consequence of a usual gauge construction. Einstein-Cartan, Yang-Mills, and generalized Wong equations are explicitly shown.

  8. Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)

  9. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist. PMID:21412401

  10. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  11. Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    2007-02-21

    The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.

  12. The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirac, P. A. M.

    1979-01-01

    This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)

  13. Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    2007-02-01

    The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.

  14. Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry

    2013-11-01

    Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.

  15. Einstein Slew Survey: Data analysis innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan F.; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new methods were needed in order to make the Einstein Slew X-ray Sky Survey. The innovations which enabled the Slew Survey to be done are summarized. These methods included experimental approach to large projects, parallel processing on a LAN, percolation source detection, minimum action identifications, and rapid dissemination of the whole data base.

  16. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  17. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  18. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  19. Skyrme-Einstein closed cosmic chiral strings

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu. P. Ivanova, I. S.

    2007-07-15

    Within the theory of general relativity, the configuration of a closed string (vortex) characterized by a topological charge of the degree type is described for the Skyrme-Einstein SU (2) chiral model. In the approximation of a large vortex-closure radius (a), a solution to equations of motion is obtained, along with estimates for the vortex energy and radius.

  20. Khler-Einstein metrics and integral invariants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaki, A.

    Contents: 1. Preliminaries. 2. Khler-Einstein metrics and extremal Khler metrics. 3. The character f and its generalization to Khlerian invariants. 4. The character f as an obstruction. 5. The character f as a classical invariant. 6. Lifting f to a group character. 7. The character f as a momentmap. 8. Aubin's approach and related results.

  1. Blackbody Radiation: Kirchhoff's Error Propagates Beyond Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2005-04-01

    A perfect absorber (approximated by graphite) is a blackbody. However, in 1860, Kirchhoff inappropriately concluded that a perfect reflector could also yield blackbody radiation. This led to the idea that such radiation was independent of the nature of the emitting object. Both Planck and Einstein, without sufficiently considering Kirchhoff's experimental work and theoretical conclusion, adopted the concept of universality--a view that persists to this day. In 1917, Einstein reinforced this concept. Assuming transitions between two states and equilibrium with a Wien's radiation field, Einstein was able to derive Planck's equation for blackbody radiation. Unfortunately, there is no experimental evidence that a radiation field which obeys Wien's Law can ever be produced in the absence of condensed matter. Consequently, under closer consideration, Einstein's derivation, far from affirming universality, directly invokes the presence of a solid (through the need to generate Wien's radiation field) and thereby restricts blackbody radiation to this state of matter. The belief that blackbody radiation is universal is not supported in the experimental setting.

  2. Proof of entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiongjun; Gao, Sijie

    2015-07-01

    We consider a static self-gravitating charged perfect fluid system in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. Assume Maxwell's equation and the Einstein constraint equation are satisfied and the temperature of the fluid obeys Tolman's law. Then, we prove that the extrema of total entropy implies other components of Einstein's equation for any variations of metric and electrical potential with fixed boundary values. Conversely, if Einstein's equation and Maxwell's equations hold, the total entropy achieves an extremum. Our work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when an electrostatic field is taken into account.

  3. Modeling pedogenesis at multimillennium timescales: achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The modeling of soil genesis is a particular case of modeling vadose zone processes, because of the variety in processes to be considered and its large (multimillennium) temporal extent. The particular relevancy of pedogenetic modeling for non-pedologists is that it involves the soil compartment carbon cycle. As most of these processes are driven by water flow, modeling hydrological processes is an inevitable component of (non-empirical) modeling of soil genesis. One particular challenge is that both slow and fast pedogenetic processes need to be accounted for. This overview summarizes the state of the art in this new branch of pedology, achievements made so far and current challenges, and is largely based on one particular pedon-scale soil evolution model, SoilGen. SoilGen is essentially a pedon-scale solute transport model that simulates unsaturated water flow, chemical equilibriums of various species with calcite, gypsum and gibbsite as precipitated phases, an exchange phase of Na, K, Ca, Mg, H and Al on clay and organic matter and a solution phase comprising various cations and anions. Additionally, a number of pedogenetic processes are simulated: C-cycling, chemical weathering of primary minerals, physical weathering of soil particles, bioturbation and clay migration. The model was applied onto a climosequence, a chronosequence, a toposequence and as part of a spatio-temporal soilscape reconstruction. Furthermore, the clay migration component has been calibrated and tested and so has the organic matter decomposition component. Quantitative comparisons between simulations and measurements resulted in the identification of possible improvements in the model and associated inputs, identified problems to be solved and identified the current application domain. Major challenges for process-based modeling in the vadose zone at multimillennium timescales can be divided into 4 groups: (i) Reconstruction of initial and boundary conditions; (ii) Accounting for evolution in soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure; (iii) Developing adequate calibration techniques; (iv) Maximizing computational efficiency. Reconstruction of initial and boundary conditions requires multidisciplinary inputs either derived from proxies or from combined vegetation and climate development models. So far, the combination of pedogenetic models and combined vegetation/climate models is rare. At pedogenetic timescales, soil characteristics that are usually considered constant become dynamic: texture, OC, bulk density, precipitated salts, minerals, etc. Interactions and feedbacks between these characteristics and associated hydrological properties need attention, e.g. via pedotransfer functions. The same can be stated for the development of soil structure and associated preferential flow, which is still a challenge. At multimillennium temporal extents, the combination of long model runtime and the fact that most calibration data represent the current stage of soil development requires a special approach. Model performance can be evaluated at various timescales using unconventional proxies. Finally, recognizing the fact that matter redistribution at the landscape scale is of paramount importance at multimillennium extent requires the formulation of computationally efficient 3D models. This will surely involve analysis of the tradeoff between process detail, model accuracy, required boundary inputs and model runtime.

  4. A Common Mechanism of Multi-timescale Abrupt Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    The La Nina phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is known to cause global cooling on inter- annual timescales through changes in deep convection patterns and reduced supply of water vapor to the tropical atmosphere. Two distinct means are presented here by which this mechanism may also act on timescales exceeding 100,000 years. Firstly, the hypothesis of millennial tidal forcing is revisited with the view that equatorial buoyancy frequencies and steep internal waves in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent make vertical mixing in the equatorial Pacific uniquely susceptible to incremental changes in tidal energy. Hourly Tropical Ocean Array subsurface temperature data show a resonant response to extreme tides associated with the 1997 and 2000 ENSO events. Complimenting the known 1,800 year peak tide cycle, a 550-600 year cycle of three-fold variation in the frequency of deep central eclipses (gamma < 0.05) is consistent with the timing of the Little Ice Age. Fortnightly eclipse triples (FET's) associated with this eclipse cycle are shown to coincide with both warm and cold phase Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) inflection points between 1876 and 2007, and notably the cold phase maxima of 1904 and 1917. In the second proposed trigger, southward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the central and eastern Pacific may periodically shift the rising branch of the Hadley circulation over the equatorial cold tongue. The resulting winter monsoon system develops an equatorially symmetric La Nina (ESLN) mode through a positive feedback between diverging surface winds and meridional rather than zonal SST gradients. Exchange of latent heat in the winter monsoon contracts the Hadley Cell, draws circumpolar westerly winds equatorward, and expands high latitude ice volume, as demonstrated in 1998. A three million year record of obliquity and August 10N minus 10S insolation (AUG10N-S) shows an ice volume dependence upon the mutual direction of change of these signals (rather than upon their quantity). This suggests an orbitally driven north-south ITCZ oscillator in which increasing August insolation at 10N steepens the cross-equator meridional temperature gradient and strengthens the annual cycle when damped by southern hemisphere thermal inertia, and vice-versa. Increasing Aug10N-S is shown to constrain rapid ice loss (ESLN off). Conversely, declining AUG10N-S coupled with declining obliquity less than 23.5 triggered or maintained glaciation in 44 of 49 cases (ESLN on). The above tidal forcing means may additionally act on precessional timescales because the FET cycle has a seasonal maximum at aphelion, with a possible greatest effect when combined with equinoctial tides. Also, the lunar day at new moons is shorter (closer to 24 hours) at each equinox, thereby extending periods of luni-solar resonance at those peak tides. Tidal forcing may vary further with 100,000 and 400,000 year eccentricity cycles, both directly and by perturbation of the Moon's orbit, and through possible secular changes in the Saros cycle. It is proposed that an equatorially symmetric ITCZ is the necessary condition for a cold phase response to tidal forcing.

  5. Relationship between X-ray spectral index and X-ray Eddington ratio for Mrk 335 and Ark 564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, R.; Tripathi, S.; Misra, R.; Dewangan, G.; Pathak, A.; Sarma, J. K.

    2015-04-01

    We present a comprehensive flux-resolved spectral analysis of the bright narrow-line Seyfert 1 AGNs, Mrk 335 and Ark 564 using observations by XMM-Newton satellite. The mean and the flux-resolved spectra are fitted by an empirical model consisting of two Comptonization components, one for the low-energy soft excess and the other for the high-energy power law. A broad iron line and a couple of low-energy edges are required to explain the spectra. For Mrk 335, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity relative to the Eddington value, LX/LEdd, varied from 0.002 to 0.06. The index variation can be empirically described as ? = 0.6 log10 LX/LEdd + 3.0 for 0.005 < LX/LEdd < 0.04. At LX/LEdd 0.04 the spectral index changes and then continues to follow ? = 0.6 log10 LX/LEdd + 2.7, i.e. on a parallel track. We confirm that the result is independent of the specific spectral model used by fitting the data in the 3-10 keV band by only a power law and an iron line. For Ark 564, the index variation can be empirically described as ? = 0.2 log10 LX/LEdd + 2.7 with a significantly large scatter as compared to Mrk 335. Our results indicate that for Mrk 335, there may be accretion disc geometry changes which lead to different parallel tracks. These changes could be related to structural changes in the corona or enhanced reflection at high flux levels. There does not seem to be any homogeneous or universal relationship for the X-ray index and luminosity for different AGNs or even for the same AGN.

  6. Eddington-Born-Infeld cosmology: a cosmographic approach, a tale of doomsdays and the fate of bound structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-Lpez, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin

    2015-02-01

    The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld scenario (EiBI) can prevent the big bang singularity for a matter content whose equation of state is constant and positive. In a recent paper [Bouhmadi-Lopez et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 74:2802, 2014)] we showed that, on the contrary, it is impossible to smooth a big rip in the EiBI setup. In fact the situations are still different for other singularities. In this paper we show that a big freeze singularity in GR can in some cases be smoothed to a sudden or a type IV singularity under the EiBI scenario. Similarly, a sudden or a type IV singularity in GR can be replaced in some regions of the parameter space by a type IV singularity or a loitering behaviour, respectively, in the EiBI framework. Furthermore, we find that the auxiliary metric related to the physical connection usually has a smoother behaviour than that based on the physical metric. In addition, we show that bound structures close to a big rip or a little rip will be destroyed before the advent of the singularity and will remain bound close to a sudden, big freeze or type IV singularity. We then constrain the model following a cosmographic approach, which is well known to be model independent, for a given Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker geometry. It turns out that among the various past or present singularities, the cosmographic analysis can pick up the physical region that determines the occurrence of a type IV singularity or a loitering effect in the past. Moreover, to determine which of the future singularities or doomsdays is more probable, observational constraints on the higher-order cosmographic parameters are required.

  7. Spectral decomposition of time-scales in hyporheic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrman, Anders; Riml, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange of heat and solute mass in streams is manifested both in form of different exchange mechanisms and their associated distributions of residence times as well as the range of time-scales characterizing the forcing boundary conditions. A recently developed analytical technique separates the spectrum of time-scales and relates the forcing boundary fluctuations of heat and solute mass through a physical model of the hydrological transport to the response of heat and solute mass. This spectral decomposition can be done both for local (point-scale) observations in the hyporhiec zone itself as well as for transport processes on the watershed scale that can be considered 'well-behaved' in terms of knowledge of the forcing (input) quantities. This paper presents closed-form solutions in spectral form for the point-, reach- and watershed-scale and discusses their applicability to selected data of heat and solute concentration. We quantify the reliability and highlight the benefits of the spectral approach to different scenarios and, peculiarly, the importance for linking the periods in the spectral decomposition of the solute response to the distribution of transport times that arise due to the multitude of exchange mechanisms existing in a watershed. In a point-scale example the power spectra of in-stream temperature is related to the power spectrum of the temperature at a specific sediment depth by means of exact solutions of a physically based formulation of the vertical heat transport. It is shown that any frequency (?) of in-stream temperature fluctuation scales with the effective thermal diffusivity (?e) and the vertical separation distance between the pairs of temperature (?) data as ? ? ?e/(2?2), which implies a decreasing weight to higher frequencies (shorter periods) with depth. Similarly on the watershed-scale one can link the watershed dispersion to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in selected frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. The frequency-dependent parameters indicate that different environments dominate the response at different temporal scales.

  8. Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean P.; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic consequences of that exchange. This article provides a review of relevant literature data along with new data from several pilot studies to investigate such issues. Published experimental estimates of exchange rates between organic hydrogen and water indicate that at warm temperatures (50-100C) exchange likely occurs on timescales of 10 4 to 10 8 yr. Incubation experiments using organic compounds and D-enriched water, combined with compound-specific D/H analyses, provide a new and highly sensitive method for measuring exchange at low temperatures. Comparison of ?D values for isoprenoid and n-alkyl carbon skeletons in sedimentary organic matter provides no evidence for exchange in young (<1 Ma), cool sediments, but strong evidence for exchange in ancient (>350 Ma) rocks. Specific rates of exchange are probably influenced by the nature and abundance of organic matter, pore-water chemistry, the presence of catalytic mineral surfaces, and perhaps even enzymatic activity. Estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors between organic H and water indicate that typical lipids will be depleted in D relative to water by 75 to 140 at equilibrium (30C). Thus large differences in ?D between organic molecules and water cannot be unambiguously interpreted as evidence against hydrogen exchange. A better approach may be to use changes in stereochemistry as a proxy for hydrogen exchange. For example, estimated rates of H exchange in pristane are similar to predicted rates for stereochemical inversion in steranes and hopanes. The isotopic consequences of this exchange remain in question. Incubations of cholestene with D 2O indicate that the number of D atoms incorporated during structural rearrangements can be far less than the number of C-H bonds that are broken. Sample calculations indicate that, for steranes in immature sediments, the D/H ratio imparted by biosynthesis may be largely preserved in spite of significant structural changes.

  9. Was Einstein Really a Pacifist? Einstein's Independent, Forward-Thinking, Flexible, and Self-Defined Pacifism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Virginia Iris

    2005-03-01

    Perhaps motivated by an admiration for Einstein and a desire to identify with him, combined with a majority world-view in opposition to pacifism, skeptics may often question whether Einstein was really a pacifist. They might point to the fact that his dramatic contributions to the field of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century made nuclear weapons possible, as well as his 1939 letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging him to develop such weapons before the Nazis would, as examples of at least an inconsistent stance on pacifism across time on Einstein's part. However, as this paper will show, Einstein's pacifism began early in his life, was a deep-seated conviction that he expressed repeatedly across the years, and was an independent pacifism that flowed from his own responses to events around him and contained some original and impressively forward-thinking elements. Moreover, in calling himself a pacifist, as Einstein did, he defined pacifism in his own terms, not according to the standards of others, and this self-defined pacifism included the flexibility to designate the Nazis as a special case that had to be opposed through the use of military violence, in his view. As early as during his childhood, Einstein already disliked competitive games, because of the necessity of winners and losers, and disliked military discipline. In his late thirties, living in Germany during the First World War with a prestigious academic position in Berlin, yet retaining his identity as a Swiss citizen, Einstein joined a small group of four intellectuals who signed the pacifist ``Appeal to the Europeans'' in response to the militarist ``Manifesto to the Civilized World'' signed by 93 German intellectuals. In private, throughout that War, Einstein repeatedly expressed his disgust and sense of alienation at the ``war-enthusiasm'' sentiment of the majority. In the aftermath of the War, Einstein was involved in a German private commission to investigate German war crimes and the publication that it produced, and throughout the Weimar period of 1918 to 1933 Einstein continued to take public and private stances as a pacifist. As did many pacifists, Einstein also linked his advocacy for peace with a concern for social justice, which included opposition to antisemitism and advocacy for Zionism, and in 1929, after violent clashes between Jews and Arabs in Palestine, in which hundreds died on both sides, Einstein made some impressively forward-thinking statements about Jewish-Arab conciliation, and even published in an Arab newspaper his own proposal to set up a joint Jewish-Arab council for purposes of conflict resolution. But Einstein's pacifism was not forever obliterated by the Nazi era and the Holocaust, despite his well-known encouragement to Roosevelt to develop the bomb. In the United States, where he lived from 1933 on, in the first ten years after World War II, also the last decade of his life, Einstein inspired American pacifists with his strong stances against war and nuclear weapons.

