NN inversion potentials intermediate energy proton-nucleus elastic scattering
Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Love, W.G.; Geramb, H.V. von
1995-10-01
Recently developed nucleon-nucleon interactions using the quantum inverse scattering method shed new fight on the off-shell properties of the internucleon effective force for nucleon-nucleus scattering. Calculations of proton elastic scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the 500 MeV region show that variations in off-shell contributions are determined to a great extent by the accuracy with which the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are reproduced. The study is based on the full-folding approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential which allows a deep understanding of the interplay between on- and off-shell effects in nucleon scattering. Results and the promising extension offered by the inversion potentials beyond the range of validity of the low-energy internucleon forces will be discussed.
Elastic alpha scattering experiments and the alpha-nucleus optical potential at low energies
Mohr, P.; Kiss, G.G.; Fülöp, Zs.; Galaviz, D.; Gyürky, Gy.; Somorjai, E.
2013-11-15
High precision angular distribution data of (?,?) elastic scattering are presented for the nuclei {sup 89}Y, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 106,110,116}Cd, {sup 112,124}Sn, and {sup 144}Sm at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Such data with small experimental uncertainties over the full angular range (20–170°) are the indispensable prerequisite for the extraction of local optical potentials and for the determination of the total reaction cross section ?{sub reac}. A systematic fitting procedure was applied to the experimental scattering data presented to obtain comprehensive local potential parameter sets that are composed of a real folding potential and an imaginary potential of Woods–Saxon surface type. The potential parameters obtained were used in turn to construct a new systematic ?-nucleus potential with very few parameters. Although this new potential cannot reproduce the angular distributions with the same small deviations as the local potential, the new potential is able to predict the total reaction cross sections for all cases under study.
Potential. Solution of Poisson's Equation, Equations of Continuity and Elasticity
Alexander Ivanchin
2010-11-22
The modern theory of the potential does not give a solution of Poisson's equation. In the present work its solution has been found via generalized functions and a nonpotential solution of the continuity equation has been obtained. The method is demonstrated by the solution of elasticity equations using the example of a crack in the infinite specimen and a surface crack. Their elastic energies have been calculated. In has been shown that there is no critical condition for a crack in the infinite specimen and the crack always closes. Only the surface crack possesses the critical condition.
Quasi-elastic scattering and fusion with a modified Woods-Saxon potential
Ning Wang; Werner Scheid
2008-07-27
The elastic and large-angle quasi-elastic scattering reactions were studied with the same nucleus-nucleus potential proposed for describing fusion reactions. The elastic scattering angle distributions of some reactions are reasonably well reproduced by the proposed Woods-Saxon potential with fixed parameters at energies much higher than the Coulomb barrier. With an empirical barrier distribution based on the modified Woods-Saxon potential and taking into account the influence of nucleons transfer, the calculated quasi-elastic scattering cross sections of a series of reactions are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Elastic compression of nanoparticles with surface energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Yue; Niu, Xin-Rui; Wang, Gang-Feng
2015-12-01
The compression of elastic nanoparticles by two rigid planes is analyzed in the present paper. Through a finite element approach with the incorporation of surface energy, we calculate the elastic field of nanoparticles and obtain the explicit expressions for contact radius and indent depth with respect to the compressive load. It is found that when the contact radius is comparable with the ratio of surface energy density to elastic modulus, surface effect significantly affects the elastic field and the overall compressive response of nanoparticles. This study provides an effective tool to analyze the elastic deformation of nanoparticles, and is helpful to measure their elastic properties through compression.
Lagrangian formulism of elasticity with relevance to surface energy
Zaixing Huang
2012-11-05
By introducing the divergence of a vector potential into the Lagrangian, a Lagrangian framework is developed to incorporate surface energy into elasticity. Besides the Euler-Lagrange equation and natural boundary condition, a new boundary constitutive equation is derived from the variation of the Lagrangian and configuration on which the Lagrangian is defined. On the boundary surface, explicit expression of the vector potential with respect to field variable and surface curvature is determined. Based on this framework, an elastic model with relevance to the surface energy is established. The Young-Laplace's formula is generalized into elastic solid in a new form. Making use of this model, we investigate the surface energy effect in the radial vibration of spherical nanoparticle. Numerical calculation shows that natural frequencies of nanoparticle will shift down due to the surface energy. This shift is especially apparent in the vibration of soft matter nanoparticles.
Imaginary deuteron optical potential due to elastic and inelastic breakup
A. Ingemarsson; R. Shyam
1999-08-13
The contributions to the reaction cross section from the elastic and inelastic breakup processes, calculated within the post-form distorted wave Born-approximation theory, are used as constraints to determine the contributions to the imaginary part of the deuteron optical potentials (IPDOP) due to the breakup channels. The Coulomb part of this potential due to the elastic breakup process is seen to account for the long range absorption in the optical potential. The nuclear parts of the IPDOP due to the elastic and inelastic breakup modes peak in different regions of the nuclear surface, with the latter being almost an order of magnitude larger than the former. This makes the IPDOP due to the breakup channels determined by us stronger than those calculated earlier ignoring the inelastic breakup mode.
Gurpreet Kaur; B. R. Behera; A. Jhingan; P. Sugathan; K. Hagino
2015-09-18
We discuss the role of channel coupling in the surface properties of an inter-nuclear potential for heavy-ion reactions. To this end, we analyze the experimental quasi-elastic cross sections for the $^{12}$C + $^{105,106}$Pd and $^{13}$C + $^{105,106}$Pd systems using the coupled-channels approach by including the vibrational excitations in the target nuclei. While earlier studies have reported a negligible influence of vibrational excitation on the surface diffuseness parameter for spherical systems, we find a significant effect for the C+Pd systems. Our systematic study also reveals influence of transfer couplings on the surface diffuseness parameter.
Elastic epsilon/sup + -/-He scattering with the use of the model-potential method
Khan, P.; Datta, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Ghosh, A.S.
1984-06-01
A model-potential method has been used to evaluate the elastic e/sup + -/-He scattering at the low-incident energies. The potential contains one parameter to include the effect of short-range correlation. The results for the elastic e/sup + -/-He scattering have been obtained using the same parameter. Two model exchange potentials, one for s wave and the other for higher partial waves, have been employed. The present results are in good agreement with the measured values and refined theoretical predictions.
Siegel, Jon; Dehmer, Joseph L.; Dill, Dan
1980-01-01
Integrated and differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic e^{-}-N_{2} scattering from 0 to 1000 eV are calculated by means of the continuum multiple-scattering method (CMSM) with the Hara free-electron-gas and semiclassical exchange approximations. The present results represent a significant improvement over earlier CMSM calculations employing the Slater X?exchange approximation. The physical basis for this improvement is discussed. Resonance structures appear at 2.4, 13, and 26 eV in the ?_{g}, ?_{g}, and ?/sub u/ channels, respectively; however, the latter two are very weak and only the ?_{u} resonance has been observed in elastic scattering. Agreement between the present calculation and experiment is good over the entire energy range, although at fixed (equilibrium) internuclear distance, the ?_{g} resonance is too narrow and high. The agreement at the ?_{g}resonance is significantly improved by taking into account the effects of nuclear motion in the adiabatic nuclei approximation.
Double folding cluster potential for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C elastic scattering
Hassanain, M. A.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Farid, M. El-Azab
2008-03-15
Using the alpha ({alpha})-cluster structure of {sup 12}C nucleus, two versions of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C real double folded optical potentials have been generated based upon effective {alpha}-{alpha},{alpha}-nucleon (N) and N-N interactions. The obtained potentials, in conjunction with shallow phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary parts, successfully reproduce the elastic scattering differential cross section for 12 sets of data over the broad energy range 70-360 MeV. No renormalization of the real folded potentials is required to fit the data. The energy dependence of the extracted real and imaginary volume integrals and total reaction cross section is investigated.
Folding model study of the elastic $?+ ?$ scattering at low energies
Ngo Hai Tan; Nguyen Hoang Phuc; Dao T. Khoa
2014-03-13
The folding model analysis of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at the incident energies below the reaction threshold of 34.7 MeV (in the lab system) has been done using the well-tested density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction and realistic choices for the $^4$He density. Because the absorption is negligible at the energies below the reaction threshold, we were able to probe the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ optical potential at low energies quite unambiguously and found that the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ overlap density used to construct the density dependence of the M3Y interaction is strongly distorted by the Pauli blocking. This result gives possible explanation of a long-standing inconsistency of the double-folding model in its study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-nucleus scattering at low energies using the same realistic density dependent M3Y interaction.
Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles
Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob
2011-01-01
In recent experiments the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron. PMID:21797397
Energy of a Prismatic Dislocation Loop in an Elastic Cylinder
Cai, Wei
of a circular edge dislocation loop of radius r in an infinite isotropic elastic medium with shear modulus ÂµEnergy of a Prismatic Dislocation Loop in an Elastic Cylinder Wei Cai and Christopher R. Weinberger dislocation loop in an isotropic elastic cylinder is de- rived, resulting in semi-analytic expressions
Calculations of {sup 8}He+p elastic cross sections using a microscopic optical potential
Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.
2009-08-15
An approach to calculate microscopic optical potential with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation is applied to study the {sup 8}He+p elastic-scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/nucleon. The neutron and proton density distributions obtained in different models for {sup 8}He are used in the calculations of the differential cross sections. The role of the spin-orbit potential is studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic-scattering differential cross sections at beam energies of 15.7, 26.25, 32, 66, and 73 MeV/nucleon is performed. The problem of the ambiguities of the depths of each component of the optical potential is considered by means of the imposed physical criterion related to the known behavior of the volume integrals as functions of the incident energy. It is shown also that the role of the surface absorption is rather important, in particular for the lowest incident energies (e.g., 15.7 and 26.25 MeV/nucleon)
Allred, Clark L.; Yuan Xianglong; Hobbs, Linn W.; Bazant, Martin Z.
2004-10-01
The elastic constants of a wide range of models of defected crystalline and amorphous silicon are calculated, using the environment-dependent interatomic potential (EDIP). The defected crystalline simulation cells contain randomly generated defect distributions. An extensive characterization of point defects is performed, including structure, energy and influence on elastic constants. Three important conclusions are drawn. (1) Defects have independent effects on the elastic constants of silicon up to (at least) a defect concentration of 0.3%. (2) The linear effect of Frenkel pairs on the <110> Young's modulus of silicon is -1653 GPa per defect fraction. (3) 17 different point defect types cause a very similar decrease in the <110> Young's modulus: -(0.28{+-}0.05)% when calculated in isolation using a 1728-atom cell. These principles will be very useful for predicting the effect of radiation damage on the elastic modulus of silicon in the typical case in which point-defect concentrations can be estimated, but the exact distribution and species of defects is unknown. We also study amorphous samples generated in quenching the liquid with EDIP, including an ideal structure of perfect fourfold coordination, samples with threefold and fivefold coordinated defects, one with a nanovoid, and one with an amorphous inclusion in a crystalline matrix. In the last case, a useful finding is that the change in the Young's modulus is simply related to the volume fraction of amorphous material, as has also been observed by experiment.
A Microscopic Optical Potential Approach to {sup 6,8}He+p Elastic Scattering
Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.
2009-08-26
A microscopic approach to calculate the optical potential (OP) with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation (HEA) is applied to study the {sup 6,8}He+p elastic scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/N. The OP's and the cross sections are calculated using different models for the neutron and proton densities of {sup 6,8}He. The role of the spin-orbit (SO) potential and effects of the energy and density dependence of the effective NN forces are studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic scattering differential cross sections at beam energies <100 MeV/N is performed and conclusions on the role of the aforesaid effects are made. It is shown that the present approach, which uses only parameters that renormalize the depths of the OP, can be applied along with other methods like that from the microscopic g-matrix description of the complex proton optical potential.
Low-energy elastic differential scattering of He/++/ by He.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lam, S. K.; Doverspike, L. D.; Champion, R. L.
1973-01-01
Experimental results are developed for the relative elastic differential scattering of He(++) by He for collision energies in the range 4 equal to or less than E equal to or less than 75 eV. In the analysis of the data, semiclassical considerations are utilized, assuming that the dynamics of the scattering is governed solely by the B and E states of He2(++). It is shown that existing ab initio calculations for the intermolecular potentials predict differential cross sections which are not in particularly good agreement with the experimental data.
Power, Archie Dayton
1912-06-01
to connect the cell up directly with a sensitive galvanometer but thie could not be done since the cell gave too great a "stray" electro- motive force, that la, the two apparently similar rode, neither under strain, were at different potentials when... Immersed in the copper eulphatc. To neutralise thla "stray" electro-motive force, a counter electro-motive foroe wos placed in the circuit by the potentiometer method* The terminals of the oell and galvanometer circuit were soldered permanently...
Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.
1989-01-01
A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.
Susumu Kinpara
2015-03-25
Bethe-Salpeter equation is applied to nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering at the intermediate energy. The differential cross section and the polarization are calculated in terms of the phase shift analysis method using the two-body potential derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The lowest-order Born approximation for the K-matrix is corrected by including the inverse square part of the potential.
Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy
Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.
1981-01-01
Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.
Probing halo nucleus structure through intermediate energy elastic scattering
R. Crespo; R. C. Johnson
1999-06-30
This work addresses the question of precisely what features of few body models of halo nuclei are probed by elastic scattering on protons at high centre-of-mass energies. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of $^{11}$Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering crosssections can not, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead.
LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY
Minnesota, University of
LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY Lab III - 1 In previous problems, you have been introduced to the concepts of kinetic energy, which is associated with the motion of an object, and internal energy, which is associated with the internal structure of a system. In this section, you work with another form of energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Jia, H. M.; Zhang, S. T.; Ruan, M.; Yang, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Xu, X. X.; Bai, C. L.
2010-07-01
The elastic scattering angular distributions of the weakly bound 9Be projectile from 208Pb and 209Bi have been measured for 14 beam energies near the threshold from 37 to 50 MeV. The parameters of the optical potential are extracted by means of phenomenological optical model analysis with PTOLEMY. Both of the systems show unusual potential behavior in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier that the strength of the imaginary (absorptive) part of the potential is increasing (rather than decreasing) with decreasing energy, which is quite different from the results of some previous reports. This unusual threshold phenomenon indicates that the breakup channel is strongly coupled with the elastic channel and has obvious effects on the optical potential. The analyses also show that high precision elastic scattering angular distributions, especially those below the Coulomb barrier, are very important for extracting correct threshold behavior of the optical potential.
Investigation of 17F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Azab Farid, M.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S.
2015-10-01
The 17F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus 17F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated.
Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby
2015-09-01
The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.
Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.
1992-01-01
The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Y. G.; Gao, Y. J.; Tan, D.; Fan, S. B.; Lai, Z. H.
2015-02-01
To overcome the defect of conventional nonlinear piezoelectric cantilever vibration energy harvesters, in this paper we conceive an elastic-support model to study the performance of energy converters under two types of variable-intensity excitation conditions: filtered Gaussian noises and pink noises. When excitation intensity is insufficient, thanks to the system's variable potential function, frequent bistable transition oscillations between two wells occur in elastic-support systems, while only weak oscillations in either well could be observed in rigid-support systems. In practical applications, the structural parameters of energy harvesters are not allowed to make real-time changes. If considered remaining the magnet interval and the spring's elastic stiffness unchanged while receiving stable maximum output voltage, elastic-support systems can be made full use toward variable-intensity filtered Gaussian noises. It has been proven that elastic-support systems are capable of adapting to random excitations with variable intensity, through which maximum power output and sufficient electromechanical energy conversion of the system can be accomplished.
Do we understand elastic scattering up to LHC energies?
Soffer, Jacques
2013-04-15
The measurements of high energy (bar sign)pp and pp elastic at ISR, SPS, and Tevatron colliders have provided usefull informations on the behavior of the scattering amplitude. A large step in energy domain is accomplished with the LHC collider presently running, giving a unique opportunity to improve our knowledge on the asymptotic regime of the elastic scattering amplitude and to verify the validity of our theoretical approach, to describe the total cross section {sigma}{sub tot}(s), the total elastic cross section {sigma}{sub el}(s), the ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the forward amplitude {rho}(s) and the differential cross section d{sigma} (s,t)/dt.
