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Sample records for el-bagre colombia south

  1. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana María; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims: Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion: The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group. PMID:22666691

  2. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers. PMID:12177933

  3. Evaluation of water and energy budgets over Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan; Hoyos-Rincón, Isabel; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The study presents a dataset intercomparison of reanalyses, data from other authors, and one regional climate model applied over South America with special focus on the hydrological cycle and the surface energy budget. The model simulated the 41 years from 1960 to 2000 by using quasi-observed boundary conditions derived from ECMWF re-analysis (ERA). The intercomparison focuses on one large catchment covering an area of major research interest within Colombia. The variables used are monthly mean surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge. From the modelling perspective, the potential advantages of such comparative analyses are to provide information about model performance, enhance the understanding of hydrological behavior in a systematic dataset comparison framework, characterize consistencies and differences in datasets, and identify the requirements for catchment-scale hydrological models to reliably simulate future behavior.

  4. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  5. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  6. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  7. The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    James, K.H.

    1996-08-01

    A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

  8. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  11. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  12. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  13. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  14. Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Qiceno, M.; Hughen, K.; Urrego, L.

    2009-04-01

    The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm pool has a significant (>95%) warming trend (0.6°C between 1981 and 2000), with the warmest record just in front of the Sinu River, where Isla Fuerte is located, 11 km from the coast, to the western of Sinu Delta. Sea surface temperature (SST) and the Multivariate ENSO index have a significant (>95%) correlation of 0.4 with a 7 months lag. The Sinu River flow does not show a long trend between 1985 and 2000, but has a significant correlation with ENSO (0.5) with no lag. Two corals from Isla Fuerte, a Siderastrea siderea colony with a maximum length of 72.5 cm and a Montastrea annularis colony of 30.5 cm, were studied in order to test the climatic potential of these records and to understand the oceanographic variability at the SW Caribbean. Fluorescence has better resolution than density bands in both corals. Chronology based on them indicates an age of 127 and 32 years respectively. We present and discuss growth and Sr/Ca series. The signal is produced by the interaction between the river flow and local winds. The river reaches the island when northeastern winds deflect their plume to the east. However, there are not in situ instrumental records for calibration and interpretation of the signals and we used world data bases with low spatial resolution.

  15. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations

  16. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group. PMID:26713227

  17. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-02-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the implementation of teacher education that aims at those objectives. None of these countries have rigorous selection criteria for candidates for science teacher education programs, although each has some type of certification or test requirement before entry into the public education system is permitted. The three countries have similar teacher training programs, with instruction programs lasting between 4 and 5 years; programs entail both disciplinary instruction and pedagogical instruction that starts in the first year. Data from the three countries show that a high percentage of instruction in the training programs is devoted to general pedagogy with less instruction time devoted to specific preparation for teaching science. Disciplinary instruction accounts for nearly 50 % of the instruction program among secondary teachers. Training in other subjects such as nature of science, history of science and scientific inquiry is poorly developed. In general, there are few opportunities for research on practicum, as these opportunities tend to occur at the end of the training program. The generation of instruction standards by governments as well as the increase in the number of scholars dedicated to the investigation of science education and the education of science teachers suggests that some of these shortcomings could be remedied in the future.

  18. [Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed. PMID:23715302

  19. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group. PMID:26713227

  20. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  1. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  2. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  3. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  4. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  5. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. PMID:26921813

  6. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities. PMID:25354433

  7. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  8. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  9. A 5000 Year Record of Andean South American Summer Monsoon Variability from Laguna de Ubaque, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, O. M.; Bird, B. W.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon (SASM) dynamics during the Holocene has been limited by the small number of terrestrial paleoclimate records from this region. In order to increase our knowledge of SASM variability and to better inform our predictions of its response to ongoing rapid climate change, we require high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. To this end, we present sub-decadally resolved sedimentological and geochemical data from Laguna de Ubaque that spans the last 5000 years. Located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, Laguna de Ubaque (2070 m asl) is a small, east facing moraine-dammed lake in the upper part of the Rio Meta watershed near Bogotá containing finely laminated clastic sediments. Dry bulk density, %organic matter, %carbonate and magnetic susceptibility (MS) results from Ubaque suggest a period of intense precipitation between 3500 and 2000 years BP interrupted by a 300 yr dry interval centered at 2700 years BP. Following this event, generally drier conditions characterize the last 2000 years. Although considerably lower amplitude than the middle Holocene pluvial events, variability in the sedimentological data support climatic responses during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) and Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE) that are consistent with other records of local Andean conditions. In particular, reduced MS during the MCA suggests a reduction in terrestrial material being washed into the lake as a result of generally drier conditions. The LIA on the other hand shows a two phase structure with increased MS between 1450 and 1600 CE, suggesting wetter conditions during the onset of the LIA, and reduced MS between 1600 and 1900 CE, suggesting a return to drier conditions during the latter part of the LIA. These LIA trends are similar to the Quelccaya accumulation record, possibly supporting an in-phase relationship between the South American

  10. Chemical Mineralogy, Geochemical Characterization and Petrography of the Cambumbia Stock, Northern Andes, South America, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Lequerica, Salvador; María Jaramillo Mejía, José; Concha Perdomo, Ana Elena; Jimenez Quintero, Camilo

    2013-04-01

    The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes, South America. The goals of this study were to characterize the mineral chemistry, the geochemical composition and the petrography of the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenesis. We collected 41 samples, selected 28 for thin section petrographic analysis, 14 for whole rock elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS and 4 for chemical mineralogy by LA-ICP(JEOL JXA-8200). Petrographically the samples were classified as 30 % hornblende-gabbro, 30% pyroxene-gabbros, 10% diorites, 10% olivine-gabbro, 7% gabbronorites, 7% tonalities and 3% norite, 3% wehrlite, the rock varies from medium to coarse hipidiomorfic and holocristaline texture, with local microporfiritic texture. Spot elemental chemical analysis of the some minerals in 4 samples show the range of the major elemental composition is plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), horblende (magnesiohornblende), olivine (fayalite())Chemical mineralogy shows the variety of minerals in this rock, essential minerals correspond to bytownite, augite, magnesio-honblende, fallaite and titanite. We conclude base on the SiO2 Vs Total Alkalis graph that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2, Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 ± 3.4 Ma (Carnian - Upper Triassic). Petrographic geochemical and geochronology comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (located about 25 km to the north-west) and with U/Pb age 231 ± 8 may postulate a possible genetic link between them. These ages are

  11. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  12. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  13. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  14. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies. PMID:25504253

  15. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-ɛ Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  16. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. PMID:26245782

  17. Bd on the beach: high prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island (Colombia, South America).

    PubMed

    Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Sarmiento, Carolina; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2012-09-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has been implicated in the decimation and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide, especially at mid and high elevations. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the pathogen in the lowlands from Australia and Central America. We extend here its elevational range by demonstrating its presence at the sea level, in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island, off the Pacific coast of Colombia. We conducted two field surveys, separated by four years, and diagnosed Bd by performing polymerase chain reactions on swab samples from the skin of five amphibian species. All species, including the Critically Endangered Atelopus elegans, tested positive for the pathogen, with prevalences between 3.9 % in A. elegans (in 2010) and 52 % in Pristimantis achatinus. Clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were not detected in any species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. dendrobatidis in tropical lowlands at sea level, where temperatures may exceed optimal growth temperatures of this pathogen. This finding highlights the need to understand the mechanisms allowing the interaction between frogs and pathogen in lowland ecosystems. PMID:22669408

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories over the First Year after Stroke in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alejandra Morlett; Landa, Laiene Olabarrieta; Chagualá, Amilkar Calderón; Peralta, Helmer Chacón; Torres, Gina Vergara; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND Stroke is the second most common cause of death around the world, and little is known about long-term HRQOL outcomes for Latino American individuals after stroke. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study is to compare HRQOL trajectories in stroke survivors to a group of healthy controls from Colombia first year post-stroke. METHODS Forty individuals diagnosed with stroke and 50 controls were recruited from the Psychological Attention Center of Antonio Nariño University. RESULTS Hierarchical linear models suggested that trajectories of all eight indices of HRQOL were lower over time in stroke individuals compared to controls. Stroke patients showed gains in the HRQOL domains of physical functioning, role limitations - physical, role limitations - emotional, pain, and social functioning, although only pain in stroke individuals approached that of controls at 12 months. Despite these improvements, seven of the eight indices of HRQOL in stroke individuals remained very low over time, suggesting that the vast majority of rehabilitation gains in HRQOL, even when present, were extremely limited. CONCLUSIONS The current findings suggest a need in Latin America for mental health services after stroke, as well as other interventions designed to increase social and family support, which may thereby improve mental health. PMID:26883905

  19. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  20. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection. PMID:25596556

  1. Combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating of garnets from the Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ibanez-mejia, M.; Ganguly, J.