  10. Optical emission spectroscopy at different timescales: nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffard, John B.

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of plasma optical emissions can provide a simple, non-invasive way of measuring key plasma parameters such as the electron temperature and electron density. Due to the short radiative lifetimes of excited states, the plasma emissions can be used to track the near-instantaneous state of time-varying plasmas. Using a small set of argon emission lines along with a low-resolution spectrometer we have monitored the effective electron temperature, electron density, and number densities of long-lived excited Ar(3p5 4 s) atoms in near real-time (update rate 10 Hz, T=100 ms) for an inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) under a wide variety of plasma conditions. When this same set of Ar emission lines are measured with a faster time-response by using a monochromator/PMT, the plasma conditions on a microsecond timescale can be monitored in pulsed plasmas. Time-resolved measurements of neon emission lines at an even higher time resolution (~ 5 ns) have been used as a probe for the presence of high energy electrons which occur during only select portions of the 13.56 MHz rf cycle in Ne/Ar ICP discharges. This work was supported by NSF Grants CBET 0714600 and PHY-1068670.

  11. Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363

  12. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  13. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  14. Time-scale modification of complex acoustic signals in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quatieri, Thomas F.; Dunn, Robert B.; McAulay, Robert J.; Hanna, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    A new approach is introduced for time-scale modification of short-duration complex acoustic signals to improve their audibility. The method preserves an approximate time-scaled temporal envelope of a signal, thus capitalizing on the perceptual importance of the signal's temporal structure, while also maintaining the character of a noise background. The basis for the approach is a subband signal representation, derived from a filter bank analysis/synthesis, the channel phases of which are controlled to shape the temporal envelope of the time-scaled signal. Channel amplitudes and filter bank inputs are selected to shape the spectrum and correlation of the time-scaled background. The phase, amplitude, and input control are derived from locations of events that occur within filter bank outputs. A frame-based generalization of the method imposes phase consistency and background noise continuity across consecutive synthesis frames. The approach and its derivatives are applied to synthetic and actual complex acoustic signals consisting of closely spaced sequential time components.

  15. On stress relaxation timescales for dense binary particulate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shaolin

    2015-06-01

    We study contact stress relaxation timescales, especially the temporal correlation involved in dense binary particulate systems, which offers insight into the intriguing relationship between the contact stresses and the contact time of particle interactions under non-equilibrium state. The contact time (also referred to as contact age) of a pair of particles is defined by the duration between current time and the instant when the contact was formed. The interspecies inter-particles contact stresses are derived from Liouville's theorem. We apply particle dynamics methods (e.g. molecular dynamics, discrete element method) to simulate 3D dense binary particulate systems with periodic boundary conditions. External perturbation is exerted on the system to balance the dissipation of energy due to the viscoelastic collisions. The contact stresses, Reynolds stresses, and the probability density function of the contact time of particles are predicted at different volume fraction of particles. The obtained stress-strain rate data are used to examine the constitutive relation of macroscopic materials. The study targets the impact of the short-term and the long-term contact/collision on the contact stress relaxation. The simulation results reveal distinct effects of the short-term and the long-term contact/collision on the contact stresses, which have been treated by only an averaged expression of particle interactions in discrete element methods before.

  16. Titan's evaporites structure and their formation time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Barnes, J.; Le Bahers, T.; Cornet, T.; Ferreira, A.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrocarbons lakes have been discovered in polar regions of Titan (Stofan et al. 2007) [1]. Already, Stofan et al. (2007) noticed features suggesting the occurence of an evaporation process in the recent past. Barnes et al. (2009) [2] performed a detailed study of shoreline features of Ontario Lacus, they interpreted the 5-?m brigth annulus around this lakes as a dry, low-water ice content zone, possibly corresponding to a deposit of organic condensates. Barnes et al. (2011) [3] used a sample of several lakes and lakebeds located in a region south of the Ligeia Mare. They got a strong correlation between RADAR-empty lakes and 5-?m brigth units interpreted as low-water ice content areas. On the theoretical side, Cordier et al. (2013) [4] elaborated a model for the chemical composition of the external layer of these possible organic evaporite deposits. This model was based on a simplified theory of dissolution (ideal solution and regular solution theory) and all computations were performed using a time-scale which did not enable any estimation for the depth of deposits layers.

  17. Simulating conservative tracers in fractured till under realistic timescales.

    PubMed

    Helmke, M F; Simpkins, W W; Horton, R

    2005-01-01

    Discrete-fracture and dual-porosity models are infrequently used to simulate solute transport through fractured unconsolidated deposits, despite their more common application in fractured rock where distinct flow regimes are hypothesized. In this study, we apply four fracture transport models--the mobile-immobile model (MIM), parallel-plate discrete-fracture model (PDFM), and stochastic and deterministic discrete-fracture models (DFMs)--to demonstrate their utility for simulating solute transport through fractured till. Model results were compared to breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the conservative tracers potassium bromide (KBr), pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), and 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) in a large-diameter column of fractured till. Input parameters were determined from independent field and laboratory methods. Predictions of Br BTCs were not significantly different among models; however, the stochastic and deterministic DFMs were more accurate than the MIM or PDFM when predicting PFBA and PIPES BTCs. DFMs may be more applicable than the MIM for tracers with small effective diffusion coefficients (De) or for short timescales due to differences in how these models simulate diffusion or incorporate heterogeneities by their fracture networks. At large scales of investigation, the more computationally efficient MIM and PDFM may be more practical to implement than the three-dimensional DFMs, or a combination of model approaches could be employed. Regardless of the modeling approach used, fractures should be incorporated routinely into solute transport models in glaciated terrain. PMID:16324009

  18. Expectations developed over multiple timescales facilitate visual search performance

    PubMed Central

    Gekas, Nikos; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of the world is strongly influenced by our expectations, and a question of key importance is how the visual system develops and updates its expectations through interaction with the environment. We used a visual search task to investigate how expectations of different timescales (from the last few trials to hours to long-term statistics of natural scenes) interact to alter perception. We presented human observers with low-contrast white dots at 12 possible locations equally spaced on a circle, and we asked them to simultaneously identify the presence and location of the dots while manipulating their expectations by presenting stimuli at some locations more frequently than others. Our findings suggest that there are strong acuity differences between absolute target locations (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical) and preexisting long-term biases influencing observers' detection and localization performance, respectively. On top of these, subjects quickly learned about the stimulus distribution, which improved their detection performance but caused increased false alarms at the most frequently presented stimulus locations. Recent exposure to a stimulus resulted in significantly improved detection performance and significantly more false alarms but only at locations at which it was more probable that a stimulus would be presented. Our results can be modeled and understood within a Bayesian framework in terms of a near-optimal integration of sensory evidence with rapidly learned statistical priors, which are skewed toward the very recent history of trials and may help understanding the time scale of developing expectations at the neural level. PMID:26200891

  19. Relaxation in polymer electrolytes on the nanosecond timescale.

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, G.; Fernandez-Perea, R.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Howells, W. S.; Materials Science Division; Rutherford-Appleton Lab.

    2000-05-11

    The relation between mechanical and electrical relaxation in polymer/lithium-salt complexes is a fascinating and still unresolved problem in condensed-matter physics, yet has an important bearing on the viability of such materials for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. At room temperature, these materials are biphasic: they consist of both fluid amorphous regions and salt-enriched crystalline regions. Ionic conduction is known to occur predominantly in the amorphous fluid regions. Although the conduction mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is widely accepted that lithium ions, coordinated with groups of ether oxygen atoms on single or perhaps double polymer chains, move through re-coordination with other oxygen-bearing groups. The formation and disruption of these coordination bonds must be accompanied by strong relaxation of the local chain structure. Here we probe the relaxation on a nanosecond timescale using quasielastic neutron scattering, and we show that at least two processes are involved: a slow process with a translational character and one or two fast processes with a rotational character. Whereas the former reflects the slowing-down of the translational relaxation commonly observed in polyethylene oxide and other polymer melts, the latter appears to be unique to the polymer electrolytes and has not (to our knowledge) been observed before. A clear picture emerges of the lithium cations forming crosslinks between chain segments and thereby profoundly altering the dynamics of the polymer network.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases.

    PubMed

    Anglin, James R; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2002-03-14

    The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three long-standing goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional ground state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg's uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum state, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of a gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum-degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. Condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. PMID:11894104

  1. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-10-27

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics. PMID:16251946

  2. How Einstein Discovered E0=mc2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2012-02-01

    This paper traces Einstein's discovery of "the equivalence of mass [m] and energy [E0]." He came to that splendid insight in 1905 while employed by the Bern Patent Office, at which time he was not an especially ardent reader of physics journals. How then did the young savant, working outside of academia in semi-isolation, realize that these two seemingly disparate concepts were actually "identical"? Until now little attention has been given to exploring the physics that guided his thinking in this remarkable endeavor. That work culminated (1907) in the equation E0=mc2, where E0 is "rest energy" and m is "invariant mass." Despite claims to the contrary, Einstein did not write this equation, or its ambiguous variant, E =mc2, in 1905. Furthermore, we will propose a compelling reason for his otherwise inexplicable caution. This paper is meant to help clarify the contemporary literature in the service of an informed pedagogy.

  3. How Einstein confirmed E0=mc2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-06-01

    The equivalence of mass m and rest-energy E0 is one of the great discoveries of all time. Despite the current wisdom, Einstein did not derive this relation from first principles. Having conceived the idea in the summer of 1905 he spent more than 40 years trying to prove it. We briefly examine all of Einstein's conceptual demonstrations of E0=mc2, focusing on their limitations and his awareness of their shortcomings. Although he repeatedly confirmed the efficacy of E0=mc2, he never constructed a general proof. Leaving aside that it continues to be affirmed experimentally, a rigorous proof of the mass-energy equivalence is probably beyond the purview of the special theory.

  4. Taming the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation.

    PubMed

    Harte, Abraham I

    2014-12-31

    Many of the technical complications associated with the general theory of relativity ultimately stem from the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation. It is shown here that an appropriate choice of dynamical variables may be used to eliminate all such nonlinearities beyond a particular order: Both Landau-Lifshitz and tetrad formulations of Einstein's equation are obtained that involve only finite products of the unknowns and their derivatives. Considerable additional simplifications arise in physically interesting cases where metrics become approximately Kerr or, e.g., plane waves, suggesting that the variables described here can be used to efficiently reformulate perturbation theory in a variety of contexts. In all cases, these variables are shown to have simple geometrical interpretations that directly relate the local causal structure associated with the metric of interest to the causal structure associated with a prescribed background. A new method to search for exact solutions is outlined as well. PMID:25615299

  5. Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs.

  6. New Pulsars from Einstein@Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Evan; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; Eatough, Ralph; Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Einstein@Home (E@H) is a distributed computing project, using idle computational cycles donated by volunteers from the general public, to carry out computationally-intensive searches for unknown spinning neutron stars. Between December 2010 and July 2011, Einstein@Home has re-analysed the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey (PMPS) searching for radio pulsars in tight binary orbits. This analysis led to the discovery 24 new radio pulsars. We are current, since May 2013, searching the Perseus Arm Pulsar Survey, a sister survey of the PMPS which has so far been searched much less thoroughly than the PMPS. We request observations to follow up our latest candidates and to further investigate our new discoveries.

  7. New Pulsars from Einstein@Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Evan; Kramer, Michael; Sarkissian, John; Burgay, Marta; Eatough, Ralph; Champion, David; Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, Bruce; Berezina, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Einstein@Home (E@H) is a distributed computing project, using idle computational cycles donated by volunteers from the general public, to carry out computationally-intensive searches for unknown spinning neutron stars. Between December 2010 and July 2011, Einstein@Home has re-analysed the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey (PMPS) searching for radio pulsars in tight binary orbits. This analysis led to the discovery 24 new radio pulsars. We are current, since May 2013, searching the Perseus Arm Pulsar Survey, a sister survey of the PMPS which has so far been searched much less thoroughly than the PMPS. We request observations to follow up our latest candidates and to further investigate our new discoveries.

  8. Albert Einstein - Chief Engineer of the Universe: 100 Authors for Einstein Essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    In 1905, Albert Einstein published five scientific articles that fundamentally changed the world-view of physics: The Special Theory of Reativity revolutionized our concept of space and time, E=mc² became the best-known equation in physics. On the occasion of the 100th aniversary of his "annus mirabilis" 1905, the UNESCO declared the year 2005 the "World Year of Physics", in order to draw attention to the impact of physics. The Max Planck Institute for the history of science dedicates an exhibition in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin to the probably most important scientist of the 20th century. In this book, 100 authors explain the historical background of Einstein's life and work, shed light on many different aspects of his biography, and on the scientific fields and topics that are connected to Einstein's work. The authors are some of the most renowned Einstein researchers in the world, such as Jürgen Ehlers, Peter Galison, Zeev Rosenkranz, John Stachel and Robert Schulmann. The essays form a bridge between scientific and cultural history, opening up a perspective on Einstein's biography which goes beyond the traditional picture of the exceptional science genius.

  9. Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.

  10. The degree of mobility of Einstein metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Vladimir S.; Rosemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Two (pseudo-)Riemannian metrics are called projectively equivalent if their unparametrized geodesics coincide. The degree of mobility of a metric is the dimension of the space of metrics that are projectively equivalent to it. We give a complete list of possible values for the degree of mobility of Riemannian and Lorentzian Einstein metrics on simply connected manifolds, and describe all possible dimensions of the space of essential projective vector fields.

  11. Bose-Einstein correlations from ``within''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyuzh, O. V.; Wilk, G.; W?odarczyk, Z.

    2006-04-01

    We describe an attempt to model numerically Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from "within", i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of some Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) "afterburner", which inevitably changes original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.

  12. Bose-Einstein correlations from 'within'

    SciTech Connect

    Utyuzh, O. V.; Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2006-04-11

    We describe an attempt to model numerically Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from 'within', i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of some Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) 'afterburner', which inevitably changes original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.

  13. Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2008-03-01

    We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.

  14. Stellar coronae from Einstein - Observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein Observatory observations of stellar X-ray emission are presented and their implications for the formation of stellar coronae and the problem of stellar angular momentum loss are discussed. Solar coronal X-ray observations and observations of stellar coronae made prior to Einstein are reviewed, and it is noted that they already suggest that the standard theory of acoustic coronal heating is inadequate. The principal results of the Einstein/CfA stellar survey are summarized, with attention given to variations of the level of X-ray flux detected along the main sequence, the decline of X-ray flux with increasing age of giants and supergiants, and indications of a large range of X-ray emission levels within a given type, which are clearly incompatible with models for acoustic flux generation. A new theory to explain stellar coronae and hence X-ray emission from them is then proposed in which stellar magnetic fields play the key role in determining the level of coronal emission, and the modulation of the surface magnetic flux level and the level of stressing of surface magnetic fields essentially determine the variation of mean coronal activity in the H-R diagram.