Continuum limits of atomistic energies allowing smooth and sharp interfaces in 1D Elasticity
Carlos Mora-Corral
2008-08-15
In this paper we present two atomistic models for the energy of a one-dimensional elastic crystal. We assume that the macroscopic displacement equals the microscopic one. The energy of the first model is given by a two-body interaction potential, and we assume that the atoms follow a continuous and piecewise smooth macroscopic (continuum) deformation. We calculate the first terms of the Taylor expansion (with respect to the parameter representing the interatomic distance) of the atomistic energy, and obtain that the coefficients of that Taylor expansion represent, respectively, an elastic energy, a sharp-interface energy, and a smooth-interface energy. The second atomistic model is a variant of the first one, and its Taylor expansion predicts, in addition, a new term that accounts for the repulsion force between two sharp interfaces.
Intermediate energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. W.
1973-01-01
A fully symmetrized multiple scattering series is considered for the description of proton-deuteron elastic scattering. An off-shell continuation of the experimentally known twobody amplitudes that retains the exchange symmeteries required for the calculation is presented. The one boson exchange terms of the two body amplitudes are evaluated exactly in this off-shell prescription. The first two terms of the multiple scattering series are calculated explicitly whereas multiple scattering effects are obtained as minimum variance estimates from the 146-MeV data of Postma and Wilson. The multiple scattering corrections indeed consist of low order partial waves as suggested by Sloan based on model studies with separable interactions. The Hamada-Johnston wave function is shown consistent with the data for internucleon distances greater than about 0.84 fm.
An elastic potential for the nonlinear response of unidirectional graphite composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pindera, M.-J.; Herakovich, C. T.
1984-01-01
An elastic potential is proposed that is capable of modeling the reversible portion of the observed nonlinear response of unidirectional graphite fiber composites. The model includes both the stiffening stress-strain behavior as well as the softening Poisson's response for loading in the fiber direction. The model is compared with experimental results for Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite-polyimide.
Transient accumulation of elastic energy in proton translocating ATP synthase
Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen
Hypothesis Transient accumulation of elastic energy in proton translocating ATP synthase Dmitry A 12 March 1999 Abstract ATP synthase is conceived as a rotatory engine with two reversible drives that the hydrolysis of three molecules of ATP in FI drives the shaft over a full circle in three steps of 120³ each
Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boler, Frances M.
1990-01-01
The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.
Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies
Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.
2010-05-15
The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e{sup +}-Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126{+-}42 meV, with a scattering length of A{sub scat}=(14.2{+-}2.1)a{sub 0}, while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z{sub eff}, was 93.9{+-}26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z{sub eff} of 91{+-}17 at a collision energy of about 490{+-}50 meV.
Mukherjee, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Newton, J. O.; Butt, R. D.; Hagino, K.
2007-04-15
A precise fusion excitation function has been measured for the {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb reaction at energies around the barrier, allowing the fusion barrier distribution to be extracted. The fusion cross sections at high energies differ significantly from existing fusion data. Coupled reaction channels calculations have been carried out with the code FRESCO. A bare potential previously claimed to uniquely describe a wide range of {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb near-barrier reaction channels failed to reproduce the new fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness of 0.95 fm which fits the fusion excitation function over a broad energy range fails to reproduce the elastic scattering. A diffuseness of 0.55 fm reproduces the fusion barrier distribution and elastic scattering data, but significantly overpredicts the fusion cross sections at high energies. This may be due to physical processes not included in the calculations. To constrain calculations, it is desirable to have precisely measured fusion cross sections, especially at energies around the barrier.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Hagino, K.; Newton, J. O.; Butt, R. D.
2007-04-01
A precise fusion excitation function has been measured for the C12+Pb208 reaction at energies around the barrier, allowing the fusion barrier distribution to be extracted. The fusion cross sections at high energies differ significantly from existing fusion data. Coupled reaction channels calculations have been carried out with the code FRESCO. A bare potential previously claimed to uniquely describe a wide range of C12+Pb208 near-barrier reaction channels failed to reproduce the new fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness of 0.95 fm which fits the fusion excitation function over a broad energy range fails to reproduce the elastic scattering. A diffuseness of 0.55 fm reproduces the fusion barrier distribution and elastic scattering data, but significantly overpredicts the fusion cross sections at high energies. This may be due to physical processes not included in the calculations. To constrain calculations, it is desirable to have precisely measured fusion cross sections, especially at energies around the barrier.
Elastic diffractive scattering of nucleons at ultra-high energies
A. A. Godizov
2015-04-08
A simple Regge-eikonal model with the eikonal represented as a single-reggeon-exchange term is applied to description of the nucleon-nucleon elastic diffractive scattering at ultra-high energies. The range of validity of the proposed approximation is discussed. The model predictions for the proton-proton cross-sections at the collision energy 14 TeV are given.
Breakup and Elastic Scattering in the {sup 9}Be + {sup 144}Sm system at near barrier energies
Paes, B.; Garcia, V. N.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Padron, I.
2010-05-21
Breakup and elastic scattering in the Be + {sup 144}Sm system, at near barrier energies, are investigated. We calculate theoretically the non-capture breakup cross section by performing coupled reaction channel calculations. The energy dependence of the optical potential does not show the usual threshold anomaly found in tightly bound systems.
Phenomenological optical potential analysis of proton-carbon elastic scattering at 200 MeV
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.
1982-01-01
Differential cross sections for 200 MeV protons elastically scattered from C-12 were analyzed utilizing a local, complex, spin-dependent optical potential with a harmonic well radial dependence. Analyses were performed using the WKB and eikonal approximations. For the latter, first-order corrections to he phase shifts were incorporated to account for the spin-orbit contribution. Large disagreement between theory and experiment was observed when the usual Thomas form for the spin-orbit potential was utilized. Substantial improvement was obtained by allowing the parameters in the central and spin-orbit potential terms to vary independently.
Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.
2006-01-01
The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhen, Yubao; Chu, Chengbiao
2012-02-01
A universal, fast deformation-fluctuation hybrid approach with the merits of both the direct and fluctuation methods for evaluation of elastic constants is proposed. Deformation is shown to provide an inherent connection between the latter two methods. Based on this finding, the hybrid method utilizes group perturbation of atoms by means of six homogeneous deformations for fast evaluation of the Born term in the stress fluctuation method. The hybrid method is tested with three typical and widely used many-body potentials, i.e., for crystalline silicon with a Stillinger-Weber potential, for crystalline copper with second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method and for diamond with a second-generation reactive empirical bond order potential. The calculated elastic constants agree well with either the theoretical or experimental results for all three cases. The hybrid method is especially valuable for complicated many-body potentials for which the analytical second derivative of the energy is challenging or impractical to obtain.
Peng Zhou
2015-12-17
In a natural system, coupling effects among different physical fields substantially reflect the conversion of energy from one form to another. According to the law of conservation of energy (LCE), the loss of energy in one field must equal to the gain of energy in another field. In this paper, this LCE is applied to analyze the reversible processes coupled between elastic and electromagnetic fields. Here, it is called the energy formulation. For simple physical processes such as mechanical movement, diffusion and electrodynamic process, it is shown their governing or constitutive equations all satisfy the LCE. Then, analysis is extended to coupling effects. First, it is found for the linear direct and converse piezoelectric and piezomagnetic effects, their constitutive equations guarantee energy is conserved during the conversion of energies. Second, analyses found for the generalized Villari effects, the electromagnetic energy can be treated as an extra term in the generalized elastic energy. Third, for electrostriction and magnetostriction. It is argued both effects are induced by the Maxwell stress. Their energy is purely electromagnetic, thus both have no converse effects. During these processes, energy can be converted in three ways, i.e., via nonpotential forces, cross dependence of energy terms and directly via the interaction of ions and electrons. In the end, general coupling processes which involve elastic, electromagnetic fields and diffusion are also analyzed. The energy formulation, when combined with the phase-field variational approach, has the potential of being developed into a general approach to analyze coupling effects between reversible and irreversible processes. The advantage of the energy formulation is that it facilitates the discussion of the conversion of energies and provides more physical insights into their mechanisms.
The 106Cd(?, ?)106Cd elastic scattering in a wide energy range for ? process studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ornelas, A.; Kiss, G. G.; Mohr, P.; Galaviz, D.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Máté, Z.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.; Sonnabend, K.; Zilges, A.
2015-08-01
Alpha elastic scattering angular distributions of the 106Cd(?, ?)106Cd reaction were measured at three energies around the Coulomb barrier to provide a sensitive test for the ? + nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Furthermore, the new high precision angular distributions, together with the data available from the literature were used to study the energy dependence of the locally optimized ? + nucleus optical potential in a wide energy region ranging from ELab = 27.0 MeV down to 16.1 MeV. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of ?-induced reaction cross sections and thus, for the calculation of stellar reaction rates used for the astrophysical ? process. Therefore, statistical model predictions using as input the optical potentials discussed in the present work are compared to the available 106Cd + alpha cross section data.
Peng Zhou
2015-11-29
In this paper, the law of conservation of energy is applied to analyze reversible and coupling processes between elastic and electromagnetic fields. This approach is here called the energy formulation. For simple physical processes such as mechanical movement, diffusion and electrodynamic process, it is shown their governing equations all satisfy the law of conservation of energy. Then, analysis is extended to coupling effects. First, it is found the constitutive equations of the linear direct and converse piezoelectric and piezomagnetic effects guarantee that energy is conserved during the conversion of energies. Second, analyses found that for the generalized Villari effects, the electromagnetic energy can be treated as an extra term in the generalized elastic energy. Third, both the laws of conservation of momentum and energy are used to analyze electrostriction and magnetostriction. It is argued that both of these strictive effects are induced by the Maxwell stress. In addition, their energy is purely electromagnetic, thus there are no converse effects for both of them. It is shown during these processes, energy can be converted in three different ways, i.e., via nonpotential forces, cross dependence of energy terms and directly via the interaction of ions and electrons. In the end, general coupling processes in electronic devices which involve elastic, electromagnetic fields and diffusion are also analyzed. The energy formulation, when combined with the phase-field variational approach, has the potential of being developed into a general approach to analyze coupling effects between reversible and irreversible processes. Compared with the traditional Lagrangian formulation, the energy formulation facilitates the discussion of the conversion of energies during these effects and provides more physical insights into their mechanisms.
Deuteron-Proton Elastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies
N. B. Ladygina
2007-05-22
The deuteron-proton elastic scattering has been studied in the multiple scattering expansion formalism. The essential attention has been given to such relativistic problem as a deuteron wave function in a moving frame and transformation of spin states due to Wigner rotation. Parameterization of the nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix has been used to take the off-energy shell effects into account. The vector, $A_y,$ and tensor, $A_{yy}$, analyzing powers of the deuteron have been calculated at two deuteron kinetic energies: 395 MeV and 1200 MeV. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data.
Physics 321 Energy Conservation Potential Energy in
Hart, Gus
Physics 321 Hour 7 Energy Conservation Potential Energy in One Dimension Bottom Line · Energy is conserved. · Kinetic energy is a definite concept. · If we can determine the kinetic energy at all points in space by knowing it at one point in space, we can invent a potential energy so that energy can
An aero-elastic flutter based electromagnetic energy harvester with wind speed augmenting funnel
Stanford University
An aero-elastic flutter based electromagnetic energy harvester with wind speed augmenting funnel augmenting funnel incorporated with an aero-elastic-flutter based, energy harvester. Flutter phenomenon has for an energy harvester to extract energy. To overcome this limitation, we use wind-induced flutter vibration
Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping
Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary
2014-01-01
Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. PMID:25030045
Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.
Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary
2014-07-01
Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. PMID:25030045
Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by BF3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastega, Diego F.; da Costa, Romarly F.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.
2014-02-01
We present integral, differential and momentum transfer cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by boron trifluoride molecules. The cross sections were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials. The calculations were performed in the static-exchange and in the static-exchange-polarization approximations for energies from 0.1 to 10 eV. Our results indicate that BF3 has a shape resonance in the B 2 symmetry located at around 3.5 eV, in agreement with the experimental measurements of 3.8 eV, 3.54 eV and of 3.6 eV reported by [M. Tronc et al., J. Phys. B 15, L253 (1982)], by [J.A. Tossell et al., Int. J. Quantum Chem. 29, 1117 (1986)] and by [C. Szmytkowski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1790 (2004)] respectively. We also report a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum at around 0.7 eV, in conformity with the observations of [S.R. Hunter et al., J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1858 (1989); Z. Nikitovi? et al., Acta Phys. Polon. A 117, 748 (2010)], and [P.X. Hien et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 82, 034301 (2013)]. Our elastic integral cross section is compared with calculated elastic cross sections of [J.A. Tossell et al., Int. J. Quantum Chem. 29, 1117 (1986)] and of [M. Radmilovi?-Radjenovi? et al., Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade 84, 57 (2008)] and with the experimental total cross section data of [C. Szmytkowski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1790 (2004)]. Although all these studies reported the presence of the shape resonance, there are some discrepancies in the magnitude and shape among the cross sections.
Florida's renewable energy potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Developments in the commercialization of biomass, solar energy conversion, and other renewable energy sources are considered. The role and performance of the Southern Solar Energy Center are reviewed, and solar energy conversion projects surveyed. The production of fuel alcohol from biomass is discussed. The use of forest biomass and tree farming for biomass is considered for cogeneration and for thermal energy production. Sources of waste biomass are identified.
Alaska's renewable energy potential.
Not Available
2009-02-01
This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.
Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua
2015-01-01
Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shervais, J. W.
2013-12-01
The western Snake River Plain is a region of high crustal heat flow and has the potential for commercial geothermal energy development. High-temperature crystalline reservoirs commonly have connected fracture networks and other discontinuities that provide the primary fluid storage and permeability (Type I fractures). A borehole was drilled during the DOE/ICDP Snake River Scientific Drilling Program near Mountain Home, Idaho to a depth of ~1,800 m (6,000 ft) with 85 - 90% slimhole core recovery to assess the potential for geothermal energy development. A high-temperature artesian flow zone was encountered in basalt at a depth of 1,745 m (5,726 ft) in the MH-2 borehole with fluid temperatures above 140°C (240°F). Analysis of geomechanical behavior of rocks requires an understanding of basic physical and elastic properties under dynamic in-situ stress conditions. Here we conduct unconfined uniaxial compressive stress experiments on core samples to measure static elastic properties and compressive strength over a ~305 m (1,000 ft) interval of the borehole above and including the geothermal reservoir. Acoustic velocities are measured under pressure and temperature scenarios to calculate dynamic elastic properties and describe the anisotropy of elastic moduli and compressive strength. Dynamic elastic properties are calculated from dipole sonic borehole log data and compare the results to the previous dynamic and static interpretations. The comparison demonstrates that the calculation of dynamic elastic properties from borehole data is an effective method to interpret and describe mechanical stratigraphy and elastic properties in the case that core is not available for analysis in this area. Natural fractures, induced fractures, and breakouts are mapped in acoustic televiewer data. Fracture density is calculated and compared to lithological and mechanical stratigraphy, defined by the physical properties, elastic properties, and strength measurements. The stratigraphic relationships indicate that a ~15 m (50 ft) section of weak, non-brittle, low-permeability, highly altered basalt may act as a caprock to the geothermal reservoir at depth. Lithological descriptions of core show that the basalt in MH-2 has been altered and reworked in many cases. The alternating zones of ductile rocks and brittle basalts affect fracture density and can control fracture permeability. The induced fracture and breakout data are used to identify the direction of each of the two horizontal principal stresses. Interpretation of breakout data and induced fracture data indicate that the maximum horizontal principal stress (Shmax) is oriented 50° + 15°. This direction is antithetical to the expected Shmax direction based on the orientation of the normal fault-bounded basin that is oriented approximately 320°.