    2013-12-01

    Garnet-whole rock (Grt-WR) ages of metapelites determined by the Lu-Hf decay system are almost always older than those determined by the Sm-Nd system. Unambiguous interpretation of the observed age differences has been hindered by a lack of adequate information about grain size, diffusion data for Hf in garnet, and in many cases about peak metamorphic conditions and cooling rates, all of which affect the closure temperatures of these decay systems. As part of a broader study on basement rocks from the Andean Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia, we have determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Grt-WR ages of these rocks using painstakingly handpicked garnets of ~50 μm radius, and obtained ages of 1070 × 5.6 and 1007 × 2.9 Ma, respectively. By modeling the retrograde Fe-Mg zoning in garnet adjacent to biotite according to an asymptotic cooling model (1/T = 1/To + ηt) with the diffusion data from [1], an initial cooling rate of ~2-5 °C/Ma is obtained independently of the geochronological data; peak P-T conditions of ~8 kb, 675 °C are imposed by garnet-orthopyroxene thermobarometry. Using the above data in conjunction with the Nd diffusion data from [2] and Hf diffusion data from our recent study, we obtain closure temperatures for the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd decay systems in garnet of ~545-565 °C and 415-430 °C, respectively. Results from analytical solutions [3, 4] and a more flexible numerical method are found to be in good agreement with one another. The calculated difference of closure temperatures predicts a difference of ~105-40 Ma between the ages determined by the two decay systems, as compared to the observed age difference of 63 × 6 Ma. The predicted peak metamorphic age derived from the measured and calculated resetting ages of the two decay systems is between ~1030 and 1185 Ma, as compared to the Lu-Hf age of 1070 ×1.9 Ma; we are currently working to obtain U-Pb zircon ages to better constrain this peak metamorphic age. In calculating these results

  2. The diffuse seismicity of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, the Perijá Range, and south of the La Guajira peninsula, Colombia and Venezuela: Result of the convergence between Caribbean plate and the South American margin during the Late Neogene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Pedraza, P.; Mora-paez, H.; Ordonez Aristizabal, C. O.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Kammer, A.

    2012-12-01

    A diffuse low deep microseismicity located overall between the Guajira peninsula and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) was registered with the recent installation (2008 to Present) of three seismological stations in northeastern Colombia by the Colombian Seismological Network (RSNC), but mainly with the Uribia station in (the) central region of La Guajira peninsula, The microseismicity is characterized by a great population of events with 1.2 < Ml < 3.0. and few events of 3.0 < Ml < 4.0 that sporadically occur. The poor number of seismological stations in this region of Colombia impedes to locate the origin of the local seismicity; however, this seismic activity is associated to the tectonic activity of the Oca fault because with the GPS displacement analysis, neotectonics evidence found in faults traces associated to the Oca fault and the historical earthquake that affected the Colombian city of Santa Marta in 1834, lead us to conclude this. This is a big cortical fault that sets the limit between La Guajira peninsula and the SNSM. Its cortical characteristics were verified from geological data together with gravimetric and seismic exploration. The SNSM limits toward the southeast with the Cesar - Ranchería basin, and this basin in turn limits with the Perijá Range that is localized in the Colombia - Venezuela border. The SNSM, Cesar - Ranchería basin and Perijá Range limit toward the southwest with the Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault (BSMF), the Oca fault toward the north, and Perijá - El Tigre fault toward the southeast defining a pyramidal orogenic complex. Using remote sensing images data with geological and regional geophysical information, we proposed that this orogenic complex was originated as a result of the Panama arc with the northwestern South America accretion. The final adjustment of the Caribbean plate (CP) between North America and South America during the Late Neogene produced the big cortical faults systems activation like Oca - Moron

  3. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  4. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  5. Education in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    As one of the more traditional Latin American societies, Colombia's educational policies have been affected by long-standing cultural beliefs including class values and social stratification. This paper examines the educational history of Colombia, provides a thorough background on its educational achievements and difficulties, and discusses…

  6. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  7. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included. PMID:27515626

  8. Terrorism in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  9. Radioastronomy at the National Astronomical Observatory of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Colombia is located in the northern tip of South America close to the amazon rain forest. This makes astronomical observations in the visible range very challenging, as cloud coverage is relatively high. Hence, radio astronomy becomes a natural and good choice. We present the design, characterization and first results of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional solar radio spectrograph. This instrument is a Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna (LPDA) working between 100 MHz and 1 GHz optimized for solar observations. The radio spectrograph is a working prototype for a more ambitious solar radio interferometer, that will be the first instrument of this kind in Colombia.

  10. Recruiting Teachers in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a system of special schools in Colombia which introduces students to teaching careers as early as the 8th grade. The Colombian system is based on a simple idea: Every student is a potential teacher. Principals talk about molding "ciudadano-pedagogos"--citizen-educators who view teaching as a way of…

  11. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Colombia provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, postsecondary, and teacher education). The following topics are covered: the characteristics…

  12. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Colombia discusses the role of English in the educational system and in Colombian society. The status of English as the country's first foreign language is examined. It is noted that because Spanish is sufficient for most needs and because there is a relatively small number of Colombians…

  13. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  14. The great tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 december 1979.

    PubMed

    Herd, D G; Youd, T L; Meyer, H; C, J L; Person, W J; Mendoza, C

    1981-01-30

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shal-low-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits. PMID:17816596

  15. The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  16. Education for a New Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    This study, one of a series of publications on education in other countries, describes all major levels and types of education in Colombia against a background of the relevant economic, cultural, and social features of that country. The first two chapters depict features of Colombia essential to understanding the context within which its…

  17. Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Viviana; Ravoet, Jorgen; Brunain, Marleen; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan; Figueroa, Judith; Riaño, Diego; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bombus atratus bumblebees from Colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. We discovered for the first time Lake Sinai Virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. The prevalence of Apicystis bombi, Crithidia bombi and Nosema ceranae was remarkably high. According to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in South America with exotic bumble bees as Bombus terrestris or Bombus ruderatus. Given the fact that none of these species occur in Colombia, our data puts a new light on the spread of these pathogens over the South American continent. PMID:26031564

  18. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children. PMID:19586926

  19. Neural System Antigens Are Recognized by Autoantibodies from Patients Affected by a New Variant of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Michael S.; Yi, Hong; Gao, Weiqing; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF), is also known as “fogo selvagem” or “wild fire,” reflecting the intense burning sensation of the skin reported by patients with this disease. Based on this finding, we tested for neural autoreactivity in patients affected by a new variant of EPF (El Bagre-EPF). Methods We tested 20 El Bagre-EPF patients, 20 normal controls from the endemic area, and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls from outside the endemic area. We tested for autoreactivity to several immunoglobulins and complement. Both human skin and bovine tail were used as antigens. Results We detected autoreactivity to neural structures, mechanoreceptors, nerves, perineural cell layers of the arachnoid envelope around the optic nerve, brain structures, and to neuromuscular spindles; these structures colocalized with several neural markers. The patient antibodies also colocalized with desmoplakins 1 and 2, with the armadillo repeat protein deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome and with p0071 antibodies. Autoreactivity was also found associated with neurovascular bundles innervating the skin, and immunoelectron microscopy using protein A gold against patient antibodies was positive against the nerve axons. Paucicellularity of the intraepidermal nerve endings and defragmentation of the neural plexus were seen in 70% of the cases and not in the controls from the endemic area (p<0.005). Neuropsychological and/or behavioral symptoms were detected in individuals from the endemic area, including sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. Conclusions Our findings may explain for the first time the “pose of pemphigus,” representing a dorsiflexural posture seen in EPF patients vis-a-vis the weakness of the extensor nerves, and furthermore, the autoreactivity to nerves in EPF could explain the “burning sensation” encountered in EPF disease. PMID:21210298

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain COL/Cundinamarca/2014 from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Matthew C.; Lam, Ham Ching; Rovira, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been found throughout Europe and Asia, and has emerged in North and South America. A whole genome sequence was obtained from a paraffin-embedded tissue sample from the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia through Next Generation Sequencing techniques to further understand the evolution of PEDV. PMID:27103712

  1. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  2. Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

  3. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

  4. Mantidflies of Colombia (neuroptera, mantispidae).

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; García, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study revises the Mantispidae of Colombia. 151 adult specimens of 12 entomological museums of Colombia were examined and identified. On the basis of the specimens studied and a comprehensive literature search, it is determined that 20 nominal species (including two doubtful records) plus four proposed as new to science, in ten genera (Anchieta, Plega, Trichoscelia, Gerstaeckerella, Buyda, Climaciella, Dicromantispa, Entanoneura, Leptomantispa, and Zeugomantispa) and, three subfamilies (Symphrasinae, Drepanicinae, and Mantispinae) occur in Colombia. In addition, A. eurydella (Westwood), C. amapaensis Penny and P. fasciatella (Westwood) are redescribed, providing complementary information to the original descriptions. A list of Colombian Mantispidae, distribution maps and taxonomic keys to subfamilies, genera and species are included. Illustrations of the external morphology and male genitalia are provided for selected species. The taxonomic status of P. hagenella (Westwood) is discussed, and its diagnostic characters are redefined. Anchieta remipes (Gerstaecker) is newly transferred to this genus from Trichoscelia. PMID:25947479

  5. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  6. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  7. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  8. Biblored, Colombia's Innovative Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Maria Cristina

    This report describes Biblored, the library network in Bogota, Colombia, that received the 2002 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award. Biblored is a network of 19 libraries that attract about 200,000 users per month and serve some of the poorest neighborhoods in Bogota. The network's success in making information and information…

  9. Bogota--Colombia's thriving capital.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1987-05-01

    Like most of its Latin American counterparts, Colombia is rapidly urbanizing. Home to 20% of Colombia's urban population and the largest industrial agglomeration in the nation, Bogota shares its dominance with several other large Colombian cities. Projections compiled from the 1973 census--the latest census available-- project the 1980 population of Bogota at 4 to 5.1 million. Government estimates peg Bogota's 1990 population at 8.5 million people. Most of Bogota's best neighborhoods now lie to the north of the city. On the whole, housing contrasts in Bogota are not as stark as in some other Latin American cities, although the estimated 1980 housing deficit of 210,000 units led to significant self-help construction. Women have made dramatic in-roads into equalizing educational attainment with men. Among the city's most important problems is unemployment. Completed family size in Bogota has plummeted since the inception of family planning programs in the early 1960s. Between 1956 and 1973, Colombia's per capita income increased by about 45%, but the increase was more rapid in Bogota, where per capita incomes in 1970 were about 60% higher than the national average. Much of the current in-depth data on Bogota comes from the World Bank research project known as the City Study. Much of the data in this profile of Bogota came from the analysis of this survey data, presented in World Bank Research publications. Rather than from Colombia's last census of 1973. PMID:12341327

  10. Computer aided solar house design made of ``Guadua`` in Bogota, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.C.; Chalfoun, N.V.