  15. My Half-Hour with Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Robert H.

    2005-04-01

    Midway during my first year as a Princeton graduate student (1952-53), I was given a letter of introduction to Einstein. Over a year later I finally worked up my courage to use it and -- as a result -- enjoyed a one-on-one conversation with him in the study of his home on Mercer Street. I will describe how my chance to meet Einstein arose and what I can remember of our memorable (to me if not to him) conversation. Among other things, we discussed the bomb, the new state of Israel, fossil horse brains, and evolution. (``Has there really been enough time for all those changes?'') We talked about the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky problem - though not by that name, and I believe that it was the ``Bohm version'' that he asked me about. (``Do you really believe that if someone here measured the spin of an atom, it could affect the simultaneous measurement of the spin of another atom way over there?'') My major recollection is of my wish that I had been better prepared. As Ehrenfest once wrote: ``Nothing is shabbier than the feeling: now God has granted me the opportunity to meet this man, and I sat before him open-mouthed; how much I might have asked him -- but nothing at all occurred to me.''

  16. On static Poincar-Einstein metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Gregory J.; Woolgar, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The classification of solutions of the static vacuum Einstein equations, on a given closed manifold or an asymptotically flat one, is a long-standing and much-studied problem. Solutions are characterized by a complete Riemannian n-manifold ( M, g) and a positive function N, called the lapse. We study this problem on Asymptotically Poincar-Einstein n-manifolds, n ? 3, when the conformal boundary-at-infinity is either a round sphere, a flat torus or smooth quotient thereof, or a compact hyperbolic manifold. Such manifolds have well-defined Wang mass, and are time-symmetric slices of static, vacuum, asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. By integrating a mildly generalized form of an identity used by Lindblom, Shen, Wang, and others, we give a mass formula for such manifolds. There are no solutions with positive mass. In consequence, we observe that either the lapse is trivial and ( M, g) is Poincar-Einstein or the Wang mass is negative, as in the case of time symmetric slices of the AdS soliton. As an application, we use the mass formula to compute the renormalized volume of the warped product ( X, ?) ? ( M 3 , g) N 2 ( S 1 , dt 2).

  17. Multiple timescales of body schema reorganization due to plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Scuderi, Nicol; Saggini, Raoul; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Plastic surgery modifies the distribution of mass centers of a person's body segments, changing his or her posture. The functional reorganization processes that lead subjects to re-integrate these body changes into a new stable body (posture) schema is poorly understood but current theories suggest the possible contribution of two components: a feedback mechanism that strongly depends on sensory input and an internal model that is relatively less dependent on sensory input and improves posture control, for example by compensating for delayed feedback. To assess the relative contributions of these two mechanisms during the functional reorganization of a posture scheme, we have conducted a longitudinal postural study in a population of healthy adults who were subject to breast plastic surgery to reduce or augment body weight. We measured participants' orthostatic posture and ground reaction force immediately after, after 4 months, and 1 year after the surgery. To investigate the role of visual sensory information in the reorganization process we tested the participants with eyes open and closed. Our results indicate that participants find a new dynamical equilibrium within a few days. However, posture maintenance remains sub-optimal long after the center of masses and the resultant of ground reaction force stop changing; in some cases, for more than 4 months. Furthermore, the re-adaptation process is faster and more efficient in the eyes-open than in the eyes-closed condition. These results suggest that the reorganization involves different subsystems (responsible for the biomechanical changes, the re-calibration of feedback mechanisms, and the re-adaptation of internal models), which act at different timescales. PMID:25964999

  18. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lewis M.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-08-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesisautotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlightby Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  19. The Lifecycles of Drought: Informing Responses Across Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Schubert, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a slow-onset hazard that is a normal part of climate. Drought onset and demise are difficult to determine. Impacts are mostly nonstructural, spread over large geographical areas, and can persist long after precipitation deficits end. These factors hinder development of accurate, timely estimates of drought severity and resultant responses. Drivers of drought range from SST anomalies and global scale atmospheric response, through regional forcing and local land-surface feedbacks. Key climatological questions related to drought risk assessment, perception and management include, "Does a drought end by a return to normal precipitation; how much moisture is required and over what period; can the end of a drought be defined by the diminishing impacts e.g. soil moisture, reservoir volumes; will precipitation patterns on which management systems rely, change in the future?" Effective early warning systems inform strategic responses that anticipate crises and crisis evolution across climate timescales. While such "early information" is critical for defining event onset, it is even more critical for identifying the potential for increases in severity. Many social and economic systems have buffers in place to respond to onset (storage, transfers and purchase of grain) but lack response capabilities as drought intensifies, as buffers are depleted. Throughout the drought lifecycle (and between events), monitoring, research and risk assessments are required to: Map decision-making processes and resource capabilities including degradation of water and ecosystems Place multiple climate and land surface indicators within a consistent triggering framework (e.g. climate and vegetation mapping) before critical thresholds are reached Identify policies and practices that impede or enable the flow of information, through policy gaming and other exercises The presentation will outline the capabilities and framework needed to ensure improved scientific inputs to preparedness and adaptation. Lessons will be drawn from recent and ongoing events in California, the Midwest, and globally.

  20. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it. PMID:26286084

  1. Science at the Time-scale of the Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    Replace this text with your abstract Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources, with attosecond pulse durations, at very short wavelengths even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths < 1nm, have brightened considerably. These advances are possible by taking nonlinear optics techniques to an extreme, and are the direct result of a new ability to manipulate electrons on the fastest, attosecond, time-scales of our natural world. My talk will discuss new experimental data that demonstrates high harmonic generation of laser-like, fully coherent, 10 attosecond duration, soft x-ray beams at photon energies around 0.5keV. Several applications will also be discussed, including making a movie of how electron orbitals in a molecule change shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. [4pt] [1] T. Popmintchev et al., ``Phase matched upconversion of coherent ultrafast laser light into the soft and hard x-ray regions of the spectrum'', PNAS 106, 10516 (2009). [0pt] [2] C. LaOVorakiat et al., ``Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Magneto-Optics at the M-edge Using a Tabletop High-Harmonic Source'', Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009). [0pt] [3] M. Siemens et al. ``Measurement of quasi-ballistic heat transport across nanoscale interfaces using ultrafast coherent soft x-ray beams'', Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010). [0pt] [4] K. Raines et al., ``Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,'' Nature 463, 214 (2010). [0pt] [5] W. Li et al., ``Time-resolved Probing of Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules using High Harmonic Generation'', Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  2. On the pathways and timescales of intercontinental air pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; Forster, Caroline; James, Paul; Spichtinger, Nicole

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents results of a 1-year simulation of the transport of six passive tracers, released over the continents according to an emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Lagrangian concepts are introduced to derive age spectra of the tracer concentrations on a global grid in order to determine the timescales and pathways of pollution export from the continents. Calculating these age spectra is equivalent to simulating many (quasi continuous) plumes, each starting at a different time, which are subsequently merged. Movies of the tracer dispersion have been made available on an Internet website. It is found that emissions from Asia experience the fastest vertical transport, whereas European emissions have the strongest tendency to remain in the lower troposphere. European emissions are transported primarily into the Arctic and appear to be the major contributor to the Arctic haze problem. Tracers from an upwind continent first arrive over a receptor continent in the upper troposphere, typically after some 4 days. Only later foreign tracers also arrive in the lower troposphere. Assuming a 2-day lifetime, the domestic tracers dominate total tracer columns over all continents except over Australia where foreign tracers account for 20% of the tracer mass. In contrast, for a 20-day lifetime even continents with high domestic emissions receive more than half of their tracer burden from foreign continents. Three special regions were identified where tracers are transported to, and tracer dilution is slow. Future field studies therefore should be deployed in the following regions: (1) In the winter, the Asia tracer accumulates over Indonesia and the Indian Ocean, a region speculated to be a stratospheric fountain. (2) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the Asia tracer are found in the Middle East. (3) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the North America tracer are found in the Mediterranean.

  3. Time-scale modelling of the invasive species Robinia pseudoacacia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Podobnikar; Andra, .?Arni; Imelda, Somodi

    2010-05-01

    Our contribution is part of the TransEcoNet project (Transnational Ecological Networks in Central Europe) that aims to investigate transboundary ecological networks across Central Europe. An objective of this project is to contribute towards awareness rising on the value and role of ecological networks. This poster presents the activities that are carried out in Pomurje region, Slovenia as our case study area. Pomurje region borders with Austria in the north, to Hungary in the east, and to Croatia in the south. We are investigating the spread of the invasive species Robinia pseudacacia and the underlying causes, and assess landscape scale ecological dynamics (e.g. Mura River floodplains) in ecological networks. The study comprises investigation and mapping of the R. pseudacacia spread with time-series analysis to understand its spatial dynamics. The preliminary studies show that the R. pseudacacia had the most expanded in the region since 1980s. Some of the surfaces were cut and converted back to fields. This reflects the socioeconomic situation in the region. The further study will include statistic, GIS (geographical information systems) and remote sensing techniques. We will apply various character data: satellite imagery, IR-orthophotos, digital elevation models, including LIDAR, contemporary and historical maps, and other spatial/non-spatial data sources. The outputs will include reconstruction of R. pseudacacia-dynamics in the recent decade, modelling the distribution of R. pseudacacia in relation to abiotic environmental factors and land use, and modelling (prediction) the expected distribution of R. pseudacacia in case of climate and land use change. Keywords: invasive species, Robinia pseudacacia, spatial analysis, time-scale analysis, remote sensing, land use change, climate change

  4. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lewis M.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis—autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight—by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  5. Stellar mass-loss near the Eddington limit. Tracing the sub-photospheric layers of classical Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Towards the end of their evolution, hot massive stars develop strong stellar winds and appear as emission line stars, such as Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or luminous blue variables (LBVs). The quantitative description of the mass loss in these important pre-supernova phases is hampered by unknowns, such as clumping and porosity due to an inhomogeneous wind structure and by an incomplete theoretical understanding of optically thick stellar winds. Even the stellar radii in these phases are badly understood since they are often variable (LBVs) or deviate from theoretical expectations (WR stars). Aims: In this work we investigate the conditions in deep atmospheric layers of WR stars to find out whether they comply with the theory of optically thick winds and whether we find indications of clumping in these layers. Methods: We used a new semi-empirical method to determine sonic-point optical depths, densities, and temperatures for a large sample of WR stars of the carbon (WC) and oxygen (WO) sequence. Based on an artificial model sequence we investigated the reliability of our method and its sensitivity to uncertainties in stellar parameters. Results: We find that the WR stars in our sample obey an approximate relation with Prad/Pgas ≈ 80 at the sonic point. This "wind condition" is ubiquitous for radiatively driven, optically thick winds, and it sets constraints on possible wind/envelope solutions affecting radii, mass-loss rates, and clumping properties. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the presence of an optically thick wind may force many stars near the Eddington limit to develop clumped, radially extended sub-surface zones. The clumping in these zones is most likely sustained by the non-linear strange-mode instability and may be the origin of the observed wind clumping. The properties of typical late-type WC stars comply with this model. Solutions without sub-surface clumping and inflation are also possible but require compact stars with comparatively low mass-loss rates. These objects may resemble the small group of WO stars with their exceptionally hot stellar temperatures and highly ionized winds. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. RAS Awards and Prizes: RAS Awards 2009; Gold Medal: Prof. David Williams; Gold Medal: Prof. Eric Priest; Price Medal: Prof. Malcolm Sambridge; Eddington Medal: Prof. James Pringle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Each year the RAS recognizes outstanding achievement in astronomy and geophysics by the award of medals and prizes. Candidates are nominated by Fellows and the awards made by a committee of Fellows, ensuring that these scientists have earned the respect and admiration of their peers in the research community. The Gold Medal for Astronomy is awarded to Prof. David Williams of University College London. The Gold Medal for Geophysics is awarded to Prof. Eric Priest of the University of St Andrews. The Price Medal is awarded to Prof. Malcolm Sambridge of the Australian National University. The Eddington Medal is given to Prof. James Pringle of the University of Cambridge.

  7. A MODEL FOR THE CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY INDEX WITH EDDINGTON RATIO IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2013-02-10

    Observations show that there is a positive correlation between the Eddington ratio {lambda} and hard X-ray index {Gamma} for {lambda} {approx}> 0.01, and there is an anti-correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma} for {lambda} {approx}< 0.01 in black hole X-ray binaries (with {lambda} = L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}). In this work, we theoretically investigate the correlation between {Gamma} and {lambda} within the framework of a disk-corona model. We improve the model by taking into account all cooling processes, including synchrotron and self-Compton radiations in the corona, Comptonization of the soft photons from the underlying accretion disk, and the bremsstrahlung radiations. Presuming that the coronal flow above the disk can reach up to the 0.1 Eddington rate at the outer region, we calculate the structure of the two-phase accretion flows and the emergent spectra for accretion rates from 0.003 to 0.1. We find that at accretion rates larger than bsim0.01 Eddington rate, a fraction of coronal gas condenses into the disk and an inner disk can be sustained by condensation. In this case, the X-ray emission is dominated by the scattering of the soft photon from the underlying disk in the corona. The emission from the inner disk and corona can produce the positive correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma}. While at accretion rates lower than bsim0.01 Eddington accretion rate, the inner disk vanishes completely by evaporation, and the accretion is dominated by advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which the X-ray emission is produced by the Comptonization of the synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons of ADAF itself. The emission from ADAFs can produce the anti-correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma}. We show that our model can roughly explain the observed evolution of {Gamma}{sub 3-25keV} with L {sub 0.5-25keV}/L {sub Edd} for the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 in the decay of 2003 from the thermal-dominated state to low/hard state.

  8. Einstein's Materialism and Modern Tests of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, J. P.

    After a presentation of Einstein's and Bohr's antagonistic point of view on the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics an illustration of their conflicting positions in the particular case of Young's double slit experiment is presented. It is then shown that in their most recent form (i. e. time dependent neutron interferometry) these experiments suggest (if one accepts absolute energymomentum conservation in all individual microprocesses) that Einstein was right in the Bohr-Einstein controversy.Translated AbstractEinsteins Materialismus und heutige Tests der QuantenmechanikNach einer Darstellung von Einsteins und Bohrs antagonistischen Standpunkten in der Interpretation der Quantenmechanik werden ihre widersprüchlichen Positionen im speziellen Fall des Youngschen Doppelspaltexperiments dargestellt. Es wird dann gezeigt, daß diese Experimente in ihrer neuesten Form (d. h. zeitabhängige Neutroneninterferometrie) Einstein in der Bohr-Einsteinkontroverse recht gaben (wenn man absolute Energie-Impulserhaltung bei allen individuellen Mikroprozessen annimmt).

  9. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Drummond, P.D.; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-10-07

    Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.

  10. Fractional Stokes-Einstein and Debye-Stokes-Einstein Relations in a Network-Forming Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stephen R.; Poole, Peter H.; Starr, Francis W.

    2006-08-01

    We study the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) relations for translational and rotational motion in a prototypical model of a network-forming liquid, the ST2 model of water. We find that the emergence of fractional SE and DSE relations at low temperature is ubiquitous in this system, with exponents that vary little over a range of distinct physical regimes. We also show that the same fractional SE relation is obeyed by both mobile and immobile dynamical heterogeneities of the liquid.

  11. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwhnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die auergewhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Hufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschtzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativittstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berhmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  12. Extended Horava gravity and Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Ted

    2010-05-15

    Einstein-aether theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector. If this vector is restricted in the action to be hypersurface orthogonal, the theory is identical to the IR limit of the extension of Horava gravity proposed by Blas, Pujolas and Sibiryakov. Hypersurface orthogonal solutions of Einstein-aether theory are solutions to the IR limit of this theory, hence numerous results already obtained for Einstein-aether theory carry over.

  13. Einstein-Rosen solutions from Kaluza-Klein theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez, L. A.; Bretn, N.; Ramrez, B. V.