Anchoring energy and orientational elasticity of a ferroelectric liquid crystal
Kaznacheev, A. V.; Pozhidaev, E. P.
2012-06-15
The dielectric susceptibility of a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal layer has been experimentally and theoretically studied as a function of the layer thickness. The investigation has been performed on the inner branch of the polarization hysteresis loop, in the region of a linear dependence of the polarization on the electric field. The experimental results are explained using the notion of effective layer thickness, which involves the characteristic distance {xi} over which the orienting effect of interfaces is operative. Comparison of the experimental data and theoretical results made it possible to estimate this distance as {xi} = 41 {mu}m and evaluate the anchoring energy (W = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} J/m{sup 2}) and the intralayer elastic constant (K Double-Prime Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} N).
Nucleation rate of critical droplets on an elastic string in a {phi}{sup 6} potential
Kerr, W.C.; Graham, A.J.
2004-12-01
We obtain the nucleation rate of critical droplets for an elastic string moving in a {phi}{sup 6} local potential and subject to noise and damping forces. The critical droplet is a bound soliton-antisoliton pair that carries a section of the string out of the metastable central minimum into one of the stable side minima. The frequencies of small oscillations about the critical droplet are obtained from a Heun equation. We solve the Fokker-Planck equation for the phase-space probability density by projecting it onto the eigenfunction basis obtained from the Heun equation. We employ Farkas' 'flux-overpopulation' method to obtain boundary conditions for solving the Fokker-Planck equation; these restrict the validity of our solution to the moderate to heavy damping regime. We present results for the rate as a function of temperature, well depth, and damping.
Cross-linking cellulose nanofibrils for potential elastic cryo-structured gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syverud, Kristin; Kirsebom, Harald; Hajizadeh, Solmaz; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
2011-12-01
Cellulose nanofibrils were produced from P. radiata kraft pulp fibers. The nanofibrillation was facilitated by applying 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation as pretreatment. The oxidized nanofibrils were cross-linked with polyethyleneimine and poly N-isopropylacrylamide- co-allylamine- co-methylenebisacrylamide particles and were frozen to form cryo-structured gels. Samples of the gels were critical-point dried, and the corresponding structures were assessed with scanning electron microscopy. It appears that the aldehyde groups in the oxidized nanofibrils are suitable reaction sites for cross-linking. The cryo-structured materials were spongy, elastic, and thus capable of regaining their shape after a given pressure was released, indicating a successful cross-linking. These novel types of gels are considered potential candidates in biomedical and biotechnological applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Ellithi, A. Y.; Abdul-Magead, I. A. M.
2015-05-01
The pion-nucleus microscopic optical potential (OP), defined by the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude and by the generalized density distribution of a target nucleus that incudes internal degrees of freedom, is applied to construct the pion-nucleus differential cross-sections of elastic and inelastic scattering on the nuclei 28Si, 58Ni, 208Pb at Tlab = 291 MeV. Calculations are based on the relativistic wave equation and thus relativistic effects and distortions on the relative motion wave functions are taken into account. The respective experimental data are analyzed and the in-medium parameters of the elementary ?N-amplitude are established and compared with those from the pion scattering on free nucleons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.
1975-01-01
The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.
Potential For Energy Conservation
Kumar, A.
1981-01-01
The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...
Energy based method for measuring fracture energy and elastic properties of snow in field tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bair, E. H.; van Herwijnen, A.; Reuter, B.; Birkeland, K.; Heierli, J.
2012-12-01
Reliable measurements of the mechanical properties of snow are essential to predict fracture behavior and to anticipate slab avalanches. In brittle fracture mechanics, the fracture energy and elastic modulus are fundamental parameters. Until now, these parameters were difficult to accurately measure in the field. We present a simple technique to measure these parameters in field experiments, independently and with improved accuracy. This technique is based on principles of anticracking and involves measuring displacement caused by sawing into the failure layer until fracture begins. Results are consistent with linear elastic deformation. Viscoelastic effects were negligible for the timescales involved. The fracture energies of 59 field experiments ranged from 0.04 to 1.20 J m-2 with a mean of 0.40 J m-2 and showed a dependence on grain type. Elastic moduli ranged from 0.06 to 17.00 MPa with a mean of 2.40 MPa.
Abriola, D.; Sonzogni, A.A.; di Tada, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Etchegoyen, M.C.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Gil, S.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Pacheco, A.J.; Piegaia, R.; Testoni, J.E. )
1992-07-01
Fusion cross sections have been measured for {sup 12}C+{sup 144}Sm at bombarding energies in the range 46.5{le}{ital E}{sub lab}{le}75 MeV by off-line observations of x rays and gamma rays emitted in the decay of the evaporation residues and their daughters. Elastic scattering angular distributions for the same system have also been measured in the range 49{le}{ital E}{sub lab}{le}63 MeV. These data were used to obtain the parameters of an optical-model potential. It was found that a simultaneous description of both elastic scattering and fusion leads to an energy-dependent potential, with its real and imaginary parts connected by a dispersion relation.
Low energy elastic electron scattering from CF{sub 3}Br molecules
Hargreaves, L. R.; Brunton, J. R.; Maddern, T. M.; Brunger, M. J.
2015-03-28
CF{sub 3}Br is a potentially valuable precursor molecule for generating beams of gas phase Br radicals suitable for electron collisions studies. However, the utility of CF{sub 3}Br for this purpose depends critically on the availability of sound scattering cross sections to allow the contribution of the precursor to be isolated within the total scattering signal. To this end, here we present elastic differential cross section (DCS) measurements for CF{sub 3}Br at incident energies between 15 and 50?eV. Comparison of these DCSs to those from the only other available experimental study [Sunohara et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1843 (2003)] and a Schwinger multichannel with pseudo potentials (SMCPPs) calculation [Bettega et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1263 (2003)] shows generally a very good accord. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections, derived from our DCSs, are also found to be in quite good agreement with the SMCPP results.
Universal Theorems for Total Energy of the Dynamics of Linearly Elastic Heterogeneous Solids
Ankit Srivastava; Sia Nemat-Nasser
2011-06-21
In this paper we consider a sample of a linearly elastic heterogeneous composite in elastodynamic equilibrium and present universal theorems which provide lower bounds for the total elastic strain energy plus the kinetic energy, and the total complementary elastic energy plus the kinetic energy. For a general heterogeneous sample which undergoes harmonic motion at a single frequency, we show that, among all consistent boundary data which produce the same average strain, the uniform-stress boundary data render the total elastic strain energy plus the kinetic energy an absolute minimum. We also show that, among all consistent boundary data which produce the same average momentum in the sample, the uniform velocity boundary data render the total complementary elastic energy plus the kinetic energy an absolute minimum. We do not assume statistical homogeneity or material isotropy in our treatment, although they are not excluded. These universal theorems are the dynamic equivalent of the universal theorems already known for the static case (Nemat-Nasser and Hori 1995). It is envisaged that the bounds on the total energy presented in this paper will be used to formulate computable bounds on the overall dynamic properties of linearly elastic heterogeneous composites with arbitrary microstructures.
Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.; Morsad, A.; Satchler, G. R.; Brandan, M. E.
2000-03-01
Detailed measurements of the elastic scattering of {sup 16}O ions from {sup 12}C have been carried out at seven energies from 62 to 124 MeV, at center-of-mass angles from about 10 degree sign to about 145 degree sign . A coherent optical model analysis of these data has been performed using both the Woods-Saxon and the folding-model potentials. The extracted results are consistent with analyses of data at higher energies for this and similar light heavy-ion systems. Some model-independent spline forms for the real potentials were also investigated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Bauchy, M
2014-07-14
We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO2)0.60(Al2O3)0.10(CaO)0.30 by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems. PMID:25028027
Bauchy, M.
2014-07-14
We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO{sub 2}){sub 0.60}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.10}(CaO){sub 0.30} by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems.
Optical Potential Approach to $K^{+}d$ Scattering at Low Energies
Takashi Takaki
2009-12-15
We study the $K^{+}d$ scattering at low energies using the optical potential. Our optical potential consists of the first-order and second-order terms. The total, integrated elastic and elastic differential cross sections at incident kaon momenta below 800 MeV/c are calculated using our optical potential. We found that our results are consistent with the Faddeev calculation as well as the data and especially the second-order optical potential is essential to reproduce them at low energies. We also discuss the multiple scattering effects in this process.
William A. Horowitz
2007-02-27
We present the LHC predictions for the WHDG model of radiative, elastic, and path length fluctuating energy loss. We find the pT dependence of RAA is qualitatively very different from AWS-based energy loss extrapolations to the LHC; the large pT reach of the year one data at the LHC should suffice to distinguish between the two. We also discuss the importance of requiring a first elastic scatter before any medium-induced elastic or radiative loss occurs, a necessary physical effect not considered in any previous models.
Elastic and inelastic breakup of deuterons with energy below 100 MeV
B. V. Carlson; R. Capote; M. Sin
2015-08-06
We present calculations of deuteron elastic and inelastic breakup cross sections and angular distributions at deuteron energies below 100 MeV obtained using the post-form DWBA approximation. The elastic breakup cross section was extensively studied in the past. Very few calculations of inelastic breakup have been performed, however. We also analyze the angular momentum - energy distributions of the cross section for formation of the compound nucleus after inelastic breakup.
Elastic energy loss with respect to the reaction plane in a Monte Carlo model
Auvinen, Jussi; Eskola, Kari J.; Holopainen, Hannu; Renk, Thorsten
2010-11-15
We present a computation of {pi}{sup 0} nuclear modification factor with respect to the reaction plane in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV, based on a Monte Carlo model of elastic energy loss of hard partons traversing the bulk hydrodynamical medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find the incoherent nature of elastic energy loss incompatible with the measured data.
Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Lieberman, Daniel E
2015-08-01
This study examines whether the human iliotibial band (ITB) is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimpanzee fascia lata (FL). To quantify the energy storage potential of these structures, we created computer models of human and chimpanzee lower limbs based on detailed anatomical dissections. We characterized the geometry and force-length properties of the FL, tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus maximus (GMax) in four chimpanzee cadavers based on measurements of muscle architecture and moment arms about the hip and knee. We used the chimp model to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the chimp FL during bipedal walking, and compared these data with analogous estimates from a model of the human ITB, accounting for differences in body mass and lower extremity posture. We estimate that the human ITB stores 15- to 20-times more elastic energy per unit body mass and stride than the chimp FL during bipedal walking. Because chimps walk with persistent hip flexion, the TFL and portions of GMax that insert on the FL undergo smaller excursions (origin to insertion) than muscles that insert on the human ITB. Also, because a smaller fraction of GMax inserts on the chimp FL than on the human ITB, and thus its mass-normalized physiological cross-sectional area is about three times less in chimps, the chimp FL probably transmits smaller muscle forces. These data provide new evidence that the human ITB is anatomically derived compared with the chimp FL and potentially contributes to locomotor economy during bipedal locomotion. PMID:26026035
The 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd elastic scattering in a wide energy range for gamma-process studies
A. Ornelas; G. G. Kiss; P. Mohr; D. Galaviz; Zs. Fülöp; Gy. Gyürky; Z. Máté; T. Rauscher; E. Somorjai; K. Sonnabend; A. Zilges
2015-04-29
Alpha elastic scattering angular distributions of the 106Cd(alpha,alpha)106Cd reaction were measured at three energies around the Coulomb barrier to provide a sensitive test for the alpha + nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Furthermore, the new high precision angular distributions, together with the data available from the literature were used to study the energy dependence of the locally optimized {\\alpha}+nucleus optical potential in a wide energy region ranging from E_Lab = 27.0 MeV down to 16.1 MeV. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of alpha-induced reaction cross sections and thus, for the calculation of stellar reaction rates used for the astrophysical gamma process. Therefore, statistical model predictions using as input the optical potentials discussed in the present work are compared to the available 106Cd + alpha cross section data.
Kiss, G. G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.; Galaviz, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Zilges, A.; Mohr, P.; Goerres, J.; Wiescher, M.; Oezkan, N.; Gueray, T.; Yalcin, C.; Avrigeanu, M.
2008-05-21
To improve the reliability of statistical model calculations in the region of heavy proton rich isotopes alpha elastic scattering experiments have been performed at ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary. The experiments were carried out at several energies above and below the Coulomb barrier with high precision. The measured angular distributions can be used for testing the predictions of the global and regional optical potential parameter sets. Moreover, we derived the variation of the elastic alpha scattering cross section along the Z = 50 ({sup 112}Sn-{sup 124}Sn) isotopic and N = 50 ({sup 89}Y-{sup 92}Mo) isotonic chains. In this paper we summarize the efforts to provide high precision experimental angular distributions for several A{approx_equal}100 nuclei to test the global optical potential parameterizations applied to p-process network calculations.
Adaptive Energy Saving Scheme for Downlink Elastic Traffic in Wireless Networks
Bahk, Saewoong
Adaptive Energy Saving Scheme for Downlink Elastic Traffic in Wireless Networks Jongwook Lee, we propose several adaptive energy saving schemes that consider throughput and energy saving simultaneously. The proposed schemes are designed for an efficient tradeoff between throughput and energy saving
Examining the Potential of Renewable Energy
Not Available
2006-09-01
This outreach document goes to potential partners for NREL's Renewable Energy Potential Initiative, which will explore the long-term potential of Renewable Energy to meet a substantial share of U.S. energy needs.
Pole structure from energy-dependent and single-energy fits to $?N$ elastic scattering data
Alfred Švarc; Mirza Hadžimehmedovi?; Hedim Osmanovi?; Jugoslav Stahov; Ron L. Workman
2015-01-28
The pole structure of the current GW/SAID partial-wave analysis of elastic $\\pi N$ scattering and $\\eta N$ production data is studied. Pole positions and residues are extracted from both the energy-dependent and single-energy fits, using two different methods. For the energy-dependent fits, both contour integration and a Laurent+Pietarinen approach are used. In the case of single-energy fits, the Laurent+Pietarinen approach is used. Errors are estimated and the two sets of results are compared to other recent and older fits to data.
Boyer, J.; Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.
1994-04-01
The spectral distribution of the diffuse reflectance of five sizes of polystyrene microspheres has been measured with an elastic scatter spectrometer designed for optical biopsy of living tissue. The microsphere sizes are representative of the suspected scattering centers in living tissue. The experiment data are discussed and interpreted in the framework of Mie scattering theory and Monte-Carlo transport analysis. Present results support the assertion that Mie theory is necessary to describe the spectral features of elastic scatter spectroscopy in tissue.
Zhou, Songsheng
2012-02-14
; Greenwood and Johnson, 1981; Pashley, 1984) and the controversy was finally resolved by Maugis? (1992) transition model (called the M-D model) based on the Dugdale cohesive zone model and the Griffith energy criterion in fracture mechanics. The Maugis... al., 1980; Johnson and Greenwood, 1997; Yao et al., 2007; Barthel, 2008; Zhou et al., 2011). These three monumental models ? JKR, DMT and M-D ? have been receiving growing attention due to the need of knowledge in micro-/nano-contact. The M...
Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.
1993-01-01
The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.
Rotational elasticity and couplings to linear elasticity
Christian G. Boehmer; Nicola Tamanini
2013-10-14
It is the aim of the paper to present a new point of view on rotational elasticity in a nonlinear setting using orthogonal matrices. The proposed model, in the linear approximation, can be compared to the well known equilibrium equations of static linear elasticity. An appropriate kinetic energy is identified and we present a dynamical model of rotational elasticity. The propagation of elastic waves in such a medium is studied and we find two classes of waves, transversal rotational waves and longitudinal rotational waves, both of which are solutions of the nonlinear partial differential equations. For certain parameter choices, the transversal wave velocity can be greater than the longitudinal wave velocity. Moreover, parameter ranges are identified where the model describes an auxetic material. However, in all cases the potential energy functional is positive definite. Finally, we couple the rotational waves to linear elastic waves to study the behaviour of the coupled system. We find wave like solutions to the coupled equations and can visualise our results with the help of suitable figures.