    1995-11-01

    Bogota, Colombia, is the third highest capital in South America, its location near the equator assures high altitudes over the horizon and almost 5 hours of daily mean sunshine. Since 1981, efforts for using natural energy instead of nonrenewable fuel have been targeted to Colombia`s residential construction industry. This paper focuses on a computer aided design process for passive solar low-income row housing in Bogota. Thermal comfort for this tropical climate has been achieved through employing ``Guadua,`` a strong bamboo specie,as an alternative wall system to the traditional brick, adobe, or concrete structures. Through computer analysis, several energy conservation and passive solar strategies have been optimized for a case study row housing type common to the region. The load savings compared to a 6 inch CMU house totaled 72%, while the operating cost has been reduced by 71%. Furthermore, this lightweight and inexpensive ``Guadua`` material has reduced the construction cost by 30%.

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO.

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence ofR. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas forR. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  12. Diatoms from lentic and lotic systems in Antioquia, Chocó and Santander Departments in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sala, Silvia E; Ramírez, John J; Plata, Yasmín

    2008-09-01

    In the tropical and subtropical regions, there is a large number of species which has not been yet described. The high possibility of extinction makes their inventory a priority. In this paper, 23 diatoms taxa from Andean lotic systems and lentic waterbodies localized in the Departments of Antioquia, Santander and Chocó, Colombia, are analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Each taxon is described and information about environmental characteristic of the sites where they were collected and distribution in Colombia is given. The studied taxa belong to the orders Thalassiosirales (1), Aulacoseirales (1), Fragilariales (4), Cymbellales (7), Achnanthales (2), Naviculales (7), and Thalassiophysales (1). Fifteen of them are recorded for the first time in Colombia and Encyonema jemtlandicum in South America. A comparison with the diatom flora of the Colombian Amazonia showed that there were only three taxa in common to these two equatorial regions probably due to the influence of altitudinal gradient. PMID:19419036

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO

    PubMed Central

    FACCINI-MARTÍNEZ, Álvaro A.; BOTERO-GARCÍA, Carlos A.; HIDALGO, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  14. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. PMID:27232127

  15. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  16. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  17. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide. PMID:26801362

  18. A new species and species distribution records of Neoleucinodes (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Spilomelinae) from Colombia feeding on Solanum spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoleucinodes silvaniae, n. sp., from Colombia, is described. The larvae feed on the fruit of a wild Solanum pseudolulo Heisser. The adults and larvae of the new species are figured and compared with Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée), a major pest of tomatoes throughout South America. Neoleucinod...

  19. Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Nihei, Silvio S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De

    2016-01-01

    Colombia has an imposing natural wealth due to its topography has many unique characteristics as a consequence of having Caribbean and Pacific shores, as well as sharing part of the Amazon basin and northern Andes mountains. Thus, many natural and biological features are due to the convergence of three biogeographical regions: Pacific, Andes and Amazonia. The Andean uplift created a complex mosaic of mountains and isolated valleys, including eleven biogeographical provinces (Morrone 2006). The Andes dominate the Colombian topography and cross the country south to north. There are three mountain ranges (Western, Central, and Eastern) with a maximum elevation of 5,775 m, and an average elevation of 2,000 m. The Magdalena and Cauca River valleys separate these ranges, that along with the Putumayo and Caquetá Rivers, the Catatumbo watershed, the Darién, Pique Hill, the Orinoquia Region (with its savannas), the Amazon region (with tropical rainforests), and some lower mountain ranges (Macarena and Chiribiquete), have generated the conditions for very high levels of endemism. This variety of conditions has resulted in an extremely diverse plant and animal biota, and in which 48% of the nation remains unexplored. PMID:27395251

  20. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein. PMID:9273199

  1. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  2. Colombia an approach to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales, O.

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  3. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  4. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  5. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M.; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology. PMID:27328969

  6. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology. PMID:27328969

  7. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  8. Integrated exploration workflow in the south Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Charry, German Rodriguez; Morales, Marcela Mayorga; Mondragon, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The HC exploration is presently active in the southern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley but only moderate size discoveries have been made up to date. The majority of these discoveries are at shallow depth in the Tertiary section. The structures located in the Valley are faulted anticlines charged by lateral migration from the Cretaceous source rocks that are assumed to be present and mature eastward below the main thrusts and the Guaduas Syncline. Upper Cretaceous reservoirs have also been positively tested. To reduce the risks linked to the exploration of deeper structures below the western thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera, an integrated study was carried out. It includes the acquisition of new seismic data, the integration of all surface and subsurface data within a 3D-geomodel, a quality control of the structural model by restoration and a modeling of the petroleum system (presence and maturity of the Cretaceous source rocks, potential migration pathways). The various steps of this workflow will be presented as well as the main conclusions in term of source rock, deformation phases and timing of the thrust emplacement versus oil maturation and migration. Our data suggest (or confirm) The good potential of the Umir Fm as a source rock. The early (Paleogene) deformation of the Bituima Trigo fault area. The maturity gap within the Cretaceous source rock between the hangingwall and footwall of the Bituima fault that proves an initial offset of Cretaceous burial in the range of 4.5 km between the Upper Cretaceous series westward and the Lower Cretaceous ones eastward of this fault zone. The post Miocene weak reactivation as dextral strike slip of Cretaceous faults such as the San Juan de Rio Seco fault that corresponds to change in the Cretaceous thickness and therefore in the depth of the thrust decollement.

  9. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  10. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  11. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group. PMID:27394274

  12. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Romero, Solangy; Alonso, Milena; Hernandez-Cuervo, Helena; Yunis, Emilio J.; Yunis, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity. PMID:23885195

  13. Simultaneous circulation of genotypes I and III of dengue virus 3 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Mendez, Jairo A; Tenorio, Antonio; Rey, Gloria J; Domingo, Cristina; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. The picture is similar in other surrounding countries in the Americas, with recent outbreaks of severe disease, mostly associated with DENV serotype 3, strains of the Indian genotype, introduced into the Americas in 1994. Results The analysis of the 3'end (224 bp) of the envelope gene from 32 DENV-3 strains recently recovered in Colombia confirms the circulation of the Indian genotype, and surprisingly the co-circulation of an Asian-Pacific genotype only recently described in the Americas. Conclusion These results have important implications for epidemiology and surveillance of DENV infection in Central and South America. Molecular surveillance of the DENV genotypes infecting humans could be a very valuable tool for controlling/mitigating the impact of the DENV infection. PMID:18764951

  14. Phylogeny of dengue virus type 3 circulating in Colombia between 2001 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julián; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel Rafael; Jimenez, Raquel Elvira Ocazionez

    2009-10-01

    Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) re-appeared in Colombia in 2001 after 23 years of apparent absence, in the state of Santander in the North-eastern region near to Venezuelan border. In 2002, the virus was isolated in the state of Valle del Cauca in the South-east region near to Ecuadorian/Peruvian border, and in the state of Antioquia in the North-east region near to Panama border. To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of DENV-3 in Colombia, we sequenced the complete E gene of 21 isolates sampled in the period 2001-2007. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Colombian strains seem to have been introduced from Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but not from Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay or Central America countries. This study also confirms previous report showing that Colombian isolates is closely related to DENV-3 genotype III. PMID:19619216

  15. NorTropical Warm Pool variability and its effects on the climate of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodriguez, Deisy; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2015-04-01

    Much has been said about the effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on oceanographic and climatic conditions in Colombia, but little is known about the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP), which includes the gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the western tropical North Atlantic. The AWP has been identified by some authors as an area that influences the Earth's climate, associated with anomalous summer rainfall and hurricane activity in the Atlantic. The aim of this study was to understand the variation in the AWP and its effects on the climate of Colombia. An annual average of sea surface temperature (SST) was obtained from the composition of monthly images of the Spectroradiometer Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with resolution of 4 km, for one area that comprises the marine territory of Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica both the Pacific and the Caribbean, and parts of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, for the period between 2007 and 2013. The results suggest that warm pool is not restricted to the Caribbean, but it also covers a strip Pacific bordering Central America and the northern part of the Colombian coast, so it should be called the Nor-Tropical Warm pool (NTWP). Within the NTWP higher SST correspond to a marine area extending about 1 degree north and south of Central and out of the Colombian Caribbean coast. The NTWP also showed large interannual variability, with the years 2008 and 2009 with lower SST in average, while 2010, 2011 and 2013 years with warmer conditions, matching with greater precipitation. It was also noted that during warmer conditions (high amplitude NTWP) the cold tongue from the south Pacific has less penetration on Colombian coast. Finally, the results suggest a strong influence of NTWP in climatic conditions in Colombia.

  16. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  17. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-04-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine. PMID:26038461

  18. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine. PMID:26038461

  19. Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

    2007-01-01

    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. PMID:18027530

  20. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Reason, Iara J. de Messias; Howard, Michael S.; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of EPF, including data described almost one century ago; and, to include several unindexed reports, which may have not been available to many current scientists and health care personnel. Results: Foci of EPF have been described in several Central American and South American countries, affecting predominately young people and Amerindians, with an additional female predilection. Although most cases have occurred in Brazil, some cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Another variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, another type of EPF was described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Conclusion: Our understanding of EPF has been hampered by a lack of government attention to these diseases, especially in some South and Central American countries. Other factors that have made past studies of EPF difficult include 1) that the disease foci are often located in rural areas bordering the rain forest of underdeveloped countries; and 2) military conflicts in some of these areas. PMID:22624115

  1. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-461X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago.