    2013-01-01

    From a time-dependent boost-rotational symmetric vacuum solution of the Einstein Equations in five dimensions, through the Kaluza-Klein reduction the corresponding Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton solutions are obtained. The four dimensional counterpart turns out to be generalized Einstein-Rosen spacetimes representing unpolarized gravitational waves traveling in an inhomogeneous cosmology. Restricting the parameters we are able to obtain different 4D time-dependent solutions equipped with scalar and electromagnetic fields.

  14. Nonlinear and linear timescales near kinetic scales in solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Shay, M. A.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Gary, S. P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-08-01

    The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theorywhich assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic ratesmay be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.

  15. Nonlinear and Linear Timescales near Kinetic Scales in Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Gary, S. P.; Shay, M. A.; Valentini, F.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Chapman, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theorywhich assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic ratesmay be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.

  16. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  17. ASYMPTOTIC SELF-SIMILAR SOLUTIONS WITH A CHARACTERISTIC TIMESCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, Eli; Shvarts, Dov

    2010-10-01

    For a wide variety of initial and boundary conditions, adiabatic one-dimensional flows of an ideal gas approach self-similar behavior when the characteristic length scale over which the flow takes place, R, diverges or tends to zero. It is commonly assumed that self-similarity is approached since in the R {yields} {infinity}(0) limit the flow becomes independent of any characteristic length or timescales. In this case, the flow fields f(r, t) must be of the form f(r,t)=t{sup {alpha}}{sub f}F(r/R) with R {proportional_to} ({+-}t){sup {alpha}}. We show that requiring the asymptotic flow to be independent only of characteristic length scales implies a more general form of self-similar solutions, f(r,t)=R{sup {delta}}{sub f}F(r/R) with R-dot {proportional_to}R{sup {delta}}, which includes the exponential ({delta} = 1) solutions, R {proportional_to} e {sup t/{tau}}. We demonstrate that the latter, less restrictive, requirement is the physically relevant one by showing that the asymptotic behavior of accelerating blast waves, driven by the release of energy at the center of a cold gas sphere of initial density {rho} {proportional_to} r {sup -{omega}}, changes its character at large {omega}: the flow is described by 0 {<=} {delta} < 1, R {proportional_to} t {sup 1/(1-{delta})}, solutions for {omega} < {omega}{sub c}, by {delta}>1 solutions with R {proportional_to} (-t){sup 1/({delta}-1)} diverging at finite time (t = 0) for {omega}>{omega}{sub c}, and by exponential solutions for {omega} = {omega}{sub c} ({omega}{sub c} depends on the adiabatic index of the gas, {omega}{sub c} {approx} 8 for 4/3 < {gamma} < 5/3). The properties of the new solutions obtained here for {omega} {>=} {omega}{sub c} are analyzed, and self-similar solutions describing the t>0 behavior for {omega}>{omega}{sub c} are also derived.

  18. Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Donato, Mary M.; Barnes, Calvin G.; McWilliams, M. O.; Ernst, W. G.

    1995-06-01

    An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on a diskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG (LOGIN to AGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUEST as the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APEND. Type LS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file to get it. Finally, type EXIT to leave the system.) (Paper 94YCJ2454, Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains, B.R. Hacker, M.M. Donato, C.G. Barnes, M.O. McWilliams, and W.G. Ernst). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; $15.00. Payment must accompany order. Classical interpretations of orogeny were based on relatively imprecise biostratigraphic and isotopic age determinations that necessitated grouping apparently related features that may in reality have been greatly diachronous. Isotopic age techniques now have the precision required to resolve the timing of orogenic events on a scale much smaller than that of entire mountain belts. Forty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Klamath Mountains illuminate the deformation, metamorphism, magmatism, and sedimentation involved in the Jurassic construction of that orogen, leading to a new level of understanding regarding how preserved orogenic features relate to ancient plate tectonic processes. The new geochronologic relationships show that many Jurassic units of the Klamath Mountains had 200 Ma or older volcanoplutonic basement. Subsequent formation of a large ˜170 Ma arc was followed by contractional collapse of the arc. Collision with a spreading ridge may have led to large-scale NW-SE extension in the central and northern Klamaths from 167 to ˜155 Ma, coincident with the crystallization of voluminous plutonic and volcanic suites. Marked cooling of a large region of the central Klamath Mountains to below ˜350°C at ˜150 Ma may have occurred as the igneous belt was extinguished by subduction of colder material at deeper structural levels. These data demonstrate that the Klamath Mountains—and perhaps other similar orogens—were constructed during areally and temporally variant episodes of contraction, extension, and magmatism that do not fit classical definitions of orogeny.

  19. Reliable timescale inference of HBV genotype A origin and phylodynamics.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Svicher, Valentina; Gabanelli, Elena; Ebranati, Erika; Veo, Carla; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Bussini, Linda; Salpini, Romina; Alteri, Claudia; Lai, Alessia; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Perno, Carlo Federico; Galli, Massimo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The worldwide distributed Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A is classified into three subgenotypes, and one quasi-subgenotype. The majority of HBV-A subgenotypes are widespread in Africa and in ethnic groups that have relatively recently emigrated from African countries, whereas HBV-A2 is highly prevalent among subjects at high risk for sexual exposure to HBV in north-western Europe and the USA. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of HBV-A subgenotypes on a reliable timescale using short-term calibration based on heterochronous sampling for HBV-A2, and long-term calibration based on historical data for the other subgenotypes. To this aim, we analysed 113 newly characterised HBV-A isolates with 247 reference sequences retrieved from a public database. The phylodynamic reconstruction was performed by a Bayesian framework. The common ancestor of the currently circulating A subgenotypes was placed in west-central Africa a mean 1057 years ago. The genotype diverged into two main clades at the beginning of the 13th century: one including all of the west-central African quasi-subgenotypes and the other corresponding to subgenotype A1, originating in east Africa and further segregating into two main subclades: an "African" and a "cosmopolitan" clade. It is likely that the slave trade was the main source the spread of cosmopolitan HBV-A1, which was exported to Asia in the 17th century as a result of Arab or Portuguese trade, and to Latin America in the 18th centuries through the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The origin of the currently circulating A2 strains dates back to the first decades of the 20th century, and the evolutionary demography analysis suggests an exponential growth of infections, between 1970s and the mid-1990s. In conclusion, the very different epidemiological and evolutionary histories of HBV-A subgenotypes justify the use of different calibration approaches to reconstruct their reciprocal phylodynamics. PMID:25784568

  20. Time-Scales of the Variability of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnston, Anthony G.

    1996-05-01

    In this study the time-scales of variability of several weather elements are explored by season and location across the globe, emphasizing the Northern Hemisphere and especially the USA. The resulting description is useful because regions that exhibit low frequency variability (i.e. longer periods than the 2-5 days synoptic-scale) are assumed to be related more directly to changes in boundary conditions (e.g. anomalies of ENSO-related sea-surface temperature [SST], snow cover, etc.). Therefore, this low frequency variability may be predictable at greater ranges than those for which numerical weather prediction is helpful.New as well as established measures of persistence and frequency dependence are used and intercompared. In particular, the standard deviation of the differences between adjacent period means, when compared over a range of period lengths, reflects both autocorrelation and (if applicable) cycle time. Frequency dependence is thereby summarized with minimal computation.The geographical distribution of the amplitude (amount of variability depends largely on latitude and the upstream geographical environment (i.e. higher latitude and continentality of upstream environment tend to increase variability). At most locations, variability is greatest (lowest) during the cold (warm) seasons of the year. The geographical distribution of the dominant frequencies of variability are examined by season for Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure and 700 hPa geopotential height, and USA surface temperature and precipitation. It is demonstrated that the dominant frequencies tend to vary in parallel across all four fields.In general, weather variables are found to vary at relatively low frequency (long periods) at high latitudes and, to a lesser extent, at subtropical latitudes. At mid-latitude, low frequency variability prevails most over the blocking regions in the eastern and central North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. High frequency variability occurs in the synoptically active jet exit regions over the western oceans and the eastern and central parts of the Northern Hemisphere continents. Data from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project integration of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly National Meteorological Center) medium-range-forecast general circulation model, which reproduce the Northern Hemisphere frequency dependence well at 700 hPa, indicate roughly analogous behaviour in the Southern Hemisphere. However, the longitudinal variation of mid-latitude frequency dependence is substantially less in the Southern Hemisphere, possibly because of the comparative absence of large, topographically significant land masses with favourable separation distance.

  1. The density and temperature dependence of the cooling timescale for fragmentation of self-gravitating disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghei, Kazem

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the influences of cooling timescale on fragmentation of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks. We assume the cooling timescale, expressed in terms of the dynamical timescale ? tcool, has a power-law dependence on temperature and density, ? tcool ? ?-aT-b, where a and b are constants. We use this cooling timescale in a simple prescription for the cooling rate, du/dt = -u/tcool, where u is the internal energy. We perform our simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. The simulations demonstrate that the disk is very sensitive to the cooling timescale, which depends on density and temperature. Under such a cooling timescale, the disk becomes gravitationally unstable and clumps form in the disk. This property even occurs for cooling timescales which are much longer than the critical cooling timescale, ? tcool ? 7. We show that by adding the dependence of a cooling timescale on temperature and density, the number of clumps increases and the clumps can also form at smaller radii. The simulations imply that the sensitivity of a cooling timescale to density is more than to temperature, because even for a small dependence of the cooling timescale on density, clumps can still form in the disk. However, when the cooling timescale has a large dependence on temperature, clumps form in the disk. We also consider the effects of artificial viscosity parameters on fragmentation conditions. This consideration is performed in two cases, where ? tcool is a constant and ? tcool is a function of density and temperature. The simulations consider both cases, and results show the artificial viscosity parameters have rather similar effects. For example, using too small of values for linear and quadratic terms in artificial viscosity can suppress the gravitational instability and consequently the efficiency of the clump formation process decreases. This property is consistent with recent simulations of self-gravitating disks. We perform simulations with and without the Balsara form of artificial viscosity. We find that in the cooling and self-gravitating disks without the Balsara switch, the clumps can form more easily than those with the Balsara switch. Moreover, in both cases where the Balsara switch is present or absent, the simulations show that the cooling timescale strongly depends on density and temperature.

  2. The ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5643 ULX1: a large stellar mass black hole accreting at super-Eddington rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, Fabio; Zampieri, Luca; Sutton, Andrew D.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Gladstone, Jeanette C.

    2016-03-01

    A sub-set of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), with X-ray luminosities well above 1040 erg s-1, typically have energy spectra which can be well described as hard power-laws, and short-term variability in excess of ˜10%. This combination of properties suggests that these ULXs may be some of the best candidates to host intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs), which would be accreting at sub-Eddington rates in the hard state seen in Galactic X-ray binaries. In this work, we present a temporal and spectral analysis of all of the available XMM-Newton data from one such ULX, the previously poorly studied 2XMM J143242.1-440939, located in NGC 5643. We report that its high quality EPIC spectra can be better described by a broad, thermal component, such as an advection dominated disc or an optically thick Comptonising corona. In addition, we find a hint of a marginal change in the short-term variability which does not appear to be clearly related to the source unabsorbed luminosity. We discuss the implications of these results, excluding the possibility that the source may be host an IMBH in a low state, and favouring an interpretation in terms of super-Eddington accretion on to a black hole of stellar origin. The properties of NGC 5643 ULX1 allow us to associate this source to the population of the hard/ultraluminous ULX class.

  3. Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Marc-Oliver

    1997-10-01

    Bose-Einstein Condensation in an ultracold gas of neutral sodium atoms has been observed and studied. This was achieved utilizing a combination of laser cooling techniques, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling. A novel tightly confining dc magnetic trap was developed and demonstrated. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced Bose condensates of 5 106 atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous results. The Bose-Einstein phase transition was studied and characterized by mapping out the condensed fraction as a function of temperature across the transition point. The characteristic mean-field interaction of particles in the condensate was investigated. Collective excitations of a dilute Bose condensate have been observed. These excitations are analogous to phonons in superfluid helium. The frequencies of the lowest modes were studied for a temperature close to 0 K and compared with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The characteristic damping of one of the modes was measured and compared to damping of 'sound waves' in an ultra-cold gas above the Bose-Einstein transition. We have also demonstrated an output coupler for Bose condensed atoms in a magnetic trap. With short rf pulses Bose condensates were put into a superposition of trapped and untrapped hyperfine states. By varying the rf amplitude we could adjust the fraction of outcoupled atoms between 0 and 100%. This source produces pulses of coherent atoms and can be regarded as a pulsed 'atom laser'. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  4. Genuine multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering.

    PubMed

    He, Q Y; Reid, M D

    2013-12-20

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios. PMID:24483733

  5. Einstein's perihelion formula and its generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eliseo, Maurizio M.

    2015-04-01

    Einstein's perihelion advance formula can be given a geometric interpretation in terms of the curvature of the ellipse. The formula can be obtained by splitting the constant term of an auxiliary polar equation for an elliptical orbit into two parts that, when combined, lead to the expression of this relativistic effect. Using this idea, we develop a general method for dealing with orbital precession in the presence of central perturbing forces, and apply the method to the determination of the total (relativistic plus Newtonian) secular perihelion advance of the planet Mercury.

  6. Gekrmmter Raum und verbogene Zeit. Einsteins Vermchtnis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    This book is a German translation, by D. Gerstner and S. Khan, of the American original "Black holes and time warps. Einstein's outrageous legacy" published in 1994 (see 61.003.008). Contents: 1. Die Relativitt von Raum und Zeit. 2. Die Krmmung von Raum und Zeit. 3. Schwarze Lcher werden entdeckt und verworfen. 4. Das Geheimnis der Weien Zwerge. 5. Der Kollaps ist unvermeidlich. 6. Was folgt nach dem Kollaps? 7. Das goldene Zeitalter. 8. Die Suche. 9. Glckliche Zuflle. 10. Kruselungen der Raumzeit. 11. Was ist wirklich? 12. Schwarze Lcher verdampfen. 13. Im Innern Schwarzer Lcher. 14. Wurmlcher und Zeitmaschinen.

  7. Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, C. A.; Bradley, C. C.; Welling, M.; Hulet, R. G.

    1997-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of 7Li has been studied in a magnetically trapped gas. Many-body quantum theory predicts that the occupation number of the condensate is limited to about 1400 atoms because of the effectively attractive interactions between 7Li atoms. Using a versitile phase-contrast imaging technique, we experimentally observe the condensate number to be consistent with this limit. We discuss our measurements, the current theoretical understanding of BEC in a gas with attractive interactions, and future experiments we hope to perform.

  8. Einstein, Bohm, and Leggett-Garg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciagaluppi, Guido

    In a recent paper, I have analysed and criticised Leggett and Garg's argument to the effect that oscopic realism contradicts quantum mechanics, by contrasting their assumptions to the example of Bell's stochastic pilot-wave theories, and have applied Dzhafarov and Kujala's analysis of contextuality in the presence of signalling to the case of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. In this chapter, I discuss more in general the motivations for oscopic realism, taking a cue from Einstein's criticism of the Bohm theory, then go on to summarise my previous results, with a few additional comments on other recent work on Leggett and Garg.

  9. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  10. Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2009-11-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation to the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. In addition, in the Appendix the repulsive or attractive character of the wormhole geometries is briefly discussed.

  11. Extragalactic counterparts to Einstein slew survey sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Remillard, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein slew survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. The importance of bright X-ray surveys is stressed, and the slew survey is compared to the Rosat all sky survey. Statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data are discussed. The 238 slew survey active galactic nuclei, clusters, and BL Lacertae objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies are described.

  12. Metric redefinitions in Einstein-ther theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brendan Z.

    2005-08-01

    Einstein-ther theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field, provides a means for studying Lorentz violation in a generally covariant setting. Demonstrated here is the effect of a redefinition of the metric and ther fields in terms of the original fields and two free parameters. The net effect is a change of the coupling constants appearing in the action. Using such a redefinition, one of the coupling constants can be set to zero, simplifying studies of solutions of the theory.