Assessment of Triton Potential Energy
J. L. Friar; G. L. Payne
1996-01-26
An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.
Shell theories arising as low energy \\Gamma-limit of 3d nonlinear elasticity
Lewicka, Marta; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza
2008-01-01
We discuss the limiting behavior (using the notion of \\Gamma-limit) of the 3d nonlinear elasticity for thin shells around an arbitrary smooth 2d surface. In particular, under the assumption that the elastic energy of deformations scales like h^4 (where h is the thickness of a shell), we derive a limiting theory which is a generalization of the von K\\'arm\\'an theory for plates.
Davoli, Elisa
2010-01-01
The subject of this paper is the study of the asymptotic behaviour of the equilibrium configurations of a nonlinearly elastic thin rod, as the diameter of the cross-section tends to zero. Convergence results are established assuming physical growth conditions for the elastic energy density and suitable scalings of the applied loads, that correspond at the limit to different rod models: the constrained linear theory, the analogous of von K\\'arm\\'an plate theory for rods, and the linear theory.
Price Elasticities for Energy Use in Buildings of the United States
2014-01-01
Energy demand tends to be responsive to changes in energy prices, a concept in economics known as price elasticity. Generally, an increase in a fuel price causes users to use less of that fuel or switch to a different fuel. The extent to which each of these changes takes place is of high importance to stakeholders in the energy sector and especially in energy planning. The purpose of this analysis is to determine fuel-price elasticities in stationary structures, particularly in the residential and commercial sectors.
The curvature elastic-energy function of the lipid-water cubic mesophase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hesson; Caffrey, Martin
1994-03-01
CELL and lipid membranes are able to bend, as manifested during membrane fusion and the formation of non-lamellar lyotropic mesopbases in water. But there is an energy cost to bending of lipid layers, called the curvature elastic energy. Although the functional form of this energy is known1, a complete quantitative knowledge of the curvature elastic energy, which is central to predicting the relative stability of the large number of phases that lipid membranes can adopt, has been lacking. Here we use X-ray synchrotron diffraction measurements of the variation of lattice parameter with pressure and temperature for the periodic Ia3d (Q230) cubic phase of hydrated monoolein to calculate the complete curvature elastic-energy function for the lipid cubic mesophase. This allows us to predict the stabilities of different cubic and lamellar phases for this system as a function of composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
T?kési, K.; Varga, D.; Berényi, Z.
2015-07-01
We present results of theoretical and experimental studies of the spectra of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene in the primary energy range between 1 and 5 keV. The experiments were performed using a high energy resolution electron spectroscopy. The theoretical interpretation is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects. The separation between the carbon and hydrogen peak in the energy distributions is shown as a function of the primary electron energy. The simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings. We also present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of a single scattering. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with our measurements.
Addressing preservation of elastic contrast in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy.
Brown, H G; D'Alfonso, A J; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J
2016-01-01
Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images with resolutions of the order of an Ångström can be obtained using modern microscopes corrected for chromatic aberration. However, the delocalized nature of the transition potentials for atomic ionization often confounds direct interpretation of EFTEM images, leading to what is known as "preservation of elastic contrast". In this paper we demonstrate how more interpretable images might be obtained by scanning with a focused coherent probe and incoherently averaging the energy-filtered images over probe position. We dub this new imaging technique energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM). We develop a theoretical framework for EFISTEM and show that it is in fact equivalent to precession EFTEM, where the plane wave illumination is precessed through a range of tilts spanning the same range of angles as the probe forming aperture in EFISTEM. It is demonstrated that EFISTEM delivers similar results to scanning transmission electron microscopy with an electron energy-loss spectrometer but has the advantage that it is immune to coherent aberrations and spatial incoherence of the probe and is also more resilient to scan distortions. PMID:26476801
Regulation of residual stress in elastic solid component with high-energy acoustic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, W. T.; Xu, C. G.; Pan, Q. X.; Yang, X. C.; Xu, L.; Guo, J.
2013-01-01
The ultrasonic regulation of internal residual stress in metal and nonmetal elastic solid component has been investigated. High-energy ultrasonic wave is applied to carbon steel and ordinary flat glass for residual stress control. An ultrasonic residual stress measurement device developed with the acoustoelastic theory is used to measure macro residual stress in time, to evaluate the residual stress regulation effectiveness. Based on the essence of residual stress, the interaction between acoustic wave and residual stress is analyzed, and dislocations theory is considered. When the ultrasonic energy supplied to the elastic solid is greater than the energy of dislocation, the internal residual stress will be released. Experiments result shows that as high energy acoustic field is applied, the local residual tensile stress in elastic solid specimen will shift gradually to beneficial compressive stress, thus the component's fatigue strength, corrosion resistance and service life will be greatly improved.
Study of the Elastic Scattering of 32S by 24Mg at Low Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanain, Mahmoud A.; Ibraheem, Awad A.
2015-12-01
The elastic scattering angular distribution of 32S on 24Mg at energies ranging from 65 to 110 MeV has been analyzed in the framework of the double folding (DF) model, using different effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions based on the M3Y-Reid interaction. The Pauli correlation, zero-range, and finite-range exchange parts of the NN interactions are considered in the folding procedure to treat the single nucleon knock-on exchange term (SNKE) in the optical model. Successful reproduction of the data has been obtained with all the potentials considered in the present study. It is clear that the effect of Pauli correlation increases as the energy increases. Our calculations are insensitive to the strength of the imaginary potential used in the fit of the experimental data. We find also that the threshold anomaly is less pronounced in the 32S + 24Mg system. Our reaction cross sections are compared with the data, and the consistency between the real and imaginary volume integrals are checked by the dispersion relation.
Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings
Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony
2013-12-31
Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) #12;eld distributions as well as the grain scale #12;eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local #12;elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.
Konofagou, Elisa E.
Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) lesions based on their distinct biomechanical properties. However, quantitative. In the present study, fresh canine livers were ablated ex vivo using six different acoustic powers and time application for the ultrasoundbased elasticity imaging techniques has been the assessment and monitoring
Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J
2015-04-01
During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. PMID:25716796
Zhou, Peng
2015-01-01
In this paper, the law of conservation of energy is applied to analyze reversible and coupling processes between elastic and electromagnetic fields. This approach is here called the energy formulation. For simple physical processes such as mechanical movement, diffusion and electrodynamic process, it is shown their governing equations all satisfy the law of conservation of energy. Then, analysis is extended to coupling effects. First, it is found the constitutive equations of the linear direct and converse piezoelectric and piezomagnetic effects guarantee that energy is conserved during the conversion of energies. Second, analyses found that for the generalized Villari effects, the electromagnetic energy can be treated as an extra term in the generalized elastic energy. Third, both the laws of conservation of momentum and energy are used to analyze electrostriction and magnetostriction. It is argued that both of these strictive effects are induced by the Maxwell stress. In addition, their energy is purely ele...
Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université
Energy change due to the appearance of cavities in elastic solids Tomasz Lewi#19;nski a;#3; and Jan of assessing an increment of strain energy due to the appearance of small cavities in elastic solids and of a spherical cavity all the methods lead to the same energy increment. According to the compound asymptotics
Impact picture for near-forward elastic scattering up to LHC energies
Jacques Soffer; Claude Bourrely; Tai Tsun Wu
2014-12-02
We will recall the main feaatures of an accurate phenomenological model to describe successfully near-forward elastic scattering in a wide energy range, including ISR, SPS and Tevatron colliders. A large step in energy domain is accomplished with the LHC collider, presently running, giving the opportunity to confront the new data with the predictions of our theoretical approach.
Impact picture for near-forward elastic scattering up to LHC energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Wu, Tai Tsun
2015-04-01
We will recall the main features of an accurate phenomenological model to describe successfully near-forward elastic scattering in a wide energy range, including ISR, SPS and Tevatron colliders. A large step in energy domain is accomplished with the LHC collider, presently running, giving the opportunity to confront the new data with the predictions of our theoretical approach.
The potential of renewable energy
Not Available
1990-03-01
On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.
Elastic resistance change and action potential generation of non-faradaic Pt/TiO2/Pt capacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Hyungkwang; Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Inho; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok
2013-06-01
Electric current in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor TiO2 is hysteretic, i.e. history-dependent, and its use is versatile in electronic devices. Nowadays, biologically inspired, analogue-type computing systems, known as neuromorphic systems, are being actively investigated owing to their new and intriguing physical concepts. The realization of artificial synapses is important for constructing neuromorphic systems. In mammalians' brains, the plasticity of synapses between neighbouring nerve cells arises from action potential firing. Emulating action potential firing via inorganic systems has therefore become important in neuromorphic engineering. In this work, the current-voltage hysteresis of TiO2-based non-faradaic capacitors is investigated to primarily focus on the correlation between the blocking contact and the elasticity, i.e. non-plasticity, of the capacitors' resistance change, in experimental and theoretical methods. The similarity between the action potential firing behaviour in nerve cells and the elasticity of the non-faradaic capacitors is addressed.Electric current in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor TiO2 is hysteretic, i.e. history-dependent, and its use is versatile in electronic devices. Nowadays, biologically inspired, analogue-type computing systems, known as neuromorphic systems, are being actively investigated owing to their new and intriguing physical concepts. The realization of artificial synapses is important for constructing neuromorphic systems. In mammalians' brains, the plasticity of synapses between neighbouring nerve cells arises from action potential firing. Emulating action potential firing via inorganic systems has therefore become important in neuromorphic engineering. In this work, the current-voltage hysteresis of TiO2-based non-faradaic capacitors is investigated to primarily focus on the correlation between the blocking contact and the elasticity, i.e. non-plasticity, of the capacitors' resistance change, in experimental and theoretical methods. The similarity between the action potential firing behaviour in nerve cells and the elasticity of the non-faradaic capacitors is addressed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02154h
Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1987-01-01
Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.
Abriola, D.; DiGregorio, D.; Testoni, J.E.; Etchegoyen, A.; Etchegoyen, M.C.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Gil, S.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Pacheco, A.J.; and others
1989-02-01
Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic scattering of /sup 16/O+/sup 144/Sm have been measured at bombarding energies E = 69.2 and 72.3 MeV. Excitation functions were measured between E = 61 and 76.3 MeV at backward angles. The present elastic scattering data plus existing fusion data were adjusted with both energy-independent and energy-dependent optical-model potentials. The energy dependence appears to be consistent with the dispersion relations which correlate the real and imaginary components of the potentials. The potentials behave similarly when coupling to inelastic channels is considered.
Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1).
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua
2010-08-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.
Elastic Scattering Of {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 80}Se At Near And Above Barrier Energies
Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Barbara, E. de; Testoni, J. E.; Zalazar, L.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.
2010-08-04
In this work we propose to study the elastic scattering of the weakly bound projectiles {sup 6,7}Li on an intermediate mass target {sup 80}Se. From the experimental results presented here, precise angular distributions at energies below, around and above the nominal Coulomb barriers of the systems were obtained. The final goal of our work is to determine the characteristic parameters of the optical potential and use them to address the question of whether the usual threshold anomaly or the breakup threshold anomaly are present or not in these systems.
High energy proton-proton elastic scattering at the Large Hadron Collider and nucleon structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luddy, Richard Joseph
To gain insight into the structure of the nucleon, we pursue the development of the phenomenological model of Islam et al. (IIFS model) for high energy elastic pp and p¯p scattering. We determine the energy dependence of the parameters of the IIFS model using the available elastic differential cross section data from SPS Collider and Tevatron and the known asymptotic behavior of sigmatot (s) and rho(s) from dispersion relation calculations and more recent analyses of Cudell et al. (COMPETE Collaboration). Next, we incorporate a high energy elastic valence quark-quark scattering amplitude into the model based on BFKL pomeron to describe small impact parameter (large | t|) pp collisions. Finally, we predict the pp elastic differential cross section at the unprecedented c.m. energy of s = 14.0 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This prediction assumes crucial significance---because of an approved experiment at LHC: TOTal and Elastic Measurement (TOTEM). The TOTEM group plans to measure pp elastic dsigma/dt at 14.0 TeV all the way from momentum transfer |t| = 0 to |t| ? 10 GeV 2. Their measurement will stringently test not only the diffraction and o-exchange descriptions of the original IIFS model, but also the additional valence quark-quark scattering contribution that we find to be dominant for large |t|. Successful quantitative verification of the predicted dsigma/dt will mean that our picture of the nucleon with an outer cloud of qq¯ condensed ground state, an inner core of topological baryonic charge, and a still smaller core of massless valence quarks provides a realistic description of nucleon structure.
Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas
Ghosh, Avijit Ray, Debasis
2015-03-15
The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.
Microscopic positive-energy potential based on the Gogny interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Arellano, H. F.; Vinh Mau, N.
2015-01-01
We present a nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the random-phase approximation. For the first time, the finite-range Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross sections. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schrödinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from 40Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to a much-too-high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. This work opens the way to simultaneously assess effective interactions suitable for both nuclear structure and reactions.
On the physical basis for the nematic rubber elastic free energy
J. S. Biggins; M. Warner
2009-10-20
We discuss why it is physical to keep terms in the nematic rubber elastic free energy that reflect the order parameter dependence of the natural size of the network polymers. We address a point of difficulty in some mathematical approaches to this problem.
A UNIQUE GRAPH OF MINIMAL ELASTIC ENERGY ANDERS LINNER AND JOSEPH W. JEROME
Jerome, Joseph W.
A UNIQUE GRAPH OF MINIMAL ELASTIC ENERGY ANDERS LINN´ER AND JOSEPH W. JEROME Abstract. Nonlinear' sometimes used for the Euler-Lagrange equation satisfied by ; see [4] for a recent example. It is clear is supported in part by NSF grant DMS-0311263. 1 #12;2 ANDERS LINN´ER AND JOSEPH W. JEROME bound is zero when
Studying conformally flat spacetimes with an elastic stress energy tensor using 1 + 3 formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, I.; Ramos, M. P. Machado
2015-12-01
Conformally flat spacetimes with an elastic stress-energy tensor having diagonal trace-free anisotropic pressure are investigated using 1 + 3 formalism. The 1 + 3 Bianchi and Jacobi identities and Einstein field equations are written for a particular case with a conformal factor dependent on only one spatial coordinate. Solutions with non zero anisotropic pressure are obtained.
Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S.
1996-12-31
Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low- to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work.
A Benchmark Calculation for Resonant Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering at Low Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y. D.; Lin, C. D.; Fon, W. C.; Odgers, B. R.
1996-05-01
Accurate differential cross sections (DCS) and spin-asymmetries for the elastic scattering of electrons from ground state hydrogen over the energies of the lowest ^1S and ^3P resonances have been obtained using the Intermediate R-matrix method of Odgers et al and the direct numerical approach of Wang and Callaway. The effects of ionization continuum on DCS, resonant positions, and spin-asymmetries are reexamined in light of the present calculations. The calculated elastic DCS are compared with the experiments of Williams and the calculation of McCarthy and Shang.
Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering
Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.
1984-01-01
The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
for hydrocarbons This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential energy expression for hydrocarbons Donald W Brenner1 , Olga, lengths, and force constants for hydrocarbon molecules, as well as elastic properties, interstitial defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, H.; Wittmer, J. P.; Poli?ska, P.; Baschnagel, J.
2012-10-01
The truncation of a pair potential at a distance rc is well known to imply, in general, an impulsive correction to the pressure and other moments of the first derivatives of the potential. That, depending on rc, the truncation may also be of relevance to higher derivatives is shown theoretically for the Born contributions to the elastic moduli obtained using the stress-fluctuation formalism in d dimensions. Focusing on isotropic liquids for which the shear modulus G must vanish by construction, the predicted corrections are tested numerically for binary mixtures and polydisperse Lennard-Jones beads in, respectively, d=3 and 2 dimensions. Both models being glass formers, we comment briefly on the temperature (T) dependence of the (corrected) shear modulus G(T) around the glass transition temperature Tg.