  2. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  4. The bud midge Prodiplosis longifila: Damage characteristics, potential distribution and presence on a new crop host in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis M; Guzman, Yoan C; Martínez-Arias, Adriana; Manzano, Maria R; Selvaraj, John J

    2015-01-01

    The Dipteran Prodiplosis longifila is a severe pest, mainly of Solanaceae, in South America and some years ago it damaged Tahiti lime crops in the United States. It is a potential invasive pest. Despite its presence in Colombia, nothing is known regarding the taxonomic identification of P. longifila or the characteristics of the damage it produces. Moreover, the current and potential distributions of this pest are unknown. To determine these factors, P. longifila was sampled in several Solanaceae- and Citrus (x) latifolia (Tahiti lime)-producing areas in Colombia. The larvae consumed tender foliage, flowers and fruits in tomato, fruits in sweet pepper, and buds in Tahiti lime. P. longifila was not found in asparagus or in potatoes. Its presence in Tahiti lime was previously unknown in Colombia. Adults recovered in the laboratory were taxonomically identified using male morphological characteristics such as the shapes of the genitalia, antenna and wing. P. longifila was found in the Andean region of Colombia. The ecological niche model for populations found in tomato suggests that P. longifila is limited in its distribution by altitude and variables associated with temperature and precipitation. The highest probability of occurrence is in areas where tomato, sweet pepper and the new host, Tahiti lime, are grown. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive measures, such as planting tomato materials free of P. longifila larvae, in areas where the pest is not yet present but where there is the potential for its development. PMID:25977894

  5. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  6. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region. PMID:21881765

  7. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  8. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  9. Colombia Exports Its "New School" Blueprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Asbel

    1999-01-01

    To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…

  10. Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Arias, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an online effort…

  11. Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Colombia and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salve, Angela; Pichel, Mariana; Wiesner, Magdalena; Hidalgo, Marylin; Terragno, Raquel; Alvarez, Adriana; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Binsztein, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever with 16 million annual cases estimated worldwide. In Colombia and Argentina it is a notifiable disease but many cases have only a clinical diagnosis. Molecular subtyping of S. Typhi is necessary to complement epidemiologic analysis of typhoid fever. The aims of this study were to determine the genetic relationships between the strains circulating in both countries and to evaluate possible variations in the distribution of 12 virulence genes. A total of 136 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI following PulseNet protocols and analysis guidelines. Eighty-three different PFGE patterns were identified, showing high diversity among the strains from both countries. Three outbreaks, two in Colombia and one in Argentina, were caused by strains of different PFGE types. In Colombia, two PFGE patterns were found predominantly, which included 36.6% of the isolates from that country. No association was found between the PFGE patterns and the year or place of isolation of the strains, the age of the patients or type of sample. However, several clusters were detected, which included isolates recovered predominantly either from Colombia or Argentina. Most of the strains (97%) exhibited a single virulence profile, suggesting that the pathogenicity markers analyzed are of limited value for strain discrimination and do not correlate with the origin of the isolates (intestinal vs. extra-intestinal). Since the creation of PulseNet Latin America, this was the first international study conducted in South America. The PFGE types identified were incorporated into the Regional S. Typhi PulseNet Database and are now available for comparison with those of strains isolated in other regions. This information will be used for active surveillance, future studies, and outbreak investigations. PMID:16602990

  12. [Malnutrition and poverty in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rico Velasco, J; Acciarri, G; Fajardo, L F

    1982-01-01

    A history of colonial exploitation and a development model that concentrates wealth and excludes a large proportion of the population from the development process are the principal determinants of income distribution in Colombia. This work analyzes the extent of malnutrition among the poorest 30% of the Colombian population. The National Plan for Feeding and Nutrition (PAN), an important component of the national development plan, strives to improve the nutritional status of the most vulnerable population groups living in rural areas and marginal urban neighborhoods, with particular emphasis on mothers and children. The program initially was focussed on 11 priority regions where 5 types of interventions were developed: primary health care, environmental sanitation, food production, food distribution, and nutrition education. Because of the good results initially obtained, PAN now covers the entire national territory. A 1977 survey stratified by socioeconomic levels indicated that among the poorest 30% of the population, 67% of the children examined had low weight for age caused by a combination of chronic and acute malnutrition. 12% were considered to have severe and 23% moderate malnutrition. 8% had severe and 17% had moderate problems of height for age. 26% had deficient weight for height. Comparison of the data to normal values published by the World Health Organization clearly demonstrates the pattern of overall malnutrition indicated by weight for age figures. It can be concluded at 33% of children in the poorest 30% of the population are normal, 31% have mild malnutrition, 23% moderate malnutrition, and 12% severe malnutrition. Data on height for age indicated that 43% were normal, 32% had mild chronic malnutrition, 17% had moderate chronic malnutrition, and 8% had severe chronic malnutrition. The prevalence of acute malnutrition in the poor population measured by the ratio of weight to height was less than that of chronic or overall malnutrition. 21% were

  13. CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, S

    1982-03-01

    Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information

  14. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  15. Receiver Function Study of the Crustal Structure Beneath the Northern Andes (colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, E.; Monsalve, G.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated crustal thickness beneath the Northern Andes with the teleseismic receiver function technique. We used teleseismic data recorded by an array of 18 broadband stations deployed by the Colombian Seismological Network, and operated by the Colombian Geological Survey. We used the primary P-to-S conversion and crustal reverberations to estimate crustal thickness and average Vp/Vs ratio; using Wadati diagrams, we also calculated the mean crustal Vp/Vs ratio around stations to further constrain the crustal thickness estimation. In northern Colombia, near the Caribbean coast, the estimated crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km; in the Middle Magdalena Valley, crustal thickness is around 40 km; beneath the northern Central Cordillera, the Moho depth is nearly 40 km; at the Ecuador-Colombia border, beneath the western flank of the Andes, the estimated thickness is about 46 km. Receiver functions at a station at the craton in South East Colombia, near the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, clearly indicate the presence of the Moho discontinuity at a depth near 36 km. The greatest values of crustal thickness occur beneath a plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) on the Eastern Cordillera, near the location of Bogota, with values around 58 km. Receiver functions in the volcanic areas of the south-western Colombian Andes do not show a systematic signal from the Moho, indicating abrupt changes in Moho geometry. Signals at stations on the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota reveal a highly complex crustal structure, with a combination of sedimentary layers up to 9 km thick, dipping interfaces, low velocity layers, anisotropy and/or lateral heterogeneity that still remain to be evaluated. This complexity obeys to the location of these stations at a region of a highly deformed fold and thrust belt.

  16. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  17. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli ST131 and ST405 Clones Causing Community-Onset Infections in South America▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sory J.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Martinez, Ernesto; Rosso, Fernando; Muñoz, Martin; Quinn, John P.; Cantón, Rafael; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli has emerged worldwide as an important pathogen associated with community-onset infections, but in South America reports are scarce. We document the presence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli of the international ST131 and ST405 clones in Colombia and present the first molecular characterization of these isolates in South America. PMID:21325548

  18. Menispermaceae from the Cerrejon Formation, middle to late Paleocene, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Doria, Gabriela; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Herrera, Fabiany

    2008-08-01

    The origin and processes creating the high diversity of plant species in neotropical rain forests and their floristic composition and multistratitified forest structure are still uncertain. Here, we studied one of the most common leaf morphotypes of the Cerrejón flora (middle-late Paleocene, ca. 60-58 Ma), Guajira, Colombia, that contains one of the oldest records of neotropical rain forest floras. Fifty-seven leaf specimens were carefully examined with a focus on general morphology, venation patterns, and cuticular characteristics. The analysis allowed us to recognize four new species that were assigned to the fossil-leaf genus Menispermites on the basis of an ovate leaf shape with cordate to truncate bases, actinodromous primary venation, brochidodromous secondary venation, percurrent tertiary venation, regular polygonal reticulate fourth and fifth venation, well-developed polygonal areoles, entire margin, and the presence of a fimbrial vein. This set of characters suggests a possible affinity with the pantropical angiosperm family Menispermaceae. The predominantly climbing habit of this family suggests that the Cerrejón Paleocene tropical rain forest was already multistratified. These findings represent the earliest record for the family in northern South America. PMID:21632418

  19. Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100 000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. PMID:25636631

  20. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single "northern" lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As such

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single “northern” lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As

  2. Appropriateness of the TOEIC[R] Bridge Test for Students in Three Countries of South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Powers, Donald E.; Feng, Ying; Saldivia, Luis; Giunta, Anthony; Simpson, Annabelle; Weng, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the TOEIC[R] "Bridge" as a measure of English language proficiency, one form of the test was administered to more than 6000 test takers in three South American countries--Colombia, Chile and Ecuador. The appropriateness of the TOEIC "Bridge" test as a measure of English language skill…

  3. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  4. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  5. New views on the Late Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.

    2012-04-01

    northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.

  6. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  7. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  9. Trinity Gas to explore for gas in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Trinity Gas Corp. officials signed an agreement on May 20, 1997, with the Cauca Valley Corp. (CVC) allowing Trinity to use CVC data to explore for natural gas in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. CVC, Colombia`s Valle del Cauca water resources and environmental division, is evaluating Colombia`s underground water reserves to protect, control and preserve fresh water aquifers, some of which contain natural gas pockets that cause blowouts in farmers` water wells. Preparations now are underway for drilling Trinity`s first well at the Palmira 1 site on the San Jose Hacienda, the largest privately owned sugar cane plantation in the valley. Trinity also entered into an agreement with the Cauca Valley Natural Gas and Electricity Project to furnish natural gas, generated electricity and energy fuel for the industrial district in the region. According to this contract, many valley residents will have electric service for the first time.