  13. Signature transition in Einstein-Cartan cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, Babak; Jalalzadeh, Shahram

    2013-10-01

    In the context of Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity, we consider a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model with Weyssenhoff perfect fluid. We focus attention on those classical solutions that admit a degenerate metric in which the scale factor has smooth behavior in the transition from a Euclidean to a Lorentzian domain. It is shown that the spin-spin contact interaction enables one to obtain such a signature changing solutions due to the Riemann-Cartan (U4) structure of space-time.

  14. Signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) and its application for neural coding during reaching and walking

    PubMed Central

    Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2014-01-01

    What are the relevant timescales of neural encoding in the brain? This question is commonly investigated with respect to well-defined stimuli or actions. However, neurons often encode multiple signals, including hidden or internal, which are not experimentally controlled, and thus excluded from such analysis. Here we consider all rate modulations as the signal, and define the rate-modulations signal-to-noise ratio (RM-SNR) as the ratio between the variance of the rate and the variance of the neuronal noise. As the bin-width increases, RM-SNR increases while the update rate decreases. This tradeoff is captured by the ratio of RM-SNR to bin-width, and its variations with the bin-width reveal the timescales of neural activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations elucidate how the interactions between the recovery properties of the unit and the spectral content of the encoded signals shape this ratio and determine the timescales of neural coding. The resulting signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) is applied to investigate timescales of neural activity recorded from the motor cortex of monkeys during: (i) reaching experiments with Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), and (ii) locomotion experiments at different speeds. Interestingly, the timescales during BMI experiments did not change significantly with the control mode or training. During locomotion, the analysis identified units whose timescale varied consistently with the experimentally controlled speed of walking, though the specific timescale reflected also the recovery properties of the unit. Thus, the proposed method, SITA, characterizes the timescales of neural encoding and how they are affected by the motor task, while accounting for all rate modulations. PMID:25191263

  15. Bridging the timescales between thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzbach, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of Earth's landscape is a key to understand its future evolution and to identify the driving forces that shape Earth's surface. Cosmogenic nuclide and thermochronological methods are routinely used to quantify Earth surface processes over 102-104 yr and 106-107 yr, respectively (e.g. Lal 1991; Reiners and Ehlers 2005; von Blanckenburg 2006). A comparison of the rates of surface processes derived from these methods is, however, hampered by the large difference in their timescales. For instance, a constant erosion rate of 0.1 mm/yr yield an apatite (U-Th)/He age of ~24 Ma and a 10Be age of ~6 ka, respectively. Analytical methods that bridge this time gap are on the way, but are not yet fully established (e.g. Herman et al. 2010). A ready to use alternative are river profiles, which record the regional uplift history over 102-107 yr (e.g. Pritchard et al. 2009). Changes in uplift are retained in knickzones that propagate with a distinct velocity upstream, and therefore the time of an uplift event can be estimated. Here I present an integrative inverse modelling approach to simultaneously reconstruct river profiles, model thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data and to derive robust information about landscape evolution over thousands to millions of years. An efficient inversion routine is used to solve the forward problem and find the best uplift history and erosional parameters that reproduce the observed data. I test the performance of the algorithm by inverting a synthetic dataset and a dataset from the Sila massif (Italy). Results show that even complicated uplift histories can be reliably retrieved by the combined interpretation of river profiles, thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data. References Gallagher, K., Brown, R. & Johnson, C. (1998): Fission track analysis and its applications to geological problems. - Annu. Rev. Earth Planet., 26: 519-572. Herman, F., Rhodes, E.J., Braun, J. & Heiniger, L. (2010): Uniform erosion rates and relief amplitude during glacial cycles in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, as revealed from OSL-thermochronology. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 297: 183-189. Lal, D. (1991): Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: in situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104: 424-439. Pritchard, D., Roberts, G.G., White, N.J. & Richardson, C.N. (2009): Uplift histories from river profiles. - Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24301, doi:10.1029/2009GL040928. Reiners, P.W. & Ehlers, T.A. (2005): Low-temperature Thermochronology: Techniques, Interpretations, and Applications. - Rev. Mineral. Geochem., 58. Von Blanckenburg, F. (2006): The control mechanisms of erosion and weathering at basin scale from cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 242: 462-479.

  16. Time-Scales for Non-Inductive Current Buildup in Low-Aspect-Ratio Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin

    1999-11-01

    The fundamental differences between inductive and non-inductive current buildup are clarified and the associated time-scales and other implications are discussed. A simulation is presented whereby the plasma current in a low-aspect-ratio torus is increased primarily by the self-generated bootstrap current with only 10% coming from external current drive. The maximum obtainable plasma current by this process is shown to scale with the toroidal field strength. The basic physics setting the time-scales can be obtained from a 1D analysis. Comparisons are made between the timescales found here and those reported in the experimental literature.

  17. The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Stanley

    1969-01-01

    Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein

  18. [Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light. PMID:17338401

  19. A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It

  20. From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…

  1. First Armenian translation of the works of Albert Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardaryan, R. A.

    The author is relating about first translations into Armenian language of the works by Albert Einstein, which are due to Mkhitarist Society in Venice and one of his lieders Akop-Grigor Djirdaryan. They appeared in the journal Bezmavets (Bezmavetz). In 1964 Djirdiryan transmitted to the Armenian Academy of Sciences two letters from Albert Einstein, which were published in the same journal.

  2. Quantum Mechanics of the Einstein-Hopf Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milonni, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Einstein-Hopf model for the thermodynamic equilibrium between the electromagnetic field and dipole oscillators is considered within the framework of quantum mechanics. Both the wave and particle aspects of the Einstein fluctuation formula are interpreted in terms of the fundamental absorption and emission processes. (Author/SK)

  3. A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It…

  4. Solving Einstein's equations with dual coordinate frames

    SciTech Connect

    Scheel, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Lindblom, Lee; Rinne, Oliver; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2006-11-15

    A method is introduced for solving Einstein's equations using two distinct coordinate systems. The coordinate basis vectors associated with one system are used to project out components of the metric and other fields, in analogy with the way fields are projected onto an orthonormal tetrad basis. These field components are then determined as functions of a second independent coordinate system. The transformation to the second coordinate system can be thought of as a mapping from the original inertial coordinate system to the computational domain. This dual-coordinate method is used to perform stable numerical evolutions of a black-hole spacetime using the generalized harmonic form of Einstein's equations in coordinates that rotate with respect to the inertial frame at infinity; such evolutions are found to be generically unstable using a single rotating-coordinate frame. The dual-coordinate method is also used here to evolve binary black-hole spacetimes for several orbits. The great flexibility of this method allows comoving coordinates to be adjusted with a feedback control system that keeps the excision boundaries of the holes within their respective apparent horizons.

  5. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  6. Disembodied boundary data for Einstein's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2009-12-15

    A strongly well-posed initial boundary value problem based upon constraint-preserving boundary conditions of the Sommerfeld type has been established for the harmonic formulation of the vacuum Einstein's equations. These Sommerfeld conditions have been previously presented in a four-dimensional geometric form. Here we recast the associated boundary data as three-dimensional tensor fields intrinsic to the boundary. This provides a geometric presentation of the boundary data analogous to the three-dimensional presentation of Cauchy data in terms of three-metric and extrinsic curvature. In particular, diffeomorphisms of the boundary data lead to vacuum spacetimes with isometric geometries. The proof of well-posedness is valid for the harmonic formulation and its generalizations. The Sommerfeld conditions can be directly applied to existing harmonic codes which have been used in simulating binary black holes, thus ensuring boundary stability of the underlying analytic system. The geometric form of the boundary conditions also allows them to be formally applied to any metric formulation of Einstein's equations, although well-posedness of the boundary problem is no longer ensured. We discuss to what extent such a formal application might be implemented in a constraint-preserving manner to 3+1 formulations, such as the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura system which has been highly successful in binary black hole simulation.

  7. Design analysis of the Einstein refrigeration cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, S.V.; Delano, A.; Schaefer, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    After developing the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein spent several years working with Leo Szilard on absorption refrigeration cycles. In 1930, they obtained a US patent for a unique single pressure absorption cycle. The single pressure eliminates the need for a solution pump. Their cycle has only recently been rediscovered. The cycle utilizes butane as its refrigerant, ammonia as a pressure equalizing fluid, and water as an absorbing fluid. This cycle is dramatically different in both concept and detail than the better-known ammonia-water-hydrogen cycle. In this study, thermodynamic and mixture property models of the Einstein cycle were created to gain insight into the cycle's operating characteristics and to calculate its performance. A conceptual demonstration model was built and successfully operated, showing for the first time the viability of the cycle. The model results found that the system pressure is an important design parameter, with the COP having an optimum when the system pressure is equal to the saturation pressure of the butane refrigerant. It was also found that for a given system pressure, there is a maximum condenser-absorber temperature and a minimum evaporator temperature.

  8. Relativistic BoseEinstein condensation with disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E.; Krein, G.; Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a self-interacting relativistic charged scalar field in the presence of weak disorder. We consider quenched disorder which couples linearly to the mass of the scalar field. After performing noise averages over the free energy of the system, we find that disorder increases the mean-field critical temperature for BoseEinstein condensation at finite density in the ultrarelativistic limit. In turn, preliminary non-relativistic calculations indicate that the presence of randomness affects the Bose gas in the opposite way in such a limit, i.e. disorder reduces the mean-field condensation temperature. The effect of disorder on the temperature dependence of the chemical potential for a fixed charge density is investigated. Significant differences from the mean-field temperature dependence of the chemical potential are observed as the strength of the noise intensity increases. Finally, the temperature dependence of the chemical potential with fixed total charge and entropy is investigated. It is found that there is no BoseEinstein condensation for a fixed charge to entropy ratio in the presence of weak disorder. The possible relevance of the findings in the present paper in different areas is discussed.

  9. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in just 26 pages (not counting six pages of notes and references) covers everything from Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton to Maxwell and Lorentz to Einstein's early biography to a cardboard version of Popper versus Kuhn, is too superficial to be useful for such a course. To a lesser extent, this is also true for chapter 6, which compresses the development of quantum theory after Einstein's 1905 paper into 20 pages (plus seven pages of notes and references) and for chapter 7, a brief epilogue. However, this is not my main worry. One could easily supplement or even replace the bookends of the volume with other richer sources and use this volume mainly for its excellent detailed commentaries on some Einstein classics in the four chapters in between. My more serious reservation about the use of the volume as a whole in a history of physics course, ironically, comes from the exact same feature that made me whole-heartedly recommend its core chapters for physics courses. This is especially true for the chapters on special and general relativity. How useful is it for a student to go through, in as much detail as this volume provides, the Lorentz transformation of Maxwell's equations in vector form? I can see how a student in an E&M class (with a section on special relativity) might benefit from this exercise. The clumsiness of the calculations in vector form by Lorentz and Einstein could help a student encountering Maxwell's equations in tensor form for the first time appreciate the advantages of the latter formalism. Similarly, it would be useful for a student in a GR class to go through the basics of tensor calculus in the old-fashioned but not inelegant mathematical introduction of Einstein's 1916 review article on general relativity. This could reinforce mastery of material that a student in a GR class will have to learn anyway (though Einstein's presentation of the mathematics of both special and general relativity in The Meaning of Relativity would seem to be more suitable for these purposes). It is not so clear what benefit a student in a history of physics course rather than a E&M course or a GR course would derive from the exhaustive coverage of the papers on special and general relativity in this volume. In the case of the history of special relativity, it would seem to make sense to leave out the details of the Lorentz transformation of Maxwell's equations to make room for a discussion, even if only qualitatively, of Minkowski's four-dimensional formalism and Minkowski diagrams. In the case of the history of general relativity, coverage of tensor calculus could profitably be curtailed to make room for discussion of how Einstein found his field equations or how GR failed to make all motion relative. Chapter 3 on Brownian motion also contains its share of detailed calculations that may be useful for students in a class on Stat Mech but not for those in a class on history of physics. Chapter 2 on the light quantum paper does not suffer from this problem. However, whereas the other three papers covered in detail in the volume can serve as representative of Einstein's broader efforts in those fields, the light quantum paper is only the first in a series of remarkable contributions that Einstein made to early quantum theory. Several of these contributions (specific heat, wave-particle duality, stimulated emission, Bose--Einstein statistics) are covered very briefly in chapter 6. I would have liked to see a presentation of Einstein's 1917 derivation of the Planck law for the spectral distribution of black-body radiation with the famous A and B coefficients as detailed and as easy to follow as many less important derivations in the chapters on relativity and Brownian motion. This derivation is much easier yet much more illuminating than, say, the original proofs of the Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations. I hope the author will consider such changes in emphasis for a second edition, for his reconstructions and commentaries certainly do open up these four classic Einstein papers to interested undergraduates in physics and other disciplines in ways that the scholarly literature on Einstein does not.

  11. VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, Ie.; Neronov, A.

    2013-04-20

    We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the {gamma}-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  12. Reconstructing the timescale of a catastrophic fan-forming event on Earth using a Mars model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duller, Robert A.; Warner, Nicholas H.; De Angelis, Silvio; Armitage, John J.; Poyatos-Mor, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The calculation of formation timescales of alluvial fans and deltas on Mars is important as it has direct implications for understanding the planet's hydrologic history. The robustness of sediment transport models is not in doubt but validation of the broad approach using a terrestrial example of similar scale and likely origin, where hydraulic parameters and timescales are known, is useful. Using a catastrophically formed terrestrial fan, where abundant sedimentological information is available, we find that the modeled hydraulic parameters and formation timescales are in very close agreement with the known values of the event. This supports the general modeling approach as applied to Mars fans but also highlights the added value of detailed sedimentary information when reconstructing hydraulics and timescales on Earth and Mars, which cannot be confidently gleaned from the final snapshot of surface geomorphology alone.

  13. Characteristic entanglement timescales of a qubit coupled to a quartic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco de Magalhes, A. R.; Oliveira, Adlcio C.

    2016-02-01

    The structure of the entanglement dynamics of a qubit coupled to a quartic oscillator is investigated through the calculation of timescales of visibility and predictability, and their relation with the concurrence dynamics. This model can describe a Rydberg atom in a Kerr medium. A method based on the analysis of the different interference processes of the terms that compose the physical quantities studied is proposed, and timescales related to decay, revivals and fast oscillations under the decay envelope are computed. The method showed to be effective for the vast majority of cases studied, even when the timescales vary several orders of magnitude. The conditions for expansions in power series to give correct decay timescales are analyzed.

  14. Process-Response Sedimentary Modeling of Ancient Martian Deltas 2: Offshore Sedimentation and Formation Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, M. R. T.; Hynek, B. M.; di Achille, G.; Hutton, E.

    2012-03-01

    We use a comprehensive three-dimensional model (Sedflux2.0) to explore the conditions of delta formation on ancient Mars. Our results show significant offshore sedimentation and longer formation timescales than otherwise determined by bulk transport calculations.

  15. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-09-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  16. An improved whitecap timescale for sea spray aerosol production flux modeling using the discrete whitecap method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Adrian H.

    2013-09-01

    The discrete whitecap method (DWM) to model the sea spray aerosol (SSA) production flux explicitly requires a whitecap timescale, which up to now has only considered a whitecap decay timescale, ?decay. A reevaluation of the DWM suggests that the whitecap timescale should account for the total whitecap lifetime (?wcap), which consists of both the formation timescale (?form) and the decay timescale (timescale definitions are given in the text). Here values of ?form for 552 oceanic whitecaps measured at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory on the east coast of the USA are presented, and added to the corresponding values of ?decay to form 552 whitecap timescales. For the majority of whitecaps, ?form makes up about 20-25% of ?wcap, but this can be as large as 70% depending on the value of ?decay. Furthermore, an area-weighted mean whitecap timescale for use in the DWM (?DWM) is defined that encompasses the variable nature of individual whitecap lifetimes within a given time period, and is calculated to be 5.3 s for this entire data set. This value is combined with previously published whitecap coverage parameterizations and estimates of SSA particle production per whitecap area to form a size-resolved SSA production flux parameterization (dF(r80)/dlog10r80). This parameterization yields integrated sea-salt mass fluxes that are largely within the range of uncertainty of recent measurements over the size range 0.029 m < r80 < 0.580 m. Physical factors controlling whitecap lifetime such as bubble plume lifetime and surfactant stabilization are discussed in the context of SSA production from whitecaps.