Potential of geothermal energy in China
Sung, Peter On
2010-01-01
This thesis provides an overview of geothermal power generation and the potential for geothermal energy utilization in China. Geothermal energy is thermal energy stored in the earth's crust and currently the only ubiquitously ...
K. Sekiguchi; H. Okamura; N. Sakamoto; H. Suzuki; M. Dozono; Y. Maeda; T. Saito; S. Sakaguchi; H. Sakai; M. Sasano; Y. Shimizu; T. Wakasa; K. Yako; H. Wita?a; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; H. Kamada; A. Nogga
2011-06-01
A complete high precision set of deuteron analyzing powers for elastic deuteron-proton ($dp$) scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon (MeV/N) has been measured. The new data are presented together with data from previous measurements at 70, 100, 135 and 200 MeV/N. They are compared with the results of three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev calculations based on modern nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials alone or combined with two models of three nucleon forces (3NFs): the Tucson-Melbourne 99 (TM99) and Urbana IX. At 250 MeV/N large discrepancies between pure NN models and data, which are not resolved by including 3NFs, were found at c.m.\\ backward angles of $\\theta_{\\rm c.m.}\\gtrsim 120^\\circ$ for almost all the deuteron analyzing powers. These discrepancies are quite similar to those found for the cross section at the same energy. We found small relativistic effects that cannot resolve the discrepancies with the data indicating that other, short-ranged 3NFs are required to obtain a proper description of the data.
Sekiguchi, K.; Okamura, H.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakaguchi, S.; Sasano, M.; Suzuki, H.; Dozono, M.; Wakasa, T.; Maeda, Y.; Saito, T.; Sakai, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Yako, K.; Witala, H.; Golak, J.; Gloeckle, W.; Kamada, H.; Nogga, A.
2011-06-15
A complete high precision set of deuteron analyzing powers for elastic deuteron-proton (dp) scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon (MeV/N) has been measured. The new data are presented together with data from previous measurements at 70, 100, 135 and 200 MeV/N. They are compared with the results of three-nucleon (3N) Faddeev calculations based on modern nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials alone or combined with two models of three nucleon forces (3NFs): the Tucson-Melbourne 99 (TM99) and Urbana IX. At 250 MeV/N large discrepancies between pure NN models and data, which are not resolved by including 3NFs, were found at c.m. backward angles of {theta}{sub c.m.} > or approx. 120 deg. for almost all the deuteron analyzing powers. These discrepancies are quite similar to those found for the cross section at the same energy. We found small relativistic effects that cannot resolve the discrepancies with the data indicating that other, short-ranged 3NFs are required to obtain a proper description of the data.
Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV
Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.
2010-01-15
Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.
Energy dependence of nucleon-nucleon potentials
Sinya Aoki; Janos Balog; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Noriyoshi Ishii; Keiko Murano; Hidekatsu Nemura; Peter Weisz
2008-12-03
We investigate the energy dependence of potentials defined through the Bethe-Salpeter wave functions. We analytically evaluate such a potential in the Ising field theory in 2 dimensions and show that its energy dependence is weak at low energy. We then numerically calculate the nucleon-nucleon potential at non-zero energy using quenched QCD with anti-periodic boundary condition. In this case we also observe that the potentials are almost identical at $E\\simeq 0$ and $E\\simeq 50$ MeV, where $E$ is the center of mass kinetic energy.
Recovering elastic energy in a single-legged hopping robot
Sedal, Audrey
2015-01-01
Robots that mimic animal locomotion may be improved by the addition of compliant parts. A proposed metric for the importance of compliance in an animal gait is Ek/Ein, the ratio of the systems peak kinetic energy to the ...
Potential Energy and the Body Electric
Helmreich, Stefan
Physics tells us that potential energy is the capacity to do work that a body possesses as a result of its position in electric, magnetic, or gravitational fields. Thinking of “potentiality” in an electric idiom and with ...
Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.
2015-11-01
The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.
Incorporating elastic and plastic work rates into energy balance for long-term tectonic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahamed, M. S.; Choi, E.
2014-12-01
Deformation-related energy budget is usually considered in the simplest form or even completely omitted from the energy balance equation. We derive an energy balance equation that accounts not only for heat energy but also for elastic and plastic work. Such a general description of the energy balance principle will be useful for modeling complicated interactions between geodynamic processes such as thermoelastisity, thermoplasticity and mechanical consequences of metamorphism. Following the theory of large deformation plasticity, we start from the assumption that Gibbs free energy (g) is a function of temperature (T), the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress (S), density (?) and internal variables (qj, j=1…n). In this formulation, new terms are derived, which are related to the energy dissipated through plastic work and the elastically stored energy that are not seen in the usual form of the energy balance equation used in geodynamics. We then simplify the generic equation to one involving more familiar quantities such as Cauchy stress and material density assuming that the small deformation formulation holds for our applications. The simplified evolution equation for temperature is implemented in DyanEarthSol3D, an unstructured finite element solver for long-term tectonic deformation. We calculate each of the newly derived terms separately in simple settings and compare the numerical results with a corresponding analytic solution. We also present the effects of the new energy balance on the evolution of a large offset normal fault.
Radius exponent in elastic and rigid arterial models optimized by the least energy principle
Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Awa, Shoichi
2014-01-01
Abstract It was analyzed in normal physiological arteries whether the least energy principle would suffice to account for the radius exponent x. The mammalian arterial system was modeled as two types, the elastic or the rigid, to which Bernoulli's and Hagen?Poiseuille's equations were applied, respectively. We minimized the total energy function E, which was defined as the sum of kinetic, pressure, metabolic and thermal energies, and loss of each per unit time in a single artery transporting viscous incompressible blood. Assuming a scaling exponent ? between the vessel radius (r) and length (l) to be 1.0, x resulted in 2.33 in the elastic model. The rigid model provided a continuously changing x from 2.33 to 3.0, which corresponded to Uylings’ and Murray's theories, respectively, through a function combining Reynolds number with a proportional coefficient of the l ? r relationship. These results were expanded to an asymmetric arterial fractal tree with the blood flow preservation rule. While x in the optimal elastic model accounted for around 2.3 in proximal systemic (r >1 mm) and whole pulmonary arteries (r ?0.004 mm), optimal x in the rigid model explained 2.7 in elastic?muscular (0.1 < r ?1 mm) and 3.0 in peripheral resistive systemic arteries (0.004 ? r ?0.1 mm), in agreement with data obtained from angiographic, cast?morphometric, and in vivo experimental studies in the literature. The least energy principle on the total energy basis provides an alternate concept of optimality relating to mammalian arterial fractal dimensions under ? = 1.0. PMID:24744905
Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Bill
2008-01-01
Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…
Rouse, Elliott J; Mooney, Luke M; Martinez-Villalpando, Ernesto C; Herr, Hugh M
2013-06-01
The cyclic and often linear torque-angle relationship of locomotion presents the opportunity to innovate on the design of traditional series-elastic actuators (SEAs). In this paper, a novel modification to the SEA architecture was proposed by adding a clutch in parallel with the motor within the SEA--denoted as a CSEA. This addition permits bimodal dynamics where the system is characterized by an SEA when the clutch is disengaged and a passive spring when the clutch is engaged. The purpose of the parallel clutch was to provide the ability to store energy in a tuned series spring, while requiring only reactionary torque from the clutch. Thus, when the clutch is engaged, a tuned elastic relationship can be achieved with minimal electrical energy consumption. The state-based model of the CSEA is introduced and the implementation of the CSEA mechanism in a powered knee prosthesis is detailed. The series elasticity was optimized to fit the spring-like torque-angle relationship of early stance phase knee flexion and extension during level ground walking. In simulation, the CSEA knee required 70% less electrical energy than a traditional SEA. Future work will focus on the mechanical implementation of the CSEA knee and an empirical demonstration of reduced electrical energy consumption during walking. PMID:24187202
Gomez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.
2008-05-15
A simultaneous optical model calculation of elastic scattering, complete fusion, and breakup cross sections for energies around the Coulomb barrier is presented for reactions involving the weakly bound projectile {sup 9}Be on the medium size target {sup 144}Sm. In the calculations, the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part U{sub F}, which is responsible for fusion reactions, and a surface part U{sub DR}, which accounts for direct reactions. A simultaneous {chi}{sup 2} analysis of elastic and complete fusion data shows that the extracted optical potential parameters of the real V{sub F} and imaginary W{sub F} parts of U{sub F} and the corresponding parts V{sub DR} and W{sub DR} of U{sub DR} satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Energy-dependent forms for the fusion and direct reaction potentials indicate that, at the strong absorption radius, the direct reaction potentials dominate over the fusion potentials. Moreover, the imaginary direct reaction potential results in a rather smooth function of E around the barrier energy. These findings show that the threshold anomaly, usually present in reactions with tightly bound projectiles, is not exhibited for the system {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm. Within this formalism, the effect of breakup reactions on complete fusion is studied by turning on and off the potentials responsible for breakup reactions.
An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation
Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B
2008-07-15
The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.
CAPITAL FOR ENERGY AND INTER-FUEL ELASTICITIES OF SUBSTITUTION
: Christopher G.F. Bataille Energy Research Group School of Resource and Environmental Management Simon Fraser and technological explicitness, thereby bypassing both optimization and the bias of past events. Using this method and Environmental Management in the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deur, Alexandre
1999-10-01
The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.
Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
2015-06-16
A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.
LEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL
Kissock, Kelly
LEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL KELLY KISSOCK DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON DAYTON, OHIO JOHN SERYAK ENERGY AND RESOURCE SOLUTIONS HAVERHILL, MASSECHUTSETTS ABSTRACT Energy in manufacturing facilities is used for direct
Kang, Yue; Wang, Bo; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Pu, Yanping; Hu, Chenguo
2015-09-16
A folded elastic strip-based triboelectric nanogenerator (FS-TENG) made from two folded double-layer elastic strips of Al/PET and PTFE/PET can achieve multiple functions by low frequency mechanical motion. A single FS-TENG with strip width of 3 cm and length of 27 cm can generate a maximum output current, open-circuit voltage, and peak power of 55 ?A, 840 V, and 7.33 mW at deformation frequency of 4 Hz with amplitude of 2.5 cm, respectively. This FS-TENG can work as a weight sensor due to its good elasticity. An integrated generator assembled by four FS-TENGs (IFS-TENG) can harvest the energy of human motion like flapping hands and walking steps. In addition, the IFS-TENG combined with electromagnetically induced electricity can achieve a completely self-driven doorbell with flashing lights. Moreover, a box-like generator integrated by four IFS-TENGs inside can work in horizontal or random motion modes and can be improved to harvest energy in all directions. This work promotes the research of completely self-driven systems and energy harvesting of human motion for applications in our daily life. PMID:26305461
Outstanding mechanical properties of monolayer MoS2 and its application in elastic energy storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Qing; de, Suvranu
2014-03-01
The structural and mechanical properties of graphene-like honeycomb monolayer structures of MoS2(g-MoS2) under various large strains are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). g-MoS2 is mechanically stable and can sustain extra large strains: the ultimate strains are 0.24, 0.37, and 0.26 for armchair, zigzag, and biaxial deformation, respectively. The in-plane stiffness is as high as 120 N/m (184 GPa equivalently). The third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are indispensable for accurate modeling of the mechanical properties under strains larger than 0.04, 0.07, and 0.13 respectively. The second order elastic constants, including in-plane stiffness, are predicted to monotonically increase with pressure while the Poisson ratio monotonically decreases with increasing pressure. With the prominent mechanical properties including large ultimate strains and in-plane stiffness, g-MoS2 is a promising candidate of elastic energy storage for clean energy. It possesses a theoretical energy storage capacity as high as 8.8 MJ/L and 1.7 MJ/kg, or 476 Wh/kg, larger than a Li-ion battery and is environmentally friendly. Financial support from the Defence Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant # BRBAA08-C-2-0130 and.
Available potential energy of an isolated feature
Hebert, D.
1988-01-15
The true available potential energy (APE) of an isolated feature (e.g. a warm-core ring) in a basin is the difference in the potential plus internal energy between the observed and reference state. The reference state is that in which the same fluid is redistributed adiabatically to a stably stratified state and the isopycnals are on constant geopotential surfaces. For an isolated feature in an infinitely wide basin, it would seem reasonable to assume that the far-field density structure is a good approximation of the reference state. This approximation to the reference state will be examined in this paper. Four different methods of calculating the available potential of an isolated feature are compared. These are (1) the gravitational available potential energy using the reference state (APE/sub G/), (2) the gravitational available potential energy using the far-field density structure as an approximation for the reference state, (3) the Boussinesq available potential energy using the reference state (APE/sub B/), and (4) the Boussinesq available potential energy using the far-field density structure instead of the reference state. The gravitational available potential energy using the the reference state (APE/sub G/) is the true available potential energy for an incompressible fluid.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernstein, R. B.; Labudde, R. A.
1972-01-01
The problem of inversion is considered in relation to absolute total cross sections Q(v) for atom-atom collisions and their velocity dependence, and the glory undulations and the transition to high velocity behavior. There is a limit to the amount of information available from Q(v) even when observations of good accuracy (e.g., + or - 0.25%) are in hand over an extended energy range (from thermal energies upward by a factor of greater than 1000 in relative kinetic energy). Methods were developed for data utilization, which take full advantage of the accuracy of the experimental Q(v) measurements.
Elastic Scattering of Low-Energy Electrons byTetrahydrofuran
Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Orel, Ann E.; Rescigno, Thomas N.
2006-05-09
We present the results of ab initio calculations for elasticelectron scattering by tetrahydrofuran (THF) using the complex Kohnvariational method. We carried out fixed-nuclei calculations at theequilibrium geometry of the target molecule for incident electronenergies up to 20 eV. The calculated momentum transfer cross sectionsclearly reveal the presence of broad shape resonance behavior in the 8-10eV energy range, in agreement with recent experiments. The calculateddifferential cross sections at 20 eV, which include the effects of thelong-range electron-dipole interaction, are alsofound to be in agreementwith the most recent experimental findings.
Symmetryand Potential EnergySurfaces
Simons, Jack
2.1-2.3 are obeyed, the potential wen loeated at this minimum may not be deep enough to hold a bound vibrational state (if the zero-pointvibrational energyis greaterthan the dissociationenergyof the wen
Analysis of Elastic Scattering of 8He+208Pb System at around the Coulomb Barrier Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Direkci, M.; Kucuk, Y.; Boztosun, I.
2015-04-01
The elastic scattering angular distribution of 8He+208Pb system is investigated at Elab = 22.0 MeV within the framework of Optical Model by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. For the phenomenological Optical Model calculations, both real and imaginary parts of the complex nuclear potential have been chosen to have the Wood-Saxon shape. In the microscopic Optical Model calculations, we have used double folding procedure to calculate the real part of optical potential for different kinds of density distributions of 8He. A comparative study of this system has been conducted for the fist time by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. It is observed that large imaginary radius value due to the existence of long-range absorption mechanism acting at large distances provides a very good agreement between theoretical results and experimental data with small ?2/N values.
Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J
2012-06-23
Anuran jumping is one of the most powerful accelerations in vertebrate locomotion. Several species are hypothesized to use a catapult-like mechanism to store and rapidly release elastic energy, producing power outputs far beyond the capability of muscle. Most evidence for this mechanism comes from measurements of whole-body power output; the decoupling of joint motion and muscle shortening expected in a catapult-like mechanism has not been demonstrated. We used high-speed marker-based biplanar X-ray cinefluoroscopy to quantify plantaris muscle fascicle strain and ankle joint motion in frogs in order to test for two hallmarks of a catapult mechanism: (i) shortening of fascicles prior to joint movement (during tendon stretch), and (ii) rapid joint movement during the jump without rapid muscle-shortening (during tendon recoil). During all jumps, muscle fascicles shortened by an average of 7.8 per cent (54% of total strain) prior to joint movement, stretching the tendon. The subsequent period of initial joint movement and high joint angular acceleration occurred with minimal muscle fascicle length change, consistent with the recoil of the elastic tendon. These data support the plantaris longus tendon as a site of elastic energy storage during frog jumping, and demonstrate that catapult mechanisms may be employed even in sub-maximal jumps. PMID:22090204
Astley, Henry C.; Roberts, Thomas J.
