Tipler, F.J.
1986-02-01
Penrose diagrams including the c boundary at infinity and the singularities for the Einstein, Eddington--Lemaitre, Eddington--Lemaitre--Bondi, and anti-de Sitter universes are constructed. Penrose diagrams for the Einstein, Eddington--Lemaitre, and anti-de Sitter universes have been published before, but these diagrams are incomplete in that the published diagrams do not contain the c-boundary points of the universes they are supposed to represent.
Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.
Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2012-12-21
Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability. PMID:23368444
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.
2016-01-01
We show that the turbulent gas in the star-forming regions of galaxies is unstable to wind formation via momentum deposition by radiation pressure or other momentum sources like supernova explosions, even if the system is below the average Eddington limit. This conclusion follows from the fact that the critical momentum injection rate per unit mass for unbinding gas from a self-gravitating system is proportional to the gas surface density and that a turbulent medium presents a broad distribution of column densities to the sources. For an average Eddington ratio of ? 0.1 and for turbulent Mach numbers ? 30, we find that ˜1 per cent of the gas is ejected per dynamical time-scale at velocities larger than the local escape velocity. Because of the lognormal shape of the surface density distribution, the mass-loss rate is highly sensitive to the average Eddington ratio, reaching ˜20-40 per cent of the gas mass per dynamical time for ? 1. Using this model we find a large scatter in the mass-loading factor for star-forming galaxies, ranging from ˜10-3-10, but with significant uncertainties. Implications for the efficiency of star formation in giant molecular clouds are highlighted. For radiation pressure feedback alone, we find an increasing star formation efficiency as a function of initial gas surface density. Uncertainties are discussed.
Eddington's Gravity in Immersed Spacetime
Hemza Azri
2015-01-25
We formulate Eddington's affine gravity in a spacetime which is immersed in a larger eight dimensional space endowed with a hypercomplex structure. The dynamical equation of the first immersed Ricci-type tensor leads to gravitational field equations which include matter. We also study the dynamical effects of the second Ricci-type tensor when added to the Lagrangian density. A simple Lagrangian density constructed from combination of the standard Ricci tensor and a new tensor field that appears due to the immersion, leads to gravitational equations in which the vacuum energy gravitates with a different cosmological strength as in Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 90}, 064017 (2014), rather than with Newton's constant. As a result, the tiny observed curvature is reproduced due to large hierarchies rather than fine-tuning.
Cao Xinwu
2010-12-10
A power-law time-dependent light curve for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is expected by the self-regulated black hole growth scenario, in which the feedback of AGNs expels gas and shut down accretion. This is also supported by the observed power-law Eddington ratio distribution of AGNs. At high redshifts, the AGN life timescale is comparable with (or even shorter than) the age of the universe, which sets a constraint on the minimal Eddington ratio for AGNs on the assumption of a power-law AGN light curve. The black hole mass function (BHMF) of AGN relics is calculated by integrating the continuity equation of massive black hole number density on the assumption of the growth of massive black holes being dominated by mass accretion with a power-law Eddington ratio distribution for AGNs. The derived BHMF of AGN relics at z = 0 can fit the measured local mass function of the massive black holes in galaxies quite well, provided the radiative efficiency {approx}0.1 and a suitable power-law index for the Eddington ratio distribution are adopted. In our calculations of the black hole evolution, the duty cycle of AGN should be less than unity, which requires the quasar life timescale {tau}{sub Q} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 8} years.
"An expedition to heal the wounds of war". The 1919 eclipse and Eddington as Quaker adventurer.
Stanley, Matthew
2003-03-01
The 1919 eclipse expedition's confirmation of general relativity is often celebrated as a triumph of scientific internationalism. However, British scientific opinion during World War I leaned toward the permanent severance of intellectual ties with Germany. That the expedition came to be remembered as a progressive moment of internationalism was largely the result of the efforts of A. S. Eddington. A devout Quaker, Eddington imported into the scientific community the strategies being used by his coreligionists in the national dialogue: humanize the enemy through personal contact and dramatic projects that highlight the value of peace and cooperation. The essay also addresses the common misconception that Eddington's sympathy for Einstein led him intentionally to misinterpret the expedition's results. The evidence gives no reason to think that Eddington or his coworkers were anything but rigorous. Eddington's pacifism is reflected not in manipulated data but in the meaning of the expedition and the way it entered the collective memory as a celebration of international cooperation in the wake of war. PMID:12725104
On Arthur Eddington's Theory of Everything
Kragh, Helge
2015-01-01
From 1929 to his death in 1944, A. Eddington worked on developing a highly ambitious theory of fundamental physics that covered everything in the physical world, from the tiny electron to the universe at large. His unfinished theory included abstract mathematics and spiritual philosophy in a mix which was peculiar to Eddington but hardly intelligible to other scientists. The constants of nature, which he claimed to be able to deduce purely theoretically, were of particular significance to his project. Although highly original, Eddington's attempt to provide physics with a new foundation had to some extent parallels in the ideas of other British physicists, including P. Dirac and E. A. Milne. Eddington's project was however a grand failure in so far that it was rejected by the large majority of physicists. A major reason was his unorthodox view of quantum mechanics.
Comparison of the Kepler and Eddington Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Kepler and Eddington missions are spaceborne photometric missions with similar apertures. Both are capable of finding Earth-size extrasolar planets and both can detect p-mode oscillations in stars. The Kepler mission is optimized to find Earth-size planets in the habitability zone of Solar-like stars and does astroseismology only as incidental science. The Eddington mission appears to be optimized for astroseismology. The Kepler design provides a very large field of view, a low measurement cadence, a heliocentric orbit, and a long mission duration. The demand for a large field-of-view results in a Schmidt design with a massive corrector. However, the use of the corrector allows a 105 square degree FOV and thereby provides 15 times the number of stars at a given magnitude than does the optical design used in Eddington. Because Kepler stares at a single FOV throughout the mission, it does much less astroseismology than Eddington. Other comparisons are also discussed.
Eddington Inspired Born Infeld Theory: a New Look to the Matter-Coupling Paradigm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delsate, T.; Steinhoff, Jan
2015-01-01
We discuss some consequences of changing the matter to gravity coupling without affecting the gravitational dynamics. The Einstein tensor is usually assumed to be proportional to the stress tensor due to the divergence free property of both object. This is not the only consistent way to couple matter to gravity; we explore some aspect of consistent modification to the matter/gravity coupling using the recently proposed Eddington inspired Born Infeld extension of gravity.
The virial theorem in Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Noelia S.; Santos, Janilo
2015-12-01
We consider the possibility that the Eddington-Born-Infeld (EBI) modified gravity provides an alternative explanation for the mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. For this purpose we derive the modified Einstein field equations, finding an additional "geometrical mass" term which provides an effective contribution to the gravitational binding energy. Using some approximations and assumptions for weak gravitational fields, and taking into account the collisionless relativistic Boltzmann equation, we derive a generalized version of the virial theorem in the framework of EBI gravity. We show that the "geometrical mass" term may account for the well known virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We also derive the velocity dispersion relation for galaxies in the clusters, which could provide an efficient method for testing EBI gravity from astrophysical observations.
PHOTON FEEDBACK: SCREENING AND THE EDDINGTON LIMIT
Socrates, Aristotle; Sironi, Lorenzo E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu
2013-08-01
Bright star-forming galaxies radiate well below their Eddington limits. The value of the flux-mean opacity that mediates the radiation force onto matter is orders of magnitude smaller than the UV or optical dust opacity. On empirical grounds, it is shown that high-redshift ULIRGs radiate at two orders of magnitude below their Eddington limits, while the local starbursters M82 and Arp 220 radiate at a few percent of their Eddington limits. A model for the radiative transfer of UV and optical light in dust-rich environments is considered. Radiation pressure on dust does not greatly affect the large-scale gas dynamics of star-forming galaxies.
Chandrasekhar vs. Eddington - An Unanticipated Confrontation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wali, Kameshwar C.
1982-01-01
In the 1930s, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar found a fundamental parameter that determines the density of stars. Although recognized as a major discovery, it was generally unaccepted by astronomers because the work was ridiculed by a preeminent astronomer (Arthur Eddington). The controversy and current understanding of stellar evolution are discussed.…
Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.
Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G
2010-07-01
We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe. PMID:20867432
Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Térence
2011-07-15
A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar. PMID:21838345
Parabolic subgroups and Einstein solvmanifolds 1 . Einstein ,
Tamaru, Hiroshi
Parabolic subgroups and Einstein solvmanifolds 1 2 0 : Einstein . Einstein , , , nilpotency . , , , . , [35] ( [37] ). [36] , Einstein , . 1 (M, g) (solvmanifold) , M . . , . , , ( ) , . . Â· , Einstein ( , moduli ) . Einstein , Heber ([18]) . , Lauret ([27]) , Einstein . Â· , ( [21], [5], [15] ). , . Section 5
BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION
Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew
2013-05-20
We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to {approx}10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-{sigma} relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.
BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: The Eddington Connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew
2013-05-01
We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to ~10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-? relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.
Eddington limit for a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukue, Jun
2015-06-01
The Eddington luminosity of a spherical source is usually defined for a uniformly extending normal plasma. We usually suppose that the gas can accrete to the central object at the sub-Eddington luminosity, while it would be blown off from the central luminous source in the super-Eddington case. We reconsider this central dogma of the Eddington limit under the radiative transfer effect for the purely scattering case, using analytical and numerical methods. For the translucent isolated gas cloud (stratus) with finite optical depth, the concept of the Eddington luminosity is drastically changed. In an heuristic way, we find that the critical condition is approximately expressed as ? = (1 + ?* + ?c)/2, where ? (=L/LE) is the central luminosity L normalized by the Eddington luminosity LE, ?c is the optical depth of the stratus, and ?* (=?{1-R_*^2/R^2}) is the direction cosine of the central object, R* being the radius of the central object, and R the distance from the central object. When the optical depth of the stratus is around unity, the classical Eddington limit roughly holds for the stratus; ? ˜ 1. However, when the optical depth is greater than unity, the critical condition becomes roughly ? ˜ ?c/2, and the stratus would infall on to the central source even at the highly super-Eddington luminosity. When the optical depth is less than unity, on the other hand, the critical condition reduces to ? ? (1 + ?*)/2, and the stratus could be blown off in some limited ranges, depending on ?*. This new concept of the Eddington limit for the isolated stratus could drastically change the accretion and outflow physics of highly inhomegeneous plasmas, with relevance for astrophysical jets and winds and supermassive black hole formation.
Non-linear Oscillations of Massive Stars Near the Eddington Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanyal, Debashis; Langer, Norbert
2013-06-01
The physics of massive star evolution, even on the main sequence is marred by uncertainties and hence, poorly understood. The focus of our work lies on the evolution of very massive stars on the main sequence when they approach the Eddington limit. Massive stars evolving near the Eddington limit are characterized by pronounced core-halo structures (Ishii et al. 1999) with extended low density envelopes accounting for even ~ 70% of the stellar radius, and density inversions (Petrovic et al. 2006, Graefener et al. 2011). These are ideal conditions or radial oscillations called ``strange modes'' (Glatzel 2004) which have very small growth times (~ dynamical timescale). We present non-linear calculations of these pulsations using a state-of-the-art one-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code (BEC) and latest input physics. The brightness perturbations caused as a result may relate to the microvariations observed in LBVs like AG Car (Lamers et al. 2004) or in supergiants like Deneb. Moreover, the feature of inflated envelopes coupled with the dynamic pulsations can play a major role in the modelling of mass transfer in very massive binary systems. We investigate how mass loss (through RLOF or wind) from such inflated stars may affect the envelope structure.
The Mythical Snake which Swallows its Tail: Einstein's matter world
Weinstein, Galina
2013-01-01
In 1917 Einstein introduced into his field equations a cosmological term having the cosmological constant as a coefficient, in order that the theory should yield a static universe. Einstein desired to eliminate absolute space from physics according to "Mach's ideas". De Sitter objected to the "world-matter" in Einstein's world, and proposed a vacuum solution of Einstein's field equations with the cosmological constant and with no "world-matter". In 1920 the world-matter of Einstein's world was equivalent to "Mach's Ether", a carrier of the effects of inertia. De Sitter's 1917 solution predicted a spectral shift effect. In 1923 Eddington and Weyl adopted De Sitter's model and studied this effect. Einstein objected to this "cosmological problem". This paper is a new interpretation to Einstein's cosmological considerations over the period 1917-1923.
On the Eddington limit for relativistic accretion discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abolmasov, Pavel; Chashkina, Anna
2015-12-01
Standard accretion disc model relies upon several assumptions, the most important of which is geometrical thinness. Whenever this condition is violated, new physical effects become important such as radial energy advection and mass loss from the disc. These effects are important, for instance, for large mass accretion rates when the disc approaches its local Eddington limit. In this work, we study the upper limits for standard accretion disc approximation and find the corrections to the standard model that should be considered in any model aiming on reproducing the transition to super-Eddington accretion regime. First, we find that for thin accretion disc, taking into account relativistic corrections allows to increase the local Eddington limit by about a factor of 2 due to stronger gravity in general relativity (GR). However, violation of the local Eddington limit also means large disc thickness. To consider consequently the disc thickness effects, one should make assumptions upon the two-dimensional rotation law of the disc. For rotation frequency constant on cylinders r sin ? = const, vertical gravity becomes stronger with height on spheres of constant radius. On the other hand, effects of radial flux advection increase the flux density in the inner parts of the disc and lower the Eddington limit. In general, the effects connected to disc thickness tend to increase the local Eddington limit even more. The efficiency of accretion is however decreased by advection effects by about a factor of several.
Black hole winds II: Hyper-Eddington winds and feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew; Muldrew, Stuart I.
2016-01-01
We show that black holes supplied with mass at hyper-Eddington rates drive outflows with mildly sub-relativistic velocities. These are ˜0.1-0.2c for Eddington accretion factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100, and ˜1500 km s-1 for {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4. Winds like this are seen in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous sources (ULXs), strongly supporting the view that ULXs are stellar-mass compact binaries in hyper-Eddington accretion states. SS433 appears to be an extreme ULX system ({dot{m}_acc}˜ 10^4) viewed from outside the main X-ray emission cone. For less-extreme Eddington factors {dot{m}_acc}˜ 10-100 the photospheric temperatures of the winds are ˜100 eV, consistent with the picture that the ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are ULXs seen outside the medium-energy X-ray beam, unifying the ULX/ULS populations and SS433 (actually a ULS but with photospheric emission too soft to detect). For supermassive black holes (SMBHs), feedback from hyper-Eddington accretion is significantly more powerful than the usual near-Eddington (`UFO') case, and if realized in nature would imply M - ? masses noticeably smaller than observed. We suggest that the likely warping of the accretion disc in such cases may lead to much of the disc mass being expelled, severely reducing the incidence of such strong feedback. We show that hyper-Eddington feedback from bright ULXs can have major effects on their host galaxies. This is likely to have important consequences for the formation and survival of small galaxies.
Massive main-sequence stars evolving at the Eddington limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanyal, D.; Grassitelli, L.; Langer, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.
2015-08-01
Context. Massive stars play a vital role in the Universe, however, their evolution even on the main-sequence is not yet well understood. Aims: Because of the steep mass-luminosity relation, massive main-sequence stars become extremely luminous. This brings their envelopes very close to the Eddington limit. We analyse stellar evolutionary models in which the Eddington limit is reached and exceeded, explore the rich diversity of physical phenomena that take place in their envelopes, and investigate their observational consequences. Methods: We use published grids of detailed stellar models, computed with a state-of-the-art, one-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code using LMC composition, to investigate the envelope properties of core hydrogen burning massive stars. Results: We find that the Eddington limit is almost never reached at the stellar surface, even for stars up to 500 M?. When we define an appropriate Eddington limit locally in the stellar envelope, we can show that most stars more massive than ~40 M? actually exceed this limit, in particular, in the partial ionisation zones of iron, helium, or hydrogen. While most models adjust their structure such that the local Eddington limit is exceeded at most by a few per cent, our most extreme models do so by a factor of more than seven. We find that the local violation of the Eddington limit has severe consequences for the envelope structure, as it leads to envelope inflation, convection, density inversions, and, possibly to, pulsations. We find that all models with luminosities higher than 4 × 105L?, i.e. stars above ~40 M? show inflation, with a radius increase of up to a factor of about 40. We find that the hot edge of the S Dor variability region coincides with a line beyond which our models are inflated by more than a factor of two, indicating a possible connection between S Dor variability and inflation. Furthermore, our coolest models show highly inflated envelopes with masses of up to several solar masses, and appear to be candidates for producing major luminous blue variable eruptions. Conclusions: Our models show that the Eddington limit is expected to be reached in all stars above ~40 M? in the LMC, even in lower mass stars in the Galaxy, or in close binaries or rapid rotators. While our results do not support the idea of a direct super-Eddington wind driven by continuum photons, the consequences of the Eddington limit in the form of inflation, pulsations and possibly eruptions may well give rise to a significant enhancement of the time averaged mass-loss rate. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: the Eddington connection
Zubovas, Kastytis
2013-01-01
We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby AGN, and the slower and less ionized winds of BAL QSOs. The primary difference is the mass loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed towards the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to $\\sim 10-50$ times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly-ionized winds. In contrast BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently-discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest tha...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Sartori, Lia F.; Berney, Simon
2016-01-01
The total duration of quasar phases has been estimated to be on the order of 100 Myr to 1 Gyr. However, black hole accretion may not be a smooth process and a long-lasting growth phase may actually be composed of maby brief 105 year accretion bursts, interspersed by low-Eddington phases and even quiescence. I present an observational argument for the 105 year timescale, discuss its implications as well as current observational efforts to map out the entire AGN lifecycle.
Wormhole geometries in Eddington-Inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.; Sushkov, Sergey V.
2015-10-01
Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity is a recently proposed modified theory of gravity, based on the classic work of Eddington and Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. In this paper, we consider the possibility that wormhole geometries are sustained in EiBI gravity. We present the gravitational field equations for an anisotropic stress-energy tensor and consider the generic conditions, for the auxiliary metric, at the wormhole throat. In addition to this, we obtain an exact solution for an asymptotically flat wormhole.
Not Only Because of Theory: Dyson, Eddington and the Competing Myths of the 1919 Eclipse Expedition
Daniel Kennefick
2007-09-05
The 1919 Eclipse Expedition to test the light-bending prediction of General Relativity remains one of the most famous physics experiments of the 20th century. However, in recent decades it has been increasingly often alleged that the data-analysis of the expedition's leaders was faulty and biased in favor of Einstein's theory. Arthur Stanley Eddington is particularly alleged to have been prejudiced in favor of general relativity. Specifically it is claimed that some of the data, which would have favored the so-called Newtonian prediction, was thrown out on dubious grounds. This paper argues that a close examination of the views of the expedition's organizers, and of their data analysis, suggests that they had good grounds for acting as they did, and that the key people involved, in particular the astronomer Frank Watson Dyson, were not biased in favor of Einstein. It also draws attention to a modern re-analysis of the most important eclipse plates which, though overlooked until now, tends to strongly support the thesis of this paper.
Hyper-Eddington accretion flows onto massive black holes
Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P
2015-01-01
We study very-high rate spherically symmetric accretion flows onto a massive black hole (BH; 10^2 (M_BH/10^4Msun)^{-1}(T/10^4 K)^{3/2}, where n and T are the density and temperature of ambient gas outside of the Bondi radius. The resulting accretion rate in this regime is steady, and larger than 3000 times the Eddington rate. At lower Bondi rates, the accretion is episodic due to radiative feedback and the average rate is limited below the Eddington rate. For the hyper-Eddington case, the steady solution consists of two parts: a radiation-dominated central core, where photon trapping due to electron scattering is important, and an accreting envelope which follows a Bondi profile with T~8000 K. When the emergent luminosity is limited below the Eddington luminosity because of photon trapping, radiation from the central region does not affect the gas dynamics at larger scales. We apply our result to the rapid formation of massive BHs in protogalaxies with a virial temperature of T_vir> 10^4 K. Once a seed BH fo...
Black Hole Winds II: Hyper-Eddington Winds and Feedback
King, Andrew
2015-01-01
We show that black holes supplied with mass at hyper--Eddington rates drive outflows with mildly sub--relativistic velocities. These are $\\sim 0.1 - 0.2c$ for Eddington accretion factors $\\dot m_{\\rm acc} \\sim 10 - 100$, and $\\sim 1500\\,{\\rm km\\, s^{-1}}$ for $\\dot m_{\\rm acc} \\sim 10^4$. Winds like this are seen in the X--ray spectra of ultraluminous sources (ULXs), strongly supporting the view that ULXs are stellar--mass compact binaries in hyper--Eddington accretion states. SS433 appears to be an extreme ULX system ($\\dot m_{\\rm acc} \\sim 10^4$) viewed from outside the main X--ray emission cone. For less extreme Eddington factors $\\dot m_{\\rm acc} \\sim 10 - 100$ the photospheric temperatures of the winds are $\\sim 100$\\, eV, consistent with the picture that the ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are ULXs seen outside the medium--energy X--ray beam, unifying the ULX/ULS populations and SS433 (actually a ULS but with photospheric emission too soft to detect). For supermassive black holes (SMBHs), feedbac...
None
2011-04-25
Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)
Solar activity over different timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obridko, Vladimir; Nagovitsyn, Yuri
The report deals with the “General History of the Sun” (multi-scale description of the long-term behavior of solar activity): the possibility of reconstruction. Time scales: • 100-150 years - the Solar Service. • 400 - instrumental observations. • 1000-2000 years - indirect data (polar auroras, sunspots seen with the naked eye). • Over-millennial scale (Holocene) -14? (10Be) Overview and comparison of data sets. General approaches to the problem of reconstruction of solar activity indices on a large timescale. North-South asymmetry of the sunspot formation activity. 200-year cycle over the “evolution timescales”.The relative contribution of the large-scale and low-latitude. components of the solar magnetic field to the general geomagnetic activity. “Large-scale” and low-latitude sources of geomagnetic disturbances.
Radiation force on a relativistic plasma and the Eddington limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odell, S. L.
1981-01-01
Calculations of the radiation force due to Thomson scattering on a relativistic plasma are presented and discussed in relation to certain astronomical objects which operate within a few orders of magnitude of their Eddington luminosity. The radiation force on a hot isotropic plasma is shown to exceed that on a cold plasma by a factor depending on the electron Lorentz factor, which can be substantial in a relativistic plasma. In such a plasma, radiative bulk acceleration is found to occur through the anisotropic loss of internal energy during the Thomson scattering, resulting in an effect termed a Compton rocket. The Compton rocket is shown to be a relevant acceleration mechanism in situations where a relativistic electron plasma lies in the vicinity of a luminous source operating near the classical Eddington limit, including compact galactic X-ray sources and objects associated with active galactic nuclei (quasars, blazars, and Seyfert nuclei).
Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.
2015-01-01
We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.
Eddington's Stellar Models and Early Twentieth Century Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisberg, Joann
1991-06-01
Between 1916 and 1926, Arthur Stanley Eddington developed models of the temperature, pressure and density in the interior of stars. The models generated a relationship between stellar mass and luminosity that agreed well with observation. Coupled with the evolutionary theory that astronomers then thought governed stars, the models explained the distribution of stars upon the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This thesis argues that Eddington's models were shaped by the cosmological concerns that had preoccupied the British astronomical community in the preceding decade. British astronomers participated in a program of statistical cosmology, spearheaded by the Dutch astronomer, J. C. Kapteyn, to map the universe by studying the distribution of stars in neighborhoods successively more distant from the sun. The parameters of chief concern in this program were proper motion, which was used to measure stellar distance, and luminosity, considered the most important inherent characteristic of a star. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell published an empirical diagram of stellar luminosity and spectral type, on which he based a new theory of the evolution of stars from bright, red giants to bright, blue giants, to faint red dwarfs. British astronomers recognized the theory and diagram as fruits of the statistical program, and they rapidly accepted its parameters as the ones a stellar model should generate. Prompted by his interest in cepheid variable stars to construct a model of stars in radiative equilibrium, Eddington's first concern was to reproduce the features of Russell's diagram. Russell's evolutionary theory played so large a role in Eddington's work that when his own mass -luminosity relationship threatened to overturn it, he tailored his theory of stellar energy generation to preserve it.
Parker, B.
1986-01-01
This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein.
Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Greg
2015-08-01
The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.
Evolutionary games with two timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borkar, Vivek S.; Jain, Sanjay; Rangarajan, Govindan
1999-01-01
We consider a two timescale model of learning by economic agents wherein active or ‘ontogenetic’ learning by individuals takes place on a fast scale and passive or ‘phylogenetic’ learning by society as a whole on a slow scale, each affecting the evolution of the other. The former is modelled by the Monte Carlo dynamics of physics, while the latter is modelled by the replicator dynamics of evolutionary biology. Various quanlitative aspects of the dynamics are studied in some simple cases, both analytically and numerically, and its role as a useful modelling device is emphasized. rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas
2013-04-01
The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.
Is Eddington-Born-Infeld theory really free of cosmological singularities?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin
2014-03-01
The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory has recently been resurrected. Such a theory is characterized by being equivalent to Einstein theory in vacuum but differing from it in the presence of matter. One of the virtues of the theory is that it avoids the Big Bang singularity for a radiation-filled universe. In this paper, we analyze singularity avoidance in this kind of model. More precisely, we analyze the behavior of a homogeneous and isotropic universe filled with phantom energy in addition to the dark and baryonic matter. Unlike the Big Bang singularity that can be avoided in this kind of model through a bounce or a loitering effect on the physical metric, we find that the Big Rip singularity is unavoidable in the EiBI phantom model even though it can be postponed towards a slightly further future cosmic time as compared with the same singularity in other models based on the standard general relativity and with the same matter content as described above.
Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales
Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick
2014-01-01
The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a ‘holy grail’ of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855
Spectral indices in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Inyong; Gong, Jinn-Ouk
2015-09-01
We investigate the scalar and tensor spectral indices of the quadratic inflation model in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. We find that the EiBI corrections to the spectral indices are of second and first order in the slow-roll approximation for the scalar and tensor perturbations, respectively. This is very promising since the quadratic inflation model in general relativity provides a very nice fit for the spectral indices. Together with the suppression of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, EiBI inflation is agrees well with the observational data.
Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair Hedges, S.; Kumar, Sudhir
2003-01-01
For decades, molecular clocks have helped to illuminate the evolutionary timescale of life, but now genomic data pose a challenge for time estimation methods. It is unclear how to integrate data from many genes, each potentially evolving under a different model of substitution and at a different rate. Current methods can be grouped by the way the data are handled (genes considered separately or combined into a 'supergene') and the way gene-specific rate models are applied (global versus local clock). There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, and the optimal method has not yet emerged. Fortunately, time estimates inferred using many genes or proteins have greater precision and appear to be robust to different approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomnitz, C.
2007-05-01
What does Einstein have to do with subduction? Good question. Peaceful Lake Budi, lying at the heart of an Indian reservation in the Deep South of Chile, had subsided by two meters in the 1960 mega-thrust earthquake. This unique South American salt lake was hiding an awful secret: it was actually an oxbow, not a lake. But Einstein had realized in 1926 that meanders are natural freaks. Rivers will not flow uphill, yet - he claimed - they don't flow down the path of steepest descent either. This anomaly was put at the doorstep of a weak Coriolis Force. Thus Einstein problematized the dilemma of the earth sciences. How can a non-force produce margin-parallel compression in a convergent margin where extension is expected? In fact, where does the energy for meander formation come from? Good question . . . Even Wikipedia knows that Coriolis is not a “force” but an “effect”. So is the obliquity of plate convergence in subduction. Where did Einstein err, and where was he a pioneer? Coastal ablation plus alternating subsidence and emergence in giant earthquakes may yield an answer. Einstein, A. (1926). Die Ursache der Maeanderbildung der Flusslaeufe und das sogenannte Baersche Gesetz, Naturwissenschaften, 14, fascicle II.
Super-Eddington Atmospheres that Don't Blow Away
Mitchell C. Begelman
2000-12-15
We show that magnetized, radiation dominated atmospheres can support steady state patterns of density inhomogeneity that enable them to radiate at far above the Eddington limit, without suffering mass loss. The inhomogeneities consist of periodic shock fronts bounding narrow, high-density regions, interspersed with much broader regions of low density. The radiation flux avoids the regions of high density, which are therefore weighed down by gravity, while gas in the low-density regions is slammed upward into the shock fronts by radiation force. As the wave pattern moves through the atmosphere, each parcel of matter alternately experiences upward and downward forces, which balance on average. Magnetic tension shares the competing forces between regions of different densities, preventing the atmosphere from blowing apart. We calculate the density structure and phase speed of the wave pattern, and relate these to the wavelength, the density contrast, and the factor by which the net radiation flux exceeds the Eddington limit. In principle, this factor can be as large as the ratio of magnetic pressure to mean gas pressure, or the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure, whichever is smaller. Although the magnetic pressure must be large compared to the mean gas pressure in order to support a large density contrast, it need not be large compared to the radiation pressure. These highly inhomogeneous flows could represent the nonlinear development of the "photon bubble" instability discovered by Gammie. We briefly discuss the applicability of these solutions to astrophysical systems.
Efficiency of super-Eddington magnetically-arrested accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Dai, Lixin; Avara, Mark J.
2015-11-01
The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested discs, where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin a/M = 0.8) accreting at ˜50 times Eddington shows a total efficiency ˜50 per cent when time-averaged and total efficiency ? 100 per cent in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disc, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency ˜40 per cent on the horizon and BZ efficiency ˜5 per cent by r ˜ 400rg (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at r ˜ 400rg with efficiency ? ? 15 per cent (luminosity L ˜ 50LEdd), similar to ? ? 12 per cent for a Novikov-Thorne thin disc and beyond ? ? 1 per cent seen in prior GRRMHD simulations or slim disc theory. Our simulations show how BH spin, magnetic field, and jet mass-loading affect these radiative and jet efficiencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Arthur I.
2004-11-01
How the 20th century’s most important scientist—Albert Einstein—and its most important artist—Pablo Picasso—made their greatest discoveries at almost the same time is a remarkable story: Einstein's relativity theory in 1905 and Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon two years later. A scientist and an artist confronted the same problem—the nature of time and simultaneity—and resolved it after realizing a new aesthetic. At the nascent moment of creativity boundaries dissolve between disciplines. This article explores the similarities in the early work of two of the greatest icons of Art and Science of the last century.
Rheology and timescales of welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quane, S.; Russell, J. K.
2004-12-01
We describe results from 15 high-temperature, constant strain rate and constant load deformation experiments on natural pyroclastic materials that simulate welding. Experiments were run on unconfined samples at temperatures between 835° and 900° C. Samples comprised 4.3 cm diameter, ˜6 cm length cores of sintered Rattlesnake Tuff rhyolite ash. Porosity of starting materials is ˜78%. The experiments used uniaxial load stresses of 0.2 to 5 MPa which corresponds to overburden depths of < 200 m in ignimbrite deposits. The experimental results track strain (porosity loss) and strain rate as a function of time at fixed conditions (load and temperature). Our results show that deformation of pyroclastic material has a strain dependent rheology. The effective viscosity (? e) of the samples increases during the experiment as strain acccumulates and porosity (? ) is reduced. We describe this behaviour using the relationship: (1) log ? e = log ? o - ? [? /(1-? )]. where effective viscosity is related to the viscosity of the framework material (melt), the sample porosity, and a fit-parameter for the material (? ). Our experimental work suggests a value of 0.63 for compaction of natural pyroclastic materials. Equation 1 is the basis for an empirical equation that describes the total strain during viscous compaction as a function of original porosity (? o), the viscosity of framework melt (? o),load (? ) and time: (2) \\epsilon = \\phi_{o} + (1-\\phi_{o})/\\alpha \\times ln [(\\alpha \\sigma \\Deltat)/(\\eta_{o} (1-\\phi_{o} ) + exp[-(\\alpha \\phi_{o})/(1 - \\phi_{o} ) ] ]. In this relationship, the values of ? o and ? o are physical properties of the specific deposit and load relates to the thickness of the deposit and the position (depth) of the sample. Eq. 2 can be used to predict ? vs. time paths to compare against the original experimental data and to model natural deposits. By rearranging the above equation to isolate time (? t) we predict the times required for strain accumulation (reduced ? ) during welding of natural pyroclastic deposits. We show that the timescales of welding for even moderate emplacement temperatures, relative to glass transition temperatures, can be very short (i.e., days) and within an order of magnitude of the timescales of deposition or assembly of large ignimbrite sheets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fine, Leonard
2005-01-01
A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-01-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…
Lorentzian wormholes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaikh, Rajibul
2015-07-01
We show that it is possible to construct a wide class of Lorentzian wormholes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity with a stress energy which does not violate the weak or null energy condition. The wormholes exist in a certain region of the parameter space. In fact, it is shown that there is a critical value of a parameter defined in our work, below which we have wormholes. Above the critical value, we have a regular black hole spacetime. We put a restriction on the equation of state parameter ? (p?=? ? ) to have wormholes. We also put a lower limit on both the theory parameter |? | and the throat radius, to restrict the tidal acceleration (at the throat) below one Earth gravity. As a special case of our general solution, we retrieve the wormhole supported by an electric field for a charge-to-mass ratio greater than the critical value (Q/M) c?1.144 .
Super-Eddington Black-Hole Models for SS 433
Toru Okuda
2002-02-25
We examine highly super-Eddington black-hole models for SS 433, based on two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations coupled with radiation transport. The super-Eddington accretion flow with a small viscosity parameter, $\\alpha = 10^{-3}$, results in a geometrically and optically thick disk with a large opening angle of $\\sim 60^{\\circ}$ to the equatorial plane and a very rarefied, hot, and optically thin high-velocity jets region around the disk. The thick accretion flow consists of two different zones: an inner advection-dominated zone and an outer convection-dominated zone. The high-velocity region around the disk is divided into two characteristic regions, a very rarefied funnel region along the rotational axis and a moderately rarefied high-velocity region outside of the disk. The temperatures of $\\sim 10^7$ K and the densities of $\\sim 10^{-7}$ g cm$^{-3}$ in the upper disk vary sharply to $\\sim 10^8$ K and $10^{-8}$ g cm$^{-3}$, respectively, across the disk boundary between the disk and the high-velocity region. The X-ray emission of iron lines would be generated only in a confined region between the funnel wall and the photospheric disk boundary, where flows are accelerated to relativistic velocities of $\\sim$ 0.2 $c$ due to the dominant radiation-pressure force. The results are discussed regarding the collimation angle of the jets, the large mass-outflow rate obserevd in SS 433, and the ADAFs and the CDAFs models.
Professor Joel Primack
2007-10-08
The National Academy of Sciences was commissioned in 2006 to report on how to restart the Beyond Einstein program, which includes missions to understand dark energy, test general relativity, and observe gravity waves from merging supermassive black holes. This colloquium by one of the members of the recently released Academy study will explain the research strategy that the report proposes and its implications for continued U.S. participation in the exploration of the universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertz, P.
2003-03-01
The Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) theme within NASA's Office of Space Science seeks to explore and understand the dynamic transformations of energy in the Universe - the entire web of biological and physical interactions that determine the evolution of our cosmic habitat. This search for understanding will enrich the human spirit and inspire a new generation of explorers, scientists, and engineers. To that end, NASA's strategic planning process has generated a new Roadmap to enable those goals. Called "Beyond Einstein", this Roadmap identifies three science objectives for the SEU theme: (1) Find out what powered the Big Bang; (2) Observe how black holes manipulate space, time, and matter; and (3) Identify the mysterious dark energy pullingthe Universe apart. These objectives can be realized through a combination of large observatories (Constellation-X, LISA), moderate sized, PI-led missions (the Einstein Probes), and a contuinuing program of technology development, research and analysis, and education/public outreach. In this presentation, NASA's proposed Beyond Einstein Program will be described. The full Roadmap is available at http://universe.nasa.gov/.
Explaining variance in black carbon's aging timescale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fierce, L.; Riemer, N.; Bond, T. C.
2015-03-01
The size and composition of particles containing black carbon (BC) are modified soon after emission by condensation of semivolatile substances and coagulation with other particles, known collectively as "aging" processes. Although this change in particle properties is widely recognized, the timescale for transformation is not well constrained. In this work, we simulated aerosol aging with the particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC (Particle Monte Carlo - Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) and extracted aging timescales based on changes in particle cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We simulated nearly 300 scenarios and, through a regression analysis, identified the key parameters driving the value of the aging timescale. We show that BC's aging timescale spans from hours to weeks, depending on the local environmental conditions and the characteristics of the fresh BC-containing particles. Although the simulations presented in this study included many processes and particle interactions, we show that 80% of the variance in the aging timescale is explained by only a few key parameters. The condensation aging timescale decreased with the flux of condensing aerosol and was shortest for the largest fresh particles, while the coagulation aging timescale decreased with the total number concentration of large (D >100 nm), CCN-active particles and was shortest for the smallest fresh particles. Therefore, both condensation and coagulation play important roles in aging, and their relative impact depends on the particle size range.
Transforming Education at Einstein
Emmons, Scott
Transforming Education at Einstein EinstEin Winter/spring 2012 The Magazine for Alumni and Friends of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : WintEr/spring 2012 Meet Our interactive Companion Magazine Give Einstein's "virtual" version a try! this interactive version
Einstein's aborted attempt at a dynamic steady-state universe
Nussbaumer, Harry
2014-01-01
In June 1930 Einstein visited Cambridge where he stayed with Eddington who had just shown that Einstein's supposedly static universe of 1917 was not stable. This forced Einstein to rethink his cosmology. He spent January and February 1931 at Pasadena. There, he discussed cosmology intensely with Tolman, conscious that he had to replace his original model of 1917. However, at the end of February he still had not made up his mind about an alternative. The Albert Einstein Archives of Jerusalem (AEA) hold an undated draft, handwritten by Einstein, which I date to the beginning of January 1931. In this draft Einstein hopes to have found a solution to the cosmological problem: a stationary, dynamic universe in expansion. His model was stationary because particles leaving a given volume were replaced by particles created out of the vacuum, anticipating an idea of Bondi, Gold and Hoyle published in 1948. He saw the cosmological term as energy reservoir. However, he realised that his calculations contained a numerical...
Eddington-Malmquist bias in a cosmological context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teerikorpi, P.