  17. COMPARISON OF KEPLER PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY WITH THE SUN ON DIFFERENT TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Basri, Gibor; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2013-05-20

    We utilize Kepler data to study the precision differential photometric variability of solar-type and cooler stars at different timescales, ranging from half an hour to three months. We define a diagnostic that characterizes the median differential intensity change between data bins of a given timescale. We apply the same diagnostics to Solar and Heliospheric Observatory data that has been rendered comparable to Kepler. The Sun exhibits similar photometric variability on all timescales as comparable solar-type stars in the Kepler field. The previously defined photometric ''range'' serves as our activity proxy (driven by starspot coverage). We revisit the fraction of comparable stars in the Kepler field that are more active than the Sun. The exact active fraction depends on what is meant by ''more active than the Sun'' and on the magnitude limit of the sample of stars considered. This active fraction is between a quarter and a third (depending on the timescale). We argue that a reliable result requires timescales of half a day or longer and stars brighter than M{sub Kep} of 14, otherwise non-stellar noise distorts it. We also analyze main sequence stars grouped by temperature from 6500 to 3500 K. As one moves to cooler stars, the active fraction of stars becomes steadily larger (greater than 90% for early M dwarfs). The Sun is a good photometric model at all timescales for those cooler stars that have long-term variability within the span of solar variability.

  18. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Trajectory Optimization Utilizing a Two-Timescale Collocation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Conway, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) trajectory optimization of a reentry vehicle is solved using a two-timescale collocation methodology. This class of 6DOF trajectory problems are characterized by two distinct timescales in their governing equations, where a subset of the states have high-frequency dynamics (the rotational equations of motion) while the remaining states (the translational equations of motion) vary comparatively slowly. With conventional collocation methods, the 6DOF problem size becomes extraordinarily large and difficult to solve. Utilizing the two-timescale collocation architecture, the problem size is reduced significantly. The converged solution shows a realistic landing profile and captures the appropriate high-frequency rotational dynamics. A large reduction in the overall problem size (by 55%) is attained with the two-timescale architecture as compared to the conventional single-timescale collocation method. Consequently, optimum 6DOF trajectory problems can now be solved efficiently using collocation, which was not previously possible for a system with two distinct timescales in the governing states.

  19. Temperature and timescale dependence of protein dynamics imethanol:water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Alexander; Smith, Jeremy C; Daniel, R. M.; Finney, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested the presence of a transition in the dynamics of hydrated proteins at around 180-220 K. This transition is manifested by nonlinear behavior in the temperature dependence of the average atomic mean-square displacement which increases at high temperature. Here, we present results of a dynamic neutron scattering analysis of the transition for a simple enzyme: xylanase in water : methanol solutions of varying methanol concentrations. In order to investigate motions on different timescales, two different instruments were used: one sensitive to {approx}100 ps timescale motions and the other to {approx}ns timescale motions. The results reveal distinctly different behavior on the two timescales examined. On the shorter timescale the dynamics are dictated by the properties of the surrounding solvent: the temperature of the dynamical transition lowers with increasing methanol concentration closely following the melting behavior of the corresponding water : methanol solution. This contrasts with the longer (ns) timescale results in which the dynamical transition appears at temperatures lower than the corresponding melting point of the cryosolvent. These results are suggested to arise from a collaborative effect between the protein surface and the solvent which lowers the effective melting temperature of the protein hydration layer. Taken together, the results suggest that the protein solvation shell may play a major role in the temperature dependence of protein solution dynamics.

  20. New Proposal of Numerical Modelling of Bose-Einstein Correlations: Bose-Einstein Correlations from "within"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyuzh, Oleg V.; Wilk, Grzegorz; W?odarczyk, Zbigniew

    We describe an attempt to numerically model Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from "within", i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of a Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) "afterburner", which inevitably changes the original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.

  1. Einstein, race, and the myth of the cultural icon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Fred

    2004-12-01

    The most remarkable aspect of Einstein's 1946 address at Lincoln University is that it has vanished from Einstein's recorded history. Its disappearance into a historical black hole symbolizes what seems to happen in the creation of a cultural icon. It is but one of many political statements by Einstein to have met such a fate, though his civil rights activism is most glaringly mission. One explanation for this historical amnesia is that those who shape our official memories felt that Einstein's "controversial" friends like Paul Robeson and activities like co-chairing the anti-lynching crusade might tarnish Einstein as an icon. That icon, sanctified by Time magazine when it dubbed Einstein "Person of the Century" at the end of 1999, is a myth, albeit a marvelous one. Yet it is not so much the motive for the omission but the consequence of it that should concern us. Americans and the millions of Einstein fans around the world are left unaware that he was an outspoken, passionate, committed antiracist.

  2. Das ideale Quantenlabor: Bose-Einstein-Kondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus; Bongs, Kai; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-07-01

    Bose-Einstein-Kondensate (BEC) sind extrem kalte Gase aus bosonischen Atomen, die sich alle im energetischen Grundzustand versammeln. Ein BEC ist ein perfektes Quantenlabor. Es bietet eine makroskopische Materiewelle aus vielen Tausend Teilchen an, die dem Experiment offen zugänglich ist. Das unterscheidet es von anderen makroskopischen Quantenzuständen wie der Suprafluidität oder der Supraleitung, denn diese verbergen sich in Flüssigkeiten oder Festkörpern. Das BEC ist also ein ideales Modellsystem, um diese und andere Phänomene der Quantenmechanik zu studieren. Neue Perspektiven eröffnet die schnelle Erzeugung und leichte Manipulation eines Kondensats auf einem Mikrochip. Dazu gehören auch vielfältige Anwendungen bis hin zum Quantencomputer.

  3. Einstein Observatory results on active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of Einstein Observatory surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are reviewed. The ubiquity of X-ray emission from AGNs was confirmed. The relations between X-ray and optical luminosities, between X-ray and radio properties, and between X-ray and optical-UV line emission found by the surveys are summarized and briefly discussed. The possible causes of observed X-ray emission from jets in Cen-A, 3C273, and M87 are considered. The active nucleus discovered in the optically 'dull' galaxy NGC 4156 is covered, and a model for NGC 4151 based on detailed spectral studies is briefly discussed. This model establishes the global symmetry of the AGN clouds, their approximate sizes, and their ionization state. Difficulties encountered in attempting to explain the cosmic X-ray background in terms of AGN contributions are addressed.

  4. Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Tacla, Alexandre B.; Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.

    2010-11-15

    We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.

  5. An Introduction to the Einstein Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilho, Miguel; Lffler, Frank

    2013-09-01

    We give an introduction to the Einstein Toolkit, a mature, open-source computational infrastructure for numerical relativity based on the Cactus Framework, for the target group of new users. This toolkit is composed of several different modules, is developed by researchers from different institutions throughout the world and is in active continuous development. Documentation for the toolkit and its several modules is often scattered across different locations, a difficulty new users may at times have to struggle with. Scientific papers exist describing the toolkit and its methods in detail, but they might be overwhelming at first. With these lecture notes we hope to provide an initial overview for new users. We cover how to obtain, compile and run the toolkit, and give an overview of some of the tools and modules provided with it.

  6. Local Geometrical Boundary Data for Einstein's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    An outstanding issue in the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is the lack of a local geometric interpretation of the necessary boundary data. For the Cauchy problem, the initial data is supplied by the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature of the initial Cauchy hypersurface, subject to constraints. This Cauchy data determine a solution to Einstein's equations which is unique up to a diffeomorphism. In joint work with H.-O. Kreiss, we show how three pieces of unconstrained boundary data, which are associated locally with the geometry of the boundary, likewise determine a solution of the initial-boundary value problem which is unique up to a diffeomorphism. One piece of this data, constructed from the extrinsic curvature of the boundary, determines the dynamical evolution of the boundary. The other two pieces constitute a conformal class of rank-2 metrics, which represent the two gravitational degrees of freedom. Research supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  7. Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2003-05-01

    The stationary form, dynamical properties, and experimental criteria for creation of matter-wave bright and dark solitons, both singly and in trains, are studied numerically and analytically in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates [1]. The full set of stationary solutions in closed analytic form to the mean field model in the quasi-one-dimensional regime, which is a nonlinear Schrodinger equation equally relevant in nonlinear optics, is developed under periodic and box boundary conditions [2]. These solutions are extended numerically into the two and three dimensional regimes, where it is shown that dark solitons can be used to create vortex-anti-vortex pairs under realistic conditions. Specific experimental prescriptions for creating viable dark and bright solitons in the quasi-one-dimensional regime are provided. These analytic methods are then extended to treat the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a generalized lattice potential, which models a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in the potential generated by a standing light wave. A novel solution family is developed and stability criterion are presented. Experiments which successfully carried out these ideas are briefly discussed [3]. [1] Dissertation research completed at the University of Washington Physics Department under the advisorship of Prof. William P. Reinhardt. [2] L. D. Carr, C. W. Clark, and W. P. Reinhardt, Phys. Rev. A v. 62 p. 063610-1--10 and Phys. Rev. A v.62, p.063611-1--10 (2000). [3] L. Khaykovich, F. Schreck, T. Bourdel, J. Cubizolles, G. Ferrari, L. D. Carr, Y. Castin, and C. Salomon, Science v. 296, p.1290--1293 (2002).

  8. X-Ray Spectral Residuals in NGC 5408 X-1: Diffuse Emission from Star Formation, or the Signature of a Super-Eddington Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Roberts, Timothy P.; Middleton, Matthew J.

    2015-11-01

    If ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are powered by accretion onto stellar remnant black holes, then many must be accreting at super-Eddington rates. It is predicted that such high accretion rates should give rise to massive, radiatively driven winds. However, observational evidence of a wind, in the form of absorption or emission features, has remained elusive. As such, the reported detection of X-ray spectral residuals in XMM-Newton spectra of NGC 5408 X-1, which could be related to absorption in a wind is potentially very exciting. However, it has previously been assumed by several authors that these features simply originate from background diffuse plasma emission related to star formation in the ULXs host galaxy. In this work we utilize the spatial resolving power of Chandra to test whether we can rule out this latter interpretation. We demonstrate that the majority of the luminosity in these spectral features is emitted from a highly localized region close to the ULX, and appears point-like even with Chandra. It is therefore highly likely that the spectral features are associated with the ULX itself, and little of the flux in this spectral component originates from spatially extended emission in the host galaxy. This may be consistent with the suggestion of absorption in an optically thin phase of a super-Eddington wind. Alternatively, we could be seeing emission from collisionally ionized material close to the black hole, but critically this would be difficult to reconcile with models where the source inclination largely determines the observed X-ray spectral and timing properties.

  9. EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel

    2005-12-01

    With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo-electron) statistics and fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, whose importance was first emphasized by Einstein in 1905. The squeezed states can also be considered as a generalization of the concept of coherent states, which turned out to be one of the most important theoretical tools for solving the numerous problems of quantum optics. It seems highly symbolical that the printed version of this special issue will appear in the same month when one of the prominent creators of the theory of coherent states and modern quantum optics—Professor Roy J Glauber—will receive his Nobel Prize in Stockholm. ICSSUR'05 was opened by the invited talk of R J Glauber, `What makes a quantum jump?', and we take great pleasure in congratulating him on this well deserved award. We are sure that all participants of ICSSUR'05 and all readers of this special issue share our feelings. Two other Nobel Prize winners of 2005—Professor J L Hall and Professor T W H\\"ansch—also made great contributions to quantum optics. In particular, in 1986, J L Hall with collaborators, performed the first experiments on the generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion, having obtained squeezing at the 50% level (Wu L A, Kimble H J, Hall J L and Wu H 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 2520). Another area, which has attracted the attention of many researchers in the past decade and which is well represented in this special issue, is related to the problems of quantum correlations, entanglement and quantum nonlocality. It is also connected with the name of Einstein due to his famous `EPR' paper of 1935 written together with Podolsky and Rosen. For several decades this was an area of `thought experiments' only, but now this field is becoming a new part of physics, known as `quantum information'. The reader can find several papers which introduce new concepts in this area, such as applications of the Galois algebras and discrete Wigner functions. Solutions of different problems of the interaction between light and matter (which also take their origin in Einstein's paper of 1905), stationary and nonstationary Casimir effect, decoherence, new forms of uncertainty relations and their experimental verification, etc, can also be found in this issue. Many other contributions will be published in another special issue of the International Journal of Modern Physics B entitled `Quantum Information in Modern Optics'. This special issue is also the last issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. For the past 15 years this journal and its predecessors—Quantum Optics and Quantum and Semiclassical Optics—gained great respect among the quantum optics community. Many breakthrough papers were published in its pages during this period (see, for example, Schrade G, Man'ko V I, Schleich W P and Glauber R J 1995 Wigner Functions in the Paul trap Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7 307). Since 1999, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics has published a special issue for each ICSSUR meeting. This is the fourth issue of this series. We would like to thank Institute of Physics Publishing and the staff of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics for providing the opportunity to pursue this programme, hoping that such a cooperation will continue in the future. We would also like to thank the many colleagues, who served as referees and whose efforts helped immensely in the preparation of this issue at such a high standard. The 10th ICSSUR conference will be organized for 2007 in Bradford, UK, by Professor A Vourdas. We invite readers to join us in two years.

  10. What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.

    2009-01-01

    Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…

  11. What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.

    2009-01-01

    Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in

  12. Einstein, Perrin, and the reality of atoms: 1905 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    We have repeated Perrin's 1908 experiment for the determination of Avogadro's number by determining the mean square displacement of small particles undergoing Brownian motion. Our apparatus differs from Perrin's by the use of a CCD camera and is much less tedious to perform. We review Einstein's 1905 analysis of Brownian motion and Langevin's alternative derivation of the Einstein equation for the mean square displacement. We also show how Einstein's thinking was a reflection of his belief in the validity of molecular-kinetic theory, a validity not universally recognized 100 years ago.

  13. Einstein before 1905: The early papers on statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton A.

    1990-05-01

    Albert Einstein's work on the quantum and Brownian motion, which he began to publish in 1905, was preceded by three papers on kinetic theory and statistical mechanics published between 1902 and 1904. In these early papers, which give us considerable insight into Einstein's early education and development, Einstein independently derived many of Boltzmann's and Gibbs' results, including the canonical ensemble, an analysis of fluctuations, and the relation between entropy and probability. This article discusses those papers and their background in 19th-century physics.

  14. Stability of Einstein static universe over Lyra geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, F.; Heydarzade, Y.; Hajkarim, F.

    2015-12-01

    The existence and stability conditions of Einstein static universe against homogeneous scalar perturbations in the context of Lyra geometry is investigated. The stability condition is obtained in terms of the constant equation of state parameter $\\omega=p/\\rho$ depending on energy density $\\rho_0$ and scale factor $a_0$ of the initial Einstein static universe. Also, the stability against vector and tensor perturbations is studied. It is shown that a stable Einstein static universe can be found in the context of Lyra geometry against scalar, vector and tensor perturbations for suitable range and values of physical parameters.

  15. Generalized Einstein-Aether theories and the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Starkman, Glenn; Zlosnik, Tom G.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that generalized Einstein-Aether theories may lead to significant modifications to the nonrelativistic limit of the Einstein equations. In this paper we study the effect of a general class of such theories on the Solar System. We consider corrections to the gravitational potential in negative and positive powers of distance from the source. Using measurements of the perihelion shift of Mercury and time delay of radar signals to Cassini, we place constraints on these corrections. We find that a subclass of generalized Einstein-Aether theories is compatible with these constraints.