  10. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  11. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  12. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  13. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  14. Prediction of mean monthly river discharges in Colombia through Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2015-04-01

    The hydro-climatology of Colombia exhibits strong natural variability at a broad range of time scales including: inter-decadal, decadal, inter-annual, annual, intra-annual, intra-seasonal, and diurnal. Diverse applied sectors rely on quantitative predictions of river discharges for operational purposes including hydropower generation, agriculture, human health, fluvial navigation, territorial planning and management, risk preparedness and mitigation, among others. Various methodologies have been used to predict monthly mean river discharges that are based on "Predictive Analytics", an area of statistical analysis that studies the extraction of information from historical data to infer future trends and patterns. Our study couples the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with traditional methods, e.g. Autoregressive Model of Order 1 (AR1) and Neural Networks (NN), to predict mean monthly river discharges in Colombia, South America. The EMD allows us to decompose the historical time series of river discharges into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) that capture the different oscillatory modes of different frequencies associated with the inherent time scales coexisting simultaneously in the signal (Huang et al. 1998, Huang and Wu 2008, Rao and Hsu, 2008). Our predictive method states that it is easier and simpler to predict each IMF at a time and then add them up together to obtain the predicted river discharge for a certain month, than predicting the full signal. This method is applied to 10 series of monthly mean river discharges in Colombia, using calibration periods of more than 25 years, and validation periods of about 12 years. Predictions are performed for time horizons spanning from 1 to 12 months. Our results show that predictions obtained through the traditional methods improve when the EMD is used as a previous step, since errors decrease by up to 13% when the AR1 model is used, and by up to 18% when using Neural Networks is combined with the

  15. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  16. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  17. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  18. Tuberculosis control and managed competition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Gaviria, Marta Beatriz; Franco, Alvaro; Restrepo, Roman; Hincapié, Doracelly; Blas, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Law 100 introduced the Health Sector Reform in Colombia, a model of managed competition. This article addresses the effects of this model in terms of output and outcomes of TB control. Trends in main TB control indicators were analysed using secondary data sources, and 25 interviews were done with key informants from public and private insurers and provider institutions, and from the health directorate level. We found a deterioration in the performance of TB control: a decreasing number of BCG vaccine doses applied, a reduction in case finding and contacts identification, low cure rates and an increasing loss of follow up, which mainly affects poor people. Fragmentation occurred as the atomization and discontinuity of the technical processes took place, there was a lack of coordination, as well as a breakdown between individual and collective interventions, and the health information system began to disintegrate. The introduction of the Managed Competition (MC) in Colombia appeared to have adverse effects on TB control due to the dominance of the economic rationality in the health system and the weak state stewardship. Our recommendations are to restructure the reform's public health component, strengthen the technical capacity in public health of the state, mainly at the local and departmental levels, and to improve the health information system by reorienting its objectives to public health goals. PMID:15686059

  19. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

  20. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  1. [Thirty years of demographic transformation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G; Ordonez, M

    1993-06-01

    Statistical data describing the dramatic fertility decline and increase in contraceptive usage in Colombia since 1965 are presented in this article. Colombia's estimated crude birth rate, which fluctuated around 45/1000 for the first half of the 20th century, fell from 45 in 1965 to 41.3 around 1968, 36 in 1970, 31 in 1975, 28 in 1985, and 26 in 1990. The total fertility rate declined from an estimated 7.0 in 1960-65 to 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in the 1973 census, 3.2 in the 1985 census, and 2.9 according to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey. The most significant fertility declines occurred before 1975, but fertility continues to decline in rural and urban zones and in all regions of Colombia. Some isolated groups of women maintain high fertility. Rural women, women in the Atlantic region, women in consensual unions, less educated women, and those not employed outside the home had higher fertility rates. Marriage age, and important proximate fertility determinant, changed significantly only between 1975-86. Age at first union was around 19 years between 1969-76 vs. 21 years for 1986-90. The median age at first marriage was estimated at 22.1 years in 1976 and 22.8 in 1985. By 1985 the median age at first marriage was 23.4 years in urban areas and 2.2 years lower in rural areas. The causes of the fertility decline have not been precisely identified, although such factors as urbanization, improved health services, increasing educational levels, and female employment are believed to be involved. Colombia's crude death rate has declined from 22/1000 in 1930-51 to 13.5 in 1964, 9 in 1973, and 6 in 1985. The decline has been attributed to improved health conditions, introduction of vaccines and antibiotics, and general development of the medical sciences. The national infant mortality rate was 27/1000 live births in 1990, but elevated levels persist in the marginal areas of large cities, in remote rural areas, and among the least educated. Colombia's fertility decline has

  2. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  4. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E.; Paez, Vivian P.; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna. PMID:25733961

  5. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E; Daza, Juan M; Paez, Vivian P; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna. PMID:25733961

  6. Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M

    2014-03-01

    The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America. PMID:24604201

  7. National Youth Congress of the Associated Schools, Tunja, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the goals and agenda of the first National Youth Congress of the Associated Schools in Colombia. Summarizes proposals and conclusions, and stresses the importance of recognizing the rights of young people as members and future leaders of society. (GEA)

  8. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958. PMID:22372189

  9. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Postle, Anthony C; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule. PMID:27408525

  10. The origin of the flat subduction under Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Geophysics Group, Geosciences Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    2013-05-01

    In Colombia, the characteristics for flat subduction are: 1. The oceanic crust's topography that subducting under Colombia (Nazca Plate) is abrupt because it constitutes by aseismic ridges (Coiba and Malpelo). 2. The Western Cordillera and the Central Cordillera show between 5°N and 7°N its basements that were exhumated during this process and showing the absence of Late Neogene strata. Here we discuss about the origin of these characteristics.

  11. [Adolescents of today, parents of tomorrow, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Prada, E; Singh, S; Wulf, D

    1989-06-01

    In 1988 the Alan Guttmacher Institute funded a project on adolescent family patterns in Colombia, Brazil and Peru. Data was collected on demographic characteristics of the population, literacy levels, education, marital patterns, consensual unions, knowledge and practice of contraception, and patterns of fertility for those 10-19, with emphasis on those 15-19. Although the term adolescent refers to those 10-19, those 20-24 are also included in the analysis because they recently left adolescence and now represent an older generation. This article only focuses on data from Colombia and is divided into 2 parts: part 1 examines the interrelationship of adolescence with early marriage, sexual unions, adolescent pregnancies, contraception and abortion. Part 2 concentrates on the roles of adolescent mothers. 1/3 of the population are under 15. In 1985 there were 6.5 million and by the year 2000 there will be 7.8 million. 1 out of 10 urban Colombians are literate, compared to 1 out of 5 rural. Temporary relationships are more common with women than men. In 1985 4% of men 15-19 had ever been in a relationship as against 15% of women in the same age category. 1/2 of Colombian women had their 1st sexual relations before 20 and 50% of them did not result in marriage. 1986 93% of women between 15-19 knew about 1 contraceptive method. Demographic Surveys in 1976 demonstrated that 30% of the women 15-19 were pregnant, with 27% using a contraceptive and 43% not using any. In 1986 the % of pregnant women rose to 34% (urban areas rose from 24-33% and rural areas decreased from 38 to 35%). A large % of adolescents have their 1st child before marriage and many get pregnant during their 1st sexual encounter. In 1986 20% were unwed mothers, while 12% of adolescents married in their 2nd or 3rd months of pregnancy. Studies in Colombia demonstrate that infant mortality rates are higher among adolescents than those women delivering at older ages. PMID:12315836

  12. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  15. Colombia's "National Project for Sex Education".

    PubMed

    Martinez Mendez, Z

    1996-01-01

    Colombia's National Project for Sex Education, established in 1993, seeks to change negative views of sexuality, further social justice through a redefinition of traditional gender roles, promote reproductive health and sexual responsibility, and encourage respect and self-determination within families. Given the racial and cultural diversity within Colombian society, as well as a trend toward school decentralization and autonomy, there is no single curriculum. To date, more than 2000 teachers have attended 180 workshops on human sexuality. To ensure a future supply of trained teachers, universities are being asked to implement sex education studies. In addition, 36 regional teams have been formed and 145 people have been trained in program development. 12 sexuality education booklets have been prepared, as well as poster displays, media advertisements, and videotapes. Program evaluation will be an important component of this strategy. PMID:12320001

  16. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  17. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  18. A new subspecies of Ovalona setulosa (Megard, 1967) (Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    A new subspecies of Ovalona setulosa (Megard, 1967) (Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae) is described based on material from Laguna Navío Quebrado (La Guajira Department), Colombia. Ovalona setulosa arangureni ssp. nov. differs from the nominative subspecies in: (1) major head pores position on head shield; (2) posterior margin of labral keel without clusters of short setules; (3) more elongated postabdomen, with length/height ratio about 2.7-3; (4) male postabdomen with straight dorsal margin in whole distal portion. In outer morphology and morphology of postabdomen, O. setulosa arangureni ssp. nov. can be confused with O. glabra (Sars, 1901), but, like nominative subspecies, differs from it by interrupted connection between major head pores. Our data suggest that diversity of Aloninae species with limited distribution areas in South America is underestimated yet, and areas north and south of Amazon basin can have different local species. PMID:27395202

  19. Congenital malaria in Urabá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital malaria has been considered a rare event; however, recent reports have shown frequencies ranging from 3% to 54.2% among newborns of mothers who had suffered malaria during pregnancy. There are only a few references concerning the epidemiological impact of this entity in Latin-America and Colombia. Objective The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of congenital malaria in an endemic Colombian region and to determine some of its characteristics. Methods A prospective, descriptive study was carried out in the mothers who suffered malaria during pregnancy and their newborns. Neonates were clinically evaluated at birth and screened for Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear from the umbilical cord and peripheral blood, and followed-up weekly during the first 21 days of postnatal life through clinical examinations and thick smears. Results 116 newborns were included in the study and 80 umbilical cord samples were obtained. Five cases of congenital infection were identified (four caused by P. vivax and one by P. falciparum), two in umbilical cord blood and three in newborn peripheral blood. One case was diagnosed at birth and the others during follow-up. Prevalence of congenital infection was 4.3%. One of the infected newborns was severely ill, while the others were asymptomatic and apparently healthy. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malaria had been diagnosed with malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and also presented placental infection. Conclusions Congenital malaria may be a frequent event in newborns of mothers who have suffered malaria during pregnancy in Colombia. An association was found between congenital malaria and the diagnosis of malaria in the mother during the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and the presence of placental infection. PMID:21846373