2012-01-01
Anuran jumping is one of the most powerful accelerations in vertebrate locomotion. Several species are hypothesized to use a catapult-like mechanism to store and rapidly release elastic energy, producing power outputs far beyond the capability of muscle. Most evidence for this mechanism comes from measurements of whole-body power output; the decoupling of joint motion and muscle shortening expected in a catapult-like mechanism has not been demonstrated. We used high-speed marker-based biplanar X-ray cinefluoroscopy to quantify plantaris muscle fascicle strain and ankle joint motion in frogs in order to test for two hallmarks of a catapult mechanism: (i) shortening of fascicles prior to joint movement (during tendon stretch), and (ii) rapid joint movement during the jump without rapid muscle-shortening (during tendon recoil). During all jumps, muscle fascicles shortened by an average of 7.8 per cent (54% of total strain) prior to joint movement, stretching the tendon. The subsequent period of initial joint movement and high joint angular acceleration occurred with minimal muscle fascicle length change, consistent with the recoil of the elastic tendon. These data support the plantaris longus tendon as a site of elastic energy storage during frog jumping, and demonstrate that catapult mechanisms may be employed even in sub-maximal jumps. PMID:22090204
A method to estimate the elastic energy stored in braided DNA molecules using hydrodynamic equations
Fernández-Sierra, Mónica; Delgado-Martí, Violeta; Colón-García, Jorge E.; Quiñones, Edwin
2011-01-01
We present a single-molecule method for measuring the torque exerted by braided DNA molecules undergoing spontaneous unbraiding while attached to a paramagnetic dumbbell in the absence of external manipulation. A magnetic tweezers setup is employed to braid pairs of lambda DNA molecules covalently bound to a surface. Upon removing the magnetic field, the braided DNA molecules undergo spontaneous unbraiding, efficiently transforming the stored elastic energy into enough mechanical energy to rotate the tethered dumbbells for periods as long as 30 minutes. Using hydrodynamic equations we estimate the torque exerted on the dumbbells by the DNA braids, yielding values ranging from 47 to 166 pN nm. PMID:21765578
Differential Cross Section of DP-Elastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies
N. B. Ladygina
2009-06-10
The deuteron-proton elastic scattering is studied in the multiple scattering expansion formalism. The contributions of the one-nucleon-exchange, single- and double scattering are taken into account. The Love and Franey parameterization of the nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix is used, that gives an opportunity to include the off-energy-shell effects into calculations. Differential cross sections are considered at four energies, $T_d=390, 500, 880, 1200$ MeV. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data.
Low-energy elastic electron scattering form chloroethane, C2H5Cl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaamini, A.; Navarro, C.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2015-10-01
We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloroethane, C2H5Cl, also known as ethyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 1 to 30 eV and at scattering angles from {10}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to previous results for C2H5Cl and for the related molecule chloromethane.
Low-energy elastic electron scattering from chloromethane, CH3Cl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, C.; Sakaamini, A.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2015-10-01
We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloromethane, CH3Cl, also known as methyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles from {5}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to earlier previous results for this molecule.
On the Chemical Potential of Dark Energy
S. H. Pereira
2008-06-23
It is widely assumed that the observed universe is accelerating due to the existence of a new fluid component called dark energy. In this article, the thermodynamics consequences of a nonzero chemical potential on the dark energy component is discussed with special emphasis to the phantom fluid case. It is found that if the dark energy fluid is endowed with a negative chemical potential, the phantom field hypothesis becomes thermodynamically consistent with no need of negative temperatures as recently assumed in the literature.
Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick
2012-09-18
The statistical theories - the Hauser-Feshbach model with the width fluctuation correction - play a central role in studying nuclear reactions in the fast energy region, hence the statistical model codes are essential for the nuclear data evaluations nowadays. In this paper, we revisit issues regarding the statistical model calculations in the fast energy range, such as the inclusion of the direct channels, and the energy averaged cross sections using different statistical assumptions. Although they have been discussed for a long time, we need more precise quantitative investigations to understand uncertainties coming from the models deficiencies in the fast energy range. For example, the partition of compound formation cross section into the elastic and inelastic channels depends on the elastic enhancement factor calculated from the statistical models. In addition, unitarity of S-matrix constrains this partition when the direct reactions are involved. Practically some simple assumptions, which many nuclear reaction model codes adopt, may work reasonably for the nuclear data evaluations. However, the uncertainties on the evaluated cross sections cannot go lower than the model uncertainty itself. We perform numerical simulations by generating the resonances using the R-matrix theory, and compare the energy (ensemble) averaged cross sections with the statistical theories, such as the theories of Moldauer, HRTW (Hofmann, Richert, Tepel, and Weidenmueller), KKM (Kawai-Kerman-McVoy), and GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble).
Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.
1992-01-01
The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.
Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryde, Philip R.
1977-01-01
Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)
Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies
Belforte, S.; CDF Collaboration
1993-11-01
The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub sd}/dM{sup 2}dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies {radical}s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 {+-} 0.58 (16.98 {+-} 0.25) GeV{sup {minus}2} at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + {rho}{sup 2}){sigma}{sub T} is measured to be 62.64 {+-} 0.95 (81.83 {+-} 2.29) mb at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming {rho} = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are {sigma}{sub el} = 12.87 {+-} 0.30, {sigma}{sub T} = 61.26 {+-} 0.93 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 7.89 {+-} 0.33 mb ({sigma}{sub el} = 19.70 {+-} 0.85, {sigma}{sub T} = 80.03 {+-} 2.24 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 9.46 {+-} 0.44 mb) at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV.
Elasticity and dislocation anelasticity of crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikanorov, S. P.; Kardashev, B. K.
The book is concerned with the application of the results of physical acoustic studies of elasticity and dislocation anelasticity to the investigation of interatomic interactions and interactions between lattice defects. The analysis of the potential functions determining the energy of interatomic interactions is based on a study of the elastic properties of crystals over a wide temperature range; data on the dislocation structure and on the interaction between dislocations and point defects are based mainly on a study of inelastic effects. Particular attention is given to the relationship between microplastic effects and the initial stage of plastic deformation under conditions of elastic oscillations, when the multiplication of dislocations is negligible.
Effective Potential Energy Expression for Membrane Transport
Robert W. Finkel
2007-02-11
All living cells transport molecules and ions across membranes, often against concentration gradients. This active transport requires continual energy expenditure and is clearly a nonequilibrium process for which standard equilibrium thermodynamics is not rigorously applicable. Here we derive a nonequilibrium effective potential that evaluates the per particle transport energy invested by the membrane. A novel method is used whereby a Hamiltonian function is constructed using particle concentrations as generalized coordinates. The associated generalized momenta are simply related to the individual particle energy from which we identify the effective potential. Examples are given and the formalism is compared with the equilibrium Gibb's free energy.
Energy saving potential of various roof technologies
Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)
2010-01-01
Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...
Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings
Skogestad, Sigurd
Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found
Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings
Skogestad, Sigurd
Multivessel Batch Distillation - Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found
Bohm's Quantum Potential as an Internal Energy
Glen Dennis; Maurice de Gosson; Basil Hiley
2014-12-15
We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated in Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system. This gives further insight into the role it played by the quantum potential in stationary states. It also allows us to provide a physically motivated derivation of Schr\\"odinger's equation for a particle in an external potential.
Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.
2015-08-01
Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer-Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.
Polarization observables in dp backward elastic scattering at high and intermediate energies
M. Tanifuji; S. Ishikawa; Y. Iseri
1997-01-28
The tensor analyzing power $T_{20}$ and the polarization transfer coefficients $\\kappa_0 (= 3/2 K_y^y)$ and $K_{xz}^y$ are investigated for dp backward elastic scattering by the invariant-amplitude method. Discrepancies between the conventional calculations and the experimental data on $T_{20}$ and $\\kappa_0$ at high and intermediate energies are mostly dissolved by including imaginary parts in the amplitudes. The quantity $K_{xz}^y$ is shown to be useful in criticizing nuclear force assumptions.
Experimental study of {sup 6}He+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering at low energies
Pires, K. C. C.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Barioni, A.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Morcelle, V.; Pampa Condori, R.; Morais, M. C.; Zamora, J. C.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Mukherjee, S.
2011-06-15
New data for the {sup 6}He+{sup 9}Be reaction at E{sub lab}=16.2 and 21.3 MeV have been taken and analyzed. The effect of the collective couplings to the excited states of the target has been studied by means of coupled-channels calculations, using a double-folding potential for the bare interaction between the colliding nuclei, supplemented with a phenomenological imaginary part of Woods-Saxon type. In addition, three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations have been performed to investigate the effect of the projectile breakup on the elastic scattering. Both effects, the coupling to target and projectile excited states, are found to affect significantly the elastic scattering. The trivial local polarization potential extracted from the continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations indicates that continuum couplings produce a repulsive real part and a long-range imaginary part in the projectile-target interaction.
Elastic proton-proton scattering from ISR to LHC energies, focusing on the dip region
T. Csorgo; R. J. Glauber; F. Nemes
2013-11-10
The differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton collisions is studied at ISR and LHC energies, utilizing a quark-diquark model, that generalizes earlier models of Bialas and Bzdak, and, in addition, a model of Glauber and Velasco. These studies suggest that the increase of the total pp cross-section is mainly due to an increase of the separation of the quark and the diquark with increasing energies. Within the investigated class of models, two simple and model-independent phenomenological relations were found, that connect the total pp scattering cross-section to the effective quark, diquark size and their average separation, on one hand, and to the position of the dip of the differential cross-section, on the other hand. The latter t(dip) sigma(tot) ~ const relation can be used to predict t(dip), the position of the dip of elastic pp scattering for future colliding energies, and for other reactions, where sigma(tot) is either known or can be reliably estimated.
Energy dependence of the {rho} resonance in {pi} {pi} elastic scattering from lattice QCD
Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, Christopher Thomas
2013-02-01
We determine the energy-dependent amplitude for elastic {pi} {pi} P-wave scattering in isospin-1 by computing part of the discrete energy spectrum of QCD in finite cubic boxes. We observe a rapidly rising phase shift that can be well described by a single {rho} Resonance. The spectrum is obtained from hadron correlators computed using lattice QCD with light quark masses corresponding to m{sub {pi}}~400 MeV. Variational analyses are performed with large bases of hadron interpolating fields including, as well as fermion bilinears that resemble q{anti q} Constructions, also operators that look like pairs of pions with definite relative and total momentum. We compute the spectrum for a range of center-of-mass momenta and in various irreducible representations of the relevant symmetry group. Hence we determine more than thirty values of the isospin-1 P-wave scattering phase shift in the elastic region, mapping out its energy dependence in unprecedented detail.
Potential of energy production from conserved forages
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Forages have a potential role in meeting the demand for energy. Perennial forages are attractive for various reasons. One, both the monetary and energy cost of planting is spread over many years. Two, we already have the equipment for harvesting, storing and transporting this source of biomass. Thre...
Physics 321 Potential Energy in Three Dimensions
Hart, Gus
, and . Newton's Laws A sphere rolls without slipping down an incline. Given m, R, and , find the accelerationPhysics 321 Hour 8 Potential Energy in Three Dimensions Gradient, Divergence, and Curl Bottom Line We can use conservation of energy in three ways to describe the motion of an object: 1) 2
Zarkevich, Nikolai A; Johnson, Duane D
2015-01-14
The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. However, improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but also guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP. In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB. PMID:25591337
Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.
2015-01-09
The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. Improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP.more »In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB.« less
Applying supersymmetry to energy dependent potentials
Yekken, R.; Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.
2013-11-15
We investigate the supersymmetry properties of energy dependent potentials in the D=1 dimensional space. We show the main aspects of supersymmetry to be preserved, namely the factorization of the Hamiltonian, the connections between eigenvalues and wave functions of the partner Hamiltonians. Two methods are proposed. The first one requires the extension of the usual rules via the concept of local equivalent potential. In this case, the superpotential becomes depending on the state. The second method, applicable when the potential depends linearly on the energy, is similar to what has been already achieved by means of the Darboux transform. -- Highlights: •Supersymmetry extended to energy dependent potentials. •Generalization of the concept of superpotential. •An alternative method used for linear E-dependence leads to the same results as Darboux transform.
Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings
Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.
2000-09-04
The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.
Industrial Energy Conservation Potentials in North Carolina
Barakat, M. G.; Singh, H.; Mallik, A. K.
1987-01-01
CONSERVATION POTENTIALS IN NORTH CAROLINA MONJED G. BARAKAT Chief Engineer Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center North Carolina A & T State University HARMOHINDAR SINGH Associate Professor Architectural Engineering Department North Carolina A... & T State University ARUP K. MALLIK Professor & Chairman Industrial Engineering Department North Carolina A & T State University ABSTRACT The energy crisis has been of concern to us all since the early seventies, yet energy inefficiency in many...
S. Sakaguchi; T. Uesaka; N. Aoi; Y. Ichikawa; K. Itoh; M. Itoh; T. Kawabata; T. Kawahara; Y. Kondo; H. Kuboki; T. Nakamura; T. Nakao; Y. Nakayama; H. Sakai; Y. Sasamoto; K. Sekiguchi; T. Shimamura; Y. Shimizu; T. Wakui
2013-02-18
Vector analyzing powers for proton elastic scattering from 8He at 71 MeV/nucleon have been measured using a solid polarized proton target operated in a low magnetic field of 0.1 T. The spin-orbit potential obtained from a phenomenological optical model analysis is found to be significantly shallower and more diffuse than the global systematics of stable nuclei, which is an indication that the spin-orbit potential is modified for scattering involving neutron-rich nuclei. A close similarity between the matter radius and the root-mean-square radius of the spin-orbit potential is also identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Yuen, David A.
An important and novel mechanism for ductile failure of the lithosphere is identified here, which is intrinsic to the thermal-mechanical feedback in a temperature dependent plastic body with coupled elastic fields. Both a temperature-dependent power-law visco-elasto-plastic rheology and a temperature-dependent elasto-plastic rheology are employed to study in a self-consistent fashion the deformation of the lithosphere subject to extension by means of a two-dimensional, finite-element code. A structural perturbation initially localizes elasto-plastic deformation only in its immediate vicinity. However, after 800,000 years have elapsed the localized zone of deformation takes off in a ‘crack-like’ fashion and travels to the bottom of the lithosphere in about 50,000 years time. When the plate is severed, thermal runaway is caused by mechanical heating triggered by the rapid energy transfer of the globally stored elastic energy into localized plastic dissipation in the ductile fault.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleem, Mohammed; Morlot, Sandrine; Hohendahl, Annika; Manzi, John; Lenz, Martin; Roux, Aurélien
2015-02-01
In endocytosis, scaffolding is one of the mechanisms to create membrane curvature by moulding the membrane into the spherical shape of the clathrin cage. However, the impact of membrane elastic parameters on the assembly and shape of clathrin lattices has never been experimentally evaluated. Here, we show that membrane tension opposes clathrin polymerization. We reconstitute clathrin budding in vitro with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), purified adaptors and clathrin. By changing the osmotic conditions, we find that clathrin coats cause extensive budding of GUVs under low membrane tension while polymerizing into shallow pits under moderate tension. High tension fully inhibits polymerization. Theoretically, we predict the tension values for which transitions between different clathrin coat shapes occur. We measure the changes in membrane tension during clathrin polymerization, and use our theoretical framework to estimate the polymerization energy from these data. Our results show that membrane tension controls clathrin-mediated budding by varying the membrane budding energy.