2015-04-01
Aims: In 1914, Eddington derived a formula for the difference between the mean absolute magnitudes of stars "in space" or gathered "from the sky". In 1920, Malmquist derived a general relation for this difference in Euclidean space. Here we study this statistical bias in cosmology, clarifying and expanding previous work. Methods: We derived the Malmquist relation within a general cosmological framework, including Friedmann's model, analogously to the way Malmquist showed in 1936 that his formula is also valid in the presence of extinction in Euclidean space. We also discuss some conceptual aspects that explain the wide scope of the bias relation. Results: The Malmquist formula for the intrinsic difference ? M ? m - M0 = -?M2{d ln{ a(m)}/{dm}} is also valid for observations made in an expanding Friedmann universe. This holds true for bolometric and finite-band magnitudes when a(m) refers to the distribution of observed (uncorrected for K-effect or z-dependent extinction) apparent magnitudes.
Three dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan
2013-07-01
Three dimensional Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is studied with the goal of finding new solutions. Beginning with cosmology, we obtain analytical and numerical solutions for the scale factor a(t), in spatially flat (k=0) and spatially curved (k=±1) Friedmann-Roberston-Walker universes with (i) pressureless dust (P=0) and (ii) perfect fluid (P=(?)/(2)), as matter sources. When the theory parameter ?>0, our cosmological solutions are generically singular (except for the open universe, with a specific condition). On the other hand, for ?<0 we do find nonsingular cosmologies. We then move on towards finding static, circularly symmetric line elements with matter obeying (i) p=0 and (ii) p=(?)/(2). For p=0, the solution found is nonsingular for ?<0 with the matter-stress-energy representing inhomogeneous dust. For p=(?)/(2) we obtain nonsingular solutions, for all ?, and discuss some interesting characteristics of these solutions. Finally, we look at the rather simple p=-? case where the solutions are either de Sitter or anti-de Sitter or flat spacetime.
Eddington-class flares and their distance from the central black hole in blazars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georganopoulos, Markos; Rivas, David
2014-08-01
The distance from the central engine at which the bright gamma-ray flares of blazars take place is an open question with implications on our understanding of jet formation and collimation. In some cases, pair opacity arguments suggest that the detection of sub-TeV photons points to the emission taking place beyond the ~ 0.1 pc size broad line region. Here we show that for bright flares having beaming-corrected luminosity comparable to the Eddington luminosity (Eddington-class flares), strong deceleration due to Compton drag is expected if the flare takes place inside the 1-few pc molecular torus region. This is incompatible with the highly superluminal speeds these sources exhibit, requiring that Eddington-class flares take place beyond the molecular torus. We demonstrate this in the case of the MAGIC-detected source PKS 1222+21 (Aleksicet al. 2011), a source that exhibited Eddington-class flares in 2010 (Tanaka11).
Einstein,s Twin Paradox Special Relativity
Capogna, Luca
Einstein,s Twin Paradox Special Relativity Einstein's special theory of relativity is based as Maxwell's equations. These equations predict that electromagnetic waves including light travel at the same Special Theory of Relativity, which includes the phenomenon of time dilation. All of the surprising
Are biological and astrophysical timescales truly uncorrelated?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragi?evi?, I.; ?irkovi?, M. M.
2003-10-01
A well-known argument due to Brandon Carter suggests that intelligent life in the Galaxy is much rarer than a conventional probabilistic reasoning would suggest. A crucial assumption in that application of the anthropic reasoning is that the biological timescales for the development of life and intelligence are entirely independent ("uncorrelated") of astrophysical timescales for habitability of planetary ecospheres around Main Sequence stars. This assumption may be too naive extrapolation from our state of relative ignorance. We discuss the impact of several plausible mechanisms inducing a correlation between the two timescales, some of them of fairly recent origin, such as the impact of local ("galactic") gamma-ray bursts. Although the results are still far from conclusive, due mainly to our poor understanding of biogenesis and noogenesis, we hope to set up a long-term research programme aimed at addressing these uncertainties in a quantitative manner.
Longair, Malcolm
2015-04-13
The famous eclipse expedition of 1919 to Sobral, Brazil, and the island of Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea, led by Dyson, Eddington and Davidson was a turning point in the history of relativity, not only because of its importance as a test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, but also because of the intense public interest which was aroused by the success of the expedition. The dramatic sequence of events which occurred is reviewed, as well as the long-term impact of its success. The gravitational bending of electromagnetic waves by massive bodies is a subject of the greatest importance for contemporary and future astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Examples of the potential impact of this key tool of modern observational astronomy are presented. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750149
Longair, Malcolm
2015-01-01
The famous eclipse expedition of 1919 to Sobral, Brazil, and the island of Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea, led by Dyson, Eddington and Davidson was a turning point in the history of relativity, not only because of its importance as a test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, but also because of the intense public interest which was aroused by the success of the expedition. The dramatic sequence of events which occurred is reviewed, as well as the long-term impact of its success. The gravitational bending of electromagnetic waves by massive bodies is a subject of the greatest importance for contemporary and future astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Examples of the potential impact of this key tool of modern observational astronomy are presented. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750149
Tavakoli, Yaser; Fabris, Julio C
2015-01-01
In this letter we address the implications when an Oppenheimer-Snyder dust model is considered as a scenario for gravitational collapse in the context of Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory. In order to describe the dynamical evolution of the collapse, we present an effective field equation, which constitutes the first order corrections to Einstein's gravity. By imposing a convenient junction condition at the boundary of collapsing dust, we obtain a threshold mass for formation of a non-singular black hole in the exterior region, which gives rise to a cut-off over the EiBI coupling parameter as $|\\kappa|=1.8\\times10^{-96}~kg^{-1}\\cdot m^3$. We further find that the exterior solution corresponds to a regular, non-Schwarzschild geometry, which indicates that, the vacuum solution in the herein (effective) EiBI theory is not equivalent to that in general relativity. Finally, we study the geodesic behaviours on the space-time of this black hole which provides some interesting new features.
BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution
Fischer, Woodward
BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis Lewis innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis--autotrophic growth photosynthesis ulti- mately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether
Leading Edge Timescales of Genetic and Epigenetic
Leading Edge Review Timescales of Genetic and Epigenetic Inheritance Oliver J. Rando1, * and Kevin and epigenetic switches increase the variabil- ity of specific phenotypes; error-prone DNA replicases produce contained a widely variable number of phage-resistant mutants (Luria and Delbru¨ ck, 1943). Hence
A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STUDYING SUPER-EDDINGTON MASS TRANSFER IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES
Marcello, Dominic C.; Tohline, Joel E. E-mail: tohline@phys.lsu.edu
2012-04-01
We present a numerical method for the study of double white dwarf (DWD) binary systems at the onset of super-Eddington mass transfer. We incorporate the physics of ideal inviscid hydrodynamical flow, Newtonian self-gravity, and radiation transport on a three-dimensional uniformly rotating cylindrical Eulerian grid. Care has been taken to conserve the key physical quantities such as angular momentum and energy. Our new method conserves total energy to a higher degree of accuracy than other codes that are presently being used to model mass transfer in DWD systems. We present the results of verification tests and simulate the first 20 + orbits of a binary system of mass ratio q 0.7 at the onset of dynamically unstable direct impact mass transfer. The mass transfer rate quickly exceeds the critical Eddington limit by many orders of magnitude, and thus we are unable to model a trans-Eddington phase. It appears that radiation pressure does not significantly affect the accretion flow in the highly super-Eddington regime. An optically thick common envelope forms around the binary within a few orbits. Although this envelope quickly exceeds the spatial domain of the computational grid, the fraction of the common envelope that exceeds zero gravitational binding energy is extremely small, suggesting that radiation-driven mass loss is insignificant in this regime. It remains to be seen whether simulations that capture the trans-Eddington phase of such flows will lead to the same conclusion or show that substantial material gets expelled.
Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.
2014-01-01
Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.
Weinstein, Galina
2012-01-01
This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Einstein wrote to Arnold Sommerfeld that Grossman will never claim to be considered a co-discoverer of the Einstein-Grossmann theory. He only helped in guiding Einstein through the mathematical literature, but contributed nothing of substance to the results of the theory. Hence, Einstein neither considered Besso or Grossmann as co-discoverers of the relativity theory which he invented.
Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.
2000-01-01
Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jun; Zhao, Zheng
2007-12-01
In this paper, by using well-known Eddington Finkelstein coordinates instead of Painlevè coordinates, we study the tunneling effect of black holes. As examples of special static black holes, we calculate the tunneling rates of Gibbon Maeda black holes. The result obtained by adopting Eddington Finkelstein coordinates is in agreement with the Parikh’s standard result, ?˜exp (-2Im S), which adopts the Painlevè coordinates. In addition, we discuss carefully the condition that the coordinates system in which we study the tunneling process should satisfy. In our opinion, the terms of the tunneling effect are not as strict as ones in Parikh’s paper and could be softened properly.
The Evolution of Galaxies on Cosmological Timescales
U. Fritze-v. Alvensleben
2000-03-28
I discuss the chemical and spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies over cosmological timescales and present a first attempt to treat both aspects in a chemically consistent way. In our evolutionary synthesis approach, we account for the increasing metallicity of successive generations of stars and use sets of stellar evolutionary tracks, stellar yields, spectra, etc. for various metallicities. This gives a more realistic description of nearby galaxies, which are observed to have broad stellar metalllicty distributions, as well as of young galaxies at high redshift. Selected results are presented for the chemo-cosmological evolution of galaxies as compared to QSO absorption line observations and for the spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies to very high redshifts. On cosmological timescales, intercations are important drivers of galaxy evolution. Neglecting dynamical aspects we study the effects of interaction-induced starbursts on the spectrophotometric and chemical evolution of galaxies and briefly discuss the formation of star clusters and Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in this context.
Einstein , Ricci soliton , ...
Tamaru, Hiroshi
( ) 2012 2012/09/14 #12;1 1.1 : , , . #12;1.2 (Â§2) 1 , , ... (Â§3) Einstein , Ricci.1 : " " . : " " section : (3pp) Einstein (3pp) Ricci soliton (3pp) #12;3.2 (1/3) - : G : La : G G : g ag . : G ( ). #12;3.5 Einstein (1/3) - : (g, , ) : Einstein : c R : Ric = c Â· id (i.e., ric = c , ). : gCH2
Horner, Jack K.
WAS EINSTEIN A LAPLACEAN? Jack Horner It is surely a truism that the science and philosophy of an age influence one another, and this century has been no exception: the rise of the quantum theory profoundly threatened the most promising and universally... distinguished physicists, Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein. It is widely believed that the dynamics of this dialogue were dictated by an overview of "physical reality" held by Einstein. Such interpretations typically presume that Einstein's arguments...
Timescales of Land Surface Evapotranspiration Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, Russell; Entekhabi, Dara; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max
1997-01-01
Soil and vegetation exert strong control over the evapotranspiration rate, which couples the land surface water and energy balances. A method is presented to quantify the timescale of this surface control using daily general circulation model (GCM) simulation values of evapotranspiration and precipitation. By equating the time history of evaporation efficiency (ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration) to the convolution of precipitation and a unit kernel (temporal weighting function), response functions are generated that can be used to characterize the timescales of evapotranspiration response for the land surface model (LSM) component of GCMS. The technique is applied to the output of two multiyear simulations of a GCM, one using a Surface-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) scheme and the other a Bucket LSM. The derived response functions show that the Bucket LSM's response is significantly slower than that of the SVAT across the globe. The analysis also shows how the timescales of interception reservoir evaporation, bare soil evaporation, and vegetation transpiration differ within the SVAT LSM.
Measuring quenching timescales in green valley galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signorini Gonçalves, Thiago; Martin, Christopher; Nogueira-Cavalcante, Joao Paulo; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik
2015-08-01
What are the processes that halt star formation in galaxies? The clear bimodality in galaxy colors tells us that there must be a mechanism - or combination of mechanisms - responsible for the swift transformation of star-forming galaxies into passively evolving objects, but it is remarkably difficult to identify what these mechanisms might be in each case. In that sense, a measurement of quenching timescales might help identify which mechanisms are more efficient in moving galaxies from the blue cloud into the red sequence. In this talk I will discuss our spectroscopic studies of green valley galaxies (i.e. galaxies currently undergoing this transition) and our determination of quenching timescales in these cases. Comparisons between our samples at low and high redshift show that galaxies were transitioning faster at earlier times, probably due to more violent processes taking place at such epochs. We can also distinguish between different morphologies in our sample, and are able to determine that galaxies with signs of secular evolution show slower quenching timescales. Finally, I will discuss our new method which determines the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rates for individual galaxies, which allows for a precise characterization of star formation histories and its correlation with other physical properties such as AGN activity or local environment.
Rácz, Zoltán
A Bose-Einstein kondenzációtól az atomlézerig Szépfalusy Péter 1;3 , Csordás András 2 1 ELTE TTK@galahad.elte.hu, csordas@power.szfki.kfki.hu Kivonat A Bose-Einstein (BE) kondenzáció témaköre történetének össze Planck 1900-ban felállított formuláját az eloszlás- függvényre. Bose statisztikáját Einstein
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caulley, Darrel N.
1982-01-01
Like any other person, Albert Einstein was an informal evaluator, engaged in placing value on various aspects of his life, work, and the world. Based on Einstein's own statements, this paper speculates about what Einstein would have been like as a connoisseur evaluator, a conceptual evaluator, or a responsive evaluator. (Author/BW)
Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity
Visser, Matt
Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity and with Einstein's theory of gravity (the general relativity) is still the single biggest theoretical problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Allan; Snoke, D. W.; Stringari, S.
1996-08-01
1. Introduction: Unifying themes of Bose-Einstein condensation; Part I. Review Papers: 2. Some comments on Bose-Einstein condensation; 3. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity; 4. Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid helium; 5. Sum rules and Bose-Einstein condensation; 6. Dilute degenerate gases; 7. Prospects for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen; 8. Spin-polarized hydrogen: Prospects for Bose-Einstein condensation and two-dimensional superfluidity; 9. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms; 10. Kinetics of Bose-Einstein condensation in an interacting Bose gas; 11. Condensate formation in a Bose gas; 12. Bose-Einstein condensation of excitonic particles in semiconductors; 13. Macroscopic coherent states of excitons in semiconductors; 14. Bose-Einstein condensation in a nearly ideal gas: excitons in Cu2O; 15. Crossover from BCS theory to Bose-Einstein condensation; 16. Bose-Einstein condensation of bipolarons in high-Tc superconductors; 17. Kaon condensation in dense matter; 18. The bosonization method in nuclear physics; 19. Broken gauge symmetry in a Bose condensate; Part II. Brief Reports: 20. Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold cesium: collisional constraints; 21. Bose-Einstein condensation and relaxation explosion in magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen; 22. Quest for Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in two-dimensional atomic hydrogen; 23. Bose-Einstein condensation of biexcitons in CuCl; 24. The influence of polariton effects on the Bose-Einstein condensation of biexcitons; 25. Light-induced Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons and biexcitons; 26. Decay of a non-equilibrium polariton condensate and the distribution functions of interacting polaritons in semiconductors; 27. Possibilities for Bose-Einstein condensation in positronium; 28. Excitonic superfluidity in Cu2O; 29. On the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons - finite-lifetime composite bosons; 30. Charged bosons in quantum heterostructures; 31. The dynamic structure function of Bose liquids in the deep inelastic regime; 32. Evidence for bipolaronic Bose-liquid and Bose-Einstein condensation in high-Tc oxides; 33. Bose-Einstein condensation and spin waves; 34. Universal behaviour within the Nozières and Schmitt-Rink theory; 35. Bound states and superfluidity in strongly coupled fermion systems; 36. Onset of superfluidity in nuclear matter.
Modeling coupled avulsion and earthquake timescale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Seeber, L.
2014-12-01
River avulsions and earthquakes can be hazardous events, and many researchers work to better understand and predict their timescales. Improvements in the understanding of the intrinsic processes of deposition and strain accumulation that lead to these events have resulted in better constraints on the timescales of each process individually. There are however several mechanisms by which these two systems may plausibly become linked. River deposition and avulsion can affect the stress on underlying faults through differential loading by sediment or water. Conversely, earthquakes can affect river avulsion patterns through altering the topography. These interactions may alter the event recurrence timescales, but this dynamic has not yet been explored. We present results of a simple numerical model, in which two systems have intrinsic rates of approach to failure thresholds, but the state of one system contributes to the other's approach to failure through coupling functions. The model is first explored for the simplest case of two linear approaches to failure, and linearly proportional coupling terms. Intriguing coupling dynamics emerge: the system settles into cycles of repeating earthquake and avulsion timescales, which are approached at an exponential decay rate that depends on the coupling terms. The ratio of the number of events of each type and the timescale values also depend on the coupling coefficients and the threshold values. We then adapt the model to a more complex and realistic scenario, in which a river avulses between either side of a fault, with parameters corresponding to the Brahmaputra River / Dauki fault system in Bangladesh. Here the tectonic activity alters the topography by gradually subsiding during the interseismic time, and abruptly increasing during an earthquake. The river strengthens the fault by sediment loading when in one path, and weakens it when in the other. We show this coupling can significantly affect earthquake and avulsion recurrence times. We also find a significant probability of event co-occurrence, where avulsions are induced by earthquakes. This model sets up a framework for the study of earthquakes and avulsions as a coupled dynamical system, and shows the importance of understanding this dynamic for prediction of hazard recurrence intervals.
A radiometric calibration of the SPECMAP timescale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, William G.; Goldstein, Steven L.
2006-12-01
The astronomical theory of climate change asserts that Earth's climate is affected by changes in its orbit, which vary the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of solar radiation. This theory is the basis of the orbitally tuned SPECMAP timescale. A key constraint for this important chronology was the mid-point of the Penultimate Deglaciation, initially dated to 127,000 years ago. Recent work suggests this event may be considerably older, casting doubt on the astronomical theory, the SPECMAP timescale, and the accuracy of orbitally tuned chronologies. Difficulties with U/Th coral dating of sea-level events have impeded progress on this problem, because most corals are not closed systems. Here, we use a new approach to U/Th dating that corrects for open-system behavior and produces a sea-level curve of sufficient resolution to confidently correlate with SPECMAP over the last 240,000 years, permitting a reassessment of both this critical chronology and a central tenet of climate change theory. High-precision ages for 24 oxygen isotope events provide a 240,000-year chronology for marine ?18O records that is independent of orbital tuning assumptions. Although there appear to be significant differences between the radiometric and orbitally tuned timescales near the lastglacial maximum and at the Marine Isotope Stage 7/6 boundary, a comparison of radiometric and SPECMAP ages for identical isotope events suggest that the SPECMAP timescale is quite accurate and that its errors were, in general, overestimated. Despite suborbital complexity, orbital cyclicity is clearly evident in our record. High-amplitude sea-level oscillations at periods greater than ˜20,000 years are very close in phase to summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Although sea-level changes cannot be uniquely tied to a specific season or latitude of insolation forcing, the simplest explanation is that long-period, high-amplitude sea-level change is linked to Northern Hemisphere insolation forcing. These results validate the principles of orbital tuning and suggest such timescales are generally robust.
Generalized Einstein Relation in an aging colloidal glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou, Bérengère; Gallet, François; Monceau, Pascal; Pottier, Noëlle
2008-06-01
We present an experimental investigation of the Generalized Einstein Relation (GER), a particular form of a fluctuation-dissipation relation, in an out-of-equilibrium visco-elastic fluid. Micrometer beads, used as thermometers, are immersed in an aging colloidal glass to provide both fluctuation and dissipation measurements. The deviations from the Generalized Einstein Relation are derived as a function of frequency and aging time. The observed deviations are interpreted as directly related to the change in the glass relaxation times with aging time. In our scenario, deviations are observed in the regime where the observation timescale is of the order of a characteristic relaxation time of the glass.
Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables
Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.
1982-01-01
Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars.
Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M
2015-01-01
In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.
M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz
2015-05-22
In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.
Tauris; van Den Heuvel EP; Savonije
2000-02-20
We have performed detailed numerical calculations of the nonconservative evolution of close X-ray binary systems with intermediate-mass (2.0-6.0 M middle dot in circle) donor stars and a 1.3 M middle dot in circle accreting neutron star. We calculated the thermal response of the donor star to mass loss in order to determine its stability and follow the evolution of the mass transfer. Under the assumption of the "isotropic reemission model," we demonstrate that in many cases it is possible for the binary to prevent a spiral-in and survive a highly super-Eddington mass transfer phase (1
Two-timescale analysis of extreme mass ratio inspirals in Kerr spacetime: Orbital motion
Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna E.
2008-09-15
Inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important source for future gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and LISA. The detection and analysis of these signals rely on accurate theoretical models of the binary dynamics. We cast the equations describing binary inspiral in the extreme mass ratio limit in terms of action-angle variables, and derive properties of general solutions using a two-timescale expansion. This provides a rigorous derivation of the prescription for computing the leading order orbital motion. As shown by Mino, this leading order or adiabatic motion requires only knowledge of the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the self-force. The two-timescale method also gives a framework for calculating the post-adiabatic corrections. For circular and for equatorial orbits, the leading order corrections are suppressed by one power of the mass ratio, and give rise to phase errors of order unity over a complete inspiral through the relativistic regime. These post-1-adiabatic corrections are generated by the fluctuating, dissipative piece of the first order self-force, by the conservative piece of the first order self-force, and by the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the second order self-force. We also sketch a two-timescale expansion of the Einstein equation, and deduce an analytic formula for the leading order, adiabatic gravitational waveforms generated by an inspiral.
M. C. Werner; J. An; N. W. Evans
2008-07-30
A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we investigate analytically the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multi-plane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses (or two isothermal spheres) in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two lens planes.
AIDS Arises and Einstein Responds
Emmons, Scott
and Friends of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : summEr/fall 2011 The magazine for alumni, faculty, students, friends and supporters of albert einstein College of medicine.yu.edu Website: www.einstein.yu.edu Copyright © 2011 albert einstein College of medicine of Yeshiva university
Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.
Hines, Terence
2014-07-01
The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969
Domingos Soares
2012-03-26
Einstein's static model is the first relativistic cosmological model. The model is static, finite and of spherical spatial symmetry. I use the solution of Einstein's field equations in a homogeneous and isotropic universe -- Friedmann's equation -- to calculate the radius of curvature of the model (also known as "Einstein's universe"). Furthermore, I show, using a Newtonian analogy, the model's mostly known feature, namely, its instability under small perturbations on the state of equilibrium.
Revisit the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity from sub-Eddington to quiescent state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Qingwen
2015-11-01
It is very controversial whether radio-X-ray correlation as defined in low-hard state of X-ray binaries (XRBs) can extend to quiescent state (e.g. X-ray luminosity less than a critical value of LX,c ˜ 10-5.5LEdd) or not. In this work, we collect a sample of XRBs and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) with wide distribution of Eddington ratios (LX/LEdd ˜ 10-9-10-3) to re-explore the Fundamental Plane between 5 GHz radio luminosity, LR, 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity, LX, and black hole (BH) mass, MBH, namely log LR = ?Xlog LX + ?Mlog MBH + constant. For the whole sample, we confirm the former Fundamental Plane of Merloni et al. and Falcke et al. that ?X ˜ 0.6 and ?M ˜ 0.8 even after including more quiescent BHs. The quiescent BHs follow the Fundamental Plane very well, and, however, FR I radio galaxies follow a steeper track comparing other BH sources. After excluding FR Is, we investigate the Fundamental Plane for BHs in quiescent state with LX < LX,c and sub-Eddington BHs with LX > LX,c, respectively, and both sub-samples have a similar slope, ?X ˜ 0.6, which support that quiescent BHs may behave similar to those in low-hard state. We further select two sub-samples of AGNs with BH mass in a narrow range (FR Is with MBH = 108.8±0.4 and other LLAGNs with MBH = 108.0±0.4) to simulate the behaviour of a single supermassive BH evolving from sub-Eddington to quiescent state. We find that the highly sub-Eddington sources with LX/LEdd ˜ 10-6-10-9 still roughly stay on the extension of radio-X-ray correlation as defined by other sub-Eddington BHs. Our results are consistent with several recent observations in XRBs that the radio-X-ray correlation as defined in low-hard state can extend to highly sub-Eddington quiescent state.
Diffractive Interstellar Scintillation Timescales and Velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordes, J. M.; Rickett, B. J.
1998-11-01
We derive general relationships between the observed timescale of diffractive interstellar scintillations and the physical velocities of the observer, the source, and the scattering medium. Our treatment applies exclusively to saturated scintillations of point sources in the strong scattering regime. We show how scintillation observations may be combined with other observables (proper motion and dispersion measure) to yield (1) improvements in galactic models for the free-electron density and (2) estimates of the distance and transverse velocity of individual pulsars. We explicitly consider cases of current astrophysical interest, including hypervelocity pulsars too far above the Galactic plane to allow distance estimates from dispersion measures alone. We also briefly consider scintillations of extragalactic sources, including gamma-ray burst sources at great distances from the Galaxy.
Einstein, Bose and Bose-Einstein Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wali, Kameshwar C.
2005-05-01
In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8??^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8??^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.
Quantifying population structure on short timescales.
Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Lens, Luc; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Van Dongen, Stefan; Volckaert, Filip A M
2012-07-01
Quantifying the contribution of the various processes that influence population genetic structure is important, but difficult. One of the reasons is that no single measure appropriately quantifies all aspects of genetic structure. An increasing number of studies is analysing population structure using the statistic D, which measures genetic differentiation, next to G(ST) , which quantifies the standardized variance in allele frequencies among populations. Few studies have evaluated which statistic is most appropriate in particular situations. In this study, we evaluated which index is more suitable in quantifying postglacial divergence between three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations from Western Europe. Population structure on this short timescale (10?000 generations) is probably shaped by colonization history, followed by migration and drift. Using microsatellite markers and anticipating that D and G(ST) might have different capacities to reveal these processes, we evaluated population structure at two levels: (i) between lowland and upland populations, aiming to infer historical processes; and (ii) among upland populations, aiming to quantify contemporary processes. In the first case, only D revealed clear clusters of populations, putatively indicative of population ancestry. In the second case, only G(ST) was indicative for the balance between migration and drift. Simulations of colonization and subsequent divergence in a hierarchical stepping stone model confirmed this discrepancy, which becomes particularly strong for markers with moderate to high mutation rates. We conclude that on short timescales, and across strong clines in population size and connectivity, D is useful to infer colonization history, whereas G(ST) is sensitive to more recent demographic events. PMID:22646231
Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.
1995-05-01
The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.
Relativistic timescale analysis suggests lunar theory revision
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deines, Steven D.; Williams, Carol A.
1995-01-01
The SI second of the atomic clock was calibrated to match the Ephemeris Time (ET) second in a mutual four year effort between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The ephemeris time is 'clocked' by observing the elapsed time it takes the Moon to cross two positions (usually occultation of stars relative to a position on Earth) and dividing that time span into the predicted seconds according to the lunar equations of motion. The last revision of the equations of motion was the Improved Lunar Ephemeris (ILE), which was based on E. W. Brown's lunar theory. Brown classically derived the lunar equations from a purely Newtonian gravity with no relativistic compensations. However, ET is very theory dependent and is affected by relativity, which was not included in the ILE. To investigate the relativistic effects, a new, noninertial metric for a gravitated, translationally accelerated and rotating reference frame has three sets of contributions, namely (1) Earth's velocity, (2) the static solar gravity field and (3) the centripetal acceleration from Earth's orbit. This last term can be characterized as a pseudogravitational acceleration. This metric predicts a time dilation calculated to be -0.787481 seconds in one year. The effect of this dilation would make the ET timescale run slower than had been originally determined. Interestingly, this value is within 2 percent of the average leap second insertion rate, which is the result of the divergence between International Atomic Time (TAI) and Earth's rotational time called Universal Time (UT or UTI). Because the predictions themselves are significant, regardless of the comparison to TAI and UT, the authors will be rederiving the lunar ephemeris model in the manner of Brown with the relativistic time dilation effects from the new metric to determine a revised, relativistic ephemeris timescale that could be used to determine UT free of leap second adjustments.
On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kummerow, Christian
1993-01-01
The paper examines how well an Eddington approximation can reproduce brightness temperatures obtained from a more complete, N-stream discrete ordinate solution in the microwave regime. Radiation propagation through a plane parallel medium is considered. Although model discrepancies are complicated functions of the cloud constituents, the differences between an eight-stream discrete ordinate solution and an analytical Eddington solution were found to be generally small, ranging from 0 to 6 K when only one uniform layer of hydrometeors was considered. When realistic multilayered cloud hydrometeor profiles were used, the differences between these two models never exceeded 3 K over the entire range of microwave frequencies considered (6.6-183 GHz). The models agreed to within 0.2 K in the absence of scattering constituents.
Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity and the large scale structure of the Universe
Banados, M.; Ferreira, P. G.; Skordis, C.
2009-03-15
It has been argued that a Universe governed by Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity can be compatible with current cosmological constraints. The extra fields introduced in this theory can behave as both dark matter and dark energy, unifying the dark sector in one coherent framework. We show the various roles the extra fields can play in the expansion of the Universe and study the evolution of linear perturbations in the various regimes. We find that, as a unified theory of the dark sector, Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity will lead to excessive fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background on large scales. In the presence of a cosmological constant, however, the extra fields can behave as a form of nonparticulate dark matter and can lead to a cosmology which is entirely compatible with current observations of large scale structure. We discuss the interpretation of this form of dark matter and how it can differ from standard, particulate dark matter.
A SUPER-EDDINGTON WIND SCENARIO FOR THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
Ma, Xin; Chen, Xuefei; Chen, Hai-liang; Han, Zhanwen; Denissenkov, Pavel A. E-mail: cxf@ynao.ac.cn
2013-12-01
The accretion of hydrogen-rich material on to carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) is crucial for understanding Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) from the single-degenerate model, but this process has not been well understood due to the numerical difficulties in treating H and He flashes during the accretion. For CO WD masses from 0.5 to 1.378 M {sub ?} and accretion rates in the range from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –5} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, we simulated the accretion of solar-composition material on to CO WDs using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code of MESA. For comparison with steady-state models, we first ignored the contribution from nuclear burning to the luminosity when determining the Eddington accretion rate, and found that the properties of H burning in our accreting CO WD models are similar to those from the steady-state models, except that the critical accretion rates at which the WDs turn into red giants or H-shell flashes occur on their surfaces are slightly higher than those from the steady-state models. However, the super-Eddington wind is triggered at much lower accretion rates than previously thought, when the contribution of nuclear burning to the total luminosity is included. This super-Eddington wind naturally prevents the CO WDs with high accretion rates from becoming red giants, thus presenting an alternative to the optically thick wind proposed by Hachisu et al. Furthermore, the super-Eddington wind works in low-metallicity environments, which may explain SNe Ia observed at high redshifts.
The luminosity function of quasars in a merger model with allowance for the Eddington limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontorovich, V. M.; Krivitskii, D. S.
1995-09-01
The role of the Eddington luminosity in a model of activity proposed earlier (Katz and Kontorovich 1990a,b, 1991) based on momentum compensation during galaxy mergers (Toomre 1972) is discussed. In spite of the fundamental dependence of the probability of merging on galaxy mass, this quantity is nearly constant, supporting the consistency obtained earlier between the observed mass functions for galaxies and the luminosity functions for quasars in a merger model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bond, P.; Murdin, P.
2002-04-01
The second in the series of HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORIES was launched by an Atlas-Centaur rocket on 13 November 1978. Soon after its insertion into a 470 km circular orbit inclined at 23.5° to the equator, HEAO-2 was named the Einstein Observatory, in celebration of the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth....
Piccioni, Robert
2014-06-25
Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Scope, 2006
2006-01-01
This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…
Piccioni, Robert
2010-10-05
Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.
Super-Eddington Stellar Winds Driven by Near-Surface Energy Deposition
Quataert, Eliot; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill
2015-01-01
We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g., unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem vc ~ (Edot G)^{1/5} (where Edot is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(r_h). For vc > vesc(r_h) the wind kinetic power at large radii Edot_w ~ Edot. For vc < vesc(r_h), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus Edot_w < Edot. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation di...
Mid-infrared-selected quasars. I. Virial black hole mass and eddington ratios
Dai, Y. Sophia; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Papovich, Casey
2014-08-20
We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR; 24 ?m) broad-emission-line (BEL; type 1) quasars in the 22 deg{sup 2} SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with S {sub 24} > 400 ?Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) < 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extending the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at z ? 1.4 and recovers a significant and constant (20%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which were not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of z < 3 quasars at i > 19.1. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The supermassive black hole mass shows evidence of downsizing, although the Eddington ratios remain constant at 1 < z < 4. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at z < 1 show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.
SHORT TIMESCALE VARIATIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF ANTARES A
Pugh, T.; Gray, David F.
2013-11-01
We analyze three years of high-resolution spectroscopic data and find radial velocity variations with a characteristic timescale of 100 ± 6 days that are nearly sinusoidal. Simultaneous variations in line-depth ratios imply temperature variations of up to 100 K. No photometric variation is seen on a 100 day timescale. The timescale of the variation and its resonant nature suggest solar-like oscillations driven by large-scale convection.
Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2015
Holtz Jr., Thomas R.
Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2015 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range Proterozoic Mesoproterozoic Paleoproterozoic Carboniferous Phanerozoic CenozoicMesozoicPaleozoic Quaternary
Deformation Timescales of Porous Volcanic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quane, S.; Friedlander, B.; Robert, G.; Lynn, H.
2007-12-01
We describe results from 20 high-temperature, constant strain rate and constant load deformation experiments on natural pyroclastic materials. Experiments were run unconfined and under variable H2O confining pressures at temperatures between 650 and 900 C. Starting materials comprised 4.3 cm diameter, 6 cm length cores of sintered Rattlesnake Tuff rhyolite ash with starting porosities of 70 percent. Experimental displacement was controlled to achieve total strain values between 10 and 90 percent. In thin section, the deformed experimental end products exhibit striking similarities to all facies of natural welded pyroclastic rocks including variably flattened pumice fiamme and systematically deformed bubble wall shards. To quantify the amount of strain accumulation, we placed three manually rounded 1 cm diameter pumice lapilli at different heights in each experimental product. Axial ratios (x-axis dimension/y-axis dimension) of the deformed lapilli (fiamme) show a systematic increase with increased deformation. To further quantify strain, we measured flattening ratios of originally spherical bubble wall shards. These analyses are compared to similar measurements on natural samples to evaluate current methods of quantifying deformation in welded pyroclastic facies. Stress-strain and strain-time experimental results indicate that the glassy, porous aggregates have a strain- dependent rheology; the effective viscosity of the mixture increases non-linearly with decreasing porosity. Temperature, rather than stress is the dominant factor controlling the rheology of these materials. Results also indicate that the presence of moderate H2O pressure allows for viscous deformation (e.g., welding) to occur at significantly lower temperatures than in anhydrous conditions. Results from these experiments are used to develop a constitutive relationship in which the effective viscosity of the experimental cores is predicted using melt viscosity, sample porosity and an empirically determined constant dependent on material properties. The real power of this new model is that now we can predict the timescale of formation of volcanic deposits that have undergone porosity loss by viscous deformation. Two examples we show are welding of ignimbrites and deformation in a volcanic conduit. Prediction of these poorly known timescales provides significant leverage for dynamic models detailing eruption and deposition of volcanic materials.
PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES
Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu
2015-01-20
We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio ? in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ? 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for ? ? 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on ?. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ? ?{sup –1/3}, prevails at small ? where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ? ?{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger ? where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ? 0.024 ?{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, ?a {sub cl,} {sub int} ? 1.2 ?{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by ?a {sub cl,} {sub ext} ? 1.7 ?{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.
TWO TIMESCALE DISPERSAL OF MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Martin, Rebecca G.
2013-11-20
Protoplanetary disks are likely to be threaded by a weak net flux of vertical magnetic field that is a remnant of the much larger fluxes present in molecular cloud cores. If this flux is approximately conserved its dynamical importance will increase as mass is accreted, initially by stimulating magnetorotational disk turbulence and subsequently by enabling wind angular momentum loss. We use fits to numerical simulations of ambipolar dominated disk turbulence to construct simplified one-dimensional evolution models for weakly magnetized protoplanetary disks. We show that the late onset of significant angular momentum loss in a wind can give rise to ''two timescale'' disk evolution in which a long phase of viscous evolution precedes rapid dispersal as the wind becomes dominant. The wide dispersion in disk lifetimes could therefore be due to varying initial levels of net flux. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind triggered dispersal differs from photoevaporative dispersal in predicting mass loss from small (<1 AU) scales, where thermal winds are suppressed. Our specific models are based on a limited set of simulations that remain uncertain, but qualitatively similar evolution appears likely if mass is lost from disks more quickly than flux, and if MHD winds become important as the plasma ? decreases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erwin, Charlotte
2005-03-01
Albert Einstein traveled to America by boat during the great depression to consult with scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He was a theoretical physicist, a Nobel Prize winner, and a 20th century folk hero. Few members of the general public understood his theories, but they idolized him all the same. The invitation came from physicist Robert Millikan, who had initiated a visiting-scholars program at Caltech shortly after he became head of the school in 1921. Einstein's visits to the campus in 1931, 1932, and 1933 capped Millikan's campaign to make Caltech one of the physics capitals of the world. Mount Wilson astronomer Edwin Hubble's discovery that redshifts are proportional to their distances from the observer challenged Einstein's cosmological picture of a static universe. The big question at Caltech in 1931 was whether Einstein would give up his cosmological constant and accept the idea of an expanding universe. By day, Einstein discussed his theory and its interpretation at length with Richard Tolman, Hubble, and the other scientists on the campus. By night, Einstein filled his travel diary with his personal impressions. During his third visit, Einstein sidestepped as long as possible the question of whether conditions in Germany might prevent his return there. After the January 30 announcement that Hitler had become chancellor of Germany, the question could no longer be evaded. He postponed his return trip for a few weeks and then went to Belgium for several months instead of to Berlin. In the fall of 1933, Albert Einstein returned to the United States as an emigre and became a charter member of Abraham Flexner's new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Why did Einstein go to Princeton and not Pasadena?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigden, John
2005-05-01
From March 17 to September 29, 1905, just over six months, Einstein wrote five papers that shifted the tectonic foundations of physics and changed the face of Nature. Three of these papers, the March paper presenting the particle of light, the May paper on Brownian motion, and the June paper on the Special Theory of Relativity are universally recognized as fundamental; however, the Brownian motion paper cannot be divorced from Einstein's April paper, A New Determination of the Dimensions of Molecules, and the September paper that gave the world its most famous equation, E = mc^2, cannot be separated from the June paper. These five papers reveal characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics.