  16. Bed load transport over a broad range of timescales: Determination of three regimes of fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongbo; Heyman, Joris; Fu, Xudong; Mettra, Francois; Ancey, Christophe; Parker, Gary

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the statistics of bed load transport flux and the timescale over which it is sampled. A stochastic formulation is developed for the probability distribution function of bed load transport flux, based on the Ancey et al. (2008) theory. An analytical solution for the variance of bed load transport flux over differing sampling timescales is presented. The solution demonstrates that the timescale dependence of the variance of bed load transport flux reduces to a three-regime relation demarcated by an intermittency timescale (tI) and a memory timescale (tc). As the sampling timescale increases, this variance passes through an intermittent stage (?tI), an invariant stage (tI < t < tc), and a memoryless stage (? tc). We propose a dimensionless number (Ra) to represent the relative strength of fluctuation, which provides a common ground for comparison of fluctuation strength among different experiments, as well as different sampling timescales for each experiment. Our analysis indicates that correlated motion and the discrete nature of bed load particles are responsible for this three-regime behavior. We use the data from three experiments with high temporal resolution of bed load transport flux to validate the proposed three-regime behavior. The theoretical solution for the variance agrees well with all three sets of experimental data. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the observed fluctuations of bed load transport flux over monosize/multiple-size grain beds, to the characterization of an inherent connection between short-term measurements and long-term statistics, and to the design of appropriate sampling strategies for bed load transport flux.

  17. Dynamic hyporheic exchange at intermediate timescales: testing the relative importance of evapotranspiration and flood pulses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (?1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 12 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 5387%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 12 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 34 years.

  18. Dynamic hyporheic exchange at intermediate timescales: Testing the relative importance of evapotranspiration and flood pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (˜1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 1-2 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 53-87%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 1-2 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 3-4 years.

  19. Neural Substrates Related to Motor Memory with Multiple Timescales in Sensorimotor Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungshin; Ogawa, Kenji; Lv, Jinchi; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Recent computational and behavioral studies suggest that motor adaptation results from the update of multiple memories with different timescales. Here, we designed a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which subjects adapted to two opposing visuomotor rotations. A computational model of motor adaptation with multiple memories was fitted to the behavioral data to generate time-varying regressors of brain activity. We identified regional specificity to timescales: in particular, the activity in the inferior parietal region and in the anterior-medial cerebellum was associated with memories for intermediate and long timescales, respectively. A sparse singular value decomposition analysis of variability in specificities to timescales over the brain identified four components, two fast, one middle, and one slow, each associated with different brain networks. Finally, a multivariate decoding analysis showed that activity patterns in the anterior-medial cerebellum progressively represented the two rotations. Our results support the existence of brain regions associated with multiple timescales in adaptation and a role of the cerebellum in storing multiple internal models. PMID:26645916

  20. Emergence and maintenance of nutrient limitation over multiple timescales in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Pacala, Stephen W; Hedin, Lars O

    2009-02-01

    Nutrient availability often limits primary production, yet the processes governing the dynamics of nutrient limitation are poorly understood. In particular, plant-available (e.g., nitrate) versus plant-unavailable (e.g., dissolved organic nitrogen) nutrient losses may have qualitatively different impacts on nutrient limitation. We examine processes controlling equilibrium and transient nutrient dynamics at three separate timescales in a model of a nutrient cycling through plants and soil. When the only losses are from the plant-available nutrient pool, nutrient limitation at a long-term equilibrium is impossible under a wide class of conditions. However, plant biomass will appear to level off on a timescale controlled by plant nutrient turnover (years in grasslands, decades to centuries in forests), even though it can grow slowly forever. Primary production can be nutrient limited in the long-term when there are losses of plant-unavailable nutrients or when the mineralization flux saturates with increasing detrital mass. The long timescale required for soil nutrient buildup is set by the plant-unavailable loss rate (centuries to millennia). The short timescale (hours to days) at which available nutrients in the soil equilibrate in the model is controlled by biotic uptake. These insights into processes controlling different timescales in terrestrial ecosystems can help guide empirical and experimental studies. PMID:19117424

  1. The Arctic Predictability and Prediction on Seasonal-to-Interannual TimEscales (APPOSITE) data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. J.; Tietsche, S.; Collins, M.; Goessling, H. F.; Guemas, V.; Guillory, A.; Hurlin, W. J.; Ishii, M.; Keeley, S. P. E.; Matei, D.; Msadek, R.; Sigmond, M.; Tatebe, H.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have seen significant developments in seasonal-to-interannual timescale climate prediction capabilities. However, until recently the potential of such systems to predict Arctic climate had not been assessed. This paper describes a multi-model predictability experiment which was run as part of the Arctic Predictability and Prediction On Seasonal to Inter-annual Timescales (APPOSITE) project. The main goal of APPOSITE was to quantify the timescales on which Arctic climate is predictable. In order to achieve this, a coordinated set of idealised initial-value predictability experiments, with seven general circulation models, was conducted. This was the first model intercomparison project designed to quantify the predictability of Arctic climate on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Here we present a description of the archived data set (which is available at the British Atmospheric Data Centre) and an update of the project's results. Although designed to address Arctic predictability, this data set could also be used to assess the predictability of other regions and modes of climate variability on these timescales, such as the El Nio Southern Oscillation.

  2. Neural Substrates Related to Motor Memory with Multiple Timescales in Sensorimotor Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinchi; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent computational and behavioral studies suggest that motor adaptation results from the update of multiple memories with different timescales. Here, we designed a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which subjects adapted to two opposing visuomotor rotations. A computational model of motor adaptation with multiple memories was fitted to the behavioral data to generate time-varying regressors of brain activity. We identified regional specificity to timescales: in particular, the activity in the inferior parietal region and in the anterior-medial cerebellum was associated with memories for intermediate and long timescales, respectively. A sparse singular value decomposition analysis of variability in specificities to timescales over the brain identified four components, two fast, one middle, and one slow, each associated with different brain networks. Finally, a multivariate decoding analysis showed that activity patterns in the anterior-medial cerebellum progressively represented the two rotations. Our results support the existence of brain regions associated with multiple timescales in adaptation and a role of the cerebellum in storing multiple internal models. PMID:26645916

  3. Time-scales of close-in exoplanet radio emission variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Fares, R.; Donati, J.-F.; Moutou, C.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the variability of exoplanetary radio emission using stellar magnetic maps and 3D field extrapolation techniques. We use a sample of hot Jupiter hosting stars, focusing on the HD 179949, HD 189733 and τ Boo systems. Our results indicate two time-scales over which radio emission variability may occur at magnetized hot Jupiters. The first is the synodic period of the star-planet system. The origin of variability on this time-scale is the relative motion between the planet and the interplanetary plasma that is corotating with the host star. The second time-scale is the length of the magnetic cycle. Variability on this time-scale is caused by evolution of the stellar field. At these systems, the magnitude of planetary radio emission is anticorrelated with the angular separation between the subplanetary point and the nearest magnetic pole. For the special case of τ Boo b, whose orbital period is tidally locked to the rotation period of its host star, variability only occurs on the time-scale of the magnetic cycle. The lack of radio variability on the synodic period at τ Boo b is not predicted by previous radio emission models, which do not account for the co-rotation of the interplanetary plasma at small distances from the star.

  4. Multi-timescale analysis of phase transitions in precessing black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of precessing binary black holes (BBHs) in the post-Newtonian regime has a strong timescale hierarchy: the orbital timescale is very short compared to the spin-precession timescale which, in turn, is much shorter than the radiation-reaction timescale on which the orbit is shrinking due to gravitational-wave emission. We exploit this timescale hierarchy to develop a multiscale analysis of BBH dynamics elaborating on the analysis of Kesden et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 081103 (2015)]. We solve the spin-precession equations analytically on the precession time and then implement a quasiadiabatic approach to evolve these solutions on the longer radiation-reaction time. This procedure leads to an innovative "precession-averaged" post-Newtonian approach to studying precessing BBHs. We use our new solutions to classify BBH spin precession into three distinct morphologies, then investigate phase transitions between these morphologies as BBHs inspiral. These precession-averaged post-Newtonian inspirals can be efficiently calculated from arbitrarily large separations, thus making progress towards bridging the gap between astrophysics and numerical relativity.

  5. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body.

    PubMed

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies. PMID:22666359

  6. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    SciTech Connect

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2013-04-08

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  7. Synthetic Rotation of a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Michael; Baker, Mark; Bell, Thomas; Glidden, Jake; Henson, Bryce; Haine, Simon; Neely, Tyler; McKay Parry, Nicholas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Davis, Matthew; Kandes, Marty; Carretero-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    We propose the synthetic rotation of Bose-Einstein condensates as a means of prototyping rotation sensors based on atom inferometry using Bose-Einstein condensates. The fundamental idea is to evaporatively cool and condense the atoms into the ground state of a rotating potential. We have designed and implemented an experimental Bose-Einstein condensate system using an initial hybrid-stage of magnetic and optical trapping and cooling, followed by an all-optical condensation into a red-detuned laser potential that consists of a transverse light-sheet as well as a laser that rotates around from above. We will present our experimental progress towards the Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms in the ground state of a rotating ring-trap potential. This system enables the future synthesis of various Sagnac effect-based atom inteferometry protocols to be tested when undergoing arbitrary rotation rates from Hz frequencies down to the rotation of the Earth.

  8. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  9. The mystery of the Einstein-Poincaré connection.

    PubMed

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2004-12-01

    This essay discusses attempts that have been made to explain the striking similarities between two theories propounded in 1905 by Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré without any mutual reference. PMID:16011297

  10. From the Einstein-Szilard Patent to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povh, I. L.; Barinberg, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Examines present-day and future prospects of the applications of modern magnetohydrodynamics in a number of countries. Explains how the electromagnetic pump, which was invented by Einstein and Leo Szilard, led to the development of applied magnetohydrodynamics. (HM)

  11. A New Measurement of Time: The Einstein System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Mario Rodriguez

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the concepts of physical time and of the measurement of the magnitude of time, and examines the International System of Units (SI). A proposal for the use of the Einstein system (ES) is also included. (HM)

  12. Interstellar Scattering and the Einstein Ring PKS 1830-211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Preston, R. A.; Murphy, D. W.; Meier, D. L.; Jauncey, D. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Tziomis, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    High frequency (22 GHz) data have been used two resolve two compact components of the strong gravitational lens PKS 1830-211. The two bright components are at opposite sides of a one arcsecond diameter Einstein ring.

  13. Dilute, Trapped Bose Gases and Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiringer, R.

    The recent experimental success in creating Bose-Einstein condensates of alkali atoms, honored by the Nobel prize awards in 2001 [1,5], led to renewed interest in the mathematical description of interacting Bose gases.

  14. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role of Mileva Maric was indeed more than just emotional spousal support for the scientific ideas of Albert Einstein. This chapter also details various lines and quotes from the book on Maric Einstein and also from the love letters shared between she and Albert Einstein to provide an indepth account of what evidence we have of possible professional collaboration.

  15. Circular orbits in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Valeria M.; Letelier, Patricio S.

    2008-10-15

    The stability under radial and vertical perturbations of circular orbits associated to particles orbiting a spherically symmetric center of attraction is studied in the context of the n-dimensional: the Newtonian theory of gravitation, Einstein's general relativity, and the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravitation. The presence of a cosmological constant is also considered. We find that this constant as well as the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant are crucial to have stability for n>4.

  16. Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of hot magnons

    SciTech Connect

    Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi; Vasconcellos, Aurea Rosas; Luzzi, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the emergence of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-type condensation of magnons in radio-frequency pumped magnetic thin films, which has recently been experimentally observed. A complete description of all the nonequilibrium processes involved is given. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon is another example of the emergence of Bose-Einstein-type condensation in nonequilibrium many-boson systems embedded in a thermal bath, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago by the renowned late Herbert Froehlich.

  17. Einstein's other gravity and the acceleration of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2010-06-15

    Spacetime curvature plays the primary role in general relativity but Einstein later considered a theory where torsion was the central quantity. Just as the Einstein-Hilbert action in the Ricci curvature scalar R can be generalized to f(R) gravity, we consider extensions of teleparallel, or torsion scalar T, gravity to f(T) theories. The field equations are naturally second order, avoiding pathologies, and can give rise to cosmic acceleration with unique features.

  18. Einstein's investigations of Galilean covariant electrodynamics prior to 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, John D.

    2004-11-01

    Einstein learned from the magnet and conductor thought experiment how to use field transformation laws to extend the covariance of Maxwells electrodynamics. If he persisted in his use of this device, he would have found that the theory cleaves into two Galilean covariant parts, each with different field transformation laws. The tension between the two parts reflects a failure not mentioned by Einstein: that the relativity of motion manifested by observables in the magnet and conductor thought experiment does not extend to all observables in electrodynamics. An examination of Ritz's work shows that Einstein's early view could not have coincided with Ritz's on an emission theory of light, but only with that of a conveniently reconstructed Ritz. One Ritz-like emission theory, attributed by Pauli to Ritz, proves to be a natural extension of the Galilean covariant part of Maxwell's theory that happens also to accommodate the magnet and conductor thought experiment. Einstein's famous chasing a light beam thought experiment fails as an objection to an ether-based, electrodynamical theory of light. However it would allow Einstein to formulate his general objections to all emission theories of light in a very sharp form. Einstein found two well known experimental results of 18th and 19th century optics compelling (Fizeau's experiment, stellar aberration), while the accomplished Michelson-Morley experiment played no memorable role. I suggest they owe their importance to their providing a direct experimental grounding for Lorentz' local time, the precursor of Einstein's relativity of simultaneity, and doing it essentially independently of electrodynamical theory. I attribute Einstein's success to his determination to implement a principle of relativity in electrodynamics, but I urge that we not invest this stubbornness with any mystical prescience.

  19. Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of hot magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi; Vasconcellos, urea Rosas; Luzzi, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the emergence of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-type condensation of magnons in radio-frequency pumped magnetic thin films, which has recently been experimentally observed. A complete description of all the nonequilibrium processes involved is given. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon is another example of the emergence of Bose-Einstein-type condensation in nonequilibrium many-boson systems embedded in a thermal bath, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago by the renowned late Herbert Frhlich.

  20. A complete public archive for the Einstein IPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents progress made in the period 24 Sept. 1993 - 23 Sept. 1995 on the project described in our proposal 'A Complete Public Archive for the Einstein IPC' which was approved under the Astrophysics Data Program in 1992. We have completed most of the principal objectives of the original proposal; a NFE was recently approved so that costs for publications in press can be covered and we can complete the public record for the Einstein IPC database.

  1. Parametrization of the space of solutions of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, James

    1987-11-01

    An explicit parametrization is obtained of the set of all space-time solutions of Einstein's equations which are globally hyperbolic and contain a compact spatial hypersurface with constant mean curvature. This parametrization is based upon the conformal treatment of the initial-value problem for Einstein's equations, which is studied by the method of sub and super solutions for quasilinear elliptic partial differential equations. The Yamabe-Aubin-Trudinger-Schoen classification of conformal classes of Riemannian metrics plays a key role.

  2. New Einstein-Hilbert Type Action for Unity of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Kazunari

    2003-09-01

    A new Einstein-Hilbert type (SGM) action is obtained by performing the Einstein gravity analogue geometrical arguments in high symmetric (SGM) spacetime. All elementary particles except graviton are regarded as the Eigenstates of SO(10) super-Poincare' algebra (SPA) and composed of the fundamental fermion superons of nonlinear supersymmetry (NL SUSY). Some phenomenological implications and the linearization of the action are discussed briefly.

  3. Einstein equations in a general Kaluza-Klein space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, Aurel

    2013-11-01

    Based on the new point of view on space-time-matter theory developed in our paper (Bejancu, Gen Rel Grav, 2013), we obtain the Einstein equations in a general Kaluza-Klein space with electromagnetic potentials. In particular, we recover the Einstein equations obtained by Wesson and Ponce de Leon (J Math Phys 33:3883, 1992) in case the electromagnetic potentials vanish identically on . The Riemannian horizontal connection and the tensor calculus on , are the main tools in the study.