  20. Growing pains in South America.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    1997-08-01

    This article describes some negative effects from modernization and urban growth in South America, including disease, pesticides, occupational hazards, poor environmental controls of water and garbage, sanitation, and environmental degradation. South America is following the global trend toward urbanization and the problems that accompany it. Agricultural expansion led to an expanded market for pesticides that includes the deadly DDT, paraquat, and heptachlor. Brazil and Colombia are the largest consumers. Latin American officials justify use of DDT, which is banned in the US and many European countries, as an effective means of combating mosquitos that carry malaria. Exposure occurs during harvesting, transporting, forestry, livestock farming, and vector control activities. Methyl bromide, which is used post-harvest and as a soil fumigant, is dangerous enough to be banned in the US in 2001, and in developing countries in 2002. Exposure to toxic chemicals can severely inhibit enzyme action that is necessary for neurological functioning. A hot climate, which prevents protective clothing, lack of education on proper application, and absence of water to wash exposed skin, make pesticide protection very difficult. Over 40 million agricultural workers are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Habitat destruction has contributed to increased mosquito infestations. Children in the workplace are at even greater risk of noise pollution and chemical poisoning. South America pollutes almost 11 times more fresh water per capita than Europe. About 70% of domestic garbage is collected, and about 30% is disposed of correctly. Only 10% of urban wastewater is treated before discharge into waterways. The loss of coastal wetlands reduces the ability of waterways to filter and absorb nutrients. Environmental health problems suggest an interlinkage between environmental sustainability, human health, and economic growth. PMID:9347893

  1. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission... Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'') and the first meeting of the Environmental Cooperation... United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement (ECA). The Department of State and USTR...

  2. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  3. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  4. 19 CFR 10.3009 - Certification for goods exported to Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Colombia. 10...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.3009 Certification for goods exported to Colombia. (a) Submission of certification to CBP. Any person who completes and issues a certification for...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of U. S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in... amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...

  7. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.3034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which...

  8. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.3034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which...

  9. 19 CFR 10.3009 - Certification for goods exported to Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Colombia. 10...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.3009 Certification for goods exported to Colombia. (a) Submission of certification to CBP. Any person who completes and issues a certification for...

  10. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

  11. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  12. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  13. 3D tomographic structure of the north andean subduction zone at the Colombia-Ecuador border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cano, L. C.; Galve, A.; de La Torre, G.; Charvis, P.; Pontoise, B.; Hello, Y.; Anglade, A.; Yates, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    At the latitude of Ecuador - southern Colombia, the Nazca plate converges toward the South American plate along an ~E-W direction at a rate of about 6 cm/yr. Several large subduction earthquakes affected this area during the last century. Near the Ecuador-Colombia border the 500 km long rupture zone of the 1906 event (M = 8.8) was partially reactivated, from south to north, by a sequence of 3 thrust events in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7) and 1979 (Mw = 8.2). From 1998 to 2005, this zone was the target of five marine geophysical campaigns in order to determine the shallow and deep structure of the margin, its deformation and the possible relation with the rupture zone of the major earthquakes. Bathymetric data, passive and active seismic data were collected off South-Colombia and Ecuador. The data suggest that the interplate earthquakes and the extension of their rupture zone are at least partly controlled by structures on the downgoing and upper plates. To the south the subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge, with a up to 19 km thick crust, is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. This is illustrated by the rupture zones during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes that terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. The margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones at the limit between the 1942 and 1958 rupture zones as well as at the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. Furthermore, seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, a 2D profile from the SALIERI experiment (2001) highlights that the margin seems to overthrust a low velocity outer basement high along a splay fault that would decouple the bulk of the margin basement from its frontal part during great earthquake rupture. During, the 3D Esmeraldas experiment, conducted from February to June 2005, 34 3-components portable stations were installed on land and 26 3-components Ocean Bottom

  14. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features. PMID:26844434

  15. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  16. [Drug use among students in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bergonzoli Peláez, G; Rico, O; Ramírez, A; Paz, M I; Ramírez, J; Rivas, J C; Salinas, A; Rodríguez, O; Salazar, O; Rincón, N

    1989-01-01

    The use of alcohol, tobacco, marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was examined in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 512 secondary-school students enrolled in public and private schools in Cali, Colombia. The overall prevalence of use for any of these substances was 59.38% in the public schools and 36.96% in the private schools (z = 4.6, P less than 0.05). The probability of finding an alcohol user was about 55.26%. The frequency of use for all the substances was 18.9% in the public schools and 7.46% in the private ones. Experience with marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was more frequent in the public schools. The average age of users (19.91 years) was higher than that of non-users (16.25 years): t = 8.34, P less than 0.05. Students in the public schools with a family history of mental illness had almost a ninefold greater risk of being substance users (RR = 8.84, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37); among students in the private schools, having personal conflicts with authority figures (teachers and the police) was a significant risk factor (RR = 2.03, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37). PMID:2525388

  17. Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2011-08-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Winter, David J; Pacheco, M Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F; Schwartz, Rachel S; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Cartwright, Reed A; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  19. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, David J.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F.; Schwartz, Rachel S.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  20. Subduction system and flat slab beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Faccenna, Claudio; Speranza, Fabio; Seccia, Danilo; Dionicio, Viviana; Prieto, Germán. A.

    2016-01-01

    Seismicity at the northern terminus of the Nazca subduction is diffused over a wide area containing the puzzling seismic feature known as the Bucaramanga nest. We relocate about 5000 earthquakes recorded by the Colombian national seismic network and produce the first 3-D velocity model of the area to define the geometry of the lithosphere subducting below the Colombian Andes. We found lateral velocity heterogeneities and an abrupt offset of the Wadati-Benioff zone at 5°N indicating that the Nazca plate is segmented by an E-W slab tear, that separates a steeper Nazca segment to the south from a flat subduction to the north. The flat Nazca slab extends eastward for about 400 km, before dip increases to ˜50° beneath the Eastern Cordillera, where it yields the Bucaramanga nest. We explain this puzzling locus of intermediate-depth seismicity located beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia as due to a massive dehydration and eclogitization of a thickened oceanic crust. We relate the flat subducting geometry to the entrance at the trench at ca. 10 Ma of a thick - buoyant oceanic crust, likely a volcanic ridge, producing a high coupling with the overriding plate. Sub-horizontal plate subduction is consistent with the abrupt disappearance of volcanism in the Andes of South America at latitudes > 5°N.

  1. Biological affinities and regional microevolution among pre-Hispanic communities of Colombia's Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Flórez, C D; Colantonio, S E

    2015-01-01

    Dental non-metric data were used to examine the biological continuity of pre-Hispanic peoples of Colombia's Northern Andes, including highland, lowland and coastal peoples. This report contributes to studies regarding the peopling of South America by establishing a benchmark comparison that includes pre-Hispanic populations of the Northern Andes. The sample consisted of a total of 583 individuals from 56 cemeteries ranging in time from the Early Holocene (10,000 BP) to the Final Late Holocene (500 BP). Permanent dentitions from individuals between 5 and 40 years of age were scored for 87 dental traits based on the ASUDAS. A divergence matrix was programmed using the Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence equation (MMD). Bartlett's adjustment and Ascombe transformation were considered into MMD calculations. Principal Coordenate analysis was applied based on MMD matrix scores. A clear group was found that associated Initial Late Holocene samples with Final Late Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples are very different to that, and Middle Holocene samples show as morphologically intermediate series. A comparison of the frequencies by time and period showed that a limited biological continuity existed. Interbreeding among initial populations of the same regions is expressed in similar frequencies of dental traits within Early Holocene and Middle Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples did not match with Sinodont pattern according to discriminant function analysis. These findings help us to better understand the settlement process of human groups in the Northern Andes and its relationship with migratory movements in South America. PMID:25807169

  2. Analysis, characterization and identification of the Meta fault (Colombia) from the distribution of resistivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, H.; Martinez L, A.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were performed between the Vichada and Casanare states in eastern Colombia, with Schlumberger arrays using maximum aperture AB = 600 m and 1 m < MN < 150 m in a region whose average elevation was 75m. Each of the eleven profiles was composed of three VES (on average), the separation between VES and the average distance between points were 417m and 6.25 km respectively; and acquisitions were carried out in late 2011 and early 2012. Resistivity values were estimated in the range of 100 Ωm to 10.000 Ωm. The apparent resistivity data were processed using the software IPI2Win, and profiles modeled possible layers with a maximum depth of research of 200 m. To the north of the study area the presence of high resistivity values (5000Ωm - 10000Ωm) is calculated, compared to those found south of the area (<3000 Ω m), these changes in resistivity are associated to changes in lithology between the north and south sections of the study area, which could be associated with the presence of a fault (the Meta fault), which has acted as a tectonic boundary. Map and Volume resistivity in the area of interest (Vichada-Casanare states), the abrupt change in resistivity is observed in the Meta fault (white line).

  3. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  4. A model of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stanley N.; Meyer, Hansjürgen

    A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and related activity of Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Figure 1). Approximately 30 scientists from eight countries presented data, developed a preliminary model, and addressed the future problems of Ruiz. The volcano (see Figure 2) erupted just prior to the meeting, covering the meeting site with 1-2 mm of ash.The workshop was convened by Stanley N. Williams (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) and Hansjürgen Meyer (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia). A special volume of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is planned for the papers and letters presented at the workshop, with some additional contributions. Publication is expected in mid-1989.