Saleem, Mohammed; Morlot, Sandrine; Hohendahl, Annika; Manzi, John; Lenz, Martin; Roux, Aurélien
2015-01-01
In endocytosis, scaffolding is one of the mechanisms to create membrane curvature by moulding the membrane into the spherical shape of the clathrin cage. However, the impact of membrane elastic parameters on the assembly and shape of clathrin lattices has never been experimentally evaluated. Here, we show that membrane tension opposes clathrin polymerization. We reconstitute clathrin budding in vitro with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), purified adaptors and clathrin. By changing the osmotic conditions, we find that clathrin coats cause extensive budding of GUVs under low membrane tension while polymerizing into shallow pits under moderate tension. High tension fully inhibits polymerization. Theoretically, we predict the tension values for which transitions between different clathrin coat shapes occur. We measure the changes in membrane tension during clathrin polymerization, and use our theoretical framework to estimate the polymerization energy from these data. Our results show that membrane tension controls clathrin-mediated budding by varying the membrane budding energy. PMID:25695735
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel
2011-11-01
This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (˜15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.
Search for dark energy potentials in quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muromachi, Yusuke; Okabayashi, Akira; Okada, Daiki; Hara, Tetsuya; Itoh, Yutaka
2015-09-01
The time evolution of the equation of state w for quintessence models with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative big (d^3w/da^3big ) with respect to the scale factor a, in order to predict future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of w for general potential V is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power law big (V=M^{4+? }/Q^{? }big ), the exponential big (V=M^4exp {? M/Q}big ), the mixed big (V=M^{4+? }exp {? M/Q}/Q^{? }big ), the cosine big (V=M^4[cos (Q/f)+1]big ), and the Gaussian types big (V=M^4exp big {-Q^2/? ^2big }big ), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is n, it is necessary to find at least n+2 independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of the scalar field (Q and dot {Q}). Such observations would be the values of ? _Q, w, dw/da,ldots , dw^n/da^n. From these specific potentials, we can predict the n+1 and higher derivatives of w: dw^{n+1}/da^{n+1},ldots . Since four of the abovementioned potentials have two parameters, it is necessary to calculate the third derivative of w for them to estimate the predicted values. If they are tested observationally, it will be understood whether the dark energy can be described by a scalar field with this potential. At least it will satisfy the necessary conditions. Numerical analysis for d^3w/da^3 is performed with some specified parameters in the investigated potentials, except for the mixed one. It becomes possible to distinguish the potentials by accurately observing dw/da and d^2w/da^2 for some parameters.
Quantum Potential Energy as Concealed Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Peter
2015-02-01
It is known that the Schrödinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh's method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional `concealed' freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck's constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed `kinetic energy' in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih
2015-11-01
The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the energy density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming energy release rate (ERR), which represents the energy available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and deformation of the current moment, and the definition of the energy density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.
Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical
Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.
1987-03-12
A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.
Wave energy transfer in elastic half-spaces with soft interlayers.
Glushkov, Evgeny; Glushkova, Natalia; Fomenko, Sergey
2015-04-01
The paper deals with guided waves generated by a surface load in a coated elastic half-space. The analysis is based on the explicit integral and asymptotic expressions derived in terms of Green's matrix and given loads for both laminate and functionally graded substrates. To perform the energy analysis, explicit expressions for the time-averaged amount of energy transferred in the time-harmonic wave field by every excited guided or body wave through horizontal planes and lateral cylindrical surfaces have been also derived. The study is focused on the peculiarities of wave energy transmission in substrates with soft interlayers that serve as internal channels for the excited guided waves. The notable features of the source energy partitioning in such media are the domination of a single emerging mode in each consecutive frequency subrange and the appearance of reverse energy fluxes at certain frequencies. These effects as well as modal and spatial distribution of the wave energy coming from the source into the substructure are numerically analyzed and discussed. PMID:25920833
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhakar, Lokesh; Tay, F. E. H.; Lee, Chengkuo
2014-10-01
Triboelectric energy harvesting has recently garnered a lot of interest because of its easy fabrication and high power output. Contact electrification depends on the chemical properties of contacting materials. Another important factor in contact electrification mechanism is surfaces’ elastic and topographical characteristics. One of the biggest limitations of resonant mechanism based devices is their narrow operating bandwidth. This paper presents a broadband mechanism which utilizes stiffness induced in the cantilever motion due to contact between two triboelectric surfaces. We have conducted experiments using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropad patterns to study the effect of micropad array configuration on the performance of triboelectric energy harvesting devices. The maximum power output measured from the device was observed to be 0.69??W at an acceleration of 1?g. Due to the non-linearity introduced by contact separation mechanism, the bandwidth of the triboelectric energy harvester was observed to be increased by 63% at an acceleration level of 1?g. A hybrid energy harvesting mechanism has also been demonstrated by compounding the triboelectric energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph.
POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION
Skogestad, Sigurd
POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found
POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION
Skogestad, Sigurd
POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found
Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.
1982-01-01
DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.
Biomass resource potential using energy crops
Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.
1993-09-01
Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.
2015-12-01
The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green-Naghdi's (G-N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder.
Enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting of a bistable oscillator with an elastic magnifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guang Qing; Liao, Wei-Hsin
2015-04-01
This paper presents theoretical investigation on a coupling system consisting of bistable oscillator with an elastic magnifier (EM) to improve the output performances in vibration energy harvesting. Lumped-parameter nonlinear equations of the coupling system are derived to describe the broadband large-amplitude periodic displacement responses of the coupling system. The effects of the system mass ratio and stiffness ration on the output performances are studied. It shows that increasing the mass ratio and stiffness ratio can improve the system output performances. The distinct advantage in the coupling system lies in the existence of large-orbit periodic vibration over low level range. With the comparison of the electromechanical trajectories obtained from simulations, it shows that the coupling system can harvest more power at low excitation level with larger bandwidth as compared to the bistable oscillator without an EM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedus, Kamil
2015-11-01
Modified effective range theory formulated as a Bayesian statistical model through the combination with Markov Chain Monte Carlo integration and fitting techniques is used to check the compatibility of different e --Xe scattering data such as the total cross-sections, the momentum transfer cross-sections, and the differential cross-sections that were determined experimentally in the region of Ramsauer-Townsend minimum. On the basis of this predictive approach, the most probable value of the scattering length, (-6.51 ± 0.05)a 0, is proposed. The present analysis suggests that the non-relativistic spinless effective range theory is suitable for the description of angular and energy dependencies of e --Xe elastic scattering cross-sections below the threshold for first inelastic process.
Ferruzzi, J; Bersi, M R; Uman, S; Yanagisawa, H; Humphrey, J D
2015-03-01
Central artery stiffness has emerged over the past 15 years as a clinically significant indicator of cardiovascular function and initiator of disease. Loss of elastic fiber integrity is one of the primary contributors to increased arterial stiffening in aging, hypertension, and related conditions. Elastic fibers consist of an elastin core and multiple glycoproteins; hence defects in any of these constituents can adversely affect arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we focus on mechanical consequences of the loss of fibulin-5, an elastin-associated glycoprotein involved in elastogenesis. Specifically, we compared the biaxial mechanical properties of five central arteries-the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal abdominal aorta, infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery-from male and female wild-type and fibulin-5 deficient mice. Results revealed that, independent of sex, all five regions in the fibulin-5 deficient mice manifested a marked increase in structural stiffness but also a marked decrease in elastic energy storage and typically an increase in energy dissipation, with all differences being most dramatic in the ascending and abdominal aortas. Given that the primary function of large arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use this energy during diastole to work on the blood, fibulin-5 deficiency results in a widespread diminishment of central artery function that can have significant effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function. PMID:25532020
Momentum-space calculation of electron—CO elastic collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Ma, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Jun
2013-02-01
We report a momentum-space study on low-energy electron-CO collisions. Elastic differential cross sections (DCS) are obtained using a static-exchange-optical (SEO) model for the incident energies of 2, 3, 5, and 10 eV. Polarization effect of higher reaction channels, including the ionization continuum, on the elastic collision is represented by an ab initio equivalent-local optical potential. The cross sections are compared with experimental measurements and other theoretical results.
Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by 1,4-dioxane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F.
2014-05-01
We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy-electrons with 1,4-dioxane. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies up to 30 eV. Our results show the presence of three shape resonances belonging to the Bu, Au, and Bg symmetries and located at 7.0 eV, 8.4 eV, and 9.8 eV, respectively. We also report the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum located at around 0.05 eV. We compare our calculated cross sections with experimental data and R-matrix and independent atom model along with the additivity rule corrected by using screening coefficients theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane obtained by Palihawadana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 014308 (2013)]. The agreement between the present and the R-matrix theoretical calculations of Palihawadana et al. is relatively good at energies below 10 eV. Our calculated differential cross sections agree well with the experimental data, showing only some discrepancies at higher energies.
Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by 1,4-dioxane
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F.
2014-05-14
We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy-electrons with 1,4-dioxane. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies up to 30 eV. Our results show the presence of three shape resonances belonging to the B{sub u}, A{sub u}, and B{sub g} symmetries and located at 7.0 eV, 8.4 eV, and 9.8 eV, respectively. We also report the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum located at around 0.05 eV. We compare our calculated cross sections with experimental data and R-matrix and independent atom model along with the additivity rule corrected by using screening coefficients theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane obtained by Palihawadana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 014308 (2013)]. The agreement between the present and the R-matrix theoretical calculations of Palihawadana et al. is relatively good at energies below 10 eV. Our calculated differential cross sections agree well with the experimental data, showing only some discrepancies at higher energies.
On the failure of hyperbolicity in elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1982-01-01
The failure of hyperbolicity leading to the instability as an ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem is investigated for elasticity. The criteria for that instability are derived in terms of the potential energy as a function of the strain invariants. The theory is illustrated by examples.
Ch. Elster; W. Gloeckle
1996-10-12
Optical potentials for elastic p-d scattering and the coupled processes p+$^3$He $\\rightarrow$ p+$^3$He and p+$^3$He $\\rightarrow$ d+d are derived in the Faddeev-Yakubovsky framework with special emphasis on leading order terms, which are expected to be valid at intermediate energies. In addition, equations for the fragmentations $^3$He(p,ppp)n and $^3$He(p,pp)d are derived within the same framework. Again leading order terms for intermediate energies are considered.
Lewicka, Marta
2009-01-01
We prove that the critical points of the 3d nonlinear elasticity functional on shells of small thickness $h$ and around the mid-surface $S$ of arbitrary geometry, converge as $h\\to 0$ to the critical points of the von K\\'arm\\'an functional on $S$, recently derived in \\cite{lemopa1}. This result extends the statement in \\cite{MuPa}, derived for the case of plates when $S\\subset\\mathbb{R}^2$. We further prove the same convergence result for the weak solutions to the static equilibrium equations (formally the Euler- Lagrange equations associated to the elasticity functional). The convergences hold provided the elastic energy of the 3d deformations scale like $h^4$ and the external body forces scale like $h^3$.
Precision Pion-Proton Elastic Differential Cross Sections at Energies Spanning the Delta Resonance
M. M. Pavan; J. T. Brack; F. Duncan; A. Feltham; G. Jones; J. Lange; K. J. Raywood; M. E. Sevior; R. Adams; D. F. Ottewell; G. R. Smith; B. Wells; R. L. Helmer; E. L. Mathie; R. Tacik; R. A. Ristinen; I. I. Strakovsky; H-M. Staudenmaier
2001-03-15
A precision measurement of absolute pi+p and pi-p elastic differential cross sections at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies from T_pi= 141.15 to 267.3 MeV is described. Data were obtained detecting the scattered pion and recoil proton in coincidence at 12 laboratory pion angles from 55 to 155 degrees for pi+p, and six angles from 60 to 155 degrees for pi-p. Single arm measurements were also obtained for pi+p energies up to 218.1 MeV, with the scattered pi+ detected at six angles from 20 to 70 degrees. A flat-walled, super-cooled liquid hydrogen target as well as solid CH2 targets were used. The data are characterized by small uncertainties, ~1-2% statistical and ~1-1.5% normalization. The reliability of the cross section results was ensured by carrying out the measurements under a variety of experimental conditions to identify and quantify the sources of instrumental uncertainty. Our lowest and highest energy data are consistent with overlapping results from TRIUMF and LAMPF. In general, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute SM95 partial wave analysis solution describes our data well, but the older Karlsruhe-Helsinki PWA solution KH80 does not.
Potential energy hypersurface and molecular flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko?a, Jaroslav
1993-02-01
The molecular flexibility phenomenon is discussed from the conformational potential energy(hyper) surface (PES) point of view. Flexibility is considered as a product of three terms: thermodynamic, kinetic and geometrical. Several expressions characterizing absolute and relative molecular flexibility are introduced, depending on a subspace studied of the entire conformational space, energy level E of PES as well as absolute temperature. Results obtained by programs DAISY, CICADA and PANIC in conjunction with molecular mechanics program MMX for flexibility analysis of isopentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane and isohexane molecules are introduced.
Sparse representation for a potential energy surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao
2014-07-01
We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamacher, Kay
2011-07-01
Biomolecular simulations have become a major tool in understanding biomolecules and their complexes. However, one can typically only investigate a few mutants or scenarios due to the severe computational demands of such simulations, leading to a great interest in method development to overcome this restriction. One way to achieve this is to reduce the complexity of the systems by an approximation of the forces acting upon the constituents of the molecule. The harmonic approximation used in elastic network models simplifies the physical complexity to the most reduced dynamics of these molecular systems. The reduced polymer modeled this way is typically comprised of mass points representing coarse-grained versions of, e.g., amino acids. In this work, we show how the computation of free energy contributions of contacts between two residues within the molecule can be reduced to a simple lookup operation in a precomputable matrix. Being able to compute such contributions is of great importance: protein design or molecular evolution changes introduce perturbations to these pair interactions, so we need to understand their impact. Perturbation to the interactions occurs due to randomized and fixated changes (in molecular evolution) or designed modifications of the protein structures (in bioengineering). These perturbations are modifications in the topology and the strength of the interactions modeled by the elastic network models. We apply the new algorithm to (1) the bovine trypsin inhibitor, a well-known enzyme in biomedicine, and show the connection to folding properties and the hydrophobic collapse hypothesis and (2) the serine proteinase inhibitor CI-2 and show the correlation to ? values to characterize folding importance. Furthermore, we discuss the computational complexity and show empirical results for the average case, sampled over a library of 77 structurally diverse proteins. We found a relative speedup of up to 10 000-fold for large proteins with respect to repeated application of the initial model.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1994-01-01
Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1990-01-01
The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.
Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.
2012-12-01
Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open-ocean convection may arise through strong surface buoyancy fluxes (Schott et al. 1996), or by thermobaric instability (Akitomo 1999a, b). Ingersoll (2005) demonstrated that thermobaric-induced deep convection is due to the abrupt release of ocean potential energy into kinetic energy. In atmospheric dynamics, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) has long been an important thermodynamic variable (Arakawa and Schubert 1974) that has been used to forecast moist convection (Doswell and Rasmussen 1994) and to test the performance of GCMs (Ye et al. 1998). However, the development of a similar diagnostic in the ocean has received little attention.; World Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy distribution in North-Hemisphere Autumn (J/kg)
On the Symmetry of Energy-Minimising Deformations in Nonlinear Elasticity II: Compressible Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaloganathan, Jeyabal; Spector, Scott J.