  4. Bose-Einstein Correlations in Positronium Collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Ivanna

    1987-12-01

    The MARK II detector is used to study the Bose -Einstein correlation between pairs and triplets of charged pions produced in hadronic decays of the J/psi , the sqrt{s} = 4-7 GeV continuum above the J/psi, two photon events at sqrt{s} = 29 GeV, and e^{+}e^- annihilation events at sqrt{s } = 29 GeV as a function of Q^2 , the four-momentum transfer squared. After corrections for Coulomb effects and pion misidentification, we find a nearly full Bose-Einstein enhancement alpha in the J/psi and the two photon data and about half the maximum value in the other two data sets. The radius parameter r (an average over space and time) given by pion pair analyses lies within a band of +/-0.10 fm around 0.73 fm and is the same, within errors, for all four data sets. Pion triplet analyses also give a consistent radius of ~0.54 fm. Fits to two-dimensional distributions R(q_sp{T}{2},q_sp {C}{2}) of invariant components of Q^2 = q_sp{T }{2} + q_sp{C }{2} give r_{T } ~ r_ {C} ~ r, where q_{T} is the transverse three-momentum difference calculated with respect to the net pair three-momentum, and q_{C} is in effect the longitudinal three-momentum difference in the pion pair rest frame. When q_{T } is calculated with respect to the jet axis for two-jet events in the e^+e^- annihilation data at sqrt{s } = 29 GeV, a fit to (q_sp{T }{2},q_sp{C}{2}) also gives r_{T} ~ r_{C} ~ r. Noting that q _{L} and q_{0 } are not invariant, we make fits to R(q _sp{T}{2},q_sp{L }{2}) and to (Rq_sp {T}{2},q_sp{0}{2 }) (Kopylov formulation), and we find r _{0} ~ r_{L} ~ {2over3}r_{T } to {1over2}r_ {T}.

  5. Microphysical Timescales in Clouds and their Application in Cloud-Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Computational phenomena (i.e., spurious supersaturation and negative mixing ratio of cloud water) usually exist in cloud-resolving models when the time step for explicit integration is larger than a microphysical timescale in clouds. In this paper, the microphysical timescales in clouds are studied, showing that the timescale of water vapor condensation (or cloud water evaporation) is smaller than 10 s - the order of a typical time step for cloud-resolving models. To avoid spurious computational phenomena in cloud-resolving modeling, it is suggested that moist entropy be used as a prognostic thermodynamic variable, and temperature be diagnosed from that and other prognostic variables. A simple numerical model with moist entropy as a prognostic variable, for example, is presented to show that spurious computational phenomena are removed when moist entropy is used as a prognostic variable.

  6. Guided Plasmaspheric Hiss Interactions with Superthermal Electrons. Part 1; Resonance Curves and Timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.; Kozyra, J. U.

    1997-01-01

    Under the proper conditions, guided plasmaspheric hiss is shown to be more efficient than Coulomb collisions at scattering electrons in the superthermal energy range of 50 to 500 eV. Broadband, whistler mode hiss becomes guided by plasma density gradients, intensifying the wave energy densities and focusing the wave normal angles. These waves are shown to interact through Cherenkov (Landau) resonance with electrons below 500 eV, and the presented equatorial plane timescales for pitch angle, energy, and mixed diffusion are shown to be faster than Coulomb collision timescales for typical values at the inner edge of the plasmapause and in detached plasma regions. In the latter case, energy diffusion timescales of less than 100 s for small pitch angle electrons between 250 and 500 eV indicate that these waves have the potential to dramatically change the distribution function.

  7. A Search for Short Timescale Microvariability in Active Galactic Nuclei in the Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.; Clark, L. Lee

    2003-01-01

    We observed four AGNs (the type-1 Seyfert systems 3C249.1, NGC 6814 and Mrk 205, and the BL Lac object 3C371) using the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for short timescale microvariability in the W. Continuous observations of 3 0 0 0 s duration were obtained for each system on several consecutive HST orbits using a 1 s sample time in a 1400 - 3000 2 bandpass. variability > 0.3 % (0 . 003 mag) was detected in any AGN on timescales shorter than 1500 s. The distribution of photon arrival times observed from each source was consistent with Poisson statistics. Because of HST optical problems, the limit on photometric variability at longer timescales is less precise. These results restrict models of supermassive black holes as the central engine of an AGN and the diskoseismology oscillations of any accretion disk around such a black hole.

  8. A Hierarchy of Timescales in Protein Dynamics is Linked to Enzyme Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Henzler-Wildman,K.; Lei, M.; Thai, V.; Jordan Kerns, S.; Karplus, M.; Kern, D.

    2007-01-01

    The synergy between structure and dynamics is essential to the function of biological macromolecules. Thermally driven dynamics on different timescales have been experimentally observed or simulated, and a direct link between micro- to milli-second domain motions and enzymatic function has been established. However, very little is understood about the connection of these functionally relevant, collective movements with local atomic fluctuations, which are much faster. Here we show that pico- to nano-second timescale atomic fluctuations in hinge regions of adenylate kinase facilitate the large-scale, slower lid motions that produce a catalytically competent state. The fast, local mobilities differ between a mesophilic and hyperthermophilic adenylate kinase, but are strikingly similar at temperatures at which enzymatic activity and free energy of folding are matched. The connection between different timescales and the corresponding amplitudes of motions in adenylate kinase and their linkage to catalytic function is likely to be a general characteristic of protein energy landscapes.

  9. Spatial and seasonal variability of the air-sea equilibration timescale of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel; Ito, Takamitsu; Takano, Yohei; Hsu, Wei-Ching

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere tends to bring near-surface waters toward equilibrium by reducing the partial pressure gradient across the air-water interface. However, the equilibration process is not instantaneous; in general there is a lag between forcing and response. The timescale of air-sea equilibration depends on several factors involving the depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, wind speed, and carbonate chemistry. In this work, we use a suite of observational datasets to generate climatological and seasonal composite maps of the air-sea equilibration timescale. The relaxation timescale exhibits considerable spatial and seasonal variations, which are largely set by changes in mixed layer depth and wind speed. The net effect is dominated by the mixed layer depth; the gas exchange velocity and carbonate chemistry parameters only provide partial compensation. Broadly speaking, the adjustment timescale tends to increase with latitude. We compare the observationally-derived air-sea gas exchange timescale with a model-derived surface residence time and a data-derived horizontal transport timescale, which allows us to define two non-dimensional metrics of gas exchange efficiency. These parameters highlight the Southern Ocean, equatorial Pacific, and North Atlantic as regions of inefficient air-sea equilibration where carbon anomalies are likely to form and persist. The efficiency parameters presented here can serve as simple tools for understanding regional air-sea disequilibrium in both observations and models. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  10. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change. PMID:23248309

  11. The neural processing of hierarchical structure in music and speech at different timescales

    PubMed Central

    Farbood, Morwaread M.; Heeger, David J.; Marcus, Gary; Hasson, Uri; Lerner, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Music, like speech, is a complex auditory signal that contains structures at multiple timescales, and as such is a potentially powerful entry point into the question of how the brain integrates complex streams of information. Using an experimental design modeled after previous studies that used scrambled versions of a spoken story (Lerner et al., 2011) and a silent movie (Hasson et al., 2008), we investigate whether listeners perceive hierarchical structure in music beyond short (~6 s) time windows and whether there is cortical overlap between music and language processing at multiple timescales. Experienced pianists were presented with an extended musical excerpt scrambled at multiple timescales—by measure, phrase, and section—while measuring brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reliability of evoked activity, as quantified by inter-subject correlation of the fMRI responses, was measured. We found that response reliability depended systematically on musical structure coherence, revealing a topographically organized hierarchy of processing timescales. Early auditory areas (at the bottom of the hierarchy) responded reliably in all conditions. For brain areas at the top of the hierarchy, the original (unscrambled) excerpt evoked more reliable responses than any of the scrambled excerpts, indicating that these brain areas process long-timescale musical structures, on the order of minutes. The topography of processing timescales was analogous with that reported previously for speech, but the timescale gradients for music and speech overlapped with one another only partially, suggesting that temporally analogous structures—words/measures, sentences/musical phrases, paragraph/sections—are processed separately. PMID:26029037

  12. Unification of Einstein's Gravity with Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfatti, Jack

    2010-02-01

    The four tetrad and six spin-connection Cartan 1-forms of Einstein's GeoMetroDynamic (GMD) field emerge from the eight virtual gluon macro-quantum coherent QCD post-inflation vacuum condensates that form in the inflationary phase transition. This joint emergence of gravity and the strong force is similar to the emergence of irrotational superflow with vortex defects in liquid helium below the Lambda Point. Repulsive dark energy is from the residual random virtual bosons that did not cohere in the moment of inflation. Similarly, attractive dark matter is from the residual random virtual fermion-antifermion pairs. Therefore, I predict that the LHC will not detect any on-mass-shell real particles that can explain ?DM0.23. As first suggested by Abdus Salam (f-gravity) the low energy tail of the nuclear force can be explained as strong short-range Yukawa gravity. QCD's IR confinement and UV asymptotic freedom are elementary consequences in this simple model. )

  13. Results from an extensive Einstein stellar survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaiana, G. S.; Fabbiano, G.; Giacconi, R.; Golub, L.; Gorenstein, P.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Haisch, B. M.; Johnson, H. M.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary results of the Einstein Observatory stellar X-ray survey are presented. To date, 143 soft X-ray sources have been identified with stellar counterparts, leaving no doubt that stars in general constitute a pervasive class of low-luminosity galactic X-ray sources. Stars along the entire main sequence, of all luminosity classes, pre-main sequence stars as well as very evolved stars have been detected. Early type OB stars have X-ray luminosities in the range 10 to the 31st to 10 to the 34th ergs/s; late type stars show a somewhat lower range of X-ray emission levels, from 10 to the 26th to 10 to the 31st ergs/s. Late type main-sequence stars show little dependence of X-ray emission levels upon stellar effective temperature; similarly, the observations suggest weak, if any, dependence of X-ray luminosity upon effective gravity. Instead, the data show a broad range of emission levels (about three orders of magnitude) throughout the main sequence later than F0.

  14. Results from an extensive Einstein stellar survey

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiana, G.S.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Fabbiano, G.; Giacconi, R.; Golub, L.; Gorenstein, P.; Haisch, B.M.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Johnson, H.M.; Linsky, J.L.; Maxson, C.W.; Mewe, R.; Rosner, R.; Seward, F.; Topka, K.; Zwaan, C.

    1981-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of the Einstein Observatory stellar X-ray survey. To date, 143 soft X-ray sources have been identified with stellar counterparts, leaving no doubt that stars in general constitute a pervasive class of low-luminosity galactic X-ray sources. We have detected stars along the entire main sequence, of all luminosity classes, pre-main sequence stars as well as very evolved stars. Early type OB stars have X-ray luminosities in the range approx.10/sup 31/ to approx.10/sup 34/ ergs s/sup -1/; late type stars show a somewhat lower range of X-ray emission levels, from approx.10/sup 26/ to approx.10/sup 31/ ergs s/sup -1/. Late type main-sequence stars show little dependence of X-ray emission levels upon stellar effective temperature; similarly, the observations suggest weak, if any, dependence of X-ray luminosity upon effective gravity. Instead, the data show a broad range of emission levels (approx.three orders of magnitude) throughout the main sequence later than F0. Comparison of the data with published theories of acoustically heated coronae shows that these models are inadequate to explain our results. The data are consistent with magnetically dominated coronae, as in the solar case.

  15. Results from an extensive Einstein stellar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiana, G. S.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Fabbiano, G.; Giacconi, R.; Golub, L.; Gorenstein, P.; Haisch, B. M.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Johnson, H. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Maxson, C. W.; Mewe, R.; Rosner, R.; Seward, F.; Topka, K.; Zwaan, C.

    1981-04-01

    The preliminary results of the Einstein Observatory stellar X-ray survey are presented. To date, 143 soft X-ray sources have been identified with stellar counterparts, leaving no doubt that stars in general constitute a pervasive class of low-luminosity galactic X-ray sources. Stars along the entire main sequence, of all luminosity classes, pre-main sequence stars as well as very evolved stars have been detected. Early type OB stars have X-ray luminosities in the range 10 to the 31st to 10 to the 34th ergs/s; late type stars show a somewhat lower range of X-ray emission levels, from 10 to the 26th to 10 to the 31st ergs/s. Late type main-sequence stars show little dependence of X-ray emission levels upon stellar effective temperature; similarly, the observations suggest weak, if any, dependence of X-ray luminosity upon effective gravity. Instead, the data show a broad range of emission levels (about three orders of magnitude) throughout the main sequence later than F0.

  16. Rotating SU(2) Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galteland, Peder; Sudbo, Asle

    2014-03-01

    The topological excitations inherent in Bose-Einstein condensates are important elements of both superconductors and superfluids, and are even relevant in cosmology and high energy physics. Condensates with multiple components and intercomponent couplings open up new possibilities for novel vortex physics, and which have been studied numerically and realized experimentally. We have studied a uniformly frustrated 2-component Ginzburg-Landau theory with amplitude fluctuations and density-density interactions included, through the use of Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques. We have explored the ground states as a function of rotational frequency, and inter- and intra-component coupling strength. It was found that the model exhibits both hexagonal lattices of co-centered vortices, and square lattices of interpenetrating vortices. These lattices exhibit a first order melting transition. The special case of an SU(2) symmetric potential was also explored. With this additional symmetry, dimer vortex configurations, strong staggering of the amplitude fields and massive degeneracy of the ground states appear. This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian Consortium for High-Performance Computing.

  17. Consistent cosmological modifications to the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2009-06-15

    General relativity is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter), has increased the need for testing modifications to general relativity, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids, depends crucially on the theory of gravity. In this work I outline a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give two nontrivial examples, the first of which is a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact {lambda}CDM and the second has a Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati background but differs from it in the perturbations. I present their impact on observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  18. Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Some 40 years in the making, NASA s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta I1 in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein s General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star- tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.

  19. Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Some 40 years in the making, NASA' s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein's General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.

  20. ON THE NATURE OF THE PROTOTYPE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE AG CARINAE. II. WITNESSING A MASSIVE STAR EVOLVING CLOSE TO THE EDDINGTON AND BISTABILITY LIMITS

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, J. H.; Hillier, D. J.; Damineli, A.

    2011-07-20

    We show that the significantly different effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) achieved by the luminous blue variable AG Carinae during the consecutive visual minima of 1985-1990 (T{sub eff} {approx_equal} 22,800 K) and 2000-2001 (T{sub eff} {approx_equal} 17,000 K) place the star on different sides of the bistability limit, which occurs in line-driven stellar winds around T{sub eff} {approx} 21,000 K. Decisive evidence is provided by huge changes in the optical depth of the Lyman continuum in the inner wind as T{sub eff} changes during the S Dor cycle. These changes cause different Fe ionization structures in the inner wind. The bistability mechanism is also related to the different wind parameters during visual minima: the wind terminal velocity was 2-3 times higher and the mass-loss rate roughly two times smaller in 1985-1990 than in 2000-2003. We obtain a projected rotational velocity of 220 {+-} 50 km s{sup -1} during 1985-1990 which, combined with the high luminosity (L{sub *} = 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun}), puts AG Car extremely close to the Eddington limit modified by rotation ({Omega}{Gamma} limit): for an inclination angle of 90{sup 0}, {Gamma}{sub {Omega}} {approx}> 1.0 for M{sub sun} {approx}< 60. Based on evolutionary models and mass budget, we obtain an initial mass of {approx}100 M{sub sun} and a current mass of {approx}60-70 M{sub sun} for AG Car. Therefore, AG Car is close to, if not at, the {Omega}{Gamma} limit during visual minimum. Assuming M = 70 M{sub sun}, we find that {Gamma}{sub {Omega}} decreases from 0.93 to 0.72 as AG Car expands toward visual maximum, suggesting that the star is not above the Eddington limit during maximum phases.