  5. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  6. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  8. [Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ramos, Jesús M; Guevara-Cardona, Giovany; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2014-04-01

    River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at -550 and another at -250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index ("qualitat del bosc de ribera" or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6,282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers

  9. 70. South El Paso St., 818820 (commercial), west and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. South El Paso St., 818-820 (commercial), west and south facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  10. 6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South El Paso Street showing west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 50. South El Paso St., 618620 (commercial), west and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. South El Paso St., 618-620 (commercial), west and south facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 55. South El Paso St., 719 (commercial), south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. South El Paso St., 719 (commercial), south and east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 43. South El Paso St., 623 (commercial), east and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. South El Paso St., 623 (commercial), east and south facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. Cretaceous sequence stratigraphy of the Northern South American Passive Margin: Implications for tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, E.G.; Villamil, T.; Johnson, C.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The passive margin of northern South America, from Colombia to northeastern Venezuela, was relatively stable through the Cretaceous and only broadly affected by the entry of the Caribbean Plate into the Protocaribbean Basin. This region offers a unique opportunity to test the relative effects of global sealevel change, autocyclic sedimentologic processed, and regional tectonics in shaping the stratigraphic record of Cretaceous passive margins. High-resolution stratigraphic studies of Colombia and Venezuela have established a precise system of regional chronology and correlation with resolution <1 Ma (50-500 ka for the middle Cretaceous). This allows precise separation of allocyclic and autocyclic controls on facies development. This new chronology integrates assemblage zone biostratigraphy with event/cycle chronostratigraphy. Newly measured Cretaceous sections in Venezuela and throughout Colombia are calibrated to this new chronology, and sequence stratigraphic units independently defined to the third-order of resolution. Graphic correlation of all sections is used to identify sequences with regional stratigraphic expression, and those which correlate to sequence stratigraphic standards of North America, Europe and the global cycles of Hag et al. (1988). 50-60 percent of the stratigraphic sequences across the South American passive margin correlate to other continents and to the global sequence stratigraphic standard, reflecting strong eustatic influence on Cretaceous sedimentation across northern South America. The remaining sequences in this region reflect tectonic modification of the passive margin and autocyclic sedimentary processes.

  15. Tectonic implications of tomographic images of subducted lithosphere beneath Northwestern South America

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Hilst, R. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Tomographic images and deep seismicity of the mantle beneath northwestern South America support the existence of extensive and continuous subducted slabs which may be important controls on the neotectonic deformation of the overriding South America plate. Using tomographic data, we have estimated lateral continuity, regional dip, downdip length and approximate convergence direction of two, largely aseismic slabs. Tomographic data suggests that the Cauca slab, previously defined using earthquakes beneath southern Colombia, extends 300 km into the mantle beneath northern Colombia, has an average dip of 50[degrees], and is the downdip extension of Eocene to Miocene Panama island arc and Oligocene-Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate. The Maracaibo slab of northern Colombia and western Venezuela extends up to 450 km into the mantle at an average angle of 16[degrees] and is the downdip extension of Late Cretaceous oceanic plateau crust of the Caribbean Sea. The boundary between the two slabs is less than 50 km in width. The Maracaibo and northern Cauca slabs are generally aseismic and not associated with an overlying volcanic arc. Instead, both slabs are overlain by broad zones of diffuse active faulting and topography in the northern Andes. The shallow dip, angle of oblique subduction and thickness of the Maracaibo slab may produce crustal deformation including northward tectonic escape of the Maracaibo block, a triangular wedge of continental crust in the overriding South America plate.

  16. [Why are diagnosis-related groups unpopular in Colombia?].

    PubMed

    Gorbanev, Iouri; Cortés, Ariel; Agudelo, Sandra; Yepes, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of non-implementation of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) by hospitals in Colombia. A qualitative case was carried out to analyze the directors' perceptions in six hospitals with and without DRGs in Bogotá. The interviews are based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory. The directors had similar perceptions of the determinates. DRGs were seen as positive, but encountered organizational and institutional obstacles. Without a targeted public policy, the likelihood of implementing DRGs in Colombia is slight. PMID:26578026

  17. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  18. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  19. Education in Colombia. Bulletin, 1946, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbay, John H.

    1946-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  20. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  1. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  3. Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.

    2007-01-01

    Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…

  4. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Postle, Anthony C.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule. PMID:27408525

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  6. Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

  7. Colombia uses water to wake an old, tired giant

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, F.

    1985-01-01

    Ecopetrol is about to begin a $375-million secondary recovery project to bring an additional 70 million barrels of oil out of Casabe field in the Middel Magdalena Valley of Colombia. The 16-year project will begin with 243,600 bwpd injected into 500 wells.

  8. Working with Urban Youth: Experiences from Medellin, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)

  9. Achievement Evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva: Is Multigrade the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Colombia's rural "escuelas nuevas" feature multigrade classrooms, flexible promotion, rural-oriented curriculum, parent and community involvement, mastery learning, peer instruction, and library resources. A study of over 3,000 students found that, compared to traditional schools, Escuela Nueva schools had lower dropout probabilities, higher…

  10. The Urgent Situation of the Cuiva Indians of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcand, Bernard

    The Cuiva Indians of Colombia are now threatened with cultural and physical extermination at the hands of Colombian cattle herders. The Cuiva build no permanent houses and have no permanent settlements. They do not practice agriculture, obtaining their food from hunting and gathering. For more than 4 centuries after their discovery, little has…

  11. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  12. Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their…

  13. English Teaching and the Economic Development of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    To supply the large number of workers qualified for complex jobs, a demand created by the growing needs of a rapidly growing population, Colombia must make provisions for an expanded system of higher education. This can be accomplished by sending students abroad to study at the university level. The large number of students coming to the United…

  14. Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

  15. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  16. A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…

  17. Present state of studies of volcanic risk in Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvajal, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the last days of 1984, we began studies whose purpose was directed toward the identification of hte risks that accompanied such volcanic activity. As a result of these investigations there appeared a preliminary map of volcanic risk in Octoer 7, 1985, the first map of its kind in Colombia  

  18. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  19. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  20. Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

  1. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  2. Mononeuritis multiplex: association with infectious condition and familial background in a tropical environment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Böck, Klaus; Pschaid, Carmen; Topakian, Raffi; Stieglbauer, Karl; Doppler, Stefan; von Oertzen, Joachim Tim; Pichler, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Mononeuritis multiplex is characterized by an asymmetric pattern with affection of the peripheral nervous system; this form of polyneuropathy is often seen in non-systemic vasculitis. We present a case of multiplex neuropathy in a patient with histologicaly verified Hailey-Hailey disease. With the exception of this comorbidity--in its characteristic form presenting additionally with a superinfected subdermal node--we did not find any other possible etiologic factor possibly causative of multiplex neuritis. The diagnosis was confirmed by electrophysiological testing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report indicating a possible relationship between Hailey-Hailey disease and multiplex neuritis. There exists only one related study in the literature, which was conducted in Columbia--our patient's home country. This study delineates a clinically similar dermal disease (pemphigus foliaceus) in patients from rural Colombia (El Bagre). The authors detected anti-neuronal antibodies which were interpreted to be responsible for the pathognomonic burning sensations. PMID:24664309

  3. Occurrence of hydrophobic organic pollutants (BFRs and UV-filters) in sediments from South America.

    PubMed

    Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Gorga, Marina; Rudolph, Ignacio; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Díaz-Cruz, Sílvia; Barra, Ricardo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Darbra, Rosa María; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2013-07-01

    In the present study the occurrence of emerging hydrophobic organic pollutants in sediment samples from South America (Chile and Colombia) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen Chilean and thirteen Colombian sediment samples were analyzed in order to determine their content of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (including PBDEs and emerging BFRs) as well as UV filters (UV-F). Samples were collected from neighboring aquatic ecosystems highly urbanized and industrialized in Colombia (Magdalena River area) and Chile (Biobio region). Different analytical procedures were applied depending on the selected analytes, based on chromatographic and mass spectrometric methodologies (GC-MS and LC-MS-MS). In general, concentration levels of both BFRs (up to 2.43 and 143ngg(-1) dw of PBDEs in Chile and Colombia, respectively) and UV-F (nd-2.96 and nd-54.4ngg(-1) dw in Chile and Colombia, respectively) were in the low range of published data, and the contribution of BFRs was higher than that of UV-F for almost all the sampled sediments. PMID:23602656

  4. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  5. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  6. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  7. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  8. Circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG in South America.

    PubMed

    Carrion, G; Hierholzer, J; Montano, S; Alava, A; Perez, J; Guevara, A; Laguna-Torres, V; Mosquera, C; Russell, K; Chauca, G; Kochel, T; Birx, D L; Sanchez, J L; Carr, J K

    2003-04-01

    With the objective of monitoring the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)in South America, population-based surveillance studies were performed in seven countries. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell, filter paper, fresh blood, and cocultivation samples were collected from HIV-positive patients from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay, during a 7-year period(1995-2001). DNA was prepared and HIV envelope subtypes were determined by heteroduplex mobility as-say and DNA sequencing from 1289 HIV-positive samples. While subtypes B and F were the most commonly observed subtypes, two CRF02_AG strains were detected, in Ecuador. This is the first report of the existence of this CRF in South America. PMID:12816083

  9. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  10. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  11. The El Niño Southern Oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Alexandre S.; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E.; Bush, Andrew B.

    2002-05-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria.

  12. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects. PMID:12178022

  13. Temporal Variations of Magnetic Field Associated with Seismic Activity at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, J. M.; Serna, J. P.; Guzman, J.