2010-05-01
Consider a homogeneous, isotropic, hyperelastic body occupying the region {A = \\{{x}inmathbb{R}n : a < |{x} | < b \\}} in its reference state and subject to radially symmetric displacement, or mixed displacement/traction, boundary conditions. In Part I (Sivaloganathan and Spector in Arch Ration Mech Anal, 2009, in press) the authors restricted their attention to incompressible materials. For a large-class of polyconvex constitutive relations that grow sufficiently rapidly at infinity it was shown that to each nonradial isochoric deformation of A there corresponds a radial isochoric deformation that has strictly less elastic energy than the given deformation. In this paper that analysis is further developed and extended to the compressible case. The key ingredient is a new radial-symmetrisation procedure that is appropriate for problems where the symmetrised mapping must be one-to-one in order to prevent interpenetration of matter. For the pure displacement boundary-value problem, the radial symmetrisation of an orientation-preserving diffeomorphism u : A ? A* between spherical shells A and A* is the deformation {u}^rad({x})=r(R)/R{x}, quad R=|{x}|,qquadqquadqquadqquad(0.1) that maps each sphere {S_Rsubset A} , of radius R > 0, centred at the origin into another such sphere {S_r={u}^rad(S_R)subset A^*} that encloses the same volume as u( S R ). Since the volumes enclosed by the surfaces u( S R ) and u rad ( S R ) are equal, the classical isoperimetric inequality implies that {{Area( {u}^rad (S_R))?q Area({u} (S_R))}} . The equality of the enclosed volumes together with this reduction in surface area is then shown to give rise to a reduction in total energy for many of the constitutive relations used in nonlinear elasticity. These results are also extended to classes of Sobolev deformations and applied to prove that the radially symmetric solutions to these boundary-value problems are local or global energy minimisers in various classes of (possibly nonsymmetric) deformations of a thick spherical shell.
Universal theorems for total energy of the dynamics of linearly elastic heterogeneous solids
Nemat-Nasser, Sia
dynamic properties Metamaterials Homogenization a b s t r a c t In this paper we consider a sample to formulate computable bounds on the overall dynamic properties of linearly elastic heterogeneous composites properties (Willis, 1981a). It was subsequently shown that exact inequalities for the elastic and the com
The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik
2014-05-01
While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road infrastructure and the power grid, as well as due to the harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions, wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). These calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plant, making wind energy a viable additional option.
Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.
2015-11-01
The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even–even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic–microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin–Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny–Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.
Elastic free-energy of wormlike micellar chains: theory and suggested experiments
Meisam Asgari
2015-02-09
The extensive application of surfactants motivates comprehensive and predictive theoretical studies that improve our understanding of the behaviour of these complex systems. In this study, an expression for the elastic free-energy density of a wormlike micellar chain is derived taking into account interactions between its constituent molecules. The resulting expression incorporates the sum of a quadratic term in the curvature and a quadratic term in the torsion of the centerline of wormlike micelle and thus resembles free-energy density functions for polymer chains and DNA available in the literature. The derived model is applied on a wormlike micelle in the shape of a circular arc, open or closed. A detailed application of the derived model on wormlike micelles of toroidal shape, along with employing necessary statistical-thermodynamical concepts of self-assembly, is performed, and the results are found to be consistent with the ones available in the literature. Steps towards obtaining the material parameters through experiments are suggested and discussed.
Elastic moduli, dislocation core energy, and melting of hard disks in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengupta, Surajit; Nielaba, Peter; Binder, K.
2000-06-01
Elastic moduli and dislocation core energy of the triangular solid of hard disks of diameter ? are obtained in the limit of vanishing dislocation-antidislocation pair density, from Monte Carlo simulations that incorporate a constraint, namely that all moves altering the local connectivity away from that of the ideal triangular lattice are rejected. In this limit we show that the solid is stable against all other fluctuations at least up to densities as low as ??2=0.88. Our system does not show any phase transition so diverging correlation lengths leading to finite size effects and slow relaxations do not exist. The dislocation pair formation probability is estimated from the fraction of moves rejected due to the constraint which yields, in turn, the core energy Ec and the (bare) dislocation fugacity y. Using these quantities, we check the relative validity of first order and Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) melting scenarios and obtain numerical estimates of the typical expected transition densities and pressures. We conclude that a KTHNY transition from the solid to a hexatic phase preempts the solid to liquid first order transition in this system albeit by a very small margin, easily masked by crossover effects in unconstrained ``brute- force'' simulations with a small number of particles.
The {sup 6}He Optical Potential at energies around the Coulomb barrier
Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Moro, A. M.
2010-04-26
We present an Optical Model (OM) study of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb elastic scattering data, measured at laboratory energies around the Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab} = 14, 16, 18, 22, and 27 MeV)[1]. For the projectile-target bare interaction, we use the microscopic Sao Paulo Potential (SPP). This bare interaction is supplemented with a Coulomb Dipole Polarization (CDP) potential, as well as a diffuse complex Woods-Saxon potential. Four-body Continuum-Discretized-Coupled-Channels (CDCC) calculations have been performed in order to support the optical model analysis. We have also studied the alpha channel, which is the dominant reaction process. In the analysis of this channel, we compare the angular and energy distributions of the alpha particles measured at 22 MeV, with Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculations.
Semari, F.; Khenata, R.; Rabah, M.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin Omran, S.; Reshak, Ali H.; Rached, D.
2010-12-15
The structural, elastic, electronic, and optical properties of cubic spinel MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} compounds have been calculated using a full relativistic version of the full-potential linearized-augmented plane wave with the mixed basis FP/APW+lo method. The exchange and correlation potential is treated by the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA). Moreover, the Engel-Vosko GGA formalism is also applied to optimize the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. The ground state properties, including the lattice constants, the internal parameter, the bulk modulus, and the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus are in reasonable agreement with the available data. Using the total energy-strain technique, we have determined the full set of first-order elastic constants C{sub ij} and their pressure dependence, which have not been calculated or measured yet. The shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are calculated for polycrystalline XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} aggregates. The Debye temperature is estimated from the average sound velocity. Electronic band structures show a direct band gap ({Gamma}-{Gamma}) for MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and an indirect band gap (K-{Gamma}) for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The calculated band gaps with EVGGA show a significant improvement over the GGA. The optical constants, including the dielectric function {epsilon}({omega}), the refractive index n({omega}), the reflectivity R({omega}), and the energy loss function L({omega}) were calculated for radiation up to 30 eV. -- Graphical abstract: Calculated total and partial densities of states for MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces.
Harding, L. B.
2006-01-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schroedinger equation must be solved. Our approach starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wave functions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Dynamical electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. With this approach, we are able to provide chemically useful predictions of the energetics for many systems. A second aspect of this program is the development of techniques to fit multi-dimensional potential surfaces to convenient, global, analytic functions that can then be used in dynamics calculations.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.
Local distortion energy and coarse-grained elasticity of the twist-bend nematic phase.
Meyer, C; Dozov, I
2015-12-23
The recently discovered twist-bend nematic phase of achiral bent-shaped molecules, NTB, has a doubly degenerate ground-state with a periodically modulated heliconical structure and unusual distortion elasticity, the theoretical description of which is still debated. We show that the NTB phase has the same macroscopic symmetry as another periodic mesophase, the chiral smectic-A, SmA*. Based on this NTB/SmA* analogy, we develop a coarse-grained elastic model for the NTB phase. Adopting one of the existing microscopic NTB elastic models, we calculate the coarse-grained elastic constants, coherence and penetration lengths in terms of a few Frank-like nematic elastic coefficients that can be measured in macroscopic experiments. The same coarse-grained approach, applied to different local elastic models, may provide an efficient experimental test of their validity. We show that the anisotropy of the NTB coarse-grained elasticity is opposite to that of the SmA*, leading probably to different configurations of some of the defects of the "layered" NTB structure. Moreover, we argue that the intrinsic chiral frustration of the NTB phase may be resolved by penetration of the twist field into the bulk through a network of screw dislocations of the NTB pseudo-layers, resulting in a twist-bend analogue of the twist grain boundary phase TGBA. PMID:26503741
Elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O at energies E/A between 5 and 8 MeV
Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Aissaoui, N.; Beck, C.; Elanique, A.; Nouicer, R.; Morsad, A.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.
1999-12-01
The elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O has been measured at nine energies between E{sub lab}=75 and 124 MeV. The data cover up to 100 degree sign in the c.m. and can be described in terms of phenomenological and folding model potentials which reproduce the main features observed. In agreement with studies at higher energies in this and similar systems, refractive effects are present in the angular distributions at all energies. In particular, the passage of Airy minima through 90 degree sign at E{sub c.m.}=40, 47.5, and 62 MeV explains the deep minima observed in the excitation function. The real part of the optical potential is found to vary very little with energy over the studied interval, but the imaginary part shows a rapid change in its shape at incident energy about 90 MeV. Nonetheless, the energy dependence of the volume integral of the real and imaginary parts is in agreement with dispersion relation predictions. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces
Harding, L.B.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.
Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by carbon, silicon, germanium and tin tetrahalides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joucoski, E.; Bettega, M. H. F.
2002-12-01
In this paper we present cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by carbon, germanium and tin tetrahalides, namely CBr4, CI4, GeBr4, GeI4, SnCl4, SnBr4 and SnI4. We also present previously published results for CCl4, SiCl4, SiBr4, SiI4 and GeCl4. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials at the fixed-nuclei static-exchange approximation. We have made a comparative study of the scattering cross sections of the above molecules, which have the same number of valence electrons. We also show the symmetry decomposition of the integral cross section according to the Td group for each one of the above molecules. We have found that the cross section for a given representation of the Td group presents the same pattern for all studied carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides. We have also calculated total ionization cross sections for these tetrahalides using the binary-encounter-Bethe model.
Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo.
Roach, Neil T; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Rainbow, Michael J; Lieberman, Daniel E
2013-06-27
Some primates, including chimpanzees, throw objects occasionally, but only humans regularly throw projectiles with high speed and accuracy. Darwin noted that the unique throwing abilities of humans, which were made possible when bipedalism emancipated the arms, enabled foragers to hunt effectively using projectiles. However, there has been little consideration of the evolution of throwing in the years since Darwin made his observations, in part because of a lack of evidence of when, how and why hominins evolved the ability to generate high-speed throws. Here we use experimental studies of humans throwing projectiles to show that our throwing capabilities largely result from several derived anatomical features that enable elastic energy storage and release at the shoulder. These features first appear together approximately 2?million years ago in the species Homo erectus. Taking into consideration archaeological evidence suggesting that hunting activity intensified around this time, we conclude that selection for throwing as a means to hunt probably had an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. PMID:23803849
Forward pd elastic scattering and total spin-dependent pd cross sections at intermediate energies
Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.
2009-02-15
Spin-dependent total pd cross sections are considered using the optical theorem. For this aim the full spin dependence of the forward pd elastic scattering amplitude is considered in a model independent way. The single-scattering approximation is used to relate this amplitude to the elementary amplitudes of pp and pn scattering and the deuteron form factor. A formalism allowing to take into account Coulomb-nuclear interference effects in polarized pd cross sections is developed. Numerical calculations for the polarized total pd cross sections are performed at beam energies 20-300 MeV using the NN interaction models developed by the Juelich group. Double-scattering effects are estimated within the Glauber approach and found to be in the order of 10-20%. Existing experimental data on differential pd cross sections are in good agreement with the performed Glauber calculations. It is found that for the used NN models the total longitudinal and transversal pd cross sections are comparable in absolute value to those for pp scattering.
Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing
.9 Nuclear energy - - Total conventional energy 37,504 84.9 Renewable energy (RE) Traditional biomass 5Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing Asia Alternative Energy Program, Energy.R.China Zhuang Xing Center for Renewable Energy Development, Energy Research Institute, State Development
Relaxed elastic lines of second kind in semi-dual spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydin ?ekerci, Gül?ah; Ceylan Çöken, A.
2015-09-01
Theory of elasticity is a topic that keeps improving by using on many fields such as geometry, physics, chemistry and engineering. Energy density is given as some functions of curvature and torsion. If the curve of the Is will be an external for the variation problem that minimizes the value of energy density: then this curve is called as relaxed elastic line. The relaxed elastic line on an oriented surface is considered as a model of DNA molecule. In this study, we worked on the second type relaxed elastic lines on the semi-dual spaces which has an important point on kinematic and Einstein's relativity theory. We also obtained boundary conditions for this type of curves. Moreover, the minimization problem of the energy which occurs with an applied force on an elastic line was discussed. Then, we researched the formed potential energy due to the applied force. Also, during the calculation of the potential energy on the elastic line, the amount of the potential energy for unit length of the elastic line was used. Afterwards, by integrating that amount, total potential energy calculated. So, we study to make a contribute both Einstein's relativity theory and kinematic.
California's biomass and its energy potential
Lucarelli, F.B. Jr.
1980-04-01
The potentials for using California's biomass for energy have been assessed. The study relies on the recent work of Amory Lovins and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Distributed Energy System's Project to specify an energy future for Californians. These works identify transportation fuels as the most valuable energy conversion for biomass. Within this context, the extent of five categories of terrestial biomass is estimated, in addition to the environmental impacts and monetary cost of collecting and transporting each biomass category. Estimates of the costs of transforming biomass into different fuels as well as a survey of government's role in a biomass energy program are presented. The major findings are summarized below. (1) California's existing biomass resources are sufficient to provide only 20 percent of its future liquid fuel requirements. (2) Meeting the full transportation demand with biomass derived fuels will require the development of exotic biomass sources such as kelp farms and significant reductions in automobile travel in the State. (3) Under assumptions of moderate increases in gasoline prices and without major new government incentives, the cost of transforming biomass into transport fuels will be competitive with the price of gasoline on a Btu basis by the year 1990. (4) The environmental impacts of collecting most forms of biomass are beneficial and should reduce air pollution from agricultural burning and water pollution from feedlot and dairy farm runoff. Moreover, the collection of logging residues should improve timber stand productivity and the harvest of chaparral should reduce the risk of wildfire in the State. (5) The institutional context for implementing biomass energy projects is complex and fragmented.
Rapid Hydrogel Microactuator Using Elastic Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Howon; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas
2009-03-01
Rapid Hydrogel Microactuator Using Elastic Instability Inspired by rapid movement of sensitive plants such as Venus flytrap [1], we present an innovative way to enhance actuation speed of hydrogel micro devices by exploiting elastic instability. In this work, hydrogel micro devices in doubly curved shape are designed and fabricated using projection micro-stereolithography[2], with embedded microfluidic channels on the surface. Local swelling of hydrogel around channels causes bending which subsequently induces stretching of the soft structure. Such coupling gives rise to elastic instability, the onset of which triggers rapid conversion of stored elastic energy into kinetic energy in fast motion. We further designed a set of devices with different dimensions, which leads to different coupling of elastic energy in bending and stretching [1]. Our experimental results verified the critical coupling parameter that triggers snap-buckling motion. Ongoing experiments are investigating the actuation speed as a function of coupling parameter. This novel approach promises new potential applications for hydrogel based devices in various fields of study including microfluidics, soft robotics, artificial muscle, and drug delivery. Reference [1] Forterre, Y., et al, Nature, 433, 421-425 (2005) [2] Sun, C., et al, Sensors and Actuators A, 121:1, 113-120 (2005)
Anderson, E K; Boadle, R A; Machacek, J R; Chiari, L; Makochekanwa, C; Buckman, S J; Brunger, M J; Garcia, G; Blanco, F; Ingolfsson, O; Sullivan, J P
2014-07-21
Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach. PMID:25053319
Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production
Troshin, S. M.
2013-04-15
It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.
Development of the Potential Energy Savings Estimation (PESE) Toolkit
Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.
2010-01-01
This study has developed a prototype computer tool called the Potential Energy Savings Estimation (PESE) Toolkit. Baltazar’s methodology for potential energy savings estimation from EBCx/retrofit measures has been improved ...
Free energy perturbation method for measuring elastic constants of liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Abhijeet
There is considerable interest in designing liquid crystals capable of yielding specific morphological responses in confined environments, including capillaries and droplets. The morphology of a liquid crystal is largely dictated by the elastic constants, which are difficult to measure and are only available for a handful of substances. In this work, a first-principles based method is proposed to calculate the Frank elastic constants of nematic liquid crystals directly from atomistic models. These include the standard splay, twist and bend deformations, and the often-ignored but important saddle-splay constant. The proposed method is validated using a well-studied Gay-Berne(3,5,2,1) model; we examine the effects of temperature and system size on the elastic constants in the nematic and smectic phases