Einstein's Philosophy of Science
Holmer, Bruce
stream_size 23951 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name auslegung.v07.n01.005-016.pdf.txt stream_source_info auslegung.v07.n01.005-016.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 EINSTEIN... because of his contributions to science, but also because he spoke in great detail about his own philosophy, is Albert Einstein. This paper will cover only three main aspects of Einstein's philosophy of science: the nature of the universe...
Einstein: A Historical Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kormos-Buchwald, Diana
2015-04-01
In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.
PHYSICS AND REALITY. ALBERT EINSTEIN.
Kostic, Milivoje M.
PHYSICS AND REALITY. BY ALBERT EINSTEIN. (Translation by Jean Piccard.) § I. GENERALCONSIDERATION " of their connection. But even the concept of the Copyright, 1936, by Albert Einstein. 349 www.kostic.niu.eduHosted by Prof. M. Kostic at: Physics and Reality by Albert Einstein #12;35 ° ALBERT EINSTEIN. [J. F. I. " real
Einstein, Black Holes Gravitational Waves
Cook, Greg
1 #12;Einstein, Black Holes and Gravitational Waves Gregory B. Cook Wake Forest University 2 #12;Einstein's Miraculous Year: 1905 · Einstein, A. "¨Uber einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light. · Einstein, A. "¨Uber die von der molekularkinetischen
The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars
Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Zhen-Ya E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn
2014-09-01
Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ?10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.
Processing Timescales as an Organizing Principle for Primate Cortex.
Chen, Janice; Hasson, Uri; Honey, Christopher J
2015-10-21
An emerging view posits a timescale-based cortical topography, with integration windows increasing from sensory to association areas. In this issue, Chaudhuri et al. (2015) present a cortical model wherein a hierarchy of timescales arises from local and inter-regional circuit dynamics. PMID:26494274
Multiple Timescales of Memory in Lateral Habenula and Dopamine Neurons
Nakahara, Hiroyuki
Neuron Article Multiple Timescales of Memory in Lateral Habenula and Dopamine Neurons Ethan S@mail.nih.gov DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.06.031 SUMMARY Midbrain dopamine neurons are thought to signal predictions of their reward memory and the factors that control its timescale. Here we recorded from dopamine neurons, as well
Formation Timescales of the Martian Valley Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoke, M. T.; Hynek, B. M.
2010-12-01
The presence of valley networks across much of the ancient surface of Mars [e.g. 1] together with the locations and morphologies of the Martian deltas [e.g. 2] and ancient paleolakes [e.g. 3, 4], provides strong evidence that the Martian surface environment was once capable of sustaining long-lived flowing water. Many of the larger Martian valley networks exhibit characteristics consistent with their formation primarily from surface runoff of precipitated water [5-7]. Their formation likely followed similar processes as those that formed terrestrial river valleys, including the gradual erosion and transport of sediment downstream by bed load, suspended load, and wash load processes. When quantifying flow rates on Mars, some researchers have modified the Manning equation for depth- and width-averaged flow velocity in an attempt to better-fit Martian conditions [e.g. 3, 8-10]. These attempts, however, often result in flow velocities on Mars that are overestimated by up to a factor of two [10]. An alternative to the Manning equation that is often overlooked in the planetary science community is the Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) equation [11], which, unlike the Manning equation, maintains a dependence on the acceleration due to gravity. Although the D-W equation relies on a dimensionless friction function that has been fitted to terrestrial data, it is not a constant like the Manning coefficient. Rather, the D-W friction factor is a function of bed slope, flow depth, and median grain size [e.g. 8, 10, 12-14], and therefore it is better suited to model flow velocity on Mars. In this work, we investigate the formation timescales of the Martian valley networks through the use of four different sediment transport models [14], the D-W equation for average flow velocity, and a variety of parameters to encompass a range of possible formation conditions. This is done specific to each of eight large valley networks, all of which have crater densities that place their formation in the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian [15, 16], approximately 3.6 to 3.8 billion years ago. The preferred model scenario includes bankfull flows of 4-5 m depths corresponding to precipitation rates of 5 to 36 mm/day, depending on the valley network, and occurring intermittently 5% of the time. Results of the preferred model include formation timescales of 104 years (3°S, 5°E) to 108 years (east branch of Naktong Valles and 6°S, 45°E). References: [1] Hynek et al. (2010) JGR, doi:10.1029/2009JE003548; [2] Di Achille and Hynek (2010) Nature Geoscience, 3, 459-463; [3] Irwin et al. (2005) JGR, 110, E12S15; [4] Fassett and Head (2008) Icarus, 198, 37-56; [5] Craddock and Howard (2002) JGR, 107, 5111; [6] Howard et al. (2005) JGR, 110, E12S14; [7] Barnhart et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01003; [8] Komar (1979) Icarus, 37, 156-181; [9] Goldspiel and Squyres (1991) Icarus, 89, 392-410; [10] Wilson et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E09003; [11] Leopold et al. (1964) Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology, 522pp; [12] Bathurst (1993) in Channel Network Hydrology, eds. Beven and Kirkby, p69-98; [13] Komar (1980) Icarus, 42, 317-329; [14] Kleinhans (2005) JGR, 110, E12003; [15] Fassett and Head (2008) Icarus, 195, 61-89; [16] Hoke and Hynek (2009) JGR, 114, E08002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elliot, Ian
1996-01-01
Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)
The clinical research activities of AECC are conducted primarily at the Montefiore Medical Center which houses the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care and encompasses participation from all the clinical oncologic academic disciplines.
Engelhardt, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Einstein's own demonstration of time dilation taken from his book with L. Infeld (1938) is analyzed. His ingenious circumnavigation of an apparent discrepancy between clock synchronisation and Lorentz transformation is discussed.
Einstein homogeneous riemannian fibrations
Araujo, Fatima
2008-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to the study of the existence of homogeneous Einstein metrics on the total space of homogeneous fibrations such that the fibers are totally geodesic manifolds. We obtain the Ricci curvature of ...
Vasant Natarajan; V Balakrishnan; N Mukunda
2013-07-12
With each passing year, the young Albert Einstein's achievements in physics in the year 1905 seem to be ever more miraculous. We describe why the centenary of this remarkable year is worthy of celebration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balashov, Yuri; Vizgin, Vladimir
This volume presents a selection of the best contributions by Russian scholars - historians and philosophers of science - to the Einstein Studies industry, broadly construed. Many of the papers were first published in Russian, in the Einshteinovskiy Sbornik series (Einstein Studies) initiated by I. Tamm in 1966. This book explores the historical and foundational issues in general relativity and relativistic cosmology, Einstein's contributions to quantum theory of radiation, and the rise of Dirac's quantum electrodynamics. It also includes a detailed description of the physics colloquium Einstein established and coordinated in 1912- 1914 in Zürich. The contributors draw extensively on documentation previously unavailable to most scholars. Materials from various Russian archives shed new light on the famous exchange (regarding the first evolutionary cosmological models) between Einstein and Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920's and on the role of Boris Podolsky and Vladimir Fock in the emergence of quantum electrodynamics. The little-known correspondence between Einstein and a famous German pilot Paul Erhardt suggests that during World War I, the former was involved with aero- and hydrodynamics research and ways of improving airplane design. Other articles introduce new approaches to important foundational questions in general relativity and cosmology. Historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science will find much new and unexpected material in this engaging volume presenting the best of recent Russian scholarship in the field. The book is also very accessible to the general reader.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-02-01
NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html
Almost Einstein and Poincare-Einstein manifolds in Riemannian signature
A. Rod Gover
2008-03-25
An almost Einstein manifold satisfies equations which are a slight weakening of the Einstein equations; Einstein metrics, Poincare-Einstein metrics, and compactifications of certain Ricci-flat asymptotically locally Euclidean structures are special cases. The governing equation is a conformally invariant overdetermined PDE on a function. Away from the zeros of this the almost Einstein structure is Einstein, while the zero set gives a scale singularity set which may be viewed as a conformal infinity for the Einstein metric. In this article we give a classification of the possible scale singularity spaces and derive geometric results which explicitly relate the intrinsic conformal geometry of these to the conformal structure of the ambient almost Einstein manifold. Classes of examples are constructed. A compatible generalisation of the constant scalar curvature condition is also developed. This includes almost Einstein as a special case, and when its curvature is suitably negative, is closely linked to the notion of an asymptotically hyperbolic structure.
Event Rate and Einstein Time Evaluation in Pixel Microlensing
Edward A. Baltz; Joseph Silk
1999-01-29
It has been shown that a flux--weighted full width at half maximum timescale of a microlensing event can be used in an unbiased estimator of the optical depth. For the first time, this allows a physical parameter to be easily estimated from pixel microlensing data. We derive analytic expressions for the observed rate of pixel lensing events as a function of the full width at half maximum timescale. This contrasts work in the literature which express rates in terms of an ``event duration'' or Einstein time, which require knowledge of the magnification, which is difficult to determine in a pixel event. The full width at half maximum is the most directly measured timescale. We apply these results to possible pixel lensing surveys, using HST for M87, and CFHT for M31. We predict M87 microlensing rates for the HST Advanced Camera and for NGST, and demonstrate that one will be able to probe the stellar IMF. Next, we describe a new method by which a crude measurement of the magnification can be made in the regime of magnifications A~10-100. This in turn gives a crude measurement of the Einstein time. This program requires good photometry and sampling in the low magnification tails of an event, but is feasible with today's technology.
Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
Hyeong-Chan Kim
2013-12-03
We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential increases not faster than the quadratic power for large field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in early universe contrary to the case of general relativity.
A link between ghost-free bimetric and Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory
Angnis Schmidt-May; Mikael von Strauss
2014-12-11
We provide an auxiliary field formulation of the full ghost-free bimetric theory which avoids the explicit presence of a square-root matrix in the action. This description always allows for a branch of solutions where the auxiliary fields can be integrated out to give back the ghost-free theory. For certain parameter regions the two formulations are dynamically equivalent, but in the general case another branch of solutions also exists. We show that this second branch, with certain restrictions on the parameters of the theory, is dynamically equivalent to Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. This establishes a definite connection between two seemingly unrelated theories of modified gravity.
Stable, levitating, optically thin atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wielgus, M.; Klu?niak, W.; Sa¸dowski, A.; Narayan, R.; Abramowicz, M.
2015-12-01
In general relativity, static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric. Opacity is assumed to be dominated by Thomson scattering. The inner parts of the atmospheres, where the luminosity locally has supercritical values, are characterized by a density and pressure inversion. The atmospheres are convectively and Rayleigh-Taylor stable, and there is no outflow of gas.
Geonic black holes and remnants in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios
2014-03-01
We show that electrically charged solutions within the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity replace the central singularity by a wormhole supported by the electric field. As a result, the total energy associated with the electric field is finite and similar to that found in the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. When a certain charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied, in the lowest part of the mass and charge spectrum the event horizon disappears, yielding stable remnants. We argue that quantum effects in the matter sector can lower the mass of these remnants from the Planck scale down to the TeV scale.
The Eddington's Eclispe and a Possible Replica of the Experiment of Light Bending
Sigismondi, Costantino
2015-01-01
The success of the first measurement of the light bending by the solar gravitational field is due to the particular stellar field during the Eddington's 1919 total eclipse of the Sun, near the Hyades, giving the opportunity to measure the gravitational bending of the light to the astronomers in two expeditions in Brazil, Sobral, and on the Principe Island in the Atlantic Ocean. The geometrical properties of this field and another field in Leo are discussed in view of repeating this experiment of General Relativity with SOHO satellite data in the context of the International Year of Light 2015.
The Energy Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Littlejohns, Owen M.
2015-10-01
We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument prior to 2012 July 11. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands—or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift—we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor of two to three longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 and 10 ms, respectively. Less than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors ? 400 and imply typical emission radii R? 1× {10}14 cm for long-duration GRBs and R? 3× {10}13 cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether or not GRB minimum timescales evolve with cosmic time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouneiher, J.
2015-07-01
The recent evolution of the observational technics and the development of new tools in cosmology and gravitation have a significant impact on the study of the cosmological models. In particular, the qualitative and numerical methods used in dynamical system and elsewhere, enable the resolution of some difficult problems and allow the analysis of different cosmological models even with a limited number of symmetries. On the other hand, following Einstein point of view the manifold ? and the metric should be built simultaneously when solving Einstein’s equation R?? -1 2Rg?? = T??. From this point of view, the only kinematic condition imposed is that at each point of space-time, the tangent space is endowed with a metric (which is a Minkowski metric in the physical case of pseudo-Riemannian manifolds and an Euclidean one in the Riemannian analogous problem). Then the field (g??) describes the way these metrics depend on the point in a smooth way and the Einstein equation is the “dynamical” constraint on g??. So, we have to imagine an infinite continuous family of copies of the same Minkowski or Euclidean space and to find a way to sew together these infinitesimal pieces into a manifold, by respecting Einstein’s equation. Thus, Einstein field equations do not fix once and for all the global topology. 34 Given this freedom in the topology of the space-time manifold, a question arises as to how free the choice of these topologies may be and how one may hope to determine them, which in turn is intimately related to the observational consequences of the space-time possessing nontrivial topologies. Therefore, in this paper we will use a different qualitative dynamical methods to determine the actual topology of the space-time.
BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehlers, Jürgen
2007-10-01
'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as the Vulcan hypothesis, Evershed's Earth effect, and D C Miller's ether drift experiments. In particular, the sections on the history of the Californian observatories, their leading personalities, the differing attitudes of American and European scientists, and the influence of World War 1 on science, add interesting and informative aspects to the narrative. Those sections which report logistic and instrumental details of, for example, eclipse expeditions, were (to me) somewhat tiring. A weakness seems to be that the scientific importance of relativity problems is not stated clearly. On p43, the reader learns that Curtis quoted de Sitter's theoretical result of 7.15'' per century for Mercury's anomalous perihelion shift, but it is not mentioned that this value was due only to the special-relativistic variation of mass with velocity and already known to be much smaller than the observed value given on p88 and explained by general relativity, which includes, in particular, space curvature. In connection with light bending, the 'factor 2' is mentioned in several places without the explanation that this doubling is due to space curvature, the principal new effect whose observation created such a stir in 1919. Moreover, technical terms, for example absolute space, inertial frame, state of rest and (anomalous) dispersion, are used without explanation. Besides, readers interested as much in science as in its history would probably have appreciated a brief account of the present state of knowledge concerning the issues treated in this book and related ones. There are a few deplorable errors, for example the spectrum of the Andromeda nebula is shifted not towards the red, but towards the blue (p12); Eddington's limb deflection is given (p144) as 0.61'', while the correct value is 1.61''; misprints like that on p147 (coefficient of dr²), mistaking the astronomer Soldner (not Solden) for a physicist (p164). On p34 one reads 'Minkowski did not really grasp the physical implications of Einstein's work'—a strange judgment which contradicts the historical record. Thus reader
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wali, Kameshwar C.
2005-04-01
In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8??^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8??^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.
X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1
Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.
2013-08-10
Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.
Paleoceanography of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific on millennial timescales
Arellano-Torres, Elsa
2010-01-01
The occurrence of large scale and rapid climate shifts at millennial time-scales (suborbital) remains an enigma between records from high and low latitudes spanning the Late Quaternary. This thesis studies such variations ...
Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions over Multiple Timescales: Preprint
Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.
2011-03-01
In this paper, we examine the shape of the persistence model error distribution for ten different wind plants in the ERCOT system over multiple timescales. Comparisons are made between the experimental distribution shape and that of the normal distribution.
Einstein manifolds with skew torsion
Ilka Agricola; Ana Cristina Ferreira
2013-02-15
This paper is devoted to the first systematic investigation of manifolds that are Einstein for a connection with skew symmetric torsion. We derive the Einstein equation from a variational principle and prove that, for parallel torsion, any Einstein manifold with skew torsion has constant scalar curvature; and if it is complete of positive scalar curvature, it is necessarily compact and it has finite first fundamental group. The longest part of the paper is devoted to the systematic construction of large families of examples. We discuss when a Riemannian Einstein manifold can be Einstein with skew torsion. We give examples of almost Hermitian, almost metric contact, and G2 manifolds that are Einstein with skew torsion. For example, we prove that any Einstein-Sasaki manifold and any 7-dimensional 3-Sasakian manifolds admit deformations into an Einstein metric with parallel skew torsion.
Conversations With Albert Einstein. II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shankland, R. S.
1973-01-01
Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)
Personal Recollections of Albert Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moszkowski, Steven
2005-03-01
My grandparents were good friends of Albert Einstein in Berlin. Later my parents also were on friendly terms with him. I had the opportunity to meet Einstein four times after my parents and I came to the United States in 1940. My parents and I, on occasion, had correspondence with Einstein and took a few photos of him. Albert Einstein had considerable influence on my development and style of doing physics, as I will discuss.
Compact binary coalescence and the science case for Einstein Telescope
Chris Van Den Broeck
2010-03-06
Einstein Telescope (ET) is a possible third generation ground-based gravitational wave observatory for which a design study is currently being carried out. A brief (and non-exhaustive) overview is given of ET's projected capabilities regarding astrophysics and cosmology through observations of inspiraling and coalescing compact binaries. In particular, ET would give us unprecedented insight into the mass function of neutron stars and black holes, the internal structure of neutron stars, the evolution of coalescence rates over cosmological timescales, and the geometry and dynamics of the Universe as a whole.
Detecting Einstein nilradicals Michael Jablonski
Knopf, Dan
Detecting Einstein nilradicals Michael Jablonski University of Oklahoma Abstract: In this talk we soliton metric. If a nilpotent Lie group admits such a metric, it is called an Einstein nilradical is known about the set of Einstein nilradicals, that is, the set of nilpotent Lie groups which do admit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löffler, Frank
2012-03-01
The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics, along with modules for initial data, analysis and computational infrastructure. These modules have been developed and improved over many years by many different researchers. The Einstein Toolkit is supported by a distributed model, combining core support of software, tools, and documentation in its own repositories and through partnerships with other developers who contribute open software and coordinate together on development. As of January 2012 it has 68 registered members from 30 research groups world-wide. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2011-03-01
ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/
Examining the Enigmatic Einstein
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoon, Koh Aik
2007-01-01
Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryder, L. H.
1987-01-01
Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)
Reprint of Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Brye, Benjamin; de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; Delhez, Eric J. M.; Deleersnijder, Eric
2013-12-01
Using the concepts of the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory (CART), we compute timescales related to the water renewal in the Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands/Belgium). Three different timescales are used to better understand and characterize the dynamics of the estuary: the age of the renewing water, the residence time and the exposure time. The residence time is the time taken by a water parcel to leave the estuary for the first time while the exposure time is the total time spent by a water parcel in the estuary including re-entries. The age of a renewing water parcel is defined as the time elapsed since it entered the estuary. The renewing water was split into three types: the water originating from the sea, the water originating from the upstream fresh tidal rivers and the water originating from the different canals and docks connected to the estuary. Every timescale is computed at any time and position by means of the finite-element, unstructured-mesh model SLIM. This results in movies of the timescale fields (shown as Supplementary material), allowing a detailed analysis of their spatial and temporal variabilities. The effect of the M2 tide and the discharge regime (winter, summer or average situation) on the timescales is also investigated.Tidally-averaged timescales vary little over the width of the estuary and hence exhibit a virtually one-dimensional behaviour. However, around these average values, the timescales can vary hugely over a tidal cycle, with amplitudes that significantly depend on the space coordinates. The reason thereof has yet to be elucidated. These results underscore the need for two- or three-dimensional models with high temporal resolution for investigating the dynamics of the Scheldt Estuary.
The Anthropic Argument against Infinite Past and the Eddington-Lemaitre Universe
Milan M. Cirkovic
2000-10-11
This study in the philosophy of cosmology is a part of an ongoing effort to investigate and reassess the importance of the anthropic (Davies-Tipler) argument against cosmologies containing the past temporal infinity. Obviously, the prime targets of this argument are cosmological models stationary on sufficiently large scale, the classical steady state model of Bondi, Gold and Hoyle being the best example. Here we investigate the extension of application of this argument to infinitely old non-stationary models and discuss additional constraints necessary to be imposed on such models for the edge of the anthropic argument to be preserved. An illustrative counterexample is the classical Eddington-Lemaitre model, in the analysis of which major such constraints are presented. Consequences of such an approach for our understanding of the nature of time are briefly discussed.
Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Moustakas, John; Coil, Alison L.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Sell, Paul H.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Robaina, Aday R.; Rudnick, Gregory H.
2012-08-20
We present the discovery of compact, obscured star formation in galaxies at z {approx} 0.6 that exhibit {approx}> 1000 km s{sup -1} outflows. Using optical morphologies from the Hubble Space Telescope and infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we estimate star formation rate (SFR) surface densities that approach {Sigma}{sub SFR} Almost-Equal-To 3000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, comparable to the Eddington limit from radiation pressure on dust grains. We argue that feedback associated with a compact starburst in the form of radiation pressure from massive stars and ram pressure from supernovae and stellar winds is sufficient to produce the high-velocity outflows we observe, without the need to invoke feedback from an active galactic nucleus.
Multi-dimensional cosmological radiative transfer with a Variable Eddington Tensor formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Abel, Tom
2001-10-01
We present a new approach to numerically model continuum radiative transfer based on the Optically Thin Variable Eddington Tensor (OTVET) approximation. Our method insures the exact conservation of the photon number and flux (in the explicit formulation) and automatically switches from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. It scales as N log N with the number of hydrodynamic resolution elements and is independent of the number of sources of ionizing radiation (i.e. works equally fast for an arbitrary source function). We also describe an implementation of the algorithm in a Soften Lagrangian Hydrodynamic code (SLH) and a multi-frequency approach appropriate for hydrogen and helium continuum opacities. We present extensive tests of our method for single and multiple sources in homogeneous and inhomogeneous density distributions, as well as a realistic simulation of cosmological reionization.
Origin of the universe: A hint from Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyeong-Chan
2014-09-01
We study the `initial state' of an anisotropic universe in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity filled with a scalar field, whose potential has various forms. With this purpose, the evolution of a spatially-flat, homogeneous, anisotropic Kasner universe is studied. We find an exact evolution of the universe for each scalar potential by imposing a maximal pressure condition. The solution is shown to describe the initial state of the universe. The state is regular if the scalar potential does not increase faster than the quadratic power for large-field values. We also show that the anisotropy does not raise any defect in the early universe, contrary to the case of general relativity.
Multi--dimensional Cosmological Radiative Transfer with a Variable Eddington Tensor Formalism
Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Tom Abel
2001-06-15
We present a new approach to numerically model continuum radiative transfer based on the Optically Thin Variable Eddington Tensor (OTVET) approximation. Our method insures the exact conservation of the photon number and flux (in the explicit formulation) and automatically switches from the optically thick to the optically thin regime. It scales as N logN with the number of hydrodynamic resolution elements and is independent of the number of sources of ionizing radiation (i.e. works equally fast for an arbitrary source function). We also describe an implementation of the algorithm in a Soften Lagrangian Hydrodynamic code (SLH) and a multi--frequency approach appropriate for hydrogen and helium continuum opacities. We present extensive tests of our method for single and multiple sources in homogeneous and inhomogeneous density distributions, as well as a realistic simulation of cosmological reionization.
Aristotle Socrates; Shane W. Davis; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz
2008-01-22
We show that the luminosity of a star forming galaxy is capped by the production and subsequent expulsion of cosmic rays from its interstellar medium. By defining an Eddington luminosity in cosmic rays, we show that the star formation rate of a given galaxy is limited by its mass content and the cosmic ray mean free path. When the cosmic ray luminosity and pressure reaches a critical value as a result of vigorous star formation, hydrostatic balance is lost, a cosmic ray-driven wind develops, and star formation is choked off. Cosmic ray pressure-driven winds are likely to produce wind velocities significantly in excess of the galactic escape velocity. It is possible that cosmic ray feedback results in the Faber-Jackson relation for a plausible set of input parameters that describe cosmic ray production and transport, which are calibrated by observations of the Milky Way's interstellar cosmic rays as well as other galaxies.
Wang, Bo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Dongdong; Cui, Xiao; Han, Zhanwen
2015-01-01
Supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). However, the mass accretion process onto CO WDs is still not completely understood. In this paper, we study the accretion of He-rich matter onto CO WDs and explore a scenario in which a strong wind forms on the surface of the WD if the total luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit. Using a stellar evolution code called modules for experiments in stellar astrophysics (MESA), we simulated the He accretion process onto CO WDs for WDs with masses of 0.6-1.35Msun and various accretion rates of 10^{-8}-10^{-5}Msun/yr. If the contribution of the total luminosity is included when determining the Eddington accretion rate, then a super-Eddington wind could be triggered at relatively lower accretion rates than those of previous studies based on steady-state models. The super-Eddington wind can prevent the WDs with high accretion rates from evolving into red-giant-like He stars. We found that the contribution...
RAPID COOLING OF THE NEUTRON STAR IN THE QUIESCENT SUPER-EDDINGTON TRANSIENT XTE J1701–462
Fridriksson, Joel K.
We present Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Swift observations made during the final three weeks of the 2006-2007 outburst of the super-Eddington neutron star (NS) transient XTE J1701-462, as well as Chandra and XMM-Newton ...
SN Hunt 248: a super-Eddington outburst from a massive cool hypergiant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauerhan, Jon C.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Graham, Melissa L.; Zheng, WeiKang; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Howell, D. Andrew; Arcavi, Iair
2015-02-01
We present observations of SN Hunt 248, a new supernova (SN) impostor in NGC 5806, which began a multistage outburst in 2014 May. The `2014a' discovery brightening exhibited an absolute magnitude of M ? -12 and the spectral characteristics of a cool, dense outflow, including P Cygni lines of Fe II, H I, and Na I, and line blanketing from metals. The source rapidly climbed and peaked at M ? -15 mag after two additional weeks. During this bright `2014b' phase the spectrum became dominated by Balmer emission and a stronger blue continuum, similar to the SN impostor SN 1997bs. Archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope between 1997 and 2005 reveal a luminous (4 × 105 L?) variable precursor star. Its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is consistent with a massive (Minit ? 30 M?) cool hypergiant having an extremely dense wind and an Eddington ratio (?) just below unity. At the onset of the 2014a brightening, however, the object was super-Eddington (? = 4-12). The subsequent boost in luminosity during the 2014b phase probably resulted from circumstellar interaction. SN Hunt 248 provides the first case of a cool hypergiant undergoing a giant eruption reminiscent of outbursts from luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This lends support to the hypothesis that some cool hypergiants, such as ? Cas, could be LBVs masquerading under a pseudo-photosphere created by their extremely dense winds. Moreover, SN Hunt 248 demonstrates that eruptions stemming from such stars can rival in peak luminosity the giant outbursts of much more massive systems like ? Car.
SN Hunt 248: a super-Eddington outburst from a massive cool hypergiant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauerhan, Jon; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Graham, Melissa Lynn; Zheng, WeiKang; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Howell, Dale Andrew; Arcavi, Iair
2015-01-01
We present observations of SN Hunt 248, a new supernova (SN) impostor in NGC 5806, which began a multi-stage outburst in May 2014. The "2014a" discovery brightening exhibited an absolute magnitude of M ? -12 and the spectral characteristics of a cool dense outflow, with P-Cygni lines of H?, Fe II, and Na I. The source rapidly climbed and peaked at M ? -15 mag after two additional weeks. During this bright "2014b'' phase the spectrum became hotter, dominated by Balmer emission and a stronger blue continuum, similar to the SN impostor SN 1997bs. Archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope between 1997 and 2005 reveal a luminous (4×105 L?) variable precursor star. Its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is consistent with a massive (Minit ? 30 M?) cool hypergiant having an extremely dense wind and an Eddington ratio (?) just below unity. At the onset of the 2014a brightening, however, the object was super-Eddington (? = 4 - 12). The subsequent boost in luminosity during the 2014b phase probably resulted from circumstellar interaction. SN Hunt 248 provides the first case of a cool hypergiant undergoing a giant eruption reminiscent of outbursts from luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This lends support to the hypothesis that some cool hypergiants, such as ?Cas, could be LBVs masquerading under a pseudo-photosphere created by their extremely dense winds. Moreover, SN Hunt 248 demonstrates that eruptions stemming from such stars can rival in peak luminosity the giant outbursts of much more massive systems like ?Car.
Continuum-driven versus line-driven mass loss and the Eddington limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owocki, Stanley P.
2007-08-01
Basic stellar structure dictates that stars of ˜ 100 M or more will be close to the Eddington limit, with luminosities in excess of 106 L, and radiation pressure contributing prominently to the support against gravity. Although it is formally possible to generate static structure models of even more massive stars, recent studies of dense clusters show there is a sharp cutoff at masses above ˜ 150 M. This talk examines the role of extreme mass loss is limiting the masses of stars, emphasizing in particular that continuum driving, possibly associated with structural instabilities of radiation dominated envelope, can lead to much stronger mass loss than is possible by the usual line-scattering mechanism of steady stellar winds. However, population studies of very young, dense stellar clusters now suggest quite strongly that there is a sharp cutoff at masses above ca. 150 M (see, e.g., the talk by Sally Oey, in this JD 05, p. 206). This is sometimes attributed to a mass limit on star formation by accretion processes, though there are competing formation scenarios by binary or cluster merging that would seem likely to lead to formation of even higher mass stars (see talks in JD14 and S237). So given the above rough coincidence of the observational upper mass limit with the Eddington-limit domain of radiation-pressure dominance, it seems associated instabilities in stellar structure might actually be a more important factor in this upper mass limit, leading to extreme mass loss in LBV and/or giant eruption events, much as inferred from circumstellar nebulae observed around high mass stars like eta Carinae and the Pistol star.
THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS
Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.
2013-03-10
Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.
The Star Formation Laws of Eddington-limited Star-forming Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.
2013-03-01
Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation (?gas and \\dot{\\Sigma }_{\\ast }, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where ?gas >~ 104 M ? pc-2, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes (?1 for the K-S law and ?0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L TIR) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L TIR can yield an estimate of the average \\dot{\\Sigma }_{\\ast } that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average ?gas for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor (?CO) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of ?gas that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.
Evangelos Chaliasos
2006-11-12
As we know, from the Einstein equations the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor follows. This is the case because the four-divergence of the Einstein tensor vanishes identically. Inversely, we find that from the vanishing of the four-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor not only the Einstein equations follow. Besides, the so-named anti-Einstein equations follow. These equations must be considered as complementary to the Einstein equations. And while from the Einstein equations the energy density (or the pressure) can be found, from the anti-Einstein equations the pressure (or the energy density) can be also found, without having to use an additional (but arbitrary) equation of state.
BINARY ASTEROID ENCOUNTERS WITH TERRESTRIAL PLANETS: TIMESCALES AND EFFECTS
Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc
2012-01-15
Many asteroids that make close encounters with terrestrial planets are in a binary configuration. Here, we calculate the relevant encounter timescales and investigate the effects of encounters on a binary's mutual orbit. We use a combination of analytical and numerical approaches with a wide range of initial conditions. Our test cases include generic binaries with close, moderate, and wide separations, as well as seven well-characterized near-Earth binaries. We find that close approaches (<10 Earth radii) occur for almost all binaries on 1-10 million year timescales. At such distances, our results suggest substantial modifications to a binary's semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, which we quantify. Encounters within 30 Earth radii typically occur on sub-million year timescales and significantly affect the wider binaries. Important processes in the lives of near-Earth binaries, such as tidal and radiative evolution, can be altered or stopped by planetary encounters.
Diffusion Time-Scale of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Teduka, Norikazu; Kameda, Masaharu; Asai, Keisuke
2001-01-01
Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical pressure sensor that utilizes the oxygen quenching of luminescence. PSP measurements in unsteady aerodynamic flows require fast time response of the paint. There are two characteristic time-scales that are related to the time response of PSP. One is the luminescent lifetime representing an intrinsic physical limit for the achievable temporal resolution of PSP. Another is the time-scale of oxygen diffusion across the PSP layer. When the time-scale of oxygen diffusion is much larger than the luminescent lifetime, the time response of PSP is controlled by oxygen diffusion. In a thin homogenous polymer layer where diffusion is Fickian, the oxygen concentration 1021 can be described by the diffusion equation in one-dimension.
Einstein's Real "Biggest Blunder"
Homer G. Ellis
2012-05-23
Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term \\Lambda, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments, and nodes.
Einstein's Real "biggest Blunder"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Homer G.
2012-10-01
Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term ?, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes.
El-Sherbini, Th.M.
2005-03-17
This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, Georg
Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.
Albert Einstein: Rebellious Wunderkind
Weinstein, Galina
2012-01-01
Childhood and Schooldays: Albert Einstein, and the family members seemed to have exaggerated the story of Albert who developed slowly, learned to talk late, and whose parents thought he was abnormal. These and other stories were adopted by biographers as if they really happened in the form that Albert and his sister told them. Hence biographers were inspired by them to create a mythical public image of Albert Einstein. Albert had tendency toward temper tantrums, the young impudent rebel Einstein had an impulsive and upright nature. He rebelled against authority and refused to learn by rote. He could not easily bring himself to study what did not interest him at school, especially humanistic subjects. And so his sister told the story that his Greek professor, to whom he once submitted an especially poor paper, went so far in his anger to declare that nothing would ever become of him. Albert learned subjects in advance when it came to sciences; and during the vacation of a few months from school, Albert indepen...
Einstein-Aether Theory With and Without Einstein
Boris Hikin
2010-03-28
The exact static spherically symmetric solutions for pure-aether theory and Einstein-aether theory are presented. It is shown that both theories can deliver the Schwarzschild metric, but only the Einstein-aether theory contains solutions with "almost-Schwarzschild" metrics that satisfy Einstein's experiments. Two specific solutions are of special interest: one in pure-aether theory that derives the attractive nature of gravitation as a result of Minskowski signature of the metric, and one - the Jacobson solution- of Einstein-aether theory with "almost-Schwarzschild" metric and non-zero Ricci tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a simple controversy, which is after all almost eighty years old and has been settled today. In fact, the concept introduced in this debate, that of entanglement, lies at the heart of many very important developments of modern quantum physics, in particular all those linked to quantum information (Chapter 8). Moreover, we shall see that the phenomenon of non-local correlations compels us to revise in depth our space-time representation of quantum processes. These are the two reasons why a whole chapter is devoted to this debate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modi, Kavan
2008-03-01
Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed an autopsy on Einstein after his death in 1955. During the autopsy Harvey removed Einstein's brain, took pictures of it and then cut it into several pieces. A lot of scientific attention has been devoted to Einstein' brain, and it still comes up once in a while. We've all heard something or other about Einstein's brain, as it has become somewhat of a folk lore. What is less known is that Harvey in actuality did not have the permission to remove the brain. Only later Harvey convinced Einstein's Hans Albert Einstein son that this was for a good purpose. The brain would only be used for scientific purpose, which will be published reputable journals. I will try to describe in some detail the long journey this brain has taken in last fifty two years.
Global Monsoon across timescales Pinxian Wang Bin Wang Thorsten Kiefer
Wang, Bin
EDITORIAL Global Monsoon across timescales Pinxian Wang · Bin Wang · Thorsten Kiefer Published online: 28 July 2012 Ó Springer-Verlag 2012 Scientific focus on monsoons can be traced back nearly 350 years. However, only recently have monsoons been analyzed as a global system. Traditionally
Orbital Forcing at Monthly-to-Multidecadal Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stine, A.; Huybers, P.
2010-12-01
The bulk of variability in Earth's surface temperature can be directly associated with the orbital motions of the tropical year, precession of the equinoxes, and obliquity variability. Orbital forcing also varies at timescales associated with the orbits of other objects in the solar system. We examine the spectrum of orbital forcing from monthly-to-multidecadal timescales and estimate the sensitivity and detectability of orbital forcing on the timescales associated with Jupiter, Venus and the Moon. We compile a large number of daily resolution thermometer records and calculate the spectrum of temperature variability at forced and unforced frequencies. We use the gain of the annual cycle of surface temperature to estimate the expected response of surface temperature to orbital insolation forcing, under the assumption that the gain of the annual cycle is representative of the local (in frequency) sensitivity of surface temperature to insolation forcing. We use the observed phase and amplitude of temperature variability at forced frequencies, relative to the phase and amplitude of insolation forcing, to test the hypothesis of orbital influence on temperature at Jovian, Venusian and Lunar timescales.
Dynamical masses, time-scales, and evolution of star clusters
Ortwin Gerhard
2000-07-18
This review discusses (i) dynamical methods for determining the masses of Galactic and extragalactic star clusters, (ii) dynamical processes and their time-scales for the evolution of clusters, including evaporation, mass segregation, core collapse, tidal shocks, dynamical friction and merging. These processes lead to significant evolution of globular cluster systems after their formation.
Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012
Holtz Jr., Thomas R.
.0 Triassic 252.2 - 201.3 Permian 298.9 - 252.2 Pennsylvanian Sub-period 323.2 - 298.9 Mississippian Sub-periodGeol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range
Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation J.D. Regele
Vasilyev, Oleg V.
into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for planar deflagration to detonation transition (DDT a physically plausible description of detonation initiation through a transition from deflagrationNumerical Modeling of Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation J.D. Regele , D.R. Kassoy and O
Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.
2008-01-01
Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…
Why Mountains? Tales & Timescales of their Birth & Death
Pritchard, Matt
Why Mountains? Tales & Timescales of their Birth & Death Saturday, September 12, 2009: 2146 Snee:10-9:40 Keynote: Peter Molnar (University of Colorado) Mantle Dynamics and the Rise and Fall of Mountain Ranges 9 Mountains, British Columbia 10:00-10:20 Rob McCaffrey (RPI) Mountain Building in Indonesia 10:20-10:40 Break
Multi-timescale Nexting in a Reinforcement Learning Robot
Sutton, Richard S.
Multi-timescale Nexting in a Reinforcement Learning Robot Joseph Modayil, Adam White, and Richard S of short-term predictions about their sensory input (e.g., see Gilbert 2006, Brogden 1939, Pezzulo 2008. Making predictions of this simple, personal, short-term kind has been called nexting (Gilbert, 2006
Multi-timescale Nexting in a Reinforcement Learning Robot
Sutton, Richard S.
Multi-timescale Nexting in a Reinforcement Learning Robot Joseph Modayil, Adam White, and Richard S numbers of short-term predictions about their sensory in- put (e.g., see Gilbert 2006, Brogden 1939 predictions of this simple, personal, short-term kind has been called nexting (Gilbert, 2006). Nexting
Stochastic Simulation of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions with Disparate Timescales
Paul, Mark
Stochastic Simulation of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions with Disparate Timescales Debashis Barik-steady-state approximation'' for enzyme-catalyzed reactions provides a useful framework for efficient and accurate stochastic simulations. The method is applied to three examples: a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction where enzyme
Reading the entrails of chickens: molecular timescales of evolution and
Graur, Dan
Reading the entrails of chickens: molecular timescales of evolution and the illusion of precision- ing from the speciation of cats and dogs to lineage separations that might have occurred ,4 billion precise molecular-clock dates for speciation events ranging from the divergence between cats and dogs
Stratospheric variability and tropospheric annular mode timescales1
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
to be attributable to the too late breakdown of the stratospheric polar vortex, which allows the troposphericStratospheric variability and tropospheric annular mode timescales1 Article Published Version Simpson, I. R., Hitchcock, P., Shepherd, T. G. and Scinocca, J. F. (2011) Stratospheric variability
Comprehensive Scenarios of Millennial Timescale Carbon Cycle and Climate
Williamson, Mark
Comprehensive Scenarios of Millennial Timescale Carbon Cycle and Climate Change in a new Earth Model Efficient Numerical Terrestrial Scheme (ENTS) Millennial carbon cycle and climate change 6PacificGlobal #12;Carbon cycle and future emissions 1990s CO2 = 352ppmv (below observations) Ocean C sink = 3.2 Gt
Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collaborative Effort
2011-02-01
The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.
On the Radiative Efficiencies, Eddington Ratios, and Duty Cycles of Luminous High-redshift Quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, Francesco; Crocce, Martin; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Fosalba, Pablo; Weinberg, David H.
2010-07-01
We investigate the characteristic radiative efficiency epsilon, Eddington ratio ?, and duty cycle P 0 of high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawing on measurements of the AGN luminosity function at z = 3-6 and, especially, on recent measurements of quasar clustering at z = 3-4.5 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The free parameters of our models are epsilon, ?, and the normalization, scatter, and redshift evolution of the relation between black hole (BH) mass M BH and halo virial velocity V vir. We compute the luminosity function from the implied growth of the BH mass function and the quasar correlation length from the bias of the host halos. We test our adopted formulae for the halo mass function and halo bias against measurements from the large N-body simulation developed by the MICE collaboration. The strong clustering of AGNs observed at z = 3 and, especially, at z = 4 implies that massive BHs reside in rare, massive dark matter halos. Reproducing the observed luminosity function then requires high efficiency epsilon and/or low Eddington ratio ?, with a lower limit (based on 2? agreement with the measured z = 4 correlation length) epsilon >~ 0.7?/(1 + 0.7?), implying epsilon >~ 0.17 for ?>0.25. Successful models predict high duty cycles, P 0 ~ 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9 at z = 3.1, 4.5, and 6, respectively, and they require that the fraction of halo baryons locked in the central BH is much larger than the locally observed value. The rapid drop in the abundance of the massive and rare host halos at z > 7 implies a proportionally rapid decline in the number density of luminous quasars, much stronger than simple extrapolations of the z = 3-6 luminosity function would predict. For example, our most successful model predicts that the highest redshift quasar in the sky with true bolometric luminosity L > 1047.5 erg s-1 should be at z ~ 7.5, and that all quasars with higher apparent luminosities would have to be magnified by lensing.
The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P. X.; Wang, B.; Cheng, H.; Fasullo, J.; Guo, Z. T.; Kiefer, T.; Liu, Z. Y.
2014-11-01
Monsoon has earned increasing attention from the climate community since the last century, yet only recently have regional monsoons been recognized as a global system. It remains a debated issue, however, as to what extent and at which timescales the global monsoon can be viewed as a major mode of climate variability. For this purpose, a PAGES (Past Global Changes) working group (WG) was set up to investigate the concept of the global monsoon and its future research directions. The WG's synthesis is presented here. On the basis of observation and proxy data, the WG found that the regional monsoons can vary coherently, although not perfectly, at various timescales, varying between interannual, interdecadal, centennial, millennial, orbital and tectonic timescales, conforming to the global monsoon concept across timescales. Within the global monsoon system, each subsystem has its own features, depending on its geographic and topographic conditions. Discrimination between global and regional components in the monsoon system is a key to revealing the driving factors in monsoon variations; hence, the global monsoon concept helps to enhance our understanding and to improve future projections of the regional monsoons. This paper starts with a historical review of the global monsoon concept in both modern and paleo-climatology, and an assessment of monsoon proxies used in regional and global scales. The main body of the paper is devoted to a summary of observation data at various timescales, providing evidence of the coherent global monsoon system. The paper concludes with a projection of future monsoon shifts in a warming world. The synthesis will be followed by a companion paper addressing driving mechanisms and outstanding issues in global monsoon studies.
TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM
Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan; Ott, Juergen; Dolphin, Andrew E.
2013-08-01
Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.
LasficcionesdeEinstein JimenaCanales
Canales, Jimena
espacio y tiempo, Albert Einstein escribió la introducción de un libro de ciencia ficción instein era enLasficcionesdeEinstein JimenaCanales Publicado en Junio 2014 Universidad de Illinois. Las ficciones de Einstein Además de revolucionar los conceptos de
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundmann, Siegfried
In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern.
Black hole solution and strong gravitational lensing in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shao-Wen; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2015-06-01
A new theory of gravity called Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. This theory leads to some exciting new features, such as free of cosmological singularities. In this paper, we first obtain a charged EiBI black hole solution with a nonvanishing cosmological constant when the electromagnetic field is included in. Then based on it, we study the strong gravitational lensing by the asymptotic flat charged EiBI black hole. The strong deflection limit coefficients and observables are shown to closely depend on the additional coupling parameter in the EiBI gravity. It is found that, compared with the corresponding charged black hole in general relativity, the positive coupling parameter will shrink the black hole horizon and photon sphere. Moreover, the coupling parameter will decrease the angular position and relative magnitudes of the relativistic images, while increase the angular separation, which may shine new light on testing such gravity theory in near future by the astronomical instruments.
Revisit the fundamental plane of black-hole activity from sub-Eddington to quiescent state
Wu, Qingwen
2015-01-01
It is very controversial whether radio--X-ray correlation as defined in LH state of XRBs can extend to quiescent state (e.g., X-ray luminosity less than a critical value of $L_{\\rm X,c} \\sim10^{-5.5}L_{\\rm Edd}$) or not. In this work, we collect a sample of XRBs and low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) with wide distribution of Eddington ratios to reexplore the fundamental plane between 5 GHz radio luminosity, $L_{\\rm R}$, 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity, $L_{\\rm X}$, and black hole (BH) mass, $M_{\\rm BH}$, namely $\\log L_{\\rm R}=\\xi_{\\rm X} \\log L_{\\rm X}+\\xi_{\\rm M}\\log M_{\\rm BH}+\\rm constant$. For the whole sample, we confirm the former fundamental plane of Merloni et al. and Falcke et al. that $\\xi_{\\rm X}\\sim 0.6$ and $\\xi_{\\rm M}\\sim 0.8$ even after including more quiescent BHs. The quiescent BHs follow the fundamental plane very well, and, however, FR I radio galaxies follow a steeper track comparing other BH sources. After excluding FR Is, we investigate the fundamental plane for BHs in quiescent...
Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes as long-lived cosmological standards.
Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Valls-Gabaud, David; Hu, Chen; Netzer, Hagai
2013-02-22
Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) reach saturated luminosities above a certain accretion rate due to photon trapping and advection in slim accretion disks. We show that these SEAMBHs could provide a new tool for estimating cosmological distances if they are properly identified by hard x-ray observations, in particular by the slope of their 2-10 keV continuum. To verify this idea we obtained black hole mass estimates and x-ray data for a sample of 60 narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies that we consider to be the most promising SEAMBH candidates. We demonstrate that the distances derived by the new method for the objects in the sample get closer to the standard luminosity distances as the hard x-ray continuum gets steeper. The results allow us to analyze the requirements for using the method in future samples of active black holes and to demonstrate that the expected uncertainty, given large enough samples, can make them into a useful, new cosmological ruler. PMID:23473126
On the generalized wormhole in the Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamang, Amarjit; Potapov, Alexander A.; Lukmanova, Regina; Izmailov, Ramil; Nandi, Kamal K.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we wish to investigate certain observable effects in the recently obtained wormhole solution of the Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld (EiBI) theory, which generalizes the zero-mass Ellis–Bronnikov wormhole of general relativity. The solutions of EiBI theory contain an extra parameter ? having the inverse dimension of the cosmological constant ?, and which is expected to modify various general relativistic observables such as the masses of wormhole mouths, tidal forces and light deflection. A remarkable result is that a non-zero ? could prevent the tidal forces in the geodesic orthonormal frame from becoming arbitrarily large near a small throat radius ({r}0? 0) contrary to what happens near a small Schwarzschild horizon radius (M? 0). The role of ? in the flare-out and energy conditions is also analyzed, which reveals that the energy conditions are violated. We show that the exotic matter in the EiBI wormhole cannot be interpreted as a phantom (? =\\frac{{p}{{r}}}{? }\\lt -1) or ghost field ? of general relativity due to the fact that both ? and p r are negative for all ?.
Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Phenomenology of nonlinear gravity-matter coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pani, Paolo; Delsate, Térence; Cardoso, Vitor
2012-04-01
Viable corrections to the matter sector of Poisson’s equation may result in qualitatively different astrophysical phenomenology, for example, the gravitational collapse and the properties of compact objects can change drastically. We discuss a class of modified nonrelativistic theories and focus on a relativistic completion, Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. This recently proposed theory is equivalent to General Relativity in vacuum, but its nontrivial coupling to matter prevents singularities in early cosmology and in the nonrelativistic collapse of noninteracting particles. We extend our previous analysis, discussing further developments. We present a full numerical study of spherically symmetric nonrelativistic gravitational collapse of dust. For any positive coupling, the final state of the collapse is a regular pressureless star rather than a singularity. We also argue that there is no Chandrasekhar limit for the mass of a nonrelativistic white dwarf in this theory. Finally, we extend our previous results in the fully relativistic theory by constructing static and slowly rotating compact stars governed by nuclear-physics inspired equations of state. In the relativistic theory, there exists an upper bound on the mass of compact objects, suggesting that black holes can still be formed in the relativistic collapse.
Super-eddington accretion in the ultraluminous x-ray source NGC 1313 X-2: An ephemeral feast
Weng, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhao, Hai-Hui E-mail: zhangsn@ihep.ac.cn
2014-01-10
We investigate the X-ray spectrum, variability, and the surrounding ionized bubble of NGC 1313 X-2 to explore the physics of super-Eddington accretion. Beyond the Eddington luminosity, the accretion disk of NGC 1313 X-2 is truncated at a large radius (?50 times the innermost stable circular orbit), and displays the similar evolution track with both luminous Galactic black-hole and neutron star X-ray binaries (XRBs). In super-critical accretion, the speed of radiatively driven outflows from the inner disk is mildly relativistic. Such ultra-fast outflows would be overionized and might produce weak Fe K absorption lines, which may be detected by the coming X-ray mission Astro-H. If NGC 1313 X-2 is a massive stellar XRB, the high luminosity indicates that an ephemeral feast is held in the source. That is, the source must be accreting at a hyper-Eddington mass rate to give the super-Eddington emission over ?10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr. The expansion of the surrounding bubble nebula with a velocity of ?100 km s{sup –1} might indicate that it has existed over ?10{sup 6} yr and is inflated by the radiatively driven outflows from the transient with a duty cycle of activity of ? a few percent. Alternatively, if the surrounding bubble nebula is produced by line-driven winds, less energy is required than the radiatively driven outflow scenario, and the radius of the Strömgren radius agrees with the nebula size. Our results are in favor of the line-driven winds scenario, which can avoid the conflict between the short accretion age and the apparently much longer bubble age inferred from the expansion velocity in the nebula.
Scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Inyong; Singh, Naveen K.
2015-06-01
We investigate the scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage driven by a massive scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The scalar power spectrum exhibits a peculiar rise for low k-modes. The tensor-to-scalar ratio can be significantly lowered compared with that in the standard chaotic inflation model in general relativity. This result is very affirmative considering the recent dispute on the detection of gravitational wave radiation between PLANCK and BICEP2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Liu, D.-D.; Cui, X.; Han, Z.
2015-12-01
Context. Supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). However, the mass accretion process onto CO WDs is still not completely understood. Aims: In this paper, we study the accretion of He-rich matter onto CO WDs and explore a scenario in which a strong wind forms on the surface of the WD if the total luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit. Methods: Using a stellar evolution code called modules for experiments in stellar astrophysics (MESA), we simulated the He accretion process onto CO WDs for WDs with masses of 0.6-1.35 M? and various accretion rates of 10-8-10-5 M? yr-1. Results: If the contribution of the total luminosity is included when determining the Eddington accretion rate, then a super-Eddington wind could be triggered at relatively lower accretion rates than those of previous studies based on steady-state models. The super-Eddington wind can prevent the WDs with high accretion rates from evolving into red-giant-like He stars. We found that the contributions from thermal energy of the WD are non-negligible, judging by our simulations, even though the nuclear burning energy is the dominating source of luminosity. We also provide the limits of the steady He-burning regime in which the WDs do not lose any accreted matter and increase their mass steadily, and calculated the mass retention efficiency during He layer flashes for various WD masses and accretion rates. These obtained results can be used in future binary population synthesis computations.
OWL representation of the geologic timescale implementing stratigraphic best practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, S. J.
2011-12-01
The geologic timescale is a cornerstone of the earth sciences. Versions are available from many sources, with the following being of particular interest: (i) The official International Stratigraphic Chart (ISC) is maintained by the International Commission for Stratigraphy (ICS), following principles developed over the last 40 years. ICS provides the data underlying the chart as part of a specialized software package, and the chart itself as a PDF using the standard colours; (ii) ITC Enschede has developed a representation of the timescale as a thesaurus in SKOS, used in a Web Map Service delivery system; (iii) JPL's SWEET ontology includes a geologic timescale. This takes full advantage of the capabilities of OWL. However, each of these has limitations - The ISC falls down because of incompatibility with web technologies; - While SKOS supports multilingual labelling, SKOS does not adequately support timescale semantics, in particular since it does not include ordering relationships; - The SWEET version (as of version 2) is not fully aligned to the model used by ICS, in particular not recognizing the role of the Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP). Furthermore, it is distributed as static documents, rather than through a dynamic API using SPARQL. The representation presented in this paper overcomes all of these limitations as follows: - the timescale model is formulated as an OWL ontology - the ontology is directly derived from the UML representation of the ICS best practice proposed by Cox & Richard [2005], and subsequently included as the Geologic Timescale package in GeoSciML (http://www.geosciml.org); this includes links to GSSPs as per the ICS process - key properties in the ontology are also asserted to be subProperties of SKOS properties (topConcept and broader/narrower relations) in order to support SKOS-based queries; SKOS labelling is used to support multi-lingual naming and synonyms - the International Stratigraphic Chart is implemented as a set of instances of classes from the ontology, and published through a SPARQL end-point - the elements of the Stratigraphic chart are linked to the corresponding elements in SWEET (Raskin et al., 2011) and DBpedia to support traceability between different commonly accessed representations. The ontology builds on standard geospatial information models, including the Observations and Measurements model (ISO 19156), and GeoSciML. This allows the ages given in the chart to be linked to the evidence basis found in the associated GeoSciML features.
On Einstein - Weyl unified model of dark energy and dark matter
A. T. Filippov
2015-12-03
Here we give a more detailed account of the part of the conference report that was devoted to reinterpreting the Einstein `unified models of gravity and electromagnetism' (1923) as the unified theory of dark energy (cosmological constant) and dark matter (neutral massive vector particle having only gravitational interactions). After summarizing Einstein's work and related earlier work of Weyl and Eddington, we present an approach to finding spherically symmetric solutions of the simplest variant of the Einstein models that was earlier mentioned in Weyl's work as an example of his generalization of general relativity. The spherically symmetric static solutions and homogeneous cosmological models are considered in some detail. As the theory is not integrable we study approximate solutions. In the static case, we show that there may exist two horizons and derive solutions near the horizons. In cosmology, we propose to study the corresponding expansions of possible solutions near the origin and derive these expansions in a simplified model neglecting anisotropy. The structure of the solutions seems to hint at a possibility of an inflation mechanism that does not require adding scalar fields.
Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinshaw, Gary
2004-01-01
I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.
Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric
2006-11-01
This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.
The Einstein - Lorentz Dispute Revisited
Roger Ellman
2007-12-02
Lorentz [of the Lorentz transforms and Lorentz contractions fame] contended against Einstein that there had to be a medium in which electro-magnetic waves exist and propagate, and that that would of necessity be an absolute frame of reference for the universe. Einstein won that dispute contending that electro-magnetic waves needed no medium and that there was no absolute frame of reference. But, that victory was in a conflict of the Lorentz opinion opposed to the Einstein opinion combined with the substantial other successes and reputation or Einstein. It was not a victory of solid reasoning nor demonstrated factual evidence. Now solid reasoning and new data not available to Einstein and Lorentz show that Lorentz was correct and that Einstein's Theory of Relativity should correctly be termed Einstein's Principle of Invariance. It is shown that Einstein's comprehensive relativity and denial of an absolute frame of reference for the universe are incorrect and that the universe has an absolute universal prime frame of reference. The significance of this correction in its relation to the interaction of science and society is then presented.
Unified field theories and Einstein
S C Tiwari
2006-02-16
Einstein's contribution to relativity is reviewed. It is pointed out that Weyl gave first unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism and it was different than the five dimensional theory of Kaluza. Einstein began his work on unification in 1925 that continued whole through the rest of his life.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physics Today, 1979
1979-01-01
Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)
Liouville gravity from Einstein gravity
D. Grumiller; R. Jackiw
2007-12-28
We show that Liouville gravity arises as the limit of pure Einstein gravity in 2+epsilon dimensions as epsilon goes to zero, provided Newton's constant scales with epsilon. Our procedure - spherical reduction, dualization, limit, dualizing back - passes several consistency tests: geometric properties, interactions with matter and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are as expected from Einstein gravity.
Kelly, Brandon C.; Shen, Yue
2013-02-10
We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.
HOMOGENEOUS EINSTEIN METRICS Megan M. Kerr
Kerr, Megan M.
HOMOGENEOUS EINSTEIN METRICS Megan M. Kerr A Dissertation in Mathematics Presented to the Faculties;ABSTRACT HOMOGENEOUS EINSTEIN METRICS Megan M. Kerr Wolfgang Ziller (Supervisor) We consider homogeneous
Quasi-periodicities at year-like timescales in Blazars
Sandrinelli, Angela; Dotti, Massimo; Treves, Aldo
2015-01-01
We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of 6 blazars in the optical - near infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from REM photometry plus archival SMARTS data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the $\\gamma$-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and gamma-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.
Satellite animations reveal ocean surface dynamics for shortest timescales ever
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legeckis, Richard; Zhu, Paul Chang Tong; Chen, Shuangian
Scientists can now monitor the displacement and evolution of ocean surface thermal patterns on a shorter timescale than ever before possible, thanks to a new satellite detection method. Animations of daily composites of sea surface temperature (SST) from GOES [Menzel and Purdom, 1994” are allowing even a first-time observer to instantly recognize the relevant patterns at timescales from several hours to several months.Meteorologists have used GOES effectively to monitor cloud motions and to track storms, and now oceanographers can benefit too. Each individual daily composite is still partly cloud covered, but rapid display provides the appearance of continuity. So by viewing the composites rapidly the human eye can separate the fast moving residual clouds from the slower moving SST patterns associated with ocean currents, eddies, and upwelling.
Particle-acceleration timescales in TeV blazar flares
Joni Tammi; Peter Duffy
2008-12-01
Observations of minute-scale flares in TeV Blazars place constraints on particle acceleration mechanisms in those objects. The implications for a variety of radiation mechanisms have been addressed in the literature; in this paper we compare four different acceleration mechanisms: diffusive shock acceleration, second-order Fermi, shear acceleration and the converter mechanism. When the acceleration timescales and radiative losses are taken into account, we can exclude shear acceleration and the neutron-based converted mechanism as possible acceleration processes in these systems. The first-order Fermi process and the converter mechanism working via SSC photons are still practically instantaneous, however, provided sufficient turbulence is generated on the timescale of seconds. We propose stochastic acceleration as a promising candidate for the energy-dependent time delays in recent gamma-ray flares of Markarian 501.
Two-timescale adiabatic expansion of a scalar field model
Mino, Yasushi; Price, Richard H.
2008-03-15
The analysis of gravitational wave data may require greater accuracy than is afforded by the adiabatic approximation to the trajectory of and field produced by a particle moving in curved spacetime. Higher accuracy is available with a two-timescale approach using as an expansion parameter the ratio of orbital time to radiation reaction time. To avoid apparent divergences at large distances, the details of the method are important, especially the choice of the foliation, the spacetime surfaces on which the orbital elements are taken to be constant. Here we apply the two-timescale approach to a simple linear model to demonstrate the details of the method. In particular we use it to show that a null foliation avoids large-distance divergences in the first-order post-adiabatic approximation, and we argue that this will be true more generally for a null foliation.
Characteristic microvessel relaxation timescales associated with ultrasound-activated microbubbles.
Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A; Matula, Thomas J
2012-10-15
Ultrasound-activated microbubbles were used as actuators to deform microvessels for quantifying microvessel relaxation timescales at megahertz frequencies. Venules containing ultrasound contrast microbubbles were insonified by short 1?MHz ultrasound pulses. Vessel wall forced-deformations were on the same microsecond timescale as microbubble oscillations. The subsequent relaxation of the vessel was recorded by high-speed photomicrography. The tissue was modeled as a simple Voigt solid. Relaxation time constants were measured to be on the order of ?10??s. The correlation coefficients between the model and 38 data sets were never lower than 0.85, suggesting this model is sufficient for modeling tissue relaxation at these frequencies. The results place a bound on potential numerical values for viscosity and elasticity of venules. PMID:23152641
Characteristic microvessel relaxation timescales associated with ultrasound-activated microbubbles
Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Matula, Thomas J.
2012-01-01
Ultrasound-activated microbubbles were used as actuators to deform microvessels for quantifying microvessel relaxation timescales at megahertz frequencies. Venules containing ultrasound contrast microbubbles were insonified by short 1?MHz ultrasound pulses. Vessel wall forced-deformations were on the same microsecond timescale as microbubble oscillations. The subsequent relaxation of the vessel was recorded by high-speed photomicrography. The tissue was modeled as a simple Voigt solid. Relaxation time constants were measured to be on the order of ?10??s. The correlation coefficients between the model and 38 data sets were never lower than 0.85, suggesting this model is sufficient for modeling tissue relaxation at these frequencies. The results place a bound on potential numerical values for viscosity and elasticity of venules. PMID:23152641
Realization of a time-scale with an optical clock
Grebing, C; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Gerginov, V; Weyers, S; Lipphardt, B; Riehle, F; Sterr, U; Lisdat, C
2015-01-01
Optical clocks are not only powerful tools for prime fundamental research, but are also deemed for the re-definition of the SI base unit second as they surpass the performance of caesium atomic clocks in both accuracy and stability by more than an order of magnitude. However, an important obstacle in this transition has so far been the limited reliability of the optical clocks that made a continuous realization of a time-scale impractical. In this paper, we demonstrate how this dilemma can be resolved and that a time-scale based on an optical clock can be established that is superior to one based on even the best caesium fountain clocks. The paper also gives further proof of the international consistency of strontium lattice clocks on the $10^{-16}$ accuracy level, which is another prerequisite for a change in the definition of the second.
The effects of clock errors on timescale stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breakiron, Lee A.
1995-01-01
The weighting scheme for the cesium clocks and hydrogen masers constituting the USNO timing ensemble is reexamined from an empirical standpoint of maximizing both frequency accuracy and timescale uniformity. The utility of a sliding-weight relation between the masers and the cesiums is reaffirmed, but improvement is found if one incorporates inverse Allan variances for sampling times of 12 and 6 hours for the cesiums and masers, respectively, with some dependence on clock model.
Response to Deines and Williams on Astronomical Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slabinski, Victor J.
2009-05-01
In a paper presented at this conference, Deines and Williams (DW) question the conventional determination and interpretation of the differences between astronomical timescales, such as Universal Time (UT) which deals with Earth rotation, Atomic Time (AT), and planetary ephemeride timescales such as Terrestrial Time (TT). This paper offers explanations attempting to remove some sources of confusion on the subject, in particular: 1) To explain large discrepancies in the determined values for the tidal deceleration of Earth spin rate, we show that the rotational acceleration producing decadal variations in Earth spin are large compared to the tidal deceleration and easily mask the latter signal in rotation data spanning less than 200 years. 2) DW argue that the absence of a leap second between 1999 Jan 1 and 2005 Dec 31 is a statistically improbable event and is an artifact of the UT formula redefinition adopted in 2003. We offer a counterexample. If the Terrestrial Time second had been defined to match the UT second at an epoch other than the effective 1819 epoch that was used, a seven year span without leap seconds can be produced in other decades, decades without a redefinition of the UT formula. This shows that several seven year spans without leap seconds are possible and thereby negates the DW statistical argument. 3) DW also argue that there is a divergence in the TT timescale because relativistic time dilation was not included in Newcomb's analysis of the Sun's apparent motion. We show by a simple analysis that any such dilation was absorbed into the observationally determined elements of Earth's solar orbit. The resulting theory then accurately predicts the Sun's position using TT as told by Earth mounted clocks without any explicit use of time dilation, that is, there is no observational indication of timescale divergence.
Timescale algorithms combining cesium clocks and hydrogen masers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breakiron, Lee A.
1992-01-01
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) atomic timescale, formerly based on an ensemble of cesium clocks, is now produced by an ensemble of cesium clocks and hydrogen masers. In order to optimize stability and reliability, equal clock weighting has been replaced by a procedure reflecting the relative, time-varying noise characteristics of the two different types of clocks. Correlation of frequency drift is required, and residual drift is avoided by the eventual complete deweighting of the masers.
SIMULATED PERFORMANCE OF TIMESCALE METRICS FOR APERIODIC LIGHT CURVES
Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cody, Ann Marie
2015-01-10
Aperiodic variability is a characteristic feature of young stars, massive stars, and active galactic nuclei. With the recent proliferation of time-domain surveys, it is increasingly essential to develop methods to quantify and analyze aperiodic variability. We develop three timescale metrics that have been little used in astronomy—?m-?t plots, peak-finding, and Gaussian process regression—and present simulations comparing their effectiveness across a range of aperiodic light curve shapes, characteristic timescales, observing cadences, and signal to noise ratios. We find that Gaussian process regression is easily confused by noise and by irregular sampling, even when the model being fit reflects the process underlying the light curve, but that ?m-?t plots and peak-finding can coarsely characterize timescales across a broad region of parameter space. We make public the software we used for our simulations, both in the spirit of open research and to allow others to carry out analogous simulations for their own observing programs.
Timescales of fluvial response to climate and tectonic perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelltort, Sebastien
2015-04-01
Earth's landscapes are composed of connected elements such as hillslopes, bedrock and alluvial rivers, alluvial fans and floodplains for example. Because these entities are dominated by different processes, they might respond in different ways and at different rates to external forcings depending on the nature, magnitude and time scale of changes. Knowledge of those response times is fundamental if we want to extract past climate and tectonics from landscape forms and sedimentary archives. Moreover, the interactions between different landscape elements and their response times also control the response of the landscape as a whole, and the delivery of sediment flux to the basins. Here we review the timescales of fluvial response to perturbations in bedrock and alluvial rivers and discuss the implications for delivery of sediment to basins over multi-millenial timescales. We first use existing relationships for bedrock rivers to study their response to climatic and tectonic perturbations. For alluvial rivers, we consider a simple 1D alluvial reach with a single grain size and an equilibrium slope determined by classical bedload relations. Upstream perturbations of grain size, sediment concentration and water discharge induce river aggradation or degradation according to their effect on river equilibrium slope. While minimum aggradation time can be computed analytically as a function of slope change and sediment supply, the time necessary to degrade to a lower equilibrium slope may be only a function of the timescale of the perturbation in a transport-limited system. We explore the field of natural rivers and their possible response to upstream perturbations.
Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filiz Ak, Nurten
Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is generally supportive of models where most BAL absorption arises at radii of 10--1000 light days. Average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight is a few thousand years which is long compared to the orbital time of the accretion disk at the wind-launching radius. We have examined if BAL variations on several timescales depend upon quasar properties, including quasar luminosity, Eddington luminosity ratio, black hole mass, redshift, and radio loudness. Within the ranges of these properties spanned by our sample, we do not find any strong dependences. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. I present a study investigating the dependence of C IV BAL properties and variation characteristics on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption. Results of this study show that C IV BAL trough shapes, depths, velocity widths and strengths show a strong dependence on the presence of Si IV and Al III BAL troughs at corresponding velocities. Similarly, the variation characteristics and depth variation profiles of C IV BAL troughs also show a strong connection to BAL troughs in these transitions. Using these ions as a basic tracer of ionization level of the absorbing gas, systematic measurements of variability and profiles for a large sample of C IV , Si IV, and Al III BAL troughs present observational evidences of the relation between ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows. Utilizing observational investigations on a large BAL quasar sample, we show that ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows show correlated object-to-object differences. We present a detailed comparison between the observational results of this study and the well studied disk-wind model of quasar outflows, which suggests that the wind is launched from the accretion disk at ˜ 1016--1017 cm and radiatively driven by UV line pressure. Results of this study show that lines-of-sight with different viewing inclinations suc
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.
2014-12-01
We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ?220 L {sub Edd}/c {sup 2} and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ?20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ?10 L {sub Edd}. This yields a radiative efficiency ?4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.
H. J. de Vega; N. G. Sanchez
2015-02-04
We find the distribution function f(E) for dark matter (DM) halos in galaxies and the corresponding equation of state from the (empirical) DM density profiles derived from observations. We solve for DM in galaxies the analogous of the Eddington equation originally used for the gas of stars in globular clusters. The observed density profiles are a good realistic starting point and the distribution functions derived from them are realistic. We do not make any assumption about the DM nature, the methods developed here apply to any DM kind, though all results are consistent with Warm DM. With these methods we find: (i) Cored density profiles behaving quadratically for small distances rho(r) r -> 0 = rho(0) - K r^2 produce distribution functions which are finite and positive at the halo center while cusped density profiles always produce divergent distribution functions at the center. (ii) Cored density profiles produce approximate thermal Boltzmann distribution functions for r gas equation of state with local temperature T(r) = m v^2(r)/3. T(r) turns to be constant in the same region where the distribution function is thermal and exhibits the same temperature within the percent. The self-gravitating DM gas can thermalize despite being collisionless because it is an ergodic system. (iv) The DM halo can be consistently considered at local thermal equilibrium with: (a) a constant temperature T(r) = T_0 for r gas for r < R_{virial}. (v) T(r) outside the halo radius nicely follows the decrease of the circular velocity squared.
EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6
Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine
2010-08-15
We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z {approx} 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is {approx}10{sup 4} times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only {approx}10{sup 2} times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.
THE CAMPAIGN TO TRANSFORM EINSTEIN 2 THE CAMPAIGN TO TRANSFORM EINSTEIN
Emmons, Scott
THE CAMPAIGN TO TRANSFORM EINSTEIN #12;2 THE CAMPAIGN TO TRANSFORM EINSTEIN #12;ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE 1 F or more than five decades, Albert Einstein College of Medicine has responded to the changing landscape of biomedical research with a commitment to improving human health. Einstein's research
Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales
Follows, Mick
Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure carbon dioxide on centennial timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810
Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenberg, Joel
1979-01-01
Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)
Distinct mechanisms control contrast adaptation over different timescales.
Bao, Min; Fast, Elizabeth; Mesik, Juraj; Engel, Stephen
2013-01-01
Changes to the visual environment can happen at many timescales, from very transient to semi-permanent. To adapt optimally, the visual system also adjusts at different timescales, with longer-lasting environmental changes producing longer-lasting effects, but how the visual system adapts in this way remains unknown. Here, we show that contrast adaptation-the most-studied form of visual adaptation-has multiple controllers, each operating over a different time scale. In a series of experiments, subjects completed either a contrast matching, contrast detection, or tilt adjustment task, while adapting to contrast at one orientation. Following a relatively longer period (5 min) of adaptation to high contrast, subjects were "deadapted" for a shorter period (e.g., 40 s) to a lower contrast. Deadaptation eliminated perceptual aftereffects of adaptation, but continued testing in a neutral environment revealed their striking recovery. These results suggest the following account: Adaptation was controlled by at least two mechanisms, with initial adaptation affecting a longer-term one and deadaptation affecting a shorter-term one in the opposite direction. Immediately following deadaptation, the effects of the two mechanisms cancelled each other, but the short-term effects rapidly decayed, revealing ongoing longer-term adaptation. A single controlling mechanism cannot account for the observed recovery of effects, since once deadaptation cancels the initial longer-term adaptation, no trace of it remains. Combined with previous results at very long adaptation durations, the present results suggest that contrast adaptation is possibly controlled by a continuum of mechanisms acting over a large range of timescales. PMID:23978470
Variations in Solar Luminosity from Timescales of Minutes to Months
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelletier, Jon D.
1996-05-01
We present the power spectrum of solar irradiance during 1985 and 1987, obtained from the active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor project from timescales of minutes to months. At low frequency, the spectra are Lorentzian [proportional to 1/(f2 + f20 )]. At higher frequencies, they are proportional to f-1/2. A linear, stochastic model of the turbulent heat transfer between the granulation layer (modeled as a homogeneous thin layer with a radiative boundary condition) and the rest of the convection zone (modeled as a homogeneous thick layer with thermal and diffusion constants appropriate the lower convection zone) explains the observed spectrum.
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Nicholas E.
2004-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is part of NASA s Beyond Einstein program. This program seeks to answer the questions What Powered the Big Bang?, What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?, and What is Dark Energy?. LISA IS the first mission to be launched in this new program. This paper will give an overview of the Beyond Einstein program, its current status and where LISA fits in.
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Nicholas E.
2006-01-01
Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.
Avelino, P.P.
2012-11-01
In this paper we investigate the classical non-relativistic limit of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity. We show that strong bounds on the value of the only additional parameter of the theory ?, with respect to general relativity, may be obtained by requiring that gravity plays a subdominant role compared to electromagnetic interactions inside atomic nuclei. We also discuss the validity of the continuous fluid approximation used in this and other astrophysical and cosmological studies. We argue that although the continuous fluid approximation is expected to be valid in the case of sufficiently smooth density distributions, its use should eventually be validated at a quantum level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal
2012-10-01
When Rutherford discovered the nuclear force in 1919, he felt the force he discovered reflected some deviation of Newtonian gravity. Einstein too in his 1919 paper published the failure of the general relativity and Newtonian gravity to explain nuclear force and, in his concluding remarks, he retracted his earlier introduction of the cosmological constant. Consistent with his genius, we modify Newtonian gravity as probabilistic gravity using natural Planck units for a realistic study of nature. The result is capable of expressing both (1) nuclear force [strong coupling], and (2) Newtonian gravity in one equation, implying in general, in layman's words, that gravity is the cumulative effect of all quantum mechanical forces which are impossible to measure at long distances. Non discovery of graviton and quantum gravity silently support our findings. Continuing to climb on the shoulders of the giants enables us to see horizons otherwise unseen, as reflected in our book: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality,'' and physics/0210040, where we derive the fine structure constant as a function of the age of the universe in Planck times consistent with Gamow's hint, using natural logarithm consistent with Feynman's hint.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.
Progress Towards Atomistic Simulations that Reach Anthropological Timescale and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ju
2012-02-01
Atomistic and first-principles modeling, which describe the world as assembly of atoms and electrons, provide the most fundamental answer to problems of materials. However, they also suffer the most severe timescale limitations. For instance, in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in order to resolve atomic vibrations, the integration time step is limited to hundredth of a picosecond, and therefore the simulation duration is limited to sub-microsecond due to computational cost. Although a nanosecond simulation is often enough (surprisingly) for many physical and chemical properties, it is usually insufficient for predicting microstructural evolution and thermo-mechanical properties of materials. In this invited talk I will discuss recent attempts at overcoming the timescale challenges of atomic-resolution simulations: (a) strain-boost hyperdynamics [Phys. Rev. B 82 (2010) 184114] for simulating primarily displacive events and associated issues of activation entropy and the Meyer-Neldel compensation rule, (b) diffusive molecular dynamics (DMD) [Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011) 054103] for microstructural evolution driven by repetitive diffusion events and coupled displacive-diffusive processes, and (c) a Markovian network statistical mechanical treatment of the energy-landscape basin connectivity and a formula for the viscosity of supercooled liquid and glass [PLoS ONE 6 (2011) e17909]. Challenges and future directions are discussed.
Timescales and bottlenecks in miRNA-dependent gene regulation
Hausser, Jean; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Selevsek, Nathalie; van Nimwegen, Erik; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Aebersold, Ruedi; Zavolan, Mihaela
2013-01-01
MiRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that contribute to the establishment and maintenance of gene expression patterns. Although their biogenesis and decay appear to be under complex control, the implications of miRNA expression dynamics for the processes that they regulate are not well understood. We derived a mathematical model of miRNA-mediated gene regulation, inferred its parameters from experimental data sets, and found that the model describes well time-dependent changes in mRNA, protein and ribosome density levels measured upon miRNA transfection and induction. The inferred parameters indicate that the timescale of miRNA-dependent regulation is slower than initially thought. Delays in miRNA loading into Argonaute proteins and the slow decay of proteins relative to mRNAs can explain the typically small changes in protein levels observed upon miRNA transfection. For miRNAs to regulate protein expression on the timescale of a day, as miRNAs involved in cell-cycle regulation do, accelerated miRNA turnover is necessary. PMID:24301800
Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.
2011-01-01
Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannetto, E.
2007-07-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour (pp 17--21, 48--52 and related endnotes): had Henri Poincaré constructed a special relativistic dynamics before Einstein? There is a long debate on this subject in the literature. Damour's answer is negative and his conclusions seem related to the conservation of a myth of Einstein, that is, the rise of special relativity is considered as a creatio ex nihilo within Einstein's mind and Einstein is considered as the only genius able to conceive the relativity of time. Poincaré's texts are undervalued and misunderstood by Damour's cutting quotations from their context. Damour never quotes La Science et l'Hypothèse (1902): we know it was read by Einstein and here Poincaré first (within chapters already published as separate papers in 1900) stated the relativity of time and of simultaneity. Damour never quotes Poincaré's paper published on 5 June 1905, La dynamique de l'èlectron, which presents the first relativistic dynamics, invariant by Lorentz transformations. Poincaré's (July 1905) introduction of a quadrimensional space-time is considered by Damour only a mathematical artifice (p 51) and Damour never said that Minkowski took this idea from Poincaré! Poincaré's interpretation of relativistic time implies that it is not an illusion but a complex net of different real flows related to different processes. Poincaré and Einstein had different conceptions of Nature at the root of special relativity: respectively an electromagnetic conception (Poincaré) and a semi-mechanist one (Einstein). Thus, the (philosophical) meaning of relativity can be very different from the one presented by Damour. Furthermore, Damour accepts Kantian philosophy as a key to understanding relativity and quantum theories. This perspective seems to me very anachronistic and based on a misunderstanding: an interpretation of 20th century physical theories (relativity and quantum physics) is given within the framework of an 18th century philosophical perspective, created to give a foundation to Newton's theory. Relativity and quantum physics imply a breakdown of Kantian philosophy (see,
Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, C. Y.
1995-12-01
Einstein's radiation formula is supported by the Taylor-Hulse experiment, but its derivation is not self-consistent. Furthermore, as discovered by Einstein, his radiation formula is not compatible with his field equation. As suggested by Einstein's own remark, modifications to the source tensor are necessary. Based on the Taylor-Hulse experiment, in this paper a theory is developed within the theoretical framework of general relativity within which the radiation formula remains the same for binary stars. Concurrently, it is determined that, because of radiation, the source tensor is not zero in a vacuum. Antigravity coupling, suggested by Pauli as a possibility, is a necessary feature. In addition, it is shown that the current theory of linearized gravity is not valid for radiation.
Einstein's theory of wavefronts versus Einstein's relativity of simultaneity
Dr Yves Pierseaux
2006-06-27
The relativity of simultaneity implies that the image of a Lorentz transformed (LT) spherical (circular) wavefront is not a spherical (circular) wavefront (Einstein 1905) but an ellipsoidal (elliptical) wavefront (Moreau, Am.J.of Phys).We show firstly that the relativity of simultaneity leads to the consequence that the image of a Lorentz transformed plane wavefront is a tangent plane to an ellipsoid and not a tangent plane to a sphere (Einstein 1905). We deduce then a longitudinal component of the tangent vector to Poincare's ellipse which is directly connected to the relativity of simultaneity. We suggest finally that this violation of relativity of simultaneity is related to Einstein's implicit choice of the (non relativistic) transverse gauge in his theory of (rigid) wavefronts.
Timescales for permeability reduction and strength recovery in densifying magma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heap, M. J.; Farquharson, J. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.
2015-11-01
Transitions between effusive and explosive behaviour are routine for many active volcanoes. The permeability of the system, thought to help regulate eruption style, is likely therefore in a state of constant change. Viscous densification of conduit magma during effusive periods, resulting in physical and textural property modifications, may reduce permeability to that preparatory for an explosive eruption. We present here a study designed to estimate timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery during viscous magma densification by coupling measurements of permeability and strength (using samples from a suite of variably welded, yet compositionally identical, volcanic deposits) with a rheological model for viscous compaction and a micromechanical model, respectively. Bayesian Information Criterion analysis confirms that our porosity-permeability data are best described by two power laws that intersect at a porosity of 0.155 (the "changepoint" porosity). Above and below this changepoint, the permeability-porosity relationship has a power law exponent of 8.8 and 1.0, respectively. Quantitative pore size analysis and micromechanical modelling highlight that the high exponent above the changepoint is due to the closure of wide (?200-300 ?m) inter-granular flow channels during viscous densification and that, below the changepoint, the fluid pathway is restricted to narrow (?50 ?m) channels. The large number of such narrow channels allows porosity loss without considerable permeability reduction, explaining the switch to a lower exponent. Using these data, our modelling predicts a permeability reduction of four orders of magnitude (for volcanically relevant temperatures and depths) and a strength increase of a factor of six on the order of days to weeks. This discrepancy suggests that, while the viscous densification of conduit magma will inhibit outgassing efficiency over time, the regions of the conduit prone to fracturing, such as the margins, will likely persistently re-fracture and keep the conduit margin permeable. The modelling therefore supports the notion that repeated fracture-healing cycles are responsible for the successive low-magnitude earthquakes associated with silicic dome extrusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the transition from effusive to explosive behaviour may rest on the competition between permeability reduction within the conduit and outgassing through fractures at the conduit margin. If the conditions for explosive behaviour are satisfied, the magma densification clock will be reset and the process will start again. The timescales of permeability reduction and strength recovery presented in this study may aid our understanding of the permeability evolution of conduit margin fractures, magma fracture-healing cycles, surface outgassing cycles, and the timescales required for pore pressure augmentation and the initiation of explosive eruptions.
Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.
2013-12-01
Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (<30 years; Short and Trembanis, 2004). By using the RCEM, we can more broadly characterize beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a majority of the beach width time series variation (typically >70%), are a 'breathing' mode and a 'rotational' mode. The newly identified breathing mode captures the sand movement from the middle of the beach towards the edges (thickening the beach along the headlands), and the rotational mode describes the movement of sand towards one headland or another, both in response to stochastic fluctuations about the mean wave climate. The two main modes operate independently and on different timescales. In a weakly low-angle dominated wave climate, the breathing mode tends to be the first mode (capturing the most variance), but with greater low-angle dominance (greater morphological diffusivity), the rotational mode tends to be first. The aspect ratio of the bay also affects the order of the modes, because wave shadowing affects sediment transport behind the headlands. Previous work has attributed beach rotation to changes in various climate indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (Thomas et al., 2011); however, PCA analysis of the RCEM results suggests that embayed beaches can have characteristic timescales of sand movement that result from internal system dynamics, emerging even within a statistically constant wave climate. These results suggest that morphologic changes in embayed beaches can occur independently of readily identifiable shifts in forcing.
Memory on multiple time-scales in an Abelian sandpile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Andrey; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien; Webster, Rachel
2015-06-01
We report results of a numerical analysis of the memory effects in two-dimensional Abelian sandpiles. It is found that a sandpile forgets its instantaneous configuration in two distinct stages: a fast stage and a slow stage, whose durations roughly scale as N and N2 respectively, where N is the linear size of the sandpile. We confirm the presence of the longer time-scale by an independent diagnostic based on analysing emission probabilities of a hidden Markov model applied to a time-averaged sequence of avalanche sizes. The application of hidden Markov modelling to the output of sandpiles is novel. It discriminates effectively between a sandpile time series and a shuffled control time series with the same time-averaged event statistics and hence deserves further development as a pattern-recognition tool for Abelian sandpiles.
Timescale for trans-Planckian collisions in Kerr spacetime
Mandar Patil; Pankaj S. Joshi; Ken-ichi Nakao; Masashi Kimura; Tomohiro Harada
2015-05-15
We make a critical comparison between ultra-high energy particle collisions around an extremal Kerr black hole and that around an over-spinning Kerr singularity, mainly focusing on the issue of the timescale of collisions. We show that the time required for two massive particles with the proton mass or two massless particles of GeV energies to collide around the Kerr black hole with Planck energy is several orders of magnitude longer than the age of the Universe for astro-physically relevant masses of black holes, whereas time required in the over-spinning case is of the order of ten million years which is much shorter than the age of the Universe. Thus from the point of view of observation of Planck scale collisions, the over-spinning Kerr geometry, subject to their occurrence, has distinct advantage over their black hole counterparts.
From lifetime to evolution: timescales of human gut microbiota adaptation
Quercia, Sara; Candela, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Turroni, Silvia; Luiselli, Donata; Rampelli, Simone; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara
2014-01-01
Human beings harbor gut microbial communities that are essential to preserve human health. Molded by the human genome, the gut microbiota (GM) is an adaptive component of the human superorganisms that allows host adaptation at different timescales, optimizing host physiology from daily life to lifespan scales and human evolutionary history. The GM continuously changes from birth up to the most extreme limits of human life, reconfiguring its metagenomic layout in response to daily variations in diet or specific host physiological and immunological needs at different ages. On the other hand, the microbiota plasticity was strategic to face changes in lifestyle and dietary habits along the course of the recent evolutionary history, that has driven the passage from Paleolithic hunter-gathering societies to Neolithic agricultural farmers to modern Westernized societies. PMID:25408692
Constraining the Satellite Quenching Timescale at z < 1.5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez Wimberly, M. Katy; Cooper, Michael
2016-01-01
Despite remarkable success at modeling the evolution of massive galaxies over cosmic time, modern hydrodynamic and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation generally fail to reproduce the properties of low-mass galaxies. This shortcoming in our theoretical picture is largely driven by an inability to understand the physics of satellite (or "environmental") quenching. Using abundance matching prescriptions to populate large dissipationless N-body simulations, including the Bolshoi Simulation, we study the dependence of satellite properties on cluster-centric distance within massive host halos at z < 1.5, focusing on the potential physical mechanisms that may be at play in suppressing star formation in the satellite population. Our results illustrate the potential power of ongoing cluster surveys, such as the multi-year GOGREEN Survey at Gemini Observatories, to constrain the quenching timescale over more than half of cosmic time.
What have we learned from Earth Rotation at Rapid Timescale?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, T. J.
2006-12-01
Recently discovered small polar motion (PM) loops have shown us how the destructive interference of the Chandler, annual, and semi-annual signals can act as a naturally occurring high-pass filter and that these small loops appear to be the result of atmospheric excitation. This discovery has lead to investigations that have shown that these loops have happened in the past. So, why should anyone be interested in these previously unobserved PM loops? These rapid variations in Earth rotation are useful in learning about our planet and interactions between its solid surface and fluid envelope. These rapid variations are also useful for examining the different geodetic techniques and models used to study Earth rotation. This paper will briefly highlight what have we learned from these observations about our planet and the models and techniques used to analyze Earth rotation monthly to sub-monthly timescales.
Validating Computational Cognitive Process Models across Multiple Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, Christopher; Gluck, Kevin; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael
2010-12-01
Model comparison is vital to evaluating progress in the fields of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and cognitive architecture. As they mature, AGI and cognitive architectures will become increasingly capable of providing a single model that completes a multitude of tasks, some of which the model was not specifically engineered to perform. These models will be expected to operate for extended periods of time and serve functional roles in real-world contexts. Questions arise regarding how to evaluate such models appropriately, including issues pertaining to model comparison and validation. In this paper, we specifically address model validation across multiple levels of abstraction, using an existing computational process model of unmanned aerial vehicle basic maneuvering to illustrate the relationship between validity and timescales of analysis.
Reconstructing disturbances and their biogeochemical consequences over multiple timescales
McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Higuera, Philip E.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Perakis, Steven S.; Mack, Michelle C.; Alexander, Heather; Battles, John; Biondi, Franco; Buma, Brian; Colombaroli, Daniele; Enders, Sara K.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Marshall, John; McGlone, Matt; Morris, Jesse L.; Nave, Lucas E.; Shuman, Bryan; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Urrego, Dunia H.; Wardle, David A.; Williams, Christopher J.; Williams, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
Ongoing changes in disturbance regimes are predicted to cause acute changes in ecosystem structure and function in the coming decades, but many aspects of these predictions are uncertain. A key challenge is to improve the predictability of postdisturbance biogeochemical trajectories at the ecosystem level. Ecosystem ecologists and paleoecologists have generated complementary data sets about disturbance (type, severity, frequency) and ecosystem response (net primary productivity, nutrient cycling) spanning decadal to millennial timescales. Here, we take the first steps toward a full integration of these data sets by reviewing how disturbances are reconstructed using dendrochronological and sedimentary archives and by summarizing the conceptual frameworks for carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic responses to disturbances. Key research priorities include further development of paleoecological techniques that reconstruct both disturbances and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. In addition, mechanistic detail from disturbance experiments, long-term observations, and chronosequences can help increase the understanding of ecosystem resilience.
Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabaleta, A.; Antigüedad, I.
2013-01-01
The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2) in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003-2008). Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events) to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC) during some of the monitored storm events (28 events) was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge) the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase) for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters) of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the catchment is being studied more deeply.
Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Kim
2012-05-01
Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.
Solitary wave solutions to the Einstein equations
Letelier, P.S.
1985-02-01
The soliton solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations generated by the special class of Einstein--Rosen metrics described by linear combinations of homogeneous solutions to the usual cylindrically symmetric wave equation are studied.
Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science, 1980
1980-01-01
The texts of four speeches, given at the 1979 Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy held in Rome, are presented. Each address relates to some aspect of the life and times of Albert Einstein. (SA)
Howard, Don
Einstein: Physicist, Philosopher, Humanitarian Youngstown State March 25, 2009 Albert Einstein and Philosophy of Science University of Notre Dame Youngstown State University March 25, 2009 Einstein as a college student, ca. 1900 #12;Einstein: Physicist, Philosopher, Humanitarian Youngstown State March 25
20 EINSTEIN : SPRING/SUMMER 2013 Major victories are likely as Einstein researchers
Emmons, Scott
20 EINSTEIN : SPRING/SUMMER 2013 Major victories are likely as Einstein researchers attack 1921 and has proven notoriously inconsistent in protecting against TB. At Einstein, home to one teams of Einstein scientists are working on novel TB vaccines that may one day replace the BCG vac- cine
Wave turbulence and Bose-Einstein condensates Fluctuations turbulentes dans les condensats de Bose-Einstein of a class of nonlinear Schrodinger equations are studied. Particular cases of 1D weakly focusing and Bose-Einstein;eles faiblement focalisant et dans le cas particulier d'un mod#18;ele 1D de condensat de Bose-Einstein
Homogeneous Einstein metrics on SU(n)
Abid H. Mujtaba
2011-10-10
It is known that every compact simple Lie group admits a bi-invariant homogeneous Einstein metric. In this paper we use two ansatz to probe the existence of additional inequivalent Einstein metrics on the Lie group SU (n) for arbitrary n. We provide an explicit construction of (2k+1) inequivalent Einstein metrics on SU (2k) and 2k inequivalent Einstein metrics on SU (2k + 1).
winter 2008 I EinstEin EINSTEINwinter 2008
Emmons, Scott
:Apublicationforfaculty,students,alumni,friendsandsupporters oftheAlbertEinsteinCollegeofMedicineofYeshivaUniversity. Visitusonlineatwww.aecom.yu.edu. ©2008Volume28winter 2008 I EinstEin EINSTEINwinter 2008 THE EINSTEIN EDGE TODAY'S SCIENCE... TOMORROW'S MEDICINE #12; EinstEin I winter 2008 winter 2008 I EinstEin EINSTEINCONTENTSwinter 2008 EINSTEIN
Experimental studies of Bose-Einstein condensation
Experimental studies of Bose-Einstein condensation Dallin S. Durfee and Wolfgang Ketterle.J. van Druten, D.S. Durfee, D.M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a tightly confining dc magnetic trap", Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 416
Damour, Thibault
Si Einstein m'était conté Regard sur la rela5vité et le temps Jeudi 31 janvier 2013 Gif-sur-YveBe Thibault Damour (IHÉS) #12;· EINSTEIN, navigateur, ... · EINSTEIN et la joie de la pensée « ce qui est essen0el
Einstein for Schools and the General Public
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch
2006-01-01
In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…
Einstein Metrics on Rational Homology 7-Spheres
Einstein Metrics on Rational Homology 7-Spheres Charles P. Boyer Krzysztof Galicki Michael Nakamaye Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the existence of Sasakian-Einstein structures on certain 2-connected rational homology 7-spheres. These appear to be the #12;rst non-regular examples of Sasakian-Einstein
Bose-Einstein Condensates Satyendra Nath Bose
Smith, Nathanael J.
Bose-Einstein Condensates L8-IV 1 / 24 #12;Satyendra Nath Bose · Indian physicist · 1 January 18944 February 1974 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyendra_Nath_Bose 2 / 24 #12;What is a Bose-Einstein Condensate? A Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) is a state in which all (or most) of the atoms are in the same
EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME BACKGROUND
Bukauskas, Feliksas
EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME 1 BACKGROUND: The System of Appointments with the rules and regulations prescribed by the College of Medicine from time to time." The Albert Einstein to the management of professional fees or other outside income earned by individuals holding Einstein faculty
Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-Gange Menu
Buse, Karsten
. Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-G¨ange Men¨u In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Museum Bonn 6. M: Michael Kortmann, Markus Bernhardt #12;. Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-G¨ange Physik draan #12;Speiseplan Einstein 1905: Biografisches ***** Brownsche Molekularbewegung
Physics Today The measurement Einstein deemed impossible
Raizen, Mark G.
explained by Albert Einstein in 1905 as a consequence of the thermal motion of surrounding fluid moleculesPhysics Today The measurement Einstein deemed impossible Mark G. Raizen and Tongcang Li Citation. Einstein's theory pre- dicts that Brownian particles diffuse; as a consequence, their mean
The General Introduction of Einstein meets Magritte
Aerts, Diederik
long and exhausting and the press were doing all they could to get Albert Einstein and Ren´e MagritteThe General Introduction of Einstein meets Magritte Diederik Aerts, Center Leo Apostel, Brussels Free University, Brussels, Belgium. The series of books `Einstein meets Magritte' presented here
MhringerWeg Albert-Einstein-Allee
Pfeifer, Holger
N MähringerWeg Oberer Eselsberg Oberer Eselsberg Albert-Einstein-Allee Helmholtzstr. James-Franck-Ring Staudingerstr. Hans- Krebs- Weg Robert-Koch-Str. Albert- Einstein- Allee W ilhelm -Runge-Str. Berliner Ring Albert- Einstein- Allee Lise- Meitner -Str. Lise-Meitner-Str. 2/1 148 11 8 8 11 5 8/1 8 10 14 12 22 20 18
Newton, forgive me . . . Albert Einstein, Autobiographical Notes
Galison, Peter L.
Newton, forgive me . . . Albert Einstein, Autobiographical Notes d. graham burnett: Peter, in 1997 re- search on Einstein, relativity, and the material culture of time in the ½n de siè- cle. And you turned a lot of heads. Your argument went something like this: At the heart of Einstein's watershed 1905
Indian Monsoon-ENSO Relationship on Interdecadal Timescale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, V.; Goswami, B. N.
2000-02-01
Empirical evidence is presented to support a hypothesis that the interdecadal variation of the Indian summer monsoon and that of the tropical SST are parts of a tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere mode. The interdecadal variation of the Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) is strongly correlated with the interdecadal variations of various indices of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is also shown that the interannual variances of both IMR and ENSO indices vary in phase and follow a common interdecadal variation. However, the correlation between IMR and eastern Pacific SST or between IMR and Southern Oscillation index (SOI) on the interannual timescale does not follow the interdecadal oscillation. The spatial patterns of SST and sea level pressure (SLP) associated with the interdecadal variation of IMR are nearly identical to those associated with the interdecadal variations of ENSO indices. As has been shown earlier in the case of ENSO, the global patterns associated with the interdecadal and interannual variability of the Indian monsoon are quite similar.The physical link through which ENSO is related to decreased monsoon rainfall on both interannual and interdecadal timescales has been investigated using National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis products. The decrease in the Indian monsoon rainfall associated with the warm phases of ENSO is due to an anomalous regional Hadley circulation with descending motion over the Indian continent and ascending motion near the equator sustained by the ascending phase of the anomalous Walker circulation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. It is shown that, to a large extent, both the regional Hadley circulation anomalies and Walker circulation anomalies over the monsoon region associated with the strong (weak) phases of the interdecadal oscillation are similar to those associated with the strong (weak) phases of the interannual variability. However, within a particular phase of the interdecadal oscillation, there are several strong and weak phases of the interannual variation. During a warm eastern Pacific phase of the interdecadal variation, the regional Hadley circulation associated with El Niño reinforces the prevailing anomalous interdecadal Hadley circulation while that associated with La Niña opposes the prevailing interdecadal Hadley circulation. During the warm phase of the interdecadal oscillation, El Niño events are expected to be strongly related to monsoon droughts while La Niña events may not have significant relation. On the other hand, during the cold eastern Pacific phase of the interdecadal SST oscillation, La Niña events are more likely to be strongly related to monsoon floods while El Niño events are unlikely to have a significant relation with the Indian monsoon. This picture explains the observation that the correlations between IMR and ENSO indices on the interannual timescale do not follow the interdecadal oscillation as neither phase of the interdecadal oscillation favors a stronger (or weaker) correlation between monsoon and ENSO indices.
Modeling pedogenesis at multimillennium timescales: achievements and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finke, Peter
2013-04-01
The modeling of soil genesis is a particular case of modeling vadose zone processes, because of the variety in processes to be considered and its large (multimillennium) temporal extent. The particular relevancy of pedogenetic modeling for non-pedologists is that it involves the soil compartment carbon cycle. As most of these processes are driven by water flow, modeling hydrological processes is an inevitable component of (non-empirical) modeling of soil genesis. One particular challenge is that both slow and fast pedogenetic processes need to be accounted for. This overview summarizes the state of the art in this new branch of pedology, achievements made so far and current challenges, and is largely based on one particular pedon-scale soil evolution model, SoilGen. SoilGen is essentially a pedon-scale solute transport model that simulates unsaturated water flow, chemical equilibriums of various species with calcite, gypsum and gibbsite as precipitated phases, an exchange phase of Na, K, Ca, Mg, H and Al on clay and organic matter and a solution phase comprising various cations and anions. Additionally, a number of pedogenetic processes are simulated: C-cycling, chemical weathering of primary minerals, physical weathering of soil particles, bioturbation and clay migration. The model was applied onto a climosequence, a chronosequence, a toposequence and as part of a spatio-temporal soilscape reconstruction. Furthermore, the clay migration component has been calibrated and tested and so has the organic matter decomposition component. Quantitative comparisons between simulations and measurements resulted in the identification of possible improvements in the model and associated inputs, identified problems to be solved and identified the current application domain. Major challenges for process-based modeling in the vadose zone at multimillennium timescales can be divided into 4 groups: (i) Reconstruction of initial and boundary conditions; (ii) Accounting for evolution in soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure; (iii) Developing adequate calibration techniques; (iv) Maximizing computational efficiency. Reconstruction of initial and boundary conditions requires multidisciplinary inputs either derived from proxies or from combined vegetation and climate development models. So far, the combination of pedogenetic models and combined vegetation/climate models is rare. At pedogenetic timescales, soil characteristics that are usually considered constant become dynamic: texture, OC, bulk density, precipitated salts, minerals, etc. Interactions and feedbacks between these characteristics and associated hydrological properties need attention, e.g. via pedotransfer functions. The same can be stated for the development of soil structure and associated preferential flow, which is still a challenge. At multimillennium temporal extents, the combination of long model runtime and the fact that most calibration data represent the current stage of soil development requires a special approach. Model performance can be evaluated at various timescales using unconventional proxies. Finally, recognizing the fact that matter redistribution at the landscape scale is of paramount importance at multimillennium extent requires the formulation of computationally efficient 3D models. This will surely involve analysis of the tradeoff between process detail, model accuracy, required boundary inputs and model runtime.
A Common Mechanism of Multi-timescale Abrupt Global Change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duke, J. H.
2008-12-01
The La Nina phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is known to cause global cooling on inter- annual timescales through changes in deep convection patterns and reduced supply of water vapor to the tropical atmosphere. Two distinct means are presented here by which this mechanism may also act on timescales exceeding 100,000 years. Firstly, the hypothesis of millennial tidal forcing is revisited with the view that equatorial buoyancy frequencies and steep internal waves in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent make vertical mixing in the equatorial Pacific uniquely susceptible to incremental changes in tidal energy. Hourly Tropical Ocean Array subsurface temperature data show a resonant response to extreme tides associated with the 1997 and 2000 ENSO events. Complimenting the known 1,800 year peak tide cycle, a 550-600 year cycle of three-fold variation in the frequency of deep central eclipses (gamma < 0.05) is consistent with the timing of the Little Ice Age. Fortnightly eclipse triples (FET's) associated with this eclipse cycle are shown to coincide with both warm and cold phase Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) inflection points between 1876 and 2007, and notably the cold phase maxima of 1904 and 1917. In the second proposed trigger, southward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the central and eastern Pacific may periodically shift the rising branch of the Hadley circulation over the equatorial cold tongue. The resulting winter monsoon system develops an equatorially symmetric La Nina (ESLN) mode through a positive feedback between diverging surface winds and meridional rather than zonal SST gradients. Exchange of latent heat in the winter monsoon contracts the Hadley Cell, draws circumpolar westerly winds equatorward, and expands high latitude ice volume, as demonstrated in 1998. A three million year record of obliquity and August 10°N minus 10°S insolation (AUG10N-S) shows an ice volume dependence upon the mutual direction of change of these signals (rather than upon their quantity). This suggests an orbitally driven north-south ITCZ oscillator in which increasing August insolation at 10°N steepens the cross-equator meridional temperature gradient and strengthens the annual cycle when damped by southern hemisphere thermal inertia, and vice-versa. Increasing Aug10N-S is shown to constrain rapid ice loss (ESLN off). Conversely, declining AUG10N-S coupled with declining obliquity less than 23.5° triggered or maintained glaciation in 44 of 49 cases (ESLN on). The above tidal forcing means may additionally act on precessional timescales because the FET cycle has a seasonal maximum at aphelion, with a possible greatest effect when combined with equinoctial tides. Also, the lunar day at new moons is shorter (closer to 24 hours) at each equinox, thereby extending periods of luni-solar resonance at those peak tides. Tidal forcing may vary further with 100,000 and 400,000 year eccentricity cycles, both directly and by perturbation of the Moon's orbit, and through possible secular changes in the Saros cycle. It is proposed that an equatorially symmetric ITCZ is the necessary condition for a cold phase response to tidal forcing.
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
D. Q. Lamb; C. Graziani; I. A. Smith
1993-06-15
We have analyzed the 241 bursts for which peak counts $\\C$ exist in the publicly available Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) catalog. Introducing peak counts in 1024 ms as a measure of burst brightness $\\B$ and the ratio of peak counts in 64 and 1024 ms as a measure of short timescale variability $\\V$, we find a statistically significant correlation between the brightness and the short timescale variability of \\g-ray bursts. The bursts which are smoother on short timescales are both faint and bright, while the bursts which are variable on short timescales are faint only, suggesting the existence of two distinct morphological classes of bursts.
Spectral decomposition of time-scales in hyporheic exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim
2015-04-01
Hyporheic exchange of heat and solute mass in streams is manifested both in form of different exchange mechanisms and their associated distributions of residence times as well as the range of time-scales characterizing the forcing boundary conditions. A recently developed analytical technique separates the spectrum of time-scales and relates the forcing boundary fluctuations of heat and solute mass through a physical model of the hydrological transport to the response of heat and solute mass. This spectral decomposition can be done both for local (point-scale) observations in the hyporhiec zone itself as well as for transport processes on the watershed scale that can be considered 'well-behaved' in terms of knowledge of the forcing (input) quantities. This paper presents closed-form solutions in spectral form for the point-, reach- and watershed-scale and discusses their applicability to selected data of heat and solute concentration. We quantify the reliability and highlight the benefits of the spectral approach to different scenarios and, peculiarly, the importance for linking the periods in the spectral decomposition of the solute response to the distribution of transport times that arise due to the multitude of exchange mechanisms existing in a watershed. In a point-scale example the power spectra of in-stream temperature is related to the power spectrum of the temperature at a specific sediment depth by means of exact solutions of a physically based formulation of the vertical heat transport. It is shown that any frequency (?) of in-stream temperature fluctuation scales with the effective thermal diffusivity (?e) and the vertical separation distance between the pairs of temperature (É?) data as ? ? ?e/(2É?2), which implies a decreasing weight to higher frequencies (shorter periods) with depth. Similarly on the watershed-scale one can link the watershed dispersion to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in selected frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. The frequency-dependent parameters indicate that different environments dominate the response at different temporal scales.
Timescales of transport from the troposphere into the lowermost stratosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boenisch, Harald; Hoor, Peter; Wernli, Heini
2010-05-01
The lowermost stratosphere (LMS) as part of the extratropical UTLS can be divided into dynamically and chemically distinct regions. A layer of mixed tropospheric and stratospheric tracer characteristics in the proximity of the extratropical tropopause: the extratropical tropopause transition layer (ExTL). This chemically distinct layer roughly coincides with a layer of strongly enhanced thermal stratification: the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) (Birner, 2006). The LMS above the ExTL, also named the free LMS (Bönisch et al., 2009), is less coupled to the local extratropical troposphere. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of CO2 and SF6 have been used to calculate mean transport time from the troposphere to the measurement location in the free LMS (Bönisch et al., 2009) which is on the order of months. In this study, we will use backward trajectories driven by operational ECMWF analyses wind fields to investigate the TST timescales into the LMS using the LAGRANTO scheme (Wernli and Davies, 1997). We applied a statistical data set of trajectories, which were initialized on isentropes above the 2 PVU surface up to 450K and calculated backward over 270 days (9 month) for our analysis. The results will be compared with the results from mass balance studies based on in-situ observations (Hoor et al., 2005; Bönisch et al., 2009). Furthermore, a focus is on the role of timescales of TIL formation in the LMS. Birner, T.: Fine-scale structure of the extratropical tropopause region, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111, Doi 10.1029/2005jd006301, 2006. Bönisch, H., Engel, A., Curtius, J., Birner, T., and Hoor, P.: Quantifying transport into the lowermost stratosphere using simultaneous in-situ measurements of sf6 and co2, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 5905-5919, 2009. Hoor, P., Gurk, C., Brunner, D., Hegglin, M. I., Wernli, H., and Fischer, H.: Seasonality and extent of extratropical tst derived from in-situ co measurements during spurt, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 1427-1442, 2004. Hoor, P., Fischer, H., and Lelieveld, J.: Tropical and extratropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere over europe: A co-based budget, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, Doi 10.1029/2004gl022018, 2005. Wernli, H., and Davies, H. C.: A lagrangian-based analysis of extratropical cyclones .1. The method and some applications, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 123, 467-489, 1997.
Inner Structure of Black Holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: the role of mass inflation
Avelino, P P
2015-01-01
We investigate the interior dynamics of accreting black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum, showing that accretion can have an enormous impact on their inner structure. We find that, unlike in general relativity, there is a minimum accretion rate bellow which the mass inflation instability, which drives the centre-of-mass streaming density to exponentially high values in an extremely short interval of time, does not occur. We further show that, above this threshold, mass inflation takes place inside black holes very much in the same way as in general relativity, but is brought to a halt at a maximum energy density which is, in general, much smaller than the fundamental energy density of the theory. We conjecture that some of these results may be a common feature of modified gravity theories in which significant deviations from general relativity manifest themselves at very high densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Qi-Ming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Ke; Gu, Bao-Min; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2014-11-01
The stability and localization of the gravitational perturbations for a special brane system in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity were studied in Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 124053 (2012)]. In this paper, we show that the gravitational perturbations for a general brane system are stable, the four-dimensional graviton (massless KK graviton) can be localized on the brane, and the mass spectra of massive KK gravitons are gapless and continuous. Two models are constructed as examples. In the first model, which is a generalization of Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 124053 (2012)], the brane has no inner structure and there is no gravitational resonance (quasilocalized KK gravitons). In the second one, the background scalar field is a double kink when the parameter in the model approaches its critical value. Correspondingly, the brane has inner structure and some gravitational resonances appear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime; Miyamoto, Umpei
2015-08-01
We systematically examine the properties of null geodesics around an electrically charged, asymptotically flat black hole in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity, varying the electric charge of the black hole and the coupling constant in the theory. We find that the radius of the unstable circular orbit for a massless particle decreases with the coupling constant, if the value of the electrical charge is fixed. Additionally, we consider the strong gravitational lensing around such a black hole. We show that the deflection angle, the position angle of the relativistic images, and the magnification due to the light bending in strong gravitational field are quite sensitive to the parameters determining the black hole solution. Thus, through the accurate observations associated with the strong gravitational lensing, it might be possible to reveal the gravitational theory in a strong field regime.
Establishing a time-scale for plant evolution.
Clarke, John T; Warnock, Rachel C M; Donoghue, Philip C J
2011-10-01
• Plants have utterly transformed the planet, but testing hypotheses of causality requires a reliable time-scale for plant evolution. While clock methods have been extensively developed, less attention has been paid to the correct interpretation and appropriate implementation of fossil data. • We constructed 17 calibrations, consisting of minimum constraints and soft maximum constraints, for divergences between model representatives of the major land plant lineages. Using a data set of seven plastid genes, we performed a cross-validation analysis to determine the consistency of the calibrations. Six molecular clock analyses were then conducted, one with the original calibrations, and others exploring the impact on divergence estimates of changing maxima at basal nodes, and prior probability densities within calibrations. • Cross-validation highlighted Tracheophyta and Euphyllophyta calibrations as inconsistent, either because their soft maxima were overly conservative or because of undetected rate variation. Molecular clock analyses yielded estimates ranging from 568-815 million yr before present (Ma) for crown embryophytes and from 175-240 Ma for crown angiosperms. • We reject both a post-Jurassic origin of angiosperms and a post-Cambrian origin of land plants. Our analyses also suggest that the establishment of the major embryophyte lineages occurred at a much slower tempo than suggested in most previous studies. These conclusions are entirely compatible with current palaeobotanical data, although not necessarily with their interpretation by palaeobotanists. PMID:21729086
Complex Processes from Dynamical Architectures with Time-Scale Hierarchy
Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor
2011-01-01
The idea that complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive behaviors are composed of smaller units, which are somehow brought into a meaningful relation, permeates the biological and life sciences. However, no principled framework defining the constituent elementary processes has been developed to this date. Consequently, functional configurations (or architectures) relating elementary processes and external influences are mostly piecemeal formulations suitable to particular instances only. Here, we develop a general dynamical framework for distinct functional architectures characterized by the time-scale separation of their constituents and evaluate their efficiency. Thereto, we build on the (phase) flow of a system, which prescribes the temporal evolution of its state variables. The phase flow topology allows for the unambiguous classification of qualitatively distinct processes, which we consider to represent the functional units or modes within the dynamical architecture. Using the example of a composite movement we illustrate how different architectures can be characterized by their degree of time scale separation between the internal elements of the architecture (i.e. the functional modes) and external interventions. We reveal a tradeoff of the interactions between internal and external influences, which offers a theoretical justification for the efficient composition of complex processes out of non-trivial elementary processes or functional modes. PMID:21347363
Time-scale modification of complex acoustic signals in noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quatieri, Thomas F.; Dunn, Robert B.; McAulay, Robert J.; Hanna, Thomas E.
1994-02-01
A new approach is introduced for time-scale modification of short-duration complex acoustic signals to improve their audibility. The method preserves an approximate time-scaled temporal envelope of a signal, thus capitalizing on the perceptual importance of the signal's temporal structure, while also maintaining the character of a noise background. The basis for the approach is a subband signal representation, derived from a filter bank analysis/synthesis, the channel phases of which are controlled to shape the temporal envelope of the time-scaled signal. Channel amplitudes and filter bank inputs are selected to shape the spectrum and correlation of the time-scaled background. The phase, amplitude, and input control are derived from locations of events that occur within filter bank outputs. A frame-based generalization of the method imposes phase consistency and background noise continuity across consecutive synthesis frames. The approach and its derivatives are applied to synthetic and actual complex acoustic signals consisting of closely spaced sequential time components.
Titan's evaporites structure and their formation time-scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordier, D.; Barnes, J.; Le Bahers, T.; Cornet, T.; Ferreira, A.
2014-04-01
Hydrocarbons lakes have been discovered in polar regions of Titan (Stofan et al. 2007) [1]. Already, Stofan et al. (2007) noticed features suggesting the occurence of an evaporation process in the recent past. Barnes et al. (2009) [2] performed a detailed study of shoreline features of Ontario Lacus, they interpreted the 5-?m brigth annulus around this lakes as a dry, low-water ice content zone, possibly corresponding to a deposit of organic condensates. Barnes et al. (2011) [3] used a sample of several lakes and lakebeds located in a region south of the Ligeia Mare. They got a strong correlation between RADAR-empty lakes and 5-?m brigth units interpreted as low-water ice content areas. On the theoretical side, Cordier et al. (2013) [4] elaborated a model for the chemical composition of the external layer of these possible organic evaporite deposits. This model was based on a simplified theory of dissolution (ideal solution and regular solution theory) and all computations were performed using a time-scale which did not enable any estimation for the depth of deposits layers.
Expectations developed over multiple timescales facilitate visual search performance
Gekas, Nikos; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy
2015-01-01
Our perception of the world is strongly influenced by our expectations, and a question of key importance is how the visual system develops and updates its expectations through interaction with the environment. We used a visual search task to investigate how expectations of different timescales (from the last few trials to hours to long-term statistics of natural scenes) interact to alter perception. We presented human observers with low-contrast white dots at 12 possible locations equally spaced on a circle, and we asked them to simultaneously identify the presence and location of the dots while manipulating their expectations by presenting stimuli at some locations more frequently than others. Our findings suggest that there are strong acuity differences between absolute target locations (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical) and preexisting long-term biases influencing observers' detection and localization performance, respectively. On top of these, subjects quickly learned about the stimulus distribution, which improved their detection performance but caused increased false alarms at the most frequently presented stimulus locations. Recent exposure to a stimulus resulted in significantly improved detection performance and significantly more false alarms but only at locations at which it was more probable that a stimulus would be presented. Our results can be modeled and understood within a Bayesian framework in terms of a near-optimal integration of sensory evidence with rapidly learned statistical priors, which are skewed toward the very recent history of trials and may help understanding the time scale of developing expectations at the neural level. PMID:26200891
Simulating conservative tracers in fractured till under realistic timescales.
Helmke, M F; Simpkins, W W; Horton, R
2005-01-01
Discrete-fracture and dual-porosity models are infrequently used to simulate solute transport through fractured unconsolidated deposits, despite their more common application in fractured rock where distinct flow regimes are hypothesized. In this study, we apply four fracture transport models--the mobile-immobile model (MIM), parallel-plate discrete-fracture model (PDFM), and stochastic and deterministic discrete-fracture models (DFMs)--to demonstrate their utility for simulating solute transport through fractured till. Model results were compared to breakthrough curves (BTCs) for the conservative tracers potassium bromide (KBr), pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), and 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) in a large-diameter column of fractured till. Input parameters were determined from independent field and laboratory methods. Predictions of Br BTCs were not significantly different among models; however, the stochastic and deterministic DFMs were more accurate than the MIM or PDFM when predicting PFBA and PIPES BTCs. DFMs may be more applicable than the MIM for tracers with small effective diffusion coefficients (De) or for short timescales due to differences in how these models simulate diffusion or incorporate heterogeneities by their fracture networks. At large scales of investigation, the more computationally efficient MIM and PDFM may be more practical to implement than the three-dimensional DFMs, or a combination of model approaches could be employed. Regardless of the modeling approach used, fractures should be incorporated routinely into solute transport models in glaciated terrain. PMID:16324009
Jerome Bouvier
2008-10-17
The timescale over which planets may form in the circumstellar disks of young stars is one of the main issues of current planetary formation models. We present here new constraints on planet formation timescales derived from the rotational evolution of exoplanet host stars.
Adaptive dynamics on an environmental gradient that changes over a geological time-scale.
Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Toivonen, Jaakko
2015-07-01
The standard adaptive dynamics framework assumes two timescales, i.e. fast population dynamics and slow evolutionary dynamics. We further assume a third timescale, which is even slower than the evolutionary timescale. We call this the geological timescale and we assume that slow climatic change occurs within this timescale. We study the evolution of our model population over this very slow geological timescale with bifurcation plots of the standard adaptive dynamics framework. The bifurcation parameter being varied describes the abiotic environment that changes over the geological timescale. We construct evolutionary trees over the geological timescale and observe both gradual phenotypic evolution and punctuated branching events. We concur with the established notion that branching of a monomorphic population on an environmental gradient only happens when the gradient is not too shallow and not too steep. However, we show that evolution within the habitat can produce polymorphic populations that inhabit steep gradients. What is necessary is that the environmental gradient at some point in time is such that the initial branching of the monomorphic population can occur. We also find that phenotypes adapted to environments in the middle of the existing environmental range are more likely to branch than phenotypes adapted to extreme environments. PMID:25861870
A new astronomical timescale for the loess deposits of Northern China
Utrecht, Universiteit
A new astronomical timescale for the loess deposits of Northern China D. Heslop *, C.G. Langereis Here, we present a refined timescale for the entire sequence of Quaternary Chinese loess, which relies that is consistent with the current understanding of loess depositional and post-depositional processes. Analysis
Retroactivity Attenuation in Bio-molecular Systems Based on Timescale Separation
Del Vecchio, Domitilla
1 Retroactivity Attenuation in Bio-molecular Systems Based on Timescale Separation Shridhar Jayanthi and Domitilla Del Vecchio Abstract--As with several engineering systems, bio-molecular systems a mechanism that exploits the natural timescale separation present in bio-molecular systems to attenuate
The Lifecycles of Drought: Informing Responses Across Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulwarty, R. S.; Schubert, S. D.
2014-12-01
Drought is a slow-onset hazard that is a normal part of climate. Drought onset and demise are difficult to determine. Impacts are mostly nonstructural, spread over large geographical areas, and can persist long after precipitation deficits end. These factors hinder development of accurate, timely estimates of drought severity and resultant responses. Drivers of drought range from SST anomalies and global scale atmospheric response, through regional forcing and local land-surface feedbacks. Key climatological questions related to drought risk assessment, perception and management include, "Does a drought end by a return to normal precipitation; how much moisture is required and over what period; can the end of a drought be defined by the diminishing impacts e.g. soil moisture, reservoir volumes; will precipitation patterns on which management systems rely, change in the future?" Effective early warning systems inform strategic responses that anticipate crises and crisis evolution across climate timescales. While such "early information" is critical for defining event onset, it is even more critical for identifying the potential for increases in severity. Many social and economic systems have buffers in place to respond to onset (storage, transfers and purchase of grain) but lack response capabilities as drought intensifies, as buffers are depleted. Throughout the drought lifecycle (and between events), monitoring, research and risk assessments are required to: Map decision-making processes and resource capabilities including degradation of water and ecosystems Place multiple climate and land surface indicators within a consistent triggering framework (e.g. climate and vegetation mapping) before critical thresholds are reached Identify policies and practices that impede or enable the flow of information, through policy gaming and other exercises The presentation will outline the capabilities and framework needed to ensure improved scientific inputs to preparedness and adaptation. Lessons will be drawn from recent and ongoing events in California, the Midwest, and globally.
Multiple timescales of body schema reorganization due to plastic surgery.
Iodice, Pierpaolo; Scuderi, Nicolò; Saggini, Raoul; Pezzulo, Giovanni
2015-08-01
Plastic surgery modifies the distribution of mass centers of a person's body segments, changing his or her posture. The functional reorganization processes that lead subjects to re-integrate these body changes into a new stable body (posture) schema is poorly understood but current theories suggest the possible contribution of two components: a feedback mechanism that strongly depends on sensory input and an internal model that is relatively less dependent on sensory input and improves posture control, for example by compensating for delayed feedback. To assess the relative contributions of these two mechanisms during the functional reorganization of a posture scheme, we have conducted a longitudinal postural study in a population of healthy adults who were subject to breast plastic surgery to reduce or augment body weight. We measured participants' orthostatic posture and ground reaction force immediately after, after 4 months, and 1 year after the surgery. To investigate the role of visual sensory information in the reorganization process we tested the participants with eyes open and closed. Our results indicate that participants find a new dynamical equilibrium within a few days. However, posture maintenance remains sub-optimal long after the center of masses and the resultant of ground reaction force stop changing; in some cases, for more than 4 months. Furthermore, the re-adaptation process is faster and more efficient in the eyes-open than in the eyes-closed condition. These results suggest that the reorganization involves different subsystems (responsible for the biomechanical changes, the re-calibration of feedback mechanisms, and the re-adaptation of internal models), which act at different timescales. PMID:25964999
Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.
Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W
2016-03-01
Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it. PMID:26286084
Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, Lewis M.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Fischer, Woodward W.
2015-08-01
Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis—autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight—by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.
Nonlinear and linear timescales near kinetic scales in solar wind turbulence
Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Shay, M. A.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Gary, S. P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.
2014-08-01
The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theory—which assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic rates—may be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.
Nonlinear and Linear Timescales near Kinetic Scales in Solar Wind Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthaeus, W. H.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Gary, S. P.; Shay, M. A.; Valentini, F.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Chapman, S. C.
2014-08-01
The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theory—which assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic rates—may be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.
Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified
Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu
2007-02-19
We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.
Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates
E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta
2013-01-22
In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.
Parameterized Beyond-Einstein Growth
Linder, Eric; Linder, Eric V.; Cahn, Robert N.
2007-09-17
A single parameter, the gravitational growth index gamma, succeeds in characterizing the growth of density perturbations in the linear regime separately from the effects of the cosmic expansion. The parameter is restricted to a very narrow range for models of dark energy obeying the laws of general relativity but can take on distinctly different values in models of beyond-Einstein gravity. Motivated by the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for testing gravity, we analytically derive and extend the gravitational growth index, or Minimal Modified Gravity, approach to parameterizing beyond-Einstein cosmology. The analytic formalism demonstrates how to apply the growth index parameter to early dark energy, time-varying gravity, DGP braneworld gravity, and some scalar-tensor gravity.
Nonlocal Astroparticles in Einstein's Universe
I. E. Bulyzhenkov
2008-10-10
Gravitational probes should maintain spatial flatness for Einsten-Infeld-Hoffmann dynamics of relativistic matter-energy. The continuous elementary source/particle in Einstein's gravitational theory is the r^{-4} radial energy density rather than the delta-operator density in empty-space gravitation. The space energy integral of such an infinite (astro)particle is finite and determines its nonlocal gravitational charge for the energy-to-energy attraction of other nonlocal (astro)particles. The non-empty flat space of the undivided material Universe is charged continuously by the world energy density of the global ensemble of overlapping radial particles. Nonlocal gravitational/inertial energy-charges incorporate Machian relativism quantitatively into Einstein's gravitation for self-contained SR-GR dynamics without references on Newton's mass-to-mass attraction.
Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities
Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi
2011-02-15
We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g{sub {mu}{nu}=}C(R)g{sub {mu}{nu}} with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.
Albert Einstein - a Pious Atheist
V. Djokovic; P. Grujic
2007-06-29
We consider Einstein's attitude with regard to religion both from sociological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective has been made, with the emphasis on his ethnic and religious background. The great scientist was neither anatheist nor a believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might apply would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological view) and agnosticism (epistemological view). His ideas on the divine could be considered as a continuation of a line that can be traced back to Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed the Greek Stoics and Neoplatonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. Einstein's scientific (or rational) and religious (or intuitive) thinking was deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture.
Albert Einstein and Scientific Theology
Andrews, Max L E
2012-01-01
In recent centuries the world has become increasingly dominated by empirical evidence and theoretic science in developing worldviews. Advances in science have dictated Roman Catholic doctrine such as the acceptance of Darwinian evolution and Big Bang cosmology. Albert Einstein created an indelible impact on the relationship between science and religion. The question is whether or not his work was deleterious for church doctrine or whether it was compatible with, or even advanced, church dogma. It's my contention that Einstein revived the relationship between science and theology and did not create a bifurcation between the two. Despite his personal religious beliefs, his work has helped to reinforce the harmonious conjunction of science with religion, which cannot be ignored by succeeding scientists and theologians.
Wheeler-Einstein-Mach spacetimes
Isenberg, J.A.
1981-07-15
We define the Wheeler-Einstein-Mach (WEM) spacetimes to be those which contain a closed Cauchy surface, are inextendible, and satisfy field equations with a well-posed Cauchy problem. We show that a WEM spacetime can be reconstructed from the ''York data'' on any given closed (constant mean curvature) hypersurface contained in that spacetime. This result is the strongest and most precise statement to date of Wheeler's version of Mach's principle. We discuss Machian and other properties of the WEM spacetimes.
Multisoliton solutions to Einstein's equations
Ibaez, J.; Verdaguer, E.
1985-01-15
We discuss a multisoliton solution to Einstein's equations in vacuum. The solution is interpreted as many gravitational solitons propagating and colliding on a homogeneous cosmological background. Following a previous letter, we characterize the solitons by their localizability and by their peculiar properties under collisions. Furthermore, we define an associated frame-dependent velocity field which illustrates the solitonic character of these gravitational solitons in the classical sense.
Entropic corrections to Einstein equations
Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.
2011-04-15
Considering the general quantum corrections to the area law of black hole entropy and adopting the viewpoint that gravity interprets as an entropic force, we derive the modified forms of Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory of gravitation and Einstein field equations. As two special cases we study the logarithmic and power-law corrections to entropy and find the explicit form of the obtained modified equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faghei, Kazem
2014-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to explore the influences of cooling timescale on fragmentation of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks. We assume the cooling timescale, expressed in terms of the dynamical timescale ? tcool, has a power-law dependence on temperature and density, ? tcool ? ?-aT-b, where a and b are constants. We use this cooling timescale in a simple prescription for the cooling rate, du/dt = -u/tcool, where u is the internal energy. We perform our simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. The simulations demonstrate that the disk is very sensitive to the cooling timescale, which depends on density and temperature. Under such a cooling timescale, the disk becomes gravitationally unstable and clumps form in the disk. This property even occurs for cooling timescales which are much longer than the critical cooling timescale, ? tcool ? 7. We show that by adding the dependence of a cooling timescale on temperature and density, the number of clumps increases and the clumps can also form at smaller radii. The simulations imply that the sensitivity of a cooling timescale to density is more than to temperature, because even for a small dependence of the cooling timescale on density, clumps can still form in the disk. However, when the cooling timescale has a large dependence on temperature, clumps form in the disk. We also consider the effects of artificial viscosity parameters on fragmentation conditions. This consideration is performed in two cases, where ? tcool is a constant and ? tcool is a function of density and temperature. The simulations consider both cases, and results show the artificial viscosity parameters have rather similar effects. For example, using too small of values for linear and quadratic terms in artificial viscosity can suppress the gravitational instability and consequently the efficiency of the clump formation process decreases. This property is consistent with recent simulations of self-gravitating disks. We perform simulations with and without the Balsara form of artificial viscosity. We find that in the cooling and self-gravitating disks without the Balsara switch, the clumps can form more easily than those with the Balsara switch. Moreover, in both cases where the Balsara switch is present or absent, the simulations show that the cooling timescale strongly depends on density and temperature.
Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hacker, Bradley R.; Donato, Mary M.; Barnes, Calvin G.; McWilliams, M. O.; Ernst, W. G.
1995-06-01
An electronic supplement of this material may be obtained on a diskette or Anonymous FTP from KOSMOS.AGU.ORG (LOGIN to AGU's FTP account using ANONYMOUS as the username and GUEST as the password. Go to the right directory by typing CD APEND. Type LS to see what files are available. Type GET and the name of the file to get it. Finally, type EXIT to leave the system.) (Paper 94YCJ2454, Timescales of orogeny: Jurassic construction of the Klamath Mountains, B.R. Hacker, M.M. Donato, C.G. Barnes, M.O. McWilliams, and W.G. Ernst). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; $15.00. Payment must accompany order. Classical interpretations of orogeny were based on relatively imprecise biostratigraphic and isotopic age determinations that necessitated grouping apparently related features that may in reality have been greatly diachronous. Isotopic age techniques now have the precision required to resolve the timing of orogenic events on a scale much smaller than that of entire mountain belts. Forty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Klamath Mountains illuminate the deformation, metamorphism, magmatism, and sedimentation involved in the Jurassic construction of that orogen, leading to a new level of understanding regarding how preserved orogenic features relate to ancient plate tectonic processes. The new geochronologic relationships show that many Jurassic units of the Klamath Mountains had 200 Ma or older volcanoplutonic basement. Subsequent formation of a large ˜170 Ma arc was followed by contractional collapse of the arc. Collision with a spreading ridge may have led to large-scale NW-SE extension in the central and northern Klamaths from 167 to ˜155 Ma, coincident with the crystallization of voluminous plutonic and volcanic suites. Marked cooling of a large region of the central Klamath Mountains to below ˜350°C at ˜150 Ma may have occurred as the igneous belt was extinguished by subduction of colder material at deeper structural levels. These data demonstrate that the Klamath Mountains—and perhaps other similar orogens—were constructed during areally and temporally variant episodes of contraction, extension, and magmatism that do not fit classical definitions of orogeny.
Reliable timescale inference of HBV genotype A origin and phylodynamics.
Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Svicher, Valentina; Gabanelli, Elena; Ebranati, Erika; Veo, Carla; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Bussini, Linda; Salpini, Romina; Alteri, Claudia; Lai, Alessia; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Perno, Carlo Federico; Galli, Massimo; Ciccozzi, Massimo
2015-06-01
The worldwide distributed Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A is classified into three subgenotypes, and one quasi-subgenotype. The majority of HBV-A subgenotypes are widespread in Africa and in ethnic groups that have relatively recently emigrated from African countries, whereas HBV-A2 is highly prevalent among subjects at high risk for sexual exposure to HBV in north-western Europe and the USA. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of HBV-A subgenotypes on a reliable timescale using short-term calibration based on heterochronous sampling for HBV-A2, and long-term calibration based on historical data for the other subgenotypes. To this aim, we analysed 113 newly characterised HBV-A isolates with 247 reference sequences retrieved from a public database. The phylodynamic reconstruction was performed by a Bayesian framework. The common ancestor of the currently circulating A subgenotypes was placed in west-central Africa a mean 1057 years ago. The genotype diverged into two main clades at the beginning of the 13th century: one including all of the west-central African quasi-subgenotypes and the other corresponding to subgenotype A1, originating in east Africa and further segregating into two main subclades: an "African" and a "cosmopolitan" clade. It is likely that the slave trade was the main source the spread of cosmopolitan HBV-A1, which was exported to Asia in the 17th century as a result of Arab or Portuguese trade, and to Latin America in the 18th centuries through the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The origin of the currently circulating A2 strains dates back to the first decades of the 20th century, and the evolutionary demography analysis suggests an exponential growth of infections, between 1970s and the mid-1990s. In conclusion, the very different epidemiological and evolutionary histories of HBV-A subgenotypes justify the use of different calibration approaches to reconstruct their reciprocal phylodynamics. PMID:25784568
Einstein Gyrogroup as a B-loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suksumran, Teerapong; Wiboonton, Keng
2015-08-01
Using the Clifford algebra formalism, we give an algebraic proof that the open unit ball B = v ?Rn : ? v ? < 1 } of Rn equipped with Einstein addition ?E forms a B-loop or, equivalently, a uniquely 2-divisible gyrocommutative gyrogroup. We obtain a compact formula for Einstein addition in terms of Möbius addition. We then give a characterization of associativity and commutativity of vectors in B with respect to Einstein addition.
Type II Einstein spacetimes in higher dimensions
Mark Durkee
2009-09-11
This short note shows that many of the results derived by Pravda et al (Class. Quant. Grav. 24 4407-4428) for higher-dimensional Type D Einstein spacetimes can be generalized to all Einstein spacetimes admitting a multiple WAND; the main new result being the extension to include the Type II case. Examples of Type D Einstein spacetimes admitting non-geodesic multiple WANDs are given in all dimensions greater than 4.
Einstein's Apple and Relativity's Gravitational Field
Engelbert L. Schucking
2009-03-31
The foundations of Einstein's first (1907) principle of equivalence are explored and their consequences are stated in terms of invariance under generalized Lorentz transformations, first explored by Hessenberg.
Time-Scales for Non-Inductive Current Buildup in Low-Aspect-Ratio Toroidal Geometry
S.C. Jardin
1999-11-01
The fundamental differences between inductive and non-inductive current buildup are clarified and the associated time-scales and other implications are discussed. A simulation is presented whereby the plasma current in a low-aspect-ratio torus is increased primarily by the self-generated bootstrap current with only 10% coming from external current drive. The maximum obtainable plasma current by this process is shown to scale with the toroidal field strength. The basic physics setting the time-scales can be obtained from a 1D analysis. Comparisons are made between the timescales found here and those reported in the experimental literature.
XMM-Newton Observations of the Super-Eddington Intermediate-Mass Black Hole: RX J1140.1+0307
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, C.; Done, C.; Ward, M.
2015-07-01
RX J1140.1+0307 is an intriguing IMBH. Last year we obtained data from two new observations of this source with XMM-Newton to study its spectral components and variability. Here we report the latest results from all three XMM-Newton observations of this source. We find the data show a strong soft X-ray component superimposed on a steep 2-10 keV power law, where the power law is more variable than the soft X-ray in high frequency. These properties are similar to a special group of NLS1s such as PG 1244+026 and RE J1034+396, making it natural to assume that the accretion flow in all these sources is at L˜L_{Edd}. We tried various methods to constrain its black hole mass, and conformed M<1.E+6 Msun. With the mass being so small, the variable optical flux requires a mass accretion rate of L/L$_{Edd}˜10 through the outer disk. Such high mass accretion rate would dramatically over-predicts the observed X-ray flux unless there is substantial energy loss through winds and/or advection, as is expected at such highly super-Eddington rates. But this is inconsistent with the X-ray spectral and variability properties, leaving us an unsolved puzzle about the formation mechanism of its X-ray spectra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
1988-01-01
The observed upper luminosity limits in the Galaxy and the LMC are compared with the Eddington limit as estimated for plane-parallel LTE model atmospheres which include the full effects of metal line opacities in the ultraviolet. It is shown that the Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit corresponds to the locus of extremely low effective gravities. This result suggests that stars approaching the HD limit will suffer high mass-loss rates because of the reduction of the effective gravity due to radiation pressure. These high mass-loss rates ultimtely lead to the core mass fraction reaching its critical value and the reversal of the stellar evolution tracks. It is shown that radiation pressure, as an agent for producing enhanced mass loss near the HD limit, can in a natural way explain the kink in the HD limit near T(eff) roughly 10,000 K and the upper luminosity limit for yellow and red supergiants. The high mass-loss rates of the luminous blue variables, their location in the HR diagram, and their evolutionary stage are also discussed.
Bridging the timescales between thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glotzbach, Christoph
2015-04-01
Reconstructing the evolution of Earth's landscape is a key to understand its future evolution and to identify the driving forces that shape Earth's surface. Cosmogenic nuclide and thermochronological methods are routinely used to quantify Earth surface processes over 102-104 yr and 106-107 yr, respectively (e.g. Lal 1991; Reiners and Ehlers 2005; von Blanckenburg 2006). A comparison of the rates of surface processes derived from these methods is, however, hampered by the large difference in their timescales. For instance, a constant erosion rate of 0.1 mm/yr yield an apatite (U-Th)/He age of ~24 Ma and a 10Be age of ~6 ka, respectively. Analytical methods that bridge this time gap are on the way, but are not yet fully established (e.g. Herman et al. 2010). A ready to use alternative are river profiles, which record the regional uplift history over 102-107 yr (e.g. Pritchard et al. 2009). Changes in uplift are retained in knickzones that propagate with a distinct velocity upstream, and therefore the time of an uplift event can be estimated. Here I present an integrative inverse modelling approach to simultaneously reconstruct river profiles, model thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data and to derive robust information about landscape evolution over thousands to millions of years. An efficient inversion routine is used to solve the forward problem and find the best uplift history and erosional parameters that reproduce the observed data. I test the performance of the algorithm by inverting a synthetic dataset and a dataset from the Sila massif (Italy). Results show that even complicated uplift histories can be reliably retrieved by the combined interpretation of river profiles, thermochronological and cosmogenic nuclide data. References Gallagher, K., Brown, R. & Johnson, C. (1998): Fission track analysis and its applications to geological problems. - Annu. Rev. Earth Planet., 26: 519-572. Herman, F., Rhodes, E.J., Braun, J. & Heiniger, L. (2010): Uniform erosion rates and relief amplitude during glacial cycles in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, as revealed from OSL-thermochronology. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 297: 183-189. Lal, D. (1991): Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: in situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104: 424-439. Pritchard, D., Roberts, G.G., White, N.J. & Richardson, C.N. (2009): Uplift histories from river profiles. - Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24301, doi:10.1029/2009GL040928. Reiners, P.W. & Ehlers, T.A. (2005): Low-temperature Thermochronology: Techniques, Interpretations, and Applications. - Rev. Mineral. Geochem., 58. Von Blanckenburg, F. (2006): The control mechanisms of erosion and weathering at basin scale from cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment. - Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 242: 462-479.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Huang, Ying-Ke; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Yang-Wei; Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Kaspi, Shai; Ho, Luis C.; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration
2015-06-01
We have completed two years of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with very high accretion rates. In this paper, we report on the result of the second phase of the campaign, during 2013-2014, and the measurements of five new H? time lags out of eight monitored AGNs. All five objects were identified as super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs). The highest measured accretion rates for the objects in this campaign are \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ? 200, where \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} ={{\\dot{M}}\\bullet }/{{L}Edd}{{c}-2}, {{\\dot{M}}\\bullet } is the mass accretion rates, {{L}Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the speed of light. We find that the H? time lags in SEAMBHs are significantly shorter than those measured in sub-Eddington AGNs, and the deviations increase with increasing accretion rates. Thus, the relationship between broad-line region size ({{R}_{H? }}) and optical luminosity at 5100 Å, {{R}_{H? }}-{{L}5100}, requires accretion rate as an additional parameter. We propose that much of the effect may be due to the strong anisotropy of the emitted slim-disk radiation. Scaling {{R}_{H? }} by the gravitational radius of the black hole (BH), we define a new radius-mass parameter (Y) and show that it saturates at a critical accretion rate of \\mathscr{\\dot{M}} {\\mkern 1mu} {{}c}=6˜ 30, indicating a transition from thin to slim accretion disk and a saturated luminosity of the slim disks. The parameter Y is a very useful probe for understanding the various types of accretion onto massive BHs. We briefly comment on implications to the general population of super-Eddington AGNs in the universe and applications to cosmology.
Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope
Sathyaprakash, B S; Broeck, Chris Van Den
2009-01-01
Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.
A Cosmic Vision Beyond Einstein
Eric V. Linder
2008-10-09
The acceleration of the cosmic expansion is a fundamental challenge to standard models of particle physics and cosmology. The new physics of dark energy may lie in the nature of gravity, the quantum vacuum, or extra dimensions. I give a brief overview of the puzzles and possibilities of dark energy, and discuss the confrontation of a wide variety of "beyond Einstein" models with the latest data, showing what we currently know and what we must seek to learn. Next generation experiments using a variety of cosmological probes will deeply explore dark energy, dark matter, and gravitation.
Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...
The Meaning of Einstein's Equation
John C. Baez; Emory F. Bunn
2015-06-12
This is a brief introduction to general relativity, designed for both students and teachers of the subject. While there are many excellent expositions of general relativity, few adequately explain the geometrical meaning of the basic equation of the theory: Einstein's equation. Here we give a simple formulation of this equation in terms of the motion of freely falling test particles. We also sketch some of its consequences, and explain how the formulation given here is equivalent to the usual one in terms of tensors. Finally, we include an annotated bibliography of books, articles and websites suitable for the student of relativity.
Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope
B. S. Sathyaprakash; Bernard Schutz; Chris Van Den Broeck
2009-06-23
Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.
Solving Einstein's equation numerically on manifolds with arbitrary spatial topologies
Lindblom, Lee
Solving Einstein's equation numerically on manifolds with arbitrary spatial topologies Lee Lindblom develops a method for solving Einstein's equation numerically on multicube representations of manifolds to Einstein's equation on manifolds with arbitrary toplogical structures. A new covariant, first- order
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE STRATEGIC RESEARCH PLAN UPDATE 2010
Bukauskas, Feliksas
1 ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE STRATEGIC RESEARCH PLAN UPDATE 2010 Table/Multi-Modal Image Analysis.................10 Clinical Research Enterprise/Einstein-Montefiore Interface................12 Einstein Center for Health and Society..........................................16 Institute
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE GLOBAL HEALTH FELLOWSHIP APPLICATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE GLOBAL HEALTH FELLOWSHIP APPLICATION CLASS of____________ Return completed application to Jill Raufman at global@einstein.yu.edu by April 15th. (Medical Spanish it will be conducted:___________________________________________________ Name/title of mentor at Einstein
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Global Health Center
Emmons, Scott
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Global Health Center Complete and send to Denise Giocondo at: denise.giocondo@einstein.yu.edu Request to wire funds internationally: Name)___________(other currency) Source of funds (Einstein account #) _________________________ Destination of funds: Country
n Einfhrung Albert Einstein: Der Mensch, Wissenschaftler und Weltbrger
Pfeifer, Holger
19152015 n Einführung Albert Einstein: Der Mensch, Wissenschaftler und Weltbürger Prof. Dr Einsteins Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie die Welt veränderte Prof. Dr. Günther Hasinger, Institute Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie Schwarze Löcher und GPS: Wie Einsteins Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie die Welt
Guever, Tolga; Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2012-03-01
Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of thermonuclear bursts observed from low-mass X-ray binaries offer a unique tool to measure neutron-star masses and radii. In this paper, we continue our systematic analysis of all the X-ray bursts observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from X-ray binaries. We determine the events that show clear evidence for photospheric radius expansion and measure the Eddington limits for these accreting neutron stars using the bolometric fluxes attained at the touchdown moments of each X-ray burst. We employ a Bayesian technique to investigate the degree to which the Eddington limit for each source remains constant between bursts. We find that for sources with a large number of radius expansion bursts, systematic uncertainties are at a 5%-10% level. Moreover, in six sources with only pairs of Eddington-limited bursts, the distribution of fluxes is consistent with a {approx}10% fractional dispersion. This indicates that the spectroscopic measurements of neutron-star masses and radii using thermonuclear X-ray bursts can reach the level of accuracy required to distinguish between different neutron-star equations of state, provided that uncertainties related to the overall flux calibration of X-ray detectors are of comparable magnitude.
Yamada, Tomoya M; Morota, Tomokatsu; Katsuragi, Hiroaki
2015-01-01
A model for the asteroid resurfacing by regolith convection is built to estimate its timescale. In the model, regolith convection is driven by the impact-induced global seismic shaking. The model consists of three steps: (i) intermittent impact of meteors, (ii) impact-induced global vibration (seismic shaking), and (iii) vibration-induced regolith convection. In order to assess the feasibility of the resurfacing process driven by the regolith convection, we estimate the resurfacing timescale as a function of the size of a target asteroid. According to the estimated result, the regolith-convection-based resurfacing timescale is sufficiently shorter than the mean collisional lifetime for the main belt asteroids. This means that the regolith convection is a possible mechanism for the asteroid resurfacing process. However, the timescale depends on various uncertain parameters such as seismic efficiency and convective roll size. To clarify the parameter dependences, we develop an approximated scaling form for the ...
Mervine, Evelyn Martinique
2012-01-01
Determining timescales of the formation and preservation of carbonate alteration products in mantle peridotite is important in order to better understand the role of this potentially important sink in the global carbon ...
VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES
Vovk, Ie.; Neronov, A.
2013-04-20
We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the {gamma}-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.
Existence of Solutions for a One Dimensional p-Laplacian on Time-Scales
Anderson, Douglas R.
real numbers), or hZ (a constant graininess), the p-Laplacian arises in non-Newtonian fluids, in some theorem of Calculus, a result that has been generalized and extended to time-scales; to gain a good
Retroactivity Attenuation in Bio-Molecular Systems Based on Timescale Separation
Jayanthi, Shridhar
As with several engineering systems, bio-molecular systems display impedance-like effects at interconnections, called retroactivity. In this paper, we propose a mechanism that exploits the natural timescale separation ...
Bose-Einstein condensate strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.
2015-02-01
We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue, though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. Assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.
Exact Vacuum Solutions to the Einstein Equation
Ying-Qiu Gu
2007-06-17
In this paper, we present a framework for getting a series of exact vacuum solutions to the Einstein equation. This procedure of resolution is based on a canonical form of the metric. According to this procedure, the Einstein equation can be reduced to some 2-dimensional Laplace-like equations or rotation and divergence equations, which are much convenient for the resolution.
Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian
2009-01-01
A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…
Einstein Product Metrics in Diverse Dimensions
K. R. Koehler
2006-01-27
We use direct products of Einstein Metrics to construct new solutions to Einstein's Equations with cosmological constant. We illustrate the technique with three families of solutions having the geometries Kerr/de Sitter X de Sitter, Kerr/anti-de Sitter X anti-de Sitter and Kerr X Kerr.
Einstein as a Missionary of Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renn, Jürgen
2013-01-01
The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…
What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayes, Denis
2007-01-01
People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…
People Interview: Continuing Einstein's great work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-09-01
INTERVIEW Continuing Einstein's great work Dr Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author and popularizer of science. He is the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory) and continues Einstein's search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory. David Smith speaks to him about inspiration and education.
COMPARISON OF KEPLER PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY WITH THE SUN ON DIFFERENT TIMESCALES
Basri, Gibor; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Reiners, Ansgar
2013-05-20
We utilize Kepler data to study the precision differential photometric variability of solar-type and cooler stars at different timescales, ranging from half an hour to three months. We define a diagnostic that characterizes the median differential intensity change between data bins of a given timescale. We apply the same diagnostics to Solar and Heliospheric Observatory data that has been rendered comparable to Kepler. The Sun exhibits similar photometric variability on all timescales as comparable solar-type stars in the Kepler field. The previously defined photometric ''range'' serves as our activity proxy (driven by starspot coverage). We revisit the fraction of comparable stars in the Kepler field that are more active than the Sun. The exact active fraction depends on what is meant by ''more active than the Sun'' and on the magnitude limit of the sample of stars considered. This active fraction is between a quarter and a third (depending on the timescale). We argue that a reliable result requires timescales of half a day or longer and stars brighter than M{sub Kep} of 14, otherwise non-stellar noise distorts it. We also analyze main sequence stars grouped by temperature from 6500 to 3500 K. As one moves to cooler stars, the active fraction of stars becomes steadily larger (greater than 90% for early M dwarfs). The Sun is a good photometric model at all timescales for those cooler stars that have long-term variability within the span of solar variability.
Six-Degree-of-Freedom Trajectory Optimization Utilizing a Two-Timescale Collocation Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desai, Prasun N.; Conway, Bruce A.
2005-01-01
Six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) trajectory optimization of a reentry vehicle is solved using a two-timescale collocation methodology. This class of 6DOF trajectory problems are characterized by two distinct timescales in their governing equations, where a subset of the states have high-frequency dynamics (the rotational equations of motion) while the remaining states (the translational equations of motion) vary comparatively slowly. With conventional collocation methods, the 6DOF problem size becomes extraordinarily large and difficult to solve. Utilizing the two-timescale collocation architecture, the problem size is reduced significantly. The converged solution shows a realistic landing profile and captures the appropriate high-frequency rotational dynamics. A large reduction in the overall problem size (by 55%) is attained with the two-timescale architecture as compared to the conventional single-timescale collocation method. Consequently, optimum 6DOF trajectory problems can now be solved efficiently using collocation, which was not previously possible for a system with two distinct timescales in the governing states.
Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunziker, Herbert
2015-03-01
For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics. PMID:15705841
New Self-Dual Einstein Metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casteill, P. Y.; Valent, G.
A new family of euclidean Einstein metrics with self-dual Weyl tensor have been obtained using ideas from extended supersymmetries1,2. The basic supersymmetric formalism3, known as harmonic superspace, was adapted to the computation of self-dual Einstein metrics in 4. The resulting metric depends on 4 parameters besides the Einstein constant and has for isometry group U(1) × U(1), with hypersurface generating Killing vectors. In the limit of vanishing Einstein constant we recover a family of hyperkähler metrics within the Multicentre family 5 (in fact the most general one with two centres). Our results include the metrics of Plebanski and Demianski6 when these ones are restricted to be self-dual Weyl. From Flaherty's equivalence 7 these metrics can also be interpreted as a solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell field equations, for which we have given the Maxwell field strength forms2.
Einstein Ring in Distant Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-06-01
Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred on the newly discovered Einstein ring. The image quality ("seeing") of the R-band image is exceptional (0.5") and the image reveals the lensing system in stunning details. The central dot is the lens, a quiescent massive galaxy that distort the light emitted by background sources. The large arc surrounding the central lens is a part of the Einstein-ring created by a background source finely aligned with the lens. The reddish colour indicates that the redshift of the system is very large. FORS2 spectroscopy of the lensing system yield a redshift close to 1 for the lens (we see the lens as it was when the universe was half its present size), and a record-breaking redshift z=3.8 for a background source of such brightness, hence we see the object (a star forming galaxy) as it was when the universe was only 12% of its present age. The lensing model indicates that the light of the source is magnified at least 13 times. The right panel shows the reconstructed image based on the model of the lens and the source, showing the ring to extend over 3/4 of a circle. "There are only a very few optical rings or arcs known, and even less so in which the lens and the source are at large distance, i.e. more than about 7,000 million light-years away (or half the present age of the Universe)", says Rémi Cabanac, former ESO Fellow and now working at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. "Moreover, very few are nearly complete", he adds. But in the case of this newly found cosmic ring, the images show it to extend to almost 3/4 of a circle. The lensing galaxy is located at a distance of about 8,000 million light-years from us, while the source galaxy whose light is distorted, is much farther away, at 12,000 million light-years. Thus, we see this galaxy as it was when the universe was only 12% of its present age. The lens magnifies the source almost 13 times. The observations reveal the galaxy acting as a lens to be a rather quiet galaxy, 40,000 light-years wide, with an old stellar population. The far away lensed galaxy, however, is extremely active,
Wei-Hao. Bian; Yan-Mei. Chen; Chen. Hu; Kai. Huang; Yan. Xu
2008-03-24
We investigate the $\\mbh- \\sigma_*$ relation for radio-loud quasars with redshift $zradio luminosity, including 306 radio-loud quasars, 3466 radio-quiet quasars with measured radio luminosity or upper-limit of radio luminosity (181 radio-quiet quasars with measured radio luminosity). The virial supermassive black hole mass (\\mbh) is calculated from the broad \\hb line, the host stellar velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_*$) is traced by the core \\oiii gaseous velocity dispersion, and the radio luminosity and the radio loudness are derived from the FIRST catalog. Our results are follows: (1) For radio-quiet quasars, we confirm that there is no obvious deviation from the $\\mbh- \\sigma_*$ relation defined in inactive galaxies when \\mbh uncertainties and luminosity bias are concerned. (2) We find that radio-loud quasars deviate much from the $\\mbh- \\sigma_*$ relation respect to that for radio-quiet quasars. This deviation is only partly due to the possible cosmology evolution of the $\\mbh- \\sigma_*$ relation and the luminosity bias. (3) The radio luminosity is proportional to $\\mbh^{1.28^{+0.23}_{-0.16}}(\\lb/\\ledd)^{1.29^{+0.31}_{-0.24}}$ for radio-quiet quasars and $\\mbh^{3.10^{+0.60}_{-0.70}}(\\lb/\\ledd)^{4.18^{+1.40}_{-1.10}}$ for radio-loud quasars. The weaker correlation of the radio luminosity dependence upon the mass and the Eddington ratio for radio-loud quasars shows that other physical effects would account for their radio luminosities, such as the black hole spin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin
2015-02-01
The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld scenario (EiBI) can prevent the big bang singularity for a matter content whose equation of state is constant and positive. In a recent paper [Bouhmadi-Lopez et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 74:2802, 2014)] we showed that, on the contrary, it is impossible to smooth a big rip in the EiBI setup. In fact the situations are still different for other singularities. In this paper we show that a big freeze singularity in GR can in some cases be smoothed to a sudden or a type IV singularity under the EiBI scenario. Similarly, a sudden or a type IV singularity in GR can be replaced in some regions of the parameter space by a type IV singularity or a loitering behaviour, respectively, in the EiBI framework. Furthermore, we find that the auxiliary metric related to the physical connection usually has a smoother behaviour than that based on the physical metric. In addition, we show that bound structures close to a big rip or a little rip will be destroyed before the advent of the singularity and will remain bound close to a sudden, big freeze or type IV singularity. We then constrain the model following a cosmographic approach, which is well known to be model independent, for a given Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry. It turns out that among the various past or present singularities, the cosmographic analysis can pick up the physical region that determines the occurrence of a type IV singularity or a loitering effect in the past. Moreover, to determine which of the future singularities or doomsdays is more probable, observational constraints on the higher-order cosmographic parameters are required.
Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-04-01
Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They found no evidence that gravity is different from General Relativity on scales larger than 130 million light years. This limit corresponds to a hundred-fold improvement on the bounds of the modified gravitational force's range that can be set without using the cluster data. "This is the strongest ever constraint set on an alternative to General Relativity on such large distance scales," said Schmidt. "Our results show that we can probe gravity stringently on cosmological scales by using observations of galaxy clusters." The reason for this dramatic improvement in constraints can be traced to the greatly enhanced gravitational forces acting in clusters as opposed to the universal background expansion of the universe. The cluster-growth technique also promises to be a good probe of other modified gravity scenarios, such as models motivated by higher-dimensional theories and string theory. A second, independent study also bolsters General Relativity by directly testing it across cosmological distances and times. Up until now, General Relativity had been verified only using experiments from laboratory to Solar System scales, leaving the door open to the possibility that General Relativity breaks down on much larger scales. To probe this question, a group at Stanford University compared Chandra observations of how rapidly galaxy clusters have grown over time to the predictions of General Relativity. The result is nearly complete agreement between observation and theory. "Einstein's theory succeeds again, this time in calculating how many massive clusters have formed under gravity's pull over the last five billion years," said David Rapetti of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led the new study. "Excitingly and reassuringly, our results are the most robust consistency test of General Relativity yet carried out on cosmological scales." Rapetti and his colleagues based their results on a sample of 238 c
Einstein Gravity from Conformal Gravity
Juan Maldacena
2011-06-09
We show that that four dimensional conformal gravity plus a simple Neumann boundary condition can be used to get the semiclassical (or tree level) wavefunction of the universe of four dimensional asymptotically de-Sitter or Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetimes. This simple Neumann boundary condition selects the Einstein solution out of the more numerous solutions of conformal gravity. It thus removes the ghosts of conformal gravity from this computation. In the case of a five dimensional pure gravity theory with a positive cosmological constant we show that the late time superhorizon tree level probability measure, $|\\Psi [ g ]|^2$, for its four dimensional spatial slices is given by the action of Euclidean four dimensional conformal gravity.
The neural processing of hierarchical structure in music and speech at different timescales
Farbood, Morwaread M.; Heeger, David J.; Marcus, Gary; Hasson, Uri; Lerner, Yulia
2015-01-01
Music, like speech, is a complex auditory signal that contains structures at multiple timescales, and as such is a potentially powerful entry point into the question of how the brain integrates complex streams of information. Using an experimental design modeled after previous studies that used scrambled versions of a spoken story (Lerner et al., 2011) and a silent movie (Hasson et al., 2008), we investigate whether listeners perceive hierarchical structure in music beyond short (~6 s) time windows and whether there is cortical overlap between music and language processing at multiple timescales. Experienced pianists were presented with an extended musical excerpt scrambled at multiple timescales—by measure, phrase, and section—while measuring brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reliability of evoked activity, as quantified by inter-subject correlation of the fMRI responses, was measured. We found that response reliability depended systematically on musical structure coherence, revealing a topographically organized hierarchy of processing timescales. Early auditory areas (at the bottom of the hierarchy) responded reliably in all conditions. For brain areas at the top of the hierarchy, the original (unscrambled) excerpt evoked more reliable responses than any of the scrambled excerpts, indicating that these brain areas process long-timescale musical structures, on the order of minutes. The topography of processing timescales was analogous with that reported previously for speech, but the timescale gradients for music and speech overlapped with one another only partially, suggesting that temporally analogous structures—words/measures, sentences/musical phrases, paragraph/sections—are processed separately. PMID:26029037
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.
2014-01-01
Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (˜1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 1-2 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 53-87%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 1-2 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 3-4 years.
Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.; Maglio, Morgan M.
2014-01-01
Hyporheic fluxes influence ecological processes across a continuum of timescales. However, few studies have been able to characterize hyporheic fluxes and residence time distributions (RTDs) over timescales of days to years, during which evapotranspiration (ET) and seasonal flood pulses create unsteady forcing. Here we present a data-driven, particle-tracking piston model that characterizes hyporheic fluxes and RTDs based on measured vertical head differences. We used the model to test the relative influence of ET and seasonal flood pulses in the Everglades (FL, USA), in a manner applicable to other low-energy floodplains or broad, shallow streams. We found that over the multiyear timescale, flood pulses that drive relatively deep (?1 m) flow paths had the dominant influence on hyporheic fluxes and residence times but that ET effects were discernible at shorter timescales (weeks to months) as a break in RTDs. Cumulative RTDs on either side of the break were generally well represented by lognormal functions, except for when ET was strong and none of the standard distributions applied to the shorter timescale. At the monthly timescale, ET increased hyporheic fluxes by 1–2 orders of magnitude; it also decreased 6 year mean residence times by 53–87%. Long, slow flow paths driven by flood pulses increased 6 year hyporheic fluxes by another 1–2 orders of magnitude, to a level comparable to that induced over the short term by shear flow in streams. Results suggest that models of intermediate-timescale processes should include at least two-storage zones with different RTDs, and that supporting field data collection occur over 3–4 years.
Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.
Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao
2014-10-01
Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446
Perspectives on Einstein's scientific works in Milan
Bracco, Christian
2015-01-01
The Milanese period in Albert Einstein's life is a key one for the understanding of the development of his scientific questioning. While being a student in Z\\"urich from 1896, Einstein returned regularly to Milan to meet his family for the holidays. There, he could work on the most recent articles in physics at the rich library of the Lombardo Institute, Academy of Sciences and Letters. Hopefully, this new perspective will help to trace back more accurately a few of Einstein's scientific ideas, such as the need to expand his first doctoral work on molecular forces to weakly compressed gases or as to conceive a first idea of light quanta.
Dear Einstein Administrators, As we approach the July 1st
Emmons, Scott
Dear Einstein Administrators, As we approach the July 1st transition of Einstein employees to COM). *Please contact me at michele.russo@einstein.yu.edu to discuss any known terminations that may, and not yet started): 1. Anyone starting between now and June 17 must be onboarded by Einstein and need
Einstein 2014-2015 Edition Student to Student
Emmons, Scott
Einstein 2014-2015 Edition Student to Student Handbook #12;2 Acknowledgements Special thanks by Einstein students for Einstein students. This guide does not represent the policies of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine or its affiliated faculty. Although every reasonable
Einstein Manifolds and Contact Geometry Charles P. Boyer Krzysztof Galicki
Einstein Manifolds and Contact Geometry Charles P. Boyer Krzysztof Galicki Abstract. We show that every KÂcontact Einstein manifold is SasakianÂEinstein and discuss several corollaries of this result. 1 types of Riemannian contact manifolds to construct Einstein metrics of positive scalar curvature
20152016 Applicant Guide EINSTEIN M.D. PROGRAM
Emmons, Scott
20152016 Applicant Guide EINSTEIN M.D. PROGRAM O F Y E S H I V A U N I V E R S I T Y Albert+ medical students At Albert Einstein College of Medicine, compassion, collaboration and collegiality Einstein College of Medicine #12;2 Welcome Explore how Einstein can give you the skills to develop
A multi-timescale analysis of phase transitions in precessing black-hole binaries
Gerosa, Davide; Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2015-01-01
The dynamics of precessing binary black holes (BBHs) in the post-Newtonian regime has a strong timescale hierarchy: the orbital timescale is very short compared to the spin-precession timescale which, in turn, is much shorter than the radiation-reaction timescale on which the orbit is shrinking due to gravitational-wave emission. We exploit this timescale hierarchy to develop a multi-scale analysis of BBH dynamics elaborating on the analysis of Kesden et al. (2015). We solve the spin-precession equations analytically on the precession time and then implement a quasi-adiabatic approach to evolve these solutions on the longer radiation-reaction time. This procedure leads to an innovative "precession-averaged" post-Newtonian approach to studying precessing BBHs. We use our new solutions to classify BBH spin precession into three distinct morphologies, then investigate phase transitions between these morphologies as BBHs inspiral. These precession-averaged post-Newtonian inspirals can be efficiently calculated fr...
Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body
Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.
2012-01-01
Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s–1000 s km3) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ?760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500–3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies. PMID:22666359
The Arctic Predictability and Prediction on Seasonal-to-Interannual TimEscales (APPOSITE) data set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, J. J.; Tietsche, S.; Collins, M.; Goessling, H. F.; Guemas, V.; Guillory, A.; Hurlin, W. J.; Ishii, M.; Keeley, S. P. E.; Matei, D.; Msadek, R.; Sigmond, M.; Tatebe, H.; Hawkins, E.
2015-10-01
Recent decades have seen significant developments in seasonal-to-interannual timescale climate prediction capabilities. However, until recently the potential of such systems to predict Arctic climate had not been assessed. This paper describes a multi-model predictability experiment which was run as part of the Arctic Predictability and Prediction On Seasonal to Inter-annual Timescales (APPOSITE) project. The main goal of APPOSITE was to quantify the timescales on which Arctic climate is predictable. In order to achieve this, a coordinated set of idealised initial-value predictability experiments, with seven general circulation models, was conducted. This was the first model intercomparison project designed to quantify the predictability of Arctic climate on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Here we present a description of the archived data set (which is available at the British Atmospheric Data Centre) and an update of the project's results. Although designed to address Arctic predictability, this data set could also be used to assess the predictability of other regions and modes of climate variability on these timescales, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation.
Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body
Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.
2013-04-08
Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.
Neural Substrates Related to Motor Memory with Multiple Timescales in Sensorimotor Adaptation.
Kim, Sungshin; Ogawa, Kenji; Lv, Jinchi; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Imamizu, Hiroshi
2015-12-01
Recent computational and behavioral studies suggest that motor adaptation results from the update of multiple memories with different timescales. Here, we designed a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which subjects adapted to two opposing visuomotor rotations. A computational model of motor adaptation with multiple memories was fitted to the behavioral data to generate time-varying regressors of brain activity. We identified regional specificity to timescales: in particular, the activity in the inferior parietal region and in the anterior-medial cerebellum was associated with memories for intermediate and long timescales, respectively. A sparse singular value decomposition analysis of variability in specificities to timescales over the brain identified four components, two fast, one middle, and one slow, each associated with different brain networks. Finally, a multivariate decoding analysis showed that activity patterns in the anterior-medial cerebellum progressively represented the two rotations. Our results support the existence of brain regions associated with multiple timescales in adaptation and a role of the cerebellum in storing multiple internal models. PMID:26645916
Multi-timescale analysis of phase transitions in precessing black-hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2015-09-01
The dynamics of precessing binary black holes (BBHs) in the post-Newtonian regime has a strong timescale hierarchy: the orbital timescale is very short compared to the spin-precession timescale which, in turn, is much shorter than the radiation-reaction timescale on which the orbit is shrinking due to gravitational-wave emission. We exploit this timescale hierarchy to develop a multiscale analysis of BBH dynamics elaborating on the analysis of Kesden et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 081103 (2015)]. We solve the spin-precession equations analytically on the precession time and then implement a quasiadiabatic approach to evolve these solutions on the longer radiation-reaction time. This procedure leads to an innovative "precession-averaged" post-Newtonian approach to studying precessing BBHs. We use our new solutions to classify BBH spin precession into three distinct morphologies, then investigate phase transitions between these morphologies as BBHs inspiral. These precession-averaged post-Newtonian inspirals can be efficiently calculated from arbitrarily large separations, thus making progress towards bridging the gap between astrophysics and numerical relativity.
Neural Substrates Related to Motor Memory with Multiple Timescales in Sensorimotor Adaptation
Lv, Jinchi; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Imamizu, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
Recent computational and behavioral studies suggest that motor adaptation results from the update of multiple memories with different timescales. Here, we designed a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which subjects adapted to two opposing visuomotor rotations. A computational model of motor adaptation with multiple memories was fitted to the behavioral data to generate time-varying regressors of brain activity. We identified regional specificity to timescales: in particular, the activity in the inferior parietal region and in the anterior-medial cerebellum was associated with memories for intermediate and long timescales, respectively. A sparse singular value decomposition analysis of variability in specificities to timescales over the brain identified four components, two fast, one middle, and one slow, each associated with different brain networks. Finally, a multivariate decoding analysis showed that activity patterns in the anterior-medial cerebellum progressively represented the two rotations. Our results support the existence of brain regions associated with multiple timescales in adaptation and a role of the cerebellum in storing multiple internal models. PMID:26645916
Stability of the Einstein static universe in Einstein-Cartan theory
Atazadeh, K.
2014-06-01
The existence and stability of the Einstein static solution have been built in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. We show that this solution in the presence of perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is cyclically stable around a center equilibrium point. Thus, study of this solution is interesting because it supports non-singular emergent cosmological models in which the early universe oscillates indeterminately about an initial Einstein static solution and is thus past eternal.
Roald Sosnovskiy
2009-01-16
The cause of an infringement in GR of a gravitational field energy conservation law is investigated . The equation of a gravitational field not contradicting to the energy conservation law is suggested. This equation satisfy to the Einstein,s requirement of equivalence of all energy kinds as sources of a gravitational field. This equation is solved in paper for cosmic objects. It is showed, that results for some objects - for black holes and gravitating strings-essentialy differ from such for Einstein,s equation, have the symple meaning and do not contradictions.
Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr
2007-01-01
Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...
The happiest thought of Einstein's life.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heller, M.
It is a commonly told story that Einstein formulated his famous principle of equivalence when thinking about what happens in a freely falling elevator, and that it was an original idea of his genius distinguished by the rare capability to see deep problems in the most ordinary things. In the reading of Einstein's and Ernst Mach's works the author has discovered that it was not a physicist in an elevator which led to the principle of equivalence but rather somebody falling from a roof; moreover, the idea behind the principle was not invented by Einstein himself but rather read by him from the book by Mach entitled The Science of Mechanics. The influence this book had on young Einstein is very well known.
Causality in scalar-Einstein waves
Mark D. Roberts
2015-03-13
A wavelike scalar-Einstein solution is found and indicating vectors constructed from the Bel-Robinson tensor are used to study which objects co-move with the wave and whether gravitational energy transfer is null.
Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodle, Walter S.
1985-01-01
The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)
The creativity of Einstein and astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeldovich, Y. B.
1980-01-01
A discussion of Einstein's scientific achievements for the 100th anniversary of his birth is presented. His works dealing with thermodynamics are described, along with his quantum theory of radiation. Most of the article discusses his general theory of relativity.
How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Alberto
2013-04-01
I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.
Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chandrasekhar, S.
1979-01-01
This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)
A Search for Short Timescale Microvariability in Active Galactic Nuclei in the Ultraviolet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Clark, L. Lee
2003-01-01
We observed four AGNs (the type-1 Seyfert systems 3C249.1, NGC 6814 and Mrk 205, and the BL Lac object 3C371) using the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for short timescale microvariability in the W. Continuous observations of 3 0 0 0 s duration were obtained for each system on several consecutive HST orbits using a 1 s sample time in a 1400 - 3000 2 bandpass. variability > 0.3 % (0 . 003 mag) was detected in any AGN on timescales shorter than 1500 s. The distribution of photon arrival times observed from each source was consistent with Poisson statistics. Because of HST optical problems, the limit on photometric variability at longer timescales is less precise. These results restrict models of supermassive black holes as the central engine of an AGN and the diskoseismology oscillations of any accretion disk around such a black hole.
Microphysical Timescales in Clouds and their Application in Cloud-Resolving Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne
2004-01-01
Computational phenomena (i.e., spurious supersaturation and negative mixing ratio of cloud water) usually exist in cloud-resolving models when the time step for explicit integration is larger than a microphysical timescale in clouds. In this paper, the microphysical timescales in clouds are studied, showing that the timescale of water vapor condensation (or cloud water evaporation) is smaller than 10 s - the order of a typical time step for cloud-resolving models. To avoid spurious computational phenomena in cloud-resolving modeling, it is suggested that moist entropy be used as a prognostic thermodynamic variable, and temperature be diagnosed from that and other prognostic variables. A simple numerical model with moist entropy as a prognostic variable, for example, is presented to show that spurious computational phenomena are removed when moist entropy is used as a prognostic variable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.
2013-12-01
Context. Towards the end of their evolution, hot massive stars develop strong stellar winds and appear as emission line stars, such as Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or luminous blue variables (LBVs). The quantitative description of the mass loss in these important pre-supernova phases is hampered by unknowns, such as clumping and porosity due to an inhomogeneous wind structure and by an incomplete theoretical understanding of optically thick stellar winds. Even the stellar radii in these phases are badly understood since they are often variable (LBVs) or deviate from theoretical expectations (WR stars). Aims: In this work we investigate the conditions in deep atmospheric layers of WR stars to find out whether they comply with the theory of optically thick winds and whether we find indications of clumping in these layers. Methods: We used a new semi-empirical method to determine sonic-point optical depths, densities, and temperatures for a large sample of WR stars of the carbon (WC) and oxygen (WO) sequence. Based on an artificial model sequence we investigated the reliability of our method and its sensitivity to uncertainties in stellar parameters. Results: We find that the WR stars in our sample obey an approximate relation with Prad/Pgas ? 80 at the sonic point. This "wind condition" is ubiquitous for radiatively driven, optically thick winds, and it sets constraints on possible wind/envelope solutions affecting radii, mass-loss rates, and clumping properties. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the presence of an optically thick wind may force many stars near the Eddington limit to develop clumped, radially extended sub-surface zones. The clumping in these zones is most likely sustained by the non-linear strange-mode instability and may be the origin of the observed wind clumping. The properties of typical late-type WC stars comply with this model. Solutions without sub-surface clumping and inflation are also possible but require compact stars with comparatively low mass-loss rates. These objects may resemble the small group of WO stars with their exceptionally hot stellar temperatures and highly ionized winds. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
QPOs: Einstein's gravity non-linear resonances
Paola Rebusco; Marek A. Abramowicz
2006-01-30
There is strong evidence that the observed kHz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray flux of neutron star and black hole sources in LMXRBs are linked to Einstein's General Relativity. Abramowicz&Klu\\'zniak (2001) suggested a non-linear resonance model to explain the QPOs origin: here we summarize their idea and the development of a mathematical toy-model which begins to throw light on the nature of Einstein's gravity non-linear oscillations.
Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe
M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir
2007-08-27
In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.
Einstein's Apple: His First Principle of Equivalence
Engelbert L. Schucking; Eugene J. Surowitz
2012-08-09
After a historical discussion of Einstein's 1907 principle of equivalence, a homogeneous gravitational field in Minkowski spacetime is constructed. It is pointed out that the reference frames in gravitational theory can be understood as spaces with a flat connection and torsion defined through teleparallelism. This kind of torsion was introduced by Einstein in 1928. The concept of torsion is discussed through simple examples and some historical observations.
Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story
Krauss, Lawrence
2007-05-30
The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.
Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story
Krauss, Lawrence
2010-09-01
The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-02-01
Each year the RAS recognizes outstanding achievement in astronomy and geophysics by the award of medals and prizes. Candidates are nominated by Fellows and the awards made by a committee of Fellows, ensuring that these scientists have earned the respect and admiration of their peers in the research community. The Gold Medal for Astronomy is awarded to Prof. David Williams of University College London. The Gold Medal for Geophysics is awarded to Prof. Eric Priest of the University of St Andrews. The Price Medal is awarded to Prof. Malcolm Sambridge of the Australian National University. The Eddington Medal is given to Prof. James Pringle of the University of Cambridge.
A MODEL FOR THE CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY INDEX WITH EDDINGTON RATIO IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES
Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.
2013-02-10
Observations show that there is a positive correlation between the Eddington ratio {lambda} and hard X-ray index {Gamma} for {lambda} {approx}> 0.01, and there is an anti-correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma} for {lambda} {approx}< 0.01 in black hole X-ray binaries (with {lambda} = L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}). In this work, we theoretically investigate the correlation between {Gamma} and {lambda} within the framework of a disk-corona model. We improve the model by taking into account all cooling processes, including synchrotron and self-Compton radiations in the corona, Comptonization of the soft photons from the underlying accretion disk, and the bremsstrahlung radiations. Presuming that the coronal flow above the disk can reach up to the 0.1 Eddington rate at the outer region, we calculate the structure of the two-phase accretion flows and the emergent spectra for accretion rates from 0.003 to 0.1. We find that at accretion rates larger than bsim0.01 Eddington rate, a fraction of coronal gas condenses into the disk and an inner disk can be sustained by condensation. In this case, the X-ray emission is dominated by the scattering of the soft photon from the underlying disk in the corona. The emission from the inner disk and corona can produce the positive correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma}. While at accretion rates lower than bsim0.01 Eddington accretion rate, the inner disk vanishes completely by evaporation, and the accretion is dominated by advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which the X-ray emission is produced by the Comptonization of the synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons of ADAF itself. The emission from ADAFs can produce the anti-correlation between {lambda} and {Gamma}. We show that our model can roughly explain the observed evolution of {Gamma}{sub 3-25keV} with L {sub 0.5-25keV}/L {sub Edd} for the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 in the decay of 2003 from the thermal-dominated state to low/hard state.
Spatial and seasonal variability of the air-sea equilibration timescale of carbon dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Daniel; Ito, Takamitsu; Takano, Yohei; Hsu, Wei-Ching
2014-05-01
The exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere tends to bring near-surface waters toward equilibrium by reducing the partial pressure gradient across the air-water interface. However, the equilibration process is not instantaneous; in general there is a lag between forcing and response. The timescale of air-sea equilibration depends on several factors involving the depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, wind speed, and carbonate chemistry. In this work, we use a suite of observational datasets to generate climatological and seasonal composite maps of the air-sea equilibration timescale. The relaxation timescale exhibits considerable spatial and seasonal variations, which are largely set by changes in mixed layer depth and wind speed. The net effect is dominated by the mixed layer depth; the gas exchange velocity and carbonate chemistry parameters only provide partial compensation. Broadly speaking, the adjustment timescale tends to increase with latitude. We compare the observationally-derived air-sea gas exchange timescale with a model-derived surface residence time and a data-derived horizontal transport timescale, which allows us to define two non-dimensional metrics of gas exchange efficiency. These parameters highlight the Southern Ocean, equatorial Pacific, and North Atlantic as regions of inefficient air-sea equilibration where carbon anomalies are likely to form and persist. The efficiency parameters presented here can serve as simple tools for understanding regional air-sea disequilibrium in both observations and models. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.
Einstein, Mach, and the Fortunes of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, David
2005-04-01
Early in his life, Albert Einstein considered himself a devoted student of the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. Mach's famous critiques of Newton's absolute space and time -- most notably Mach's explanation of Newton's bucket experiment -- held a strong sway over Einstein as he struggled to formulate general relativity. Einstein was convinced that his emerging theory of gravity should be consistent with Mach's principle, which states that local inertial effects arise due to gravitational interactions with distant matter. Once completed, Einstein's general relativity enjoyed two decades of worldwide attention, only to fall out of physicists' interest during the 1930s and 1940s, when topics like nuclear physics claimed center stage. Gravity began to return to the limelight during the 1950s and especially the 1960s, and once again Mach proved to be a major spur: Princeton physicists Carl Brans and Robert Dicke introduced a rival theory of gravity in 1961 which they argued satisfied Mach's principle better than Einstein's general relativity did. The Brans-Dicke theory, and the new generation of experiments designed to test its predictions against those of general relativity, played a major role in bringing Einstein's beloved topic back to the center of physics.
Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation
Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.
2006-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.
Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2012-09-01
The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early time cosmology and the big bang, as well as TeV-scale gravity models testable at the Large Hadron Collider. On different grounds, Monte-Carlo studies of the gravitational partition function based on the discrete causal dynamical triangulations approach provide an a priori independent avenue towards unveiling the non-perturbative features of gravity. As a highlight, detailed simulations established that the phase diagram underlying causal dynamical triangulations contains a phase where the triangulations naturally give rise to four-dimensional, macroscopic universes. Moreover, there are indications for a second-order phase transition that naturally forms the discrete analog of the non-Gaussian fixed point seen in the continuum computations. Thus there is a good chance that the discrete and continuum computations will converge to the same fundamental physics. This focus issue collects a series of papers that outline the current frontiers of the gravitational asymptotic safety program. We hope that readers get an impression of the depth and variety of this research area as well as our excitement about the new and ongoing developments. References [1] Weinberg S 1979 General Relativity, an Einstein Centenary Survey ed S W Hawking and W Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations from colliding Bose-Einstein condensates
Johannes Kofler; Mandip Singh; Maximilian Ebner; Michael Keller; Mateusz Kotyrba; Anton Zeilinger
2012-09-18
We propose an experiment which can demonstrate quantum correlations in a physical scenario as discussed in the seminal work of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. Momentum-entangled massive particles are produced via the four-wave mixing process of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. The particles' quantum correlations can be shown in a double double-slit experiment or via ghost interference.
Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, Roger H.
2005-05-01
The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.
Fluid and Kinetic Modelling on Timescales Longer than the Confinement Time in Bounded Systems
Weiland, Jan; Zagorodny, Anatoly; Zasenko, Volodymyr
2009-10-08
The problem of fluid modelling on timescales longer than the confinement time is addressed as a problem of decay of high order moments without sources. Several mechanisms for the decay of higher order moments are discussed and very strong experimental evidence is given for toroidal plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dufour, P.; Tremblay, P.-E.
2015-06-01
The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. Some important insights into the process may be derived using an approximate approach which combines static stellar models with estimates of diffusion timescales at the base of the outer convection zone or, in its absence, at the photosphere. Until recently, and to our knowledge, values of diffusion timescales in white dwarfs have all been obtained on the basis of the same physics as that developed initially by Paquette et al., including their diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusion coefficients. In view of the recent exciting discoveries of a plethora of metals (including some never seen before) polluting the atmospheres of an increasing number of cool white dwarfs, we felt that a new look at the estimates of settling timescales would be worthwhile. We thus provide improved estimates of diffusion timescales for all 27 elements from Li to Cu in the periodic table in a wide range of the surface gravity-effective temperature domain and for both DA and non-DA stars.
Long Timescale 3D Simulations of an Electron Beam Penetrating a Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sgro, A. G.
2004-11-01
When an electron beam encounters an overdense plasma, the beam is quickly destabilized by the two stream instability and dispersed. However, it was shown previously by means of 2D simulations that over long time scales the beam ejects the background electrons from the region where the beam is propagating, leaving the background ions to neutralize the beam charge, thus stabilizing the beam propagation over timescales that are long compared to the electron-electron two stream instability growth time. In this report, long timescale simulations in 3D are presented. In the overdense regime, the background electrons are not completely blown away and the beam electrons encounter the remaining background electrons. On short timescales the beam is destabilized by the two stream instability and dispersed. However, the result of this dynamics is the that background electrons are dispersed and then over timescales that are long compared to the electron-electron two stream instability growth time the beam reforms and digs a hole in the background plasma through which it can stably propagate. This demonstrates that even with 3D instabilities included the beam can indeed propagate through the overdense plasma.
Signatures of multiple time-scale behaviour in the power spectra of water
Ramaswamy, Ram
Signatures of multiple time-scale behaviour in the power spectra of water Anirban Mudi Abstract Power spectra associated with fluctuations in the tagged particle potential and kinetic energies are analysed for bulk SPC/E water for a range of temperatures along the 1.0 g/cm3 isochore. Fluctuations
Predator exposure alters stress physiology in guppies across timescales Eva K. Fischer a,
Hofmann, Hans A.
Predator exposure alters stress physiology in guppies across timescales Eva K. Fischer a, , Rayna M Cortisol Glucocorticoids Adaptive evolution Predation Stress In vertebrates, glucocorticoids mediate a wide-range of responses to stressors. For this reason, they are implicat- ed in adaptation to changes in predation
ICDERS July 2429, 2011 Irvine, USA Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation in 2-D and its
Vasilyev, Oleg V.
demonstrated a mechanism to achieve Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) [1, 2]. If the power deposition23rd ICDERS July 2429, 2011 Irvine, USA Acoustic Timescale Detonation Initiation in 2-D and its The non-dimensional 2-D reactive Euler equations are used to simulate detonation initiation. The equa
Oceanic and atmospheric response to climate change over varying geologic timescales
Woodard, Stella C.
2012-07-16
Global climate is controlled by two factors, the amount of heat energy received from the sun (solar insolation) and the way that heat is distributed Earth's surface. Solar insolation varies on timescales of 10s to 100s of thousands of years due...
Coarse-graining dynamics by telescoping down time-scales: comment for Faraday FD144
Ard A. Louis
2010-01-07
I briefly review some concepts related to coarse-graining methods for the dynamics of soft matter systems and argue that such schemes will almost always need to telescope down the physical hierarchy of time-scales to a more compressed, but more computationally manageable, separation.
Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and
Kiss, Istvan Zoltan
Disease dynamics over very different time-scales: foot-and-mouth disease and scrapie on the network of livestock movements in the UK and the dynamics of two diseases: foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which has conditions, a static network analysis can be an appropriate tool for gaining insights into disease dynamics
Plasma Sheet Variations Observed on Kinetic Timescales The Causes of the Aurora I
Fillingim, Matthew
on the order of the local proton gyroperiod. The ion velocity moment typically changes by over 100 km/s from ·Significant changes and structure are observed on timescales comparable to the local proton gyroperiod ·Time these variations and yields lower velocity moments. The magnetic field changes in direction and magnitude
Kirchner, James W.
Mineral-specific chemical weathering rates over millennial timescales: Measurements at Rio Icacos 2010 Accepted 26 July 2010 Editor: J.D. Blum Keywords: Chemical weathering Mineral weathering atmospheric carbon dioxide. We calculate mineral- specific chemical weathering rates at two field sites
Erosion Rates Over Millennial and Decadal Timescales at Caspar Creek and Redwood
Erosion Rates Over Millennial and Decadal Timescales at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California1 Ken L. Ferrier,2 James W. Kirchner,3 and Robert C. Finkel4 Erosion rate measurements ecosystems. Traditionally, erosion rates have been determined by measuring stream sediment fluxes over
Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.
Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng
2006-09-15
Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term. PMID:16893797
Wood, Robert
and depletion of water vapor, we predict aerosol sensitivity in clouds formed by homogeneous freezing. Our freezing and implications for upper tropospheric water vapor budgets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10809, doiTimescale analysis of aerosol sensitivity during homogeneous freezing and implications for upper
Atmospheric Vapor Isotope Variability on Timescales from an Hour to a Year
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posmentier, E. S.; Faiia, A.; Everhart, K.; Feng, X.
2010-12-01
Atmospheric vapor isotope ratios (H218O/H216O and HD16O/H216O) were observed at high frequency for two years in Hanover, NH. Isotopic data were obtained every 100 seconds using a Los Gatos Research ringdown vapor analyzer, and concurrent meteorological data were obtained every 10 min using a collocated Davis Vantage PRO2 weather station. It was determined that variations of ?18O and ?D are dominated by three timescales: (1) A diel timescale, (2) a broadband “weather” timescale with periods from hours to days, and (3) an annual timescale. Variations on the three timescales can be separated by appropriate statistical computations. Each timescale of variability can be examined by evaluating the relationships among pairs of variables, especially those between the isotope ratios, ?18O and ?D, and the dew point temperature TD. The diel cycle in ?18O-TD coordinates appears as a counter-clockwise loop. At different times of day, the progress around the loop is dominated by different processes. In the morning, there is increasing TD during evaporation of fog as solar radiation warms the air. Later in the day, isotopic ratios drop while evapotranspiration rates are at their maximum, and as the boundary layer deepens and entrains isotopically depleted air from above. TD drops as radiative cooling and condensation modify the boundary layer in the late evening and night. Finally, after the upper part of the boundary layer detrains into the air above, the cycle is completed as water vapor re-equilibrates with surface water and ?18O rises in the hours preceding sunrise. Details of the cycle vary gradually as the seasons change. Vapor isotopes also vary on weather timescales; they can change in under an hour during passage of a fast-moving cold front, but may be steady for several days during the passage of a large cyclonic system blocked by a high. The changes are dominated by the displacement of one air mass by another, especially during frontal passage. Vapor isotopes potentially offer insights, not available from conventional meteorological data, into the origin, modification, and structure of air masses in weather systems. The annual cycle of vapor isotopes also loops in a pattern analogous to the diel cycle, but is affected as well by the change of influential air masses from high-latitude continental in the winter, to mid-latitude with more marine influence in the summer. passages, most dramatically during cold front passage.
Co-evolution of Soils and Landforms: Erosion Modelling over Decadal Timescales for Disturbed Lands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willgoose, G. R.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.
2011-12-01
Landform evolution models (LEMs) have largely ignored temporal changes in the soils. Likewise fluvial erosion models have typically ignored temporal changes in soils. In both cases these changes in soils and erosion rates may be independent of (e.g. weathering of soils/rock particles), or dependent on (e.g. armouring due to selective entrainment) the fluvial erosion process. Typically, LEMs and erosion models have implicitly assumed that soils are constant in time and at equilibrium. This may be true for undisturbed sites but is unlikely to be true for disturbed sites. The high erosion rates on poorly managed agricultural lands typically lead to coarsening of the surface (i.e. desertification) over relatively short periods of time such as decades, so ought to be considered as part of any erosion assessment. For unnatural constructed landforms the issue is even more dramatic. Many of the mine and nuclear waste rehabilitation problems examined by the authors using LEMs over the last 20 years show, in the field, significant evolution of the surface erodibility at the decadal timescale. We conclude that the evolution of soils must be modeled explicitly to be able to predict landscape evolution over the decadal timescale. Some insights based on our recent work in quantitative pedogenesis models will be presented and we will show how current approaches used in LEMs are deficient, and propose a route forward. We will show that there are two important pedogenic timescales, (1) the surface of the soil and (2) the entire soil profile. We conclude that we must consider several timescales for soil evolution, that for the entire profile, and that for the surface alone. The evolution of the soil surface is an order of magnitude faster process than that of the entire profile. The evolution of the soil surface is likely to be dominant at the decadal timescale.
Kahler, S. W.
2013-06-01
The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v {sub CME} or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v {sub CME}, and TR and TD increase with both v {sub CME} and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v {sub CME} and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v {sub CME} and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.
Intermediate-Timescale Vertical Exchange in a Peatland and Implications for Landscape Patterning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, L. G.; Harvey, J. W.; Maglio, M. M.
2012-12-01
Stream tracer tests typically provide estimates of hyporheic exchange on timescales of minutes to days, relevant for addressing questions about rapid biogeochemical cycling and microbial uptake. Estimates of longer-timescale surface-subsurface exchange are also useful, particularly for assessing potential legacy effects of water contamination or nutrient enrichment, effects of seasonal forcing on macrophyte and geomorphic dynamics, and processes such as mineral dissolution or evaporative enrichment that occur over long flow paths. Increasingly, naturally occurring tracers such as ^{3}H, ^{3}He, ^{223}Ra and ^{224}Ra, D, and ^{18}O are being combined with inverse modeling approaches to quantify these exchange processes. In the Everglades, use of 3H/3He and Ra have revealed decadal and weekly to yearly timescales of vertical exchange between surface water and the subsurface limestone aquifer, suggesting that legacy effects of phosphorus contamination due to slow exchange between the aquifer and surface-water are likely, and that shorter-timescale mixing results from precipitation and water management activities. Here we add to the picture by using profiles of Cl^{-} to quantify monthly-timescale exchange between peat porewater and surface water in geomorphically distinct zones of slightly different elevation. Resulting quantification of vertical exchange fluxes allows a better assessment of how minor spatial differences in topography in an otherwise nearly flat landscape drives fluxes in the biogeochemically reactive peat layer that may impact freshwater storage, nutrient and vegetation community dynamics, and ultimately, the geomorphic patterning of vegetation and microtopography that underlies the highly valued biodiversity and connectivity of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape. Hyporheic flow patterns suggested a significant ridge-to-slough exchange of water and reactive nutrients during seasonal rewetting but—unlike in many boreal peatlands—did not evidence a subsurface biogeochemical control on landscape patterning.
Einstein-Rosen "Bridge" Needs Lightlike Brane Source
Eduardo Guendelman; Alexander Kaganovich; Emil Nissimov; Svetlana Pacheva
2009-10-25
The Einstein-Rosen "bridge" wormhole solution proposed in the classic paper [1] does not satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations at the wormhole throat. We show that the fully consistent formulation of the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" requires solving Einstein equations of bulk D=4 gravity coupled to a lightlike brane with a well-defined world-volume action. The non-vanishing contribution of Einstein-Rosen "bridge" solution to the right hand side of Einstein equations at the throat matches precisely the surface stress-energy tensor of the lightlike brane which automatically occupies the throat ("horizon straddling") - a feature triggered by the world-volume lightlike brane dynamics.
Einstein's vierbein field theory of curved space
Jeffrey Yepez
2011-06-10
General Relativity theory is reviewed following the vierbein field theory approach proposed in 1928 by Einstein. It is based on the vierbein field taken as the "square root" of the metric tensor field. Einstein's vierbein theory is a gauge field theory for gravity; the vierbein field playing the role of a gauge field but not exactly like the vector potential field does in Yang-Mills theory--the correction to the derivative (the covariant derivative) is not proportional to the vierbein field as it would be if gravity were strictly a Yang-Mills theory. Einstein discovered the spin connection in terms of the vierbein fields to take the place of the conventional affine connection. To date, one of the most important applications of the vierbein representation is for the derivation of the correction to a 4-spinor quantum field transported in curved space, yielding the correct form of the covariant derivative. Thus, the vierbein field theory is the most natural way to represent a relativistic quantum field theory in curved space. Using the vierbein field theory, presented is a derivation of the the Einstein equation and then the Dirac equation in curved space. Einstein's original 1928 manuscripts translated into English are included.
Einstein@Home all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data
J. Aasi; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; P. Ajith; B. Allen; A. Allocca; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; S. Ast; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; Y. Bao; J. C. B. Barayoga; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; D. Beck; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; T. Bhadbade; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; C. Bond; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; W. Chen; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. A. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; S. Dorsher; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endröczi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; B. F. Farr; M. Favata; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; S. Foley; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. A. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. -K. Fujimoto; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; J. Garcia; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gelencser; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; S. Gil-Casanova; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Griffo; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; M. Holtrop; T. Hong; S. Hooper; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; Y. J. Jang; P. Jaranowski; E. Jesse; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; M. Kasprzack; R. Kasturi; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kaufman; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; D. Keitel; D. Kelley; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. K. Kim; C. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. M. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; J. Kline; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; S. Koranda; W. Z. Korth; I. Kowalska
2012-08-04
This paper presents results of an all-sky searches for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range [50, 1190] Hz and with frequency derivative ranges of [-2 x 10^-9, 1.1 x 10^-10] Hz/s for the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The novelty of the search lies in the use of a non-coherent technique based on the Hough-transform to combine the information from coherent searches on timescales of about one day. Because these searches are very computationally intensive, they have been deployed on the Einstein@Home distributed computing project infrastructure. The search presented here is about a factor 3 more sensitive than the previous Einstein@Home search in early S5 LIGO data. The post-processing has left us with eight surviving candidates. We show that deeper follow-up studies rule each of them out. Hence, since no statistically significant gravitational wave signals have been detected, we report upper limits on the intrinsic gravitational wave amplitude h0. For example, in the 0.5 Hz-wide band at 152.5 Hz, we can exclude the presence of signals with h0 greater than 7.6 x 10^-25 with a 90% confidence level.
Einstein@Home all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S5 data
Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endr?czi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner}, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B
2012-01-01
This paper presents results of an all-sky searches for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range [50, 1190] Hz and with frequency derivative ranges of [-2 \\times 10^-9, 1.1 \\times 10^-10] Hz/s for the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The novelty of the search lies in the use of a non-coherent technique based on the Hough-transform to combine the information from coherent searches on timescales of about one day. Because these searches are very computationally intensive, they have been deployed on the Einstein@Home distributed computing project infrastructure. The search presented here is about a factor 3 more sensitive than the previous Einstein@Home search in early S5 LIGO data. The post-processing has left us with eight surviving candidates. We show that deeper follow-up studies rule each of them out. Hence, since no statistically significant gravitational wave signals have been detected, we report upper limits on the intrinsic gravitational wave amplitude h0. For example, in the 0.5 Hz-wide band at 15...
Albert Einstein - And the Frontiers of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Jeremy
1997-11-01
Albert Einstein did not impress his first teachers. They found him a dreamy child without an especially promising future. But some time in his early years he developed what he called "wonder" about the world. Later in life, he remembered two instances from his childhood--his fascination at age five with a compass and his introduction to the lucidity and certainty of geometry--that may have been the first signs of what was to come. From these ordinary beginnings, Einstein became one of the greatest scientific thinkers of all time. This illuminating biography describes in understandable language the experiments and revolutionary theories that flowed from Einstein's imagination and intellect--from his theory of relativity, which changed our conception of the universe and our place in it, to his search for a unified field theory that would explain all of the forces in the universe.
Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rife, Patricia
2005-03-01
Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).
The Chevreton Tensor and Einstein-Maxwell Spacetimes Conformal to Einstein Spaces
G. Bergqvist; I. Eriksson
2007-03-16
In this paper we characterize the source-free Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes which have a trace-free Chevreton tensor. We show that this is equivalent to the Chevreton tensor being of pure-radiation type and that it restricts the spacetimes to Petrov types \\textbf{N} or \\textbf{O}. We prove that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is related to the Bach tensor and use this to find all Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with a zero cosmological constant that have a vanishing Bach tensor. Among these spacetimes we then look for those which are conformal to Einstein spaces. We find that the electromagnetic field and the Weyl tensor must be aligned, and in the case that the electromagnetic field is null, the spacetime must be conformally Ricci-flat and all such solutions are known. In the non-null case, since the general solution is not known on closed form, we settle with giving the integrability conditions in the general case, but we do give new explicit examples of Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes that are conformal to Einstein spaces, and we also find examples where the vanishing of the Bach tensor does not imply that the spacetime is conformal to a $C$-space. The non-aligned Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with vanishing Bach tensor are conformally $C$-spaces, but none of them are conformal to Einstein spaces.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Inc. Official Policy on Patents and Licensing
Emmons, Scott
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Inc. Official Policy on Patents and Licensing Agreements Table. Disclosure of Invention to Einstein......................................... 2 III. Ownership of Patents with Einstein ................................................... 10 X. Where Einstein Declines to Patent
Huybers, Peter
.) This covariation arises because the precession of the equinoxes results in opposite effects on the intensity at the precession and obliquity timescales. This coherence has led to the suggestion that Northern Hemisphere climate symmetry at the obliquity and precession timescales arises from a northern response to local
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Erbium
Aikawa, K; Mark, M; Baier, S; Rietzler, A; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F
2012-01-01
We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic field. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of $^{168}$Er, containing up to $7 \\times 10^{4}$ atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse.
Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László
2005-10-01
In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.
Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, J. D., Jr.
1973-01-01
The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.
Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbier, Louis M.
2005-01-01
This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.
Was Einstein Right? A Centennial Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Clifford M.
2016-01-01
Einstein formulated general relativity 100 years ago. Although it is generally considered a great triumph, the theory's early years were characterized by conceptual confusion, empirical uncertainties and a lack of relevance to ordinary physics. But in recent decades, a remarkably diverse set of precision experiments has established it as the "standard model" for gravitational physics. Yet it might not be the final word. We review a century of measurements that have verified general relativity, and describe some of the opportunities and challenges involved in testing Einstein's great theory in strong-field regimes and in gravitational waves.
Solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.
2001-11-01
The mean field model for repulsive and attractive Bose- Einstein condensates is solved exactly in three experimentally relevant contexts in quasi-one-dimension: box and periodic boundary conditions; decay of the wavefunction in a classically forbidden region; and a generalized periodic potential. All such solutions are related to soliton trains. Analytic stationary solutions are then applied to present Bose-Einstein condensate experiments. It is demonstrated numerically that soliton trains should be observable with the right choice of parameters. A specific experimental prescription for creating solitons is provided and predictions are made concerning soliton properties, vortex creation, and stability in optical lattices.
Buffer-Gas Cooled Bose-Einstein Condensate
Ketterle, Wolfgang
We report the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using buffer-gas cooling, the first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation using a broadly general method which relies neither on laser cooling nor unique atom-surface ...
Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ne'eman, Yuval
1979-01-01
Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)
??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
Campbell, Gretchen K. (Gretchen Kathleen)
2007-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices have proven to be a powerful tool for studying a wide variety of physics. In this thesis a series of experiments using optical lattices to manipulate 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates ...
Einstein M.D. Program 20142015 APPLICANT GUIDE
Emmons, Scott
Einstein M.D. Program 20142015 APPLICANT GUIDE O F Y E S H I V A U N I V E R S I T Y Albert Einstein College of Medicine #12;2 Welcome Explore how Einstein can give you the skills to develop at Einstein. There are 183 students in the first- year class. 8,193 applicants applied for entrance and 1
Einstein has dominated his subject more than any other scientist since the advent of mass
Loss, Daniel
Einstein has dominated his subject more than any other scientist since the advent of mass media with Einstein: The Einstein Factor; What Einstein told his barber; Sex, Drugs, Einstein and Elves;... What next? Taken at face value, Einstein's Heroes is a promising title. Might this be a long- overdue homage
Time-scale separation: Michaelis and Menten's old idea, still bearing fruit
Gunawardena, Jeremy
2013-01-01
Michaelis and Menten introduced to biochemistry the idea of time-scale separation, in which part of a system is assumed to be operating sufficiently fast compared to the rest that it may be assumed to have reached a steady state. This allows, in principle, the fast components to be eliminated, resulting in a simplified description of the system's behaviour. Similar ideas have been widely used in different areas of biology, including enzyme kinetics, protein allostery, receptor pharmacology, gene regulation and post-translational modification. However, the methods used have been independent and ad hoc. Here, we review the use of time-scale separation as a means to simplify the description of molecular complexity and discuss recent work which sets out a single framework which unifies these separate calculations. The framework offers new capabilities for mathematical analysis and helps to do justice to Michaelis and Menten's insights about individual enzymes in the context of multi-enzyme biological systems. PMID:24103070
Pietka, M; Keane, E F
2014-01-01
In this paper we compile the analysis of ~ 200 synchrotron flare events from ~ 90 distinct objects/events for which the distance is well established, and hence the peak luminosity can be accurately estimated. For each event we measure this peak and compare it to the rise and decay timescales, as fit by exponential functions, which allows us in turn to estimate a minimum brightness temperature for all the events. The astrophysical objects from which the flares originate vary from flare stars to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, and include both repeating phenomena and single cataclysmic events (such as supernovae and gamma ray burst afterglows). The measured timescales vary from minutes to longer than years, and the peak radio luminosities range over 22 orders of magnitude. Despite very different underlying phenomena, including relativistic and non-relativistic regimes, and highly collimated versus isotropic phenomena, we find a broad correlation between peak radio luminosity and rise/decay t...
Fission time-scale in experiments and in multiple initiation model
Karamian, S. A.
2011-12-15
Rate of fission for highly-excited nuclei is affected by the viscose character of the systemmotion in deformation coordinates as was reported for very heavy nuclei with Z{sub C} > 90. The long time-scale of fission can be described in a model of 'fission by diffusion' that includes an assumption of the overdamped diabatic motion. The fission-to-spallation ratio at intermediate proton energy could be influenced by the viscosity, as well. Within a novel approach of the present work, the cross examination of the fission probability, time-scales, and pre-fission neutron multiplicities is resulted in the consistent interpretation of a whole set of the observables. Earlier, different aspects could be reproduced in partial simulations without careful coordination.
PHYSICS BEFORE AND AFTER EINSTEIN This page intentionally left blank
Mamone Capria, Marco
since he died. There is no question that Albert Einstein with his work on relativity and quantum theoryPHYSICS BEFORE AND AFTER EINSTEIN #12;This page intentionally left blank #12;Physics Before and After Einstein Edited by Marco Mamone Capria University of Perugia, Department of Mathematics
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS · 1300's Responsibility E-MAIL: peter.babin@einstein.yu.edu PHONE: (718) 430-2243 Date: To* Dear Radiation Safety Officer: Mr/Ms , social security # , who is presently associated with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Einstein's Photoelectric Effect How ONE electron tells the story of
Deutsch, Josh
Einstein's Photoelectric Effect How ONE electron tells the story of GAZILLION electrons #12;Nov 28: The Photoelectric Effect Hertz (1887) Thompson & Lenard (1897-1902) Photo-electrons are involved Einstein (1905 Material Dependent Intensity Independent #12;Nov 28, 2006 G.-H. Gweon, Physics 10, UCSC 4 Einstein's Theory
Einstein relation for reversible diffusions in random environment
Gantert, Nina
Einstein relation for reversible diffusions in random environment N. Gantert P. Mathieu A the Einstein re- lation for this model. It says that the derivative at 0 of the effective velocity under an additional local drift equals the diffusivity of the model without drift. The Einstein rela- tion
The Einstein-Maxwell Equations Conformally Kahler Geometry
Rasdeaconu, Rares
The Einstein-Maxwell Equations and Conformally KÂ¨ahler Geometry Claude LeBrun Stony Brook Riemannian (M4, h) with 2-form F. #12;Oriented Riemannian (M4, h) with 2-form F. Einstein-Maxwell equations: #12;Oriented Riemannian (M4, h) with 2-form F. Einstein-Maxwell equations: dF = 0 r + F F 0 = 0 #12
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Center for Experimental Therapeutics
Bukauskas, Feliksas
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Center for Experimental Therapeutics A Bold New Initiative Bringing Hope and Help to Patients #12;Disease Target ID Assay Development HTS* Einstein Center that afflict humanity. For more than five decades, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine has been one
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY), as the employers of residents in the programs sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, have each Process Policies of the employing institution. Revised Sept. 2004 1 N.B. The Albert Einstein College
Einstein's lost frame Rodrigo de Abreu and Vasco Guerra
Guerra, Vasco
Einstein's lost frame Rodrigo de Abreu and Vasco Guerra November 24, 2005 #12;2 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 7 2 Einstein's frame 15 2.1 Space and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 and Einstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.2 A formal Galileo transformation
Ka hler-Einstein metrics with positive scalar curvature
Cheltsov, Ivan
KaÃ? hler-Einstein metrics with positive scalar curvature Gang Tian Department of Mathematics-1996 & 8-XI-1996 Abstract. In this paper, we prove that the existence of KaÃ? hler-Einstein metrics, this disproves a long-standing conjecture that a com- pact KaÃ? hler manifold admits KaÃ? hler-Einstein metrics
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY for residents transferring to an other program. (Revised May 2002) 1 N.B. The Albert Einstein College on Graduate Medical Education of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine has established written policies
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Bukauskas, Feliksas
4 1 Strategic Research Plan Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, New York 10461 Albert Einstein College of Medicine.A. Cissell Consulting Design: GRAPHIC ARTS CENTER Creative Director: Peter Dama Albert Einstein College
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY), as the employers of residents in the programs sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have established of LOA should be filed with the Office of GME. Revised May 2002 N.B. The Albert Einstein College
Einstein manifolds with convex boundaries JeanMarc Schlenker \\Lambda
Schlenker, Jean-Marc
Einstein manifolds with convex boundaries JeanÂMarc Schlenker \\Lambda February 2, 1999 Abstract Let (M; @M) be a compact m+1Âmanifold with boundary with an Einstein metric g 0 , with ric g0 = \\Gammamg metric on @M . Then any metric close enough to h 0 is induced on @M by an Einstein metric g with ric g
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine must not be required to engage in "Moonlighting." 7 May 2002 N.B. The Albert Einstein College of Medicine serves as the ACGME-accredited Institutional
EINSTEIN meets MAGRITTE : The Scholar, Terpsichore and the Barfly
Aerts, Diederik
EINSTEIN meets MAGRITTE : The Scholar, Terpsichore and the Barfly Diederik Aerts Center Leo Apostel was performed as opening act during the 'Einstein meets Magritte' conference at the Free University of Brussels, Terpsichore and the barfly", in Einstein meets Magritte: An Interdisciplinary Reflection eds. Aerts, D
August 5, 2009 How Hume and Mach Helped Einstein
1 August 5, 2009 Addendum How Hume and Mach Helped Einstein Find Special Relativity John D. Norton that it overlooked some material that further illuminated Einstein's attitude to David Hume.1 A revealing remark is made in Reiser's biography2 that notes Einstein's early philosophical reading: He approached
Einstein manifolds with convex boundaries Jean-Marc Schlenker*
Schlenker, Jean-Marc
Einstein manifolds with convex boundaries Jean Let (M, @M) be a compact m+1-manifold with boundary with an Einstein me* *tric g0, with ricg0 be the induced metric on @M. Then any metric close e* *nough to h0 is induced on @M by an Einstein metric g
Bose-Einstein Condensation (For the 9th
Bose-Einstein Condensation (For the 9th Edition of the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science of bosonic particles is cooled below a critical temperature, it condenses into a Bose-Einstein condensate. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is a phase-transition, which does not depend on the specific
Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin
2005-01-01
Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…
Einstein and the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe
Wright, Edward L. "Ned"
Einstein and the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe Edward L. (Ned) Wright UCLA 13 March 2005 at night. And Einstein ignored it. #12;General Relativity & Cosmology · General relativity allows Universe. · But Einstein thought the Universe was static, and a static uniform distribution of galaxies
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS · 1300's Responsibility E-MAIL peter.babin@einstein.yu.edu PHONE: (718) 430-2243 Dosimeter/Film Badge Request: Female: 1. Did the Employee/Student have a previous badge at Einstein? 2. Has the Employee
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY on SEXUAL of residents in the programs sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, have established employment that no employee is subjected to such conduct. Originated 9/05 Approved 10/05 1 N.B. The Albert Einstein College
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY POLICY approved in lieu of an additional COGME policy. Revised: Sept. 2004 N.B. The Albert Einstein College on Graduate Medical Education of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine has established written policies
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Emmons, Scott
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University EMERGENCY PROCEDURES MANUAL Prepared Resources Security Revised October, 2014 #12;ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE of MEDICINE of YESHIVA UNIVERSITY............................................................................................................................. 44 #12;ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE of MEDICINE of YESHIVA UNIVERSITY EMERGENCY PROCEDURES MANUAL CIVIL
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
Emmons, Scott
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION POLICY RESIDENT program sponsored by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine must assess resident performance and use to support the care of patients. 1 N.B. The Albert Einstein College of Medicine serves as the ACGME
THE ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY
Bukauskas, Feliksas
THE ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY Procedures Regarding Complaints of Unlawful Harassment The Albert Einstein College of Medicine is committed to maintaining an environment to a hostile working and learning environment and is unacceptable at Einstein. In addition to behaviors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Linye; Duan, Wansuo; Li, Yun; Mao, Jiangyu
2015-04-01
A time-scale decomposed threshold regression (TSDTR) downscaling approach to forecasting South China early summer rainfall (SCESR) is described by using long-term observed station rainfall data and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Extended Reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) data. It makes use of two distinct regression downscaling models corresponding to the interannual and interdecadal rainfall variability of SCESR. The two models were developed based on the partial least square (PLS) regression technique linking SCESR to SST modes in preceding months on both interannual and interdecadal timescales. Specially, using the datasets in the calibration period 1915-1984, the variability of SCESR and SST were decomposed into interannual and interdecadal components. On the interannual timescale, a threshold PLS regression model was fitted to interannual components of SCESR and March SST patterns by taking account of the modulation of negative and positive phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On the interdecadal timescale, a standard PLS regression model was fitted to the relationship between SCESR and preceding November SST patterns. The total rainfall prediction was obtained by the sum of the outputs from both interannual and interdecadal models. Results show that the TSDTR downscaling approach achieved a reasonable skill to predict the observed rainfall in the validation period 1985-2006, compared to other simpler approaches. This study suggests that the TSDTR approach considering different interannual SCESR-SST relationships under the modulation of PDO phases, as well as the interdecadal variability of SCESR associated with SST patterns may provide a new perspective to improve the climate predictions.
Magnetic vortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a hexagonal permalloy pattern
Shim, J.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.; Anderson, E. H.; Fischer, P.
2009-12-02
We have observed a motion of magnetic vortex core in a hexagonal Permalloy pattern by means of Soft X-ray microscopy. Pump-probe stroboscopic observation on a picosecond timescale has been carried out after exciting a ground state vortex structure by an external field pulse of 1 ns duration. Vortex core is excited off from the center position of the hexagonal pattern but the analysis of the core trajectory reveals that the motion is nongyrotropic.
Garrick, Ryan C; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Hyseni, Chaz; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa
2015-01-01
Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (Ne) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For 15 populations of Galápagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis sp.), we used 12 microsatellite loci and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial control region and a nuclear intron, to reconstruct demographic history on shallow (past ?100 generations, ?2500 years) and deep (pre-Holocene, >10 thousand years ago) timescales. At the deep timescale, three populations showed strong signals of growth, but with different magnitudes and timing, indicating different underlying causes. Furthermore, estimated historical Ne of populations across the archipelago showed no correlation with island age or size, underscoring the complexity of predicting demographic history a priori. At the shallow timescale, all populations carried some signature of a genetic bottleneck, and for 12 populations, point estimates of contemporary Ne were very small (i.e., < 50). On the basis of the comparison of these genetic estimates with published census size data, Ne generally represented ?0.16 of the census size. However, the variance in this ratio across populations was considerable. Overall, our data suggest that idiosyncratic and geographically localized forces shaped the demographic history of tortoise populations. Furthermore, from a conservation perspective, the separation of demographic events occurring on shallow versus deep timescales permits the identification of naturally rare versus newly rare populations; this distinction should facilitate prioritization of management action. PMID:25691990
Dark progression reveals slow timescales for radiation damage between T = 180 and 240 K
Warkentin, Matthew; Badeau, Ryan; Hopkins, Jesse; Thorne, Robert E.
2011-09-01
Between T = 180 and 240 K, radiation damage progresses on minute timescales when the X-rays are off, suggesting that a fraction of damage at higher temperatures may be outrun using currently available sources and detectors. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be ‘outrun’ by collecting a structural data set before damage is manifested? Recent experiments using ultra-intense pulses from a free-electron laser show that the answer is yes. Here, evidence is presented that significant reductions in global damage at temperatures above 200 K may be possible using conventional X-ray sources and current or soon-to-be available detectors. Specifically, ‘dark progression’ (an increase in damage with time after the X-rays have been turned off) was observed at temperatures between 180 and 240 K and on timescales from 200 to 1200 s. This allowed estimation of the temperature-dependent timescale for damage. The rate of dark progression is consistent with an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 14 kJ mol{sup ?1}. This is comparable to the activation energy for the solvent-coupled diffusive damage processes responsible for the rapid increase in radiation sensitivity as crystals are warmed above the glass transition near 200 K. Analysis suggests that at T = 300 K data-collection times of the order of 1 s (and longer at lower temperatures) may allow significant reductions in global radiation damage, facilitating structure solution on crystals with liquid solvent. No dark progression was observed below T = 180 K, indicating that no important damage process is slowed through this timescale window in this temperature range.
Imprint of modified Einstein’s gravity on white dwarfs: Unifying Type Ia supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2015-11-01
We establish the importance of modified Einstein’s gravity (MG) in white dwarfs (WDs) for the first time in the literature. We show that MG leads to significantly sub- and super-Chandrasekhar limiting mass WDs, depending on a single model parameter. However, conventional WDs on approaching Chandrasekhar’s limit are expected to trigger Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa), a key to unravel the evolutionary history of the universe. Nevertheless, observations of several peculiar, under- and over-luminous SNeIa argue for the limiting mass widely different from Chandrasekhar’s limit. Explosions of MG induced sub- and super-Chandrasekhar limiting mass WDs explain under- and over-luminous SNeIa respectively, thus unifying these two apparently disjoint sub-classes. Our discovery questions both the global validity of Einstein’s gravity and the uniqueness of Chandrasekhar’s limit.
Multiband optical-NIR variability of blazars on diverse time-scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Aditi; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.; Wiita, Paul J.; Böttcher, M.; Boeva, S.; Gaur, H.; Gu, M. F.; Peneva, S.; Ibryamov, S.; Pandey, U. S.
2015-08-01
To search for optical variability on a wide range of time-scales, we have carried out photometric monitoring of two flat spectrum radio quasars, 3C 454.3 and 3C 279, plus one BL Lac, S5 0716+714, all of which have been exhibiting remarkably high activity and pronounced variability at all wavelengths. CCD magnitudes in B, V, R, and I passbands were determined for ˜7000 new optical observations from 114 nights made during 2011-2014, with an average length of ˜4 h each, at seven optical telescopes: four in Bulgaria, one in Greece, and two in India. We measured multiband optical flux and colour variations on diverse time-scales. Discrete correlation functions were computed among B, V, R, and I observations, to search for any time delays. We found weak correlations in some cases with no significant time lags. The structure function method was used to estimate any characteristic time-scales of variability. We also investigated the spectral energy distribution of the three blazars using B, V, R, I, J, and K passband data. We found that the sources almost always follow a bluer-when-brighter trend. We discuss possible physical causes of the observed spectral variability.
Astronomical calibration of the geological timescale: closing the middle Eocene gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Zachos, J. C.
2015-09-01
To explore cause and consequences of past climate change, very accurate age models such as those provided by the astronomical timescale (ATS) are needed. Beyond 40 million years the accuracy of the ATS critically depends on the correctness of orbital models and radioisotopic dating techniques. Discrepancies in the age dating of sedimentary successions and the lack of suitable records spanning the middle Eocene have prevented development of a continuous astronomically calibrated geological timescale for the entire Cenozoic Era. We now solve this problem by constructing an independent astrochronological stratigraphy based on Earth's stable 405 kyr eccentricity cycle between 41 and 48 million years ago (Ma) with new data from deep-sea sedimentary sequences in the South Atlantic Ocean. This new link completes the Paleogene astronomical timescale and confirms the intercalibration of radioisotopic and astronomical dating methods back through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.930 Ma) and the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (66.022 Ma). Coupling of the Paleogene 405 kyr cyclostratigraphic frameworks across the middle Eocene further paves the way for extending the ATS into the Mesozoic.
Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.
2012-01-01
Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.
Diversity of timescale promotes the maintenance of extortioners in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Zhihai; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Hao, Dong; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Zhou, Tao
2015-03-01
Recently, a class of interesting strategies, named extortion strategies, has attracted considerable attention since such extortion strategies can dominate any opponent in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the strategy-selection timescale on the evolution of extortion and cooperation in networked systems. Through connecting the lifetime of individuals’ strategies with their fitness, we find that extortioners can form long-term stable relationships with cooperative neighbors, whereas the lifetime of a defection strategy is short according to the myopic best response rule. With the separation of interaction and strategy-updating timescales, the extortioners in a square lattice are able to form stable, cross-like structures with cooperators due to the snowdrift-like relation. In scale-free networks the hubs are most likely occupied by extortioners, who furthermore induce their low-degree neighbors to behave as cooperators. Since extortioners in scale-free networks can meet more cooperators than their counterparts in the square lattice, the latter results in higher average fitness of the whole population than the former. The extortioners play the role of a catalyst for the evolution of cooperation, and the diversity of strategy-selection timescale furthermore promotes the maintenance of extortioners with cooperators in networked systems.
The Various Timescales in the Optical Variability of the Blazar 3C 279
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balonek, T. J.; Kartaltepe, J. S.
2002-12-01
We combine our fourteen year (1989-2002) optical (R) light curve with historical data to study the long and short timescale variations in the blazar 3C 279 . Although 3C 279 has been the subject of many previous studies, our observations during several outbursts are among the best sampled at visual wavelengths. Of particular note is our extensive coverage of the intra-day and longer timescale variations during the intense outburst in 2001-2002. We conducted observations on about 800 nights using a sixteen inch Cassegrain telescope and CCD camera at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory. In a typical observing season for this object, which for our site extends from mid-November to early August, observations were obtained on fifty to sixty nights. The blazar was active throughout the fourteen year period of our study, with the brightness ranging over four magnitudes (from R = 16.7 to 12.5). Historically, this object has exhibited optical outbursts of amplitude nearly six magnitudes. During our study, 3C 279 exhibited optical variability on a range of timescales: intra-night and night-to-night microvariability (of amplitude several tenths to half a magnitude), one to several week duration flares (as large as two magnitudes), one to two year outbursts (two to four magnitudes), and decade long underlying "base level" changes.
Moy, Christopher M; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Rodbell, Donald T; Anderson, David M
2002-11-14
The variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the Holocene epoch, in particular on millennial timescales, is poorly understood. Palaeoclimate studies have documented ENSO variability for selected intervals in the Holocene, but most records are either too short or insufficiently resolved to investigate variability on millennial scales. Here we present a record of sedimentation in Laguna Pallcacocha, southern Ecuador, which is strongly influenced by ENSO variability, and covers the past 12,000 years continuously. We find that changes on a timescale of 2-8 years, which we attribute to warm ENSO events, become more frequent over the Holocene until about 1,200 years ago, and then decline towards the present. Periods of relatively high and low ENSO activity, alternating at a timescale of about 2,000 years, are superimposed on this long-term trend. We attribute the long-term trend to orbitally induced changes in insolation, and suggest internal ENSO dynamics as a possible cause of the millennial variability. However, the millennial oscillation will need to be confirmed in other ENSO proxy records. PMID:12432388
A Black Hole Mass-Variability Timescale Correlation at Submillimeter Wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Jason; Markoff, Sera; Gurwell, Mark A.; Rao, Ramprasad; McHardy, Ian
2015-09-01
We analyze the light curves of 413 radio sources at submillimeter wavelengths using data from the Submillimeter Array calibrator database. The database includes more than 20,000 observations at 1.3 and 0.8 mm that span 13 years. We model the light curves as a damped random walk and determine a characteristic timescale ? at which the variability amplitude saturates. For the vast majority of sources, primarily blazars and BL Lac objects, we find only lower limits on ?. For two nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, M81 and M87, however, we measure ? ={1.6}-0.9+3.0 {days} and ? ={45}-24+61 {days}, respectively (2? errors). Including the previously measured ? =0.33+/- 0.16 {days} for Sgr A*, we show an approximately linear correlation between ? and black hole mass for these nearby low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Other LLAGNs with spectra that peak in the submillimeter are expected to follow this correlation. These characteristic timescales are comparable to the minimum timescale for emission processes close to an event horizon and suggest that the underlying physics may be independent of black hole mass, accretion rate, and jet luminosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shea, T.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Krimer, D.; Hammer, J. E.
2014-12-01
Applying diffusion models to chemical transects collected across crystal sections is progressively becoming an essential utensil of the earth scientist's toolbox to extract timescales of magmatic or metamorphic processes. The extent to which the crystal morphology in 3D space, the style of zoning (i.e. normal, reverse. Core-rim), the anisotropy of diffusion, and fluxes from the different dimensions affect timescales retrieved from 1D diffusion modeling remains largely unstudied. Here, we examine the influence of crystal shape and zoning style on calculated diffusion times via series of numerical models. Three-dimensional numerical olivines with various habits (spherical, rectangular parallelepiped, and polyhedral) were built and left to diffuse at magmatic temperatures for various durations. To cover a range of potentially magma mixing and crystallization scenarios, the simulations tested six forsterite zoning configurations. We show that even when diffusion anisotropy is corrected for in 1D models, timescales can still vary between 0.2?10 times the true 3D diffusion time due to crystal shape and sectioning effects. Zoning style is found to only have a significant influence in the case of core-rim zoning configurations. Most of the problems associated with crystal shape and sectioning cannot be corrected empirically, but we highlight how they can be averted by using careful grain selection procedures.
Tropospheric ozone variability in the tropics from ENSO to MJO and shorter timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziemke, J. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Oman, L. D.; Strahan, S. E.; Duncan, B. N.
2015-07-01
Aura OMI and MLS measurements are combined to produce daily maps of tropospheric ozone beginning October 2004. We show that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related inter-annual change in tropospheric ozone in the tropics is small in relation to combined intra-seasonal/Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescale variability by a factor of ~ 3-10 (largest in the Atlantic). Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), taken as a proxy for convection, suggests that convection is a dominant driver of large-scale variability of tropospheric ozone in the Pacific from inter-annual (e.g., ENSO) to weekly periods. We compare tropospheric ozone and OLR satellite observations with two simulations: (1) the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) that uses observed sea surface temperatures and is otherwise free-running, and (2) the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM) that is driven by Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) analyses. It is shown that the CTM-simulated ozone accurately matches measurements for timescales from ENSO to intra-seasonal/MJO and even 1-2-week periods. The CCM simulation reproduces ENSO variability but not shorter timescales. These analyses suggest that a model used to delineate temporal and/or spatial properties of tropospheric ozone and convection in the tropics must reproduce both ENSO and non-ENSO variability.
Using multiple timescale models for the evaluation of a time-dependent treatment.
Rebora, Paola; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia
2015-12-10
In survival analysis, the absolute measure of cumulative risk provided by the Kaplan-Meier estimator is still the most used quantity for its easy calculation and direct interpretability. However, for describing the survival after an intervention that may occur at different times from baseline observation, the Kaplan-Meier estimator generally yields to biased results if intervention is considered as fixed at baseline. The main focus of the present paper is to extend the use of a multiple timescale model in the presence of a time dependent intervention. The aim is to obtain 1) an estimate of treatment effect in terms of hazard ratios by flexible modeling, 2) a valid prediction tool, i.e. estimate of prognosis for a patient who changes treatment later in time, and 3) an appropriate graphical representation of survival in the presence of a time dependent treatment change, accounting for different timescales. We will show the advantages of this approach on the comparison of chemotherapy versus transplant in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission. We considered a model with two timescales that accounts for the change in treatment at different times in the disease course. An alternative approach to survival estimates is also proposed which has some advantages over the traditional landmark approach: it uses all the data available to plot survival from the date of remission, it avoids the arbitrary choice of a landmark time and explicitly models the change in hazard due to transplant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26215851
Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.
2015-05-01
Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.
Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Tait, Alice H.
2012-01-01
Conservation physiology (CP) and nutritional ecology (NE) are both integrative sciences that share the fundamental aim of understanding the patterns, mechanisms and consequences of animal responses to changing environments. Here, we explore the high-level similarities and differences between CP and NE, identifying as central themes to both fields the multiple timescales over which animals adapt (and fail to adapt) to their environments, and the need for integrative models to study these processes. At one extreme are the short-term regulatory responses that modulate the state of animals in relation to the environment, which are variously considered under the concepts of homeostasis, homeorhesis, enantiostasis, heterostasis and allostasis. In the longer term are developmental responses, including phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects mediated by non-genomic influences such as parental physiology, epigenetic effects and cultural learning. Over a longer timescale still are the cumulative genetic changes that take place in Darwinian evolution. We present examples showing how the adaptive responses of animals across these timescales have been represented in an integrative framework from NE, the geometric framework (GF) for nutrition, and close with an illustration of how GF can be applied to the central issue in CP, animal conservation. PMID:22566672
Dynamics on multiple timescales in the RNA-directed RNA polymerase from the cystovirus ?6
Ren, Zhen; Wang, Hsin; Ghose, Ranajeet
2010-01-01
The de novo initiating RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), P2, forms the central machinery in the infection cycle of the bacteriophage ?6 by performing the dual tasks of replication and transcription of the double-stranded RNA genome in the host cell. By measurement and quantitative analysis of multiple-quantum spin-relaxation data for the ?1 positions of Ile residues that are distributed over the 3D-fold of P2, we find that the enzyme is dynamic both on the fast (ps–ns) and slow (µs–ms) timescales. The characteristics of several motional modes including those that coincide with the catalytic timescale (500–800/s) are altered in the presence of substrate analogs and single-stranded RNA templates. These studies reveal the plasticity of this finely tuned molecular machine and represent a first step towards linking structural information available from a host of crystal structures to catalytic mechanisms and timescales obtained from the measurements of kinetics for homologous systems in solution. PMID:20385578
Van Zandt, Joe D.
. French (ed.): Einstein: A Centenary Volume. Pp. v > 332. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1979. Cloth, $20.00. GeraJd Tauber (ed.): Albert Einstein's Theory of Cenerai Relativity. Pp. 6 + 351. New York: Crown Publishers, 1979.... Cloth, $14.95. Joe D. Van Zandt Theie is much irony in the publication of memorial volumes in honor of Albert Einstein. Einstein repeatedly showed astonishment at the celebrity status his work had brought and often made gently rebuking reference...
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Benjamin Schlein
2007-04-05
We report on some recent results concerning the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates, obtained in a series of joint papers with L. Erdos and H.-T. Yau. Starting from many body quantum dynamics, we present a rigorous derivation of a cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the time evolution of the condensate wave function.
Skyrme-Einstein closed cosmic chiral strings
Rybakov, Yu. P. Ivanova, I. S.
2007-07-15
Within the theory of general relativity, the configuration of a closed string (vortex) characterized by a topological charge of the degree type is described for the Skyrme-Einstein SU (2) chiral model. In the approximation of a large vortex-closure radius (a), a solution to equations of motion is obtained, along with estimates for the vortex energy and radius.
Vacuumless cosmic strings in Einstein Cartan theory
F. Rahaman; B. C. Bhui; A Ghosh; R. Mondal
2006-10-20
The gravitational fields of vacuumless global and gauge strings have been investigated in the context of Einstein Cartan theory under the weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that global string and gauge string can have only repulsive gravitational effect on a test particle.
Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?
Y. S. Kim; Marilyn E. Noz
2006-09-23
The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.
Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates
Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.
2009-04-13
We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.
On Einstein Algebras and Relativistic Spacetimes
Sarita Rosenstock; Thomas William Barrett; James Owen Weatherall
2015-09-01
In this paper, we examine the relationship between general relativity and the theory of Einstein algebras. We show that according to a formal criterion for theoretical equivalence recently proposed by Halvorson (2012, 2015) and Weatherall (2015), the two are equivalent theories.
How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pais, Abraham
1982-01-01
Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)
The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dirac, P. A. M.
1979-01-01
This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Compactified Spaces
Kiyoshi Shiraishi
2012-11-26
We discuss the thermodynamic potential of a charged Bose gas with the chemical potential in arbitrary dimensions. The critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is investigated. In the case of the compactified background metric, it is shown that the critical temperature depends on the size of the extra spaces. The asymmetry of the "Kaluza-Klein charge" is also discussed.
The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin S.
1992-01-01
The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.
On algebraic endomorphisms of the Einstein gyrogroup
Lajos Molnár; Dániel Virosztek
2015-06-20
We describe the structure of all continuous algebraic endomorphisms of the open unit ball $\\mathbf{B}$ of $\\mathbb{R}^3$ equipped with the Einstein velocity addition. We show that any nonzero such transformation originates from an orthogonal linear transformation on $\\mathbb{R}^3$.
Einstein Slew Survey: Data analysis innovations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin S.; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan F.; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
Several new methods were needed in order to make the Einstein Slew X-ray Sky Survey. The innovations which enabled the Slew Survey to be done are summarized. These methods included experimental approach to large projects, parallel processing on a LAN, percolation source detection, minimum action identifications, and rapid dissemination of the whole data base.
Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seward, Frederick D.
1990-01-01
This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lande, Alfred
1974-01-01
Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)
Passing the Einstein-Rosen bridge
M. O. Katanaev
2013-10-28
We relax the requirement of geodesic completeness of a space-time. Instead, we require test particles trajectories to be smooth only in the physical sector. Test particles trajectories for Einstein--Rosen bridge are proved to be smooth in the physical sector, and particles can freely penetrate the bridge in both directions.
An operationalistic reformulation of Einstein's equivalence principle
Vladik Kreinovich; R. R. Zapatrin
1997-05-30
The Einstein's equivalence principle is formulated in terms of the accuracy of measurements and its dependence of the size of the area of measurement. It is shown that different refinements of the statement 'the spacetime is locally flat' lead to different conculsions about the spacetime geometry.