    2011-12-01

    A study of magnetic variations was carried out at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia for the period 2009 -2010, with two permanent magnetometers located at South and North of the central dome, separated about 2.5 km each other. After corrections, we found that there is no clear correlation between volcanic seismicity and temporal changes of magnetic field for each magnetometer station, if they are analyzed individually. On the contrary, when we calculated the residual Magnetic field (RMF), for each magnetometer, and then we made the subtraction between them, and plot it vs time, we found a clear correlation of changes in local magnetic field with the occurrence of volcanic seismicity (ML >1.6). We found a change in the RMF between 1584 nT and 1608 nT, each time that a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred. The máximum lapse time between the previous change in RMF and the further occurrence of the earthquake is 24 days, with an average of 11 days. This pattern occurred more than 9 times during the studied period. Based on the results, we believed that the simple methodology proposed here, is a good tool for monitoring changes in seismicity associated with activity at Cerro Machín volcano. We suggest that the temporal changes of RMF at Cerro Machín Volcano, are associated with piezo-magnetic effects, due to changes in strain-stress inside the volcano, produced by the interaction between local faulting and magma movement.

  14. Challenges of modeling current very large lahars at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, M.; Pulgarín, B.

    2012-03-01

    Nevado del Huila, a glacier-covered volcano in the South of Colombia's Cordillera Central, had not experienced any historical eruptions before 2007. In 2007 and 2008, the volcano erupted with phreatic and phreatomagmatic events which produced lahars with flow volumes of up to about 300 million m3 causing severe damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. The magnitude of these lahars and the prevailing potential for similar or even larger events, poses significant hazards to local people and makes appropriate modeling a real challenge. In this study, we analyze the recent lahars to better understand the main processes and then model possible scenarios for future events. We used lahar inundation depths, travel duration, and flow deposits to constrain the dimensions of the 2007 event and applied LAHARZ and FLO-2D for lahar modeling. Measured hydrographs, geophone seismic sensor data and calculated peak discharges served as input data for the reconstruction of flow hydrographs and for calibration of the models. For model validation, results were compared with field data collected along the Páez and Simbola Rivers. Based on the results of the 2007 lahar simulation, we modeled lahar scenarios with volumes between 300 million and 1 billion m3. The approach presented here represents a feasible solution for modeling high-magnitude flows like lahars and allows an assessment of potential future events and related consequences for population centers downstream of Nevado del Huila.

  15. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  16. A reference architecture for integrated EHR in Colombia.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Edgar; Lopez, Diego M; Uribe, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of national EHR infrastructures has to start by a detailed definition of the overall structure and behavior of the EHR system (system architecture). Architectures have to be open, scalable, flexible, user accepted and user friendly, trustworthy, based on standards including terminologies and ontologies. The GCM provides an architectural framework created with the purpose of analyzing any kind of system, including EHR system´s architectures. The objective of this paper is to propose a reference architecture for the implementation of an integrated EHR in Colombia, based on the current state of system´s architectural models, and EHR standards. The proposed EHR architecture defines a set of services (elements) and their interfaces, to support the exchange of clinical documents, offering an open, scalable, flexible and semantically interoperable infrastructure. The architecture was tested in a pilot tele-consultation project in Colombia, where dental EHR are exchanged. PMID:21893762

  17. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994. PMID:7565552

  18. [Public health policies as regards the elderly in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Segura Cardona, Angela María

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the laws passed, and adopted in accordance with international regulations, in Colombia and which currently benefit or affect the quality of life of the elderly. Public policies in Colombia are inclined towards the well-being of the elderly, but this documental analysis concludes that the elderly Colombian is unprotected and defenseless against the obstacles and difficult situations due to the biological, political, social, economic and environmental conditions. This makes them vulnerable as it is a scheme that only benefits in cases of poverty and by being a member of the General Social Security in Health system, with transfer of obligations to the family, society and likewise the elderly. PMID:21388713

  19. Colombia: reasons to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2004-01-01

    All modern nations are concerned with their independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support countries which are in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields which hold promise for our future. The present moment is one of serious crises in Colombia's history. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how the nation could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  20. Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

  1. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. PMID:25087863

  2. [Concepts, confusions and contradictions on the impact factor in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Leon, Martha E

    2007-01-01

    Latin American scientists are making tremendous efforts to conduct good-quality research worthy of being published internationally. However, Colciencias, an entity created to support this research in Colombia, introduced scienciometric evaluations which had been re-evaluated elsewhere some time ago, based on measurements of aspects such as the ill-termed "impact factor". Even more serious is that the aforementioned government office is unaware that measures are based on debated mathematical principles, placing Colombian science at imminent risk of suffering from an academic yatrogeny of irreparable consequences. Therefore, an urgent restructuring of the way in which Colombia's scientific production is to be evaluated is thus mandatory before these measures have a negative impact thereon. PMID:17639682

  3. Essential oil from leaves of Lippia dulcis grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murillo, Bárbara; Quijano-Célis, Clara; Romero, Arturo R; Pino, Jorge A

    2010-04-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) from Colombia was studied by GC and GC/MS. Forty volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were alpha-copaene (18.0%), beta-caryophyllene (17.8%), and delta-cadinene (14.7%). The sweet bisabolane sesquiterpenoid, hernandulcin, formed only 1.1% of the leaf oil. PMID:20433082

  4. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Constenla, D; Carvalho, A; Alvis Guzmán, N

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods.  A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results.  The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions.  Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  5. The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

  6. An annotated checklist of the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Alexey A; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the revision of available literature on the Colombian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), we present an annotated checklist, with taxonomical comments for all taxa recorded since the start of research on this group in the country in 1913. We have listed 101 valid taxa, of which most records belong to the Caribbean region of Colombia. The situation in Colombian Cladocera taxonomy is, at present, unfavorable for any realistic conclusions on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography. PMID:26624722

  7. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Constenla, D.; Carvalho, A.; Alvis Guzmán, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods. A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results. The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions. Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  8. Evolution of the stress and strain fields in the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, J. N.; Egbue, O. K.; Aguirre, H.; Torres, C.

    2013-05-01

    This work integrates stress data from Global Positioning System measurements and earthquake focal mechanism solutions, with new borehole breakout and natural fracture system data to better understand the complex interactions between the major tectonic plates in northwestern South America and to examine how the stress regime in the Eastern Cordillera and the Llanos foothills in Colombia has evolved through time. The dataset was used to generate an integrated stress map of the northern Andes and to propose a model for stress evolution in the Eastern Cordillera. In the Cordillera, the primary present-day maximum principal stress direction is WNW-ESE to NW-SE, and is in the direction of maximum shortening in the mountain range. There is also a secondary maximum principal stress direction that is E-W to ENE-WSW, which is associated with the northeastward "escape" of the North Andean block, relative to stable South America. In the Cupiagua hydrocarbon field, located in the Llanos foothills, the dominant NNE-SSW fractures are produced by the Panama arc-North Andes collision and range-normal compression. However, less well developed asymmetrical fractures oriented E-W to WSW-ENE and NNW-SSE are also present, and may be related to pre-folding stresses in the foreland basin of the Central Cordillera or to present-day shear associated with the northeastward "escape" of the north Andean block. Our study results suggest that an important driver for orogenic deformation and changes in the stress field at obliquely convergent subduction zone boundaries is the arrival of thickened crust, such as island arcs and aseismic ridges, at the trench. Schematic 3-D tectonic model for the northern Andes showing principal plate boundaries

  9. Evolution of the stress and strain fields in the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbue, Obi; Kellogg, James; Aguirre, Hector; Torres, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    This work integrates stress data from Global Positioning System measurements and earthquake focal mechanism solutions, with new borehole breakout and natural fracture system data to better understand the complex interactions between the major tectonic plates in northwestern South America and to examine how the stress regime in the Eastern Cordillera and the Llanos foothills in Colombia has evolved through time. The dataset was used to generate an integrated stress map of the northern Andes and to propose a model for stress evolution in the Eastern Cordillera. In the Cordillera, the primary present-day maximum principal stress direction is WNW-ESE to NW-SE, and is in the direction of maximum shortening in the mountain range. There is also a secondary maximum principal stress direction that is E-W to ENE-WSW, which is associated with the northeastward “escape” of the North Andean block, relative to stable South America. In the Cupiagua hydrocarbon field, located in the Llanos foothills, the dominant NNE-SSW fractures are produced by the Panama arc-North Andes collision and range-normal compression. However, less well developed asymmetrical fractures oriented E-W to WSW-ENE and NNW-SSE are also present, and may be related to pre-folding stresses in the foreland basin of the Central Cordillera or to present-day shear associated with the northeastward “escape” of the north Andean block. Our study results suggest that an important driver for orogenic deformation and changes in the stress field at obliquely convergent subduction zone boundaries is the arrival of thickened crust, such as island arcs and aseismic ridges, at the trench.

  10. Simulating Spatial Variability of Fluvial Sediment Fluxes Within the Magdalena Drainage Basin, Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Restrepo, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the application of an empirical sediment flux model BQART, to simulate long-term sediment fluxes of major tributaries of a river system based on a limited number of input parameters. We validate model results against data of the 1612 km long Magdalena River, Colombia, South America, which is well monitored. The Magdalena River, draining a hinterland area of 257,438 km2, of which the majority lies in the Andes before reaching the Atlantic coast, is known for its high sediment yield, 560 t kg- 2 yr-1; higher than nearby South American rivers like the Amazon or the Orinoco River. Sediment fluxes of 32 tributary basins of the Magdalena River were simulated based on the following controlling factors: geomorphic influences (tributary-basin area and relief) derived from high-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, tributary basin-integrated lithology based on GIS analysis of lithology data, 30year temperature data, and observed monthly mean discharge data records (varying in record length of 15 to 60 years). Preliminary results indicate that the simulated sediment flux of all 32 tributaries matches the observational record, given the observational error and the annual variability. These simulations did not take human influences into account yet, which often increases sediment fluxes by accelerating erosion, especially in steep mountainous area similar to the Magdalena. Simulations indicate that, with relatively few input parameters, mostly derived from remotely-sensed data or existing compiled GIS datasets, it is possible to predict: which tributaries in an arbitrary river drainage produce relatively high contributions to sediment yields, and where in the drainage basin you might expect conveyance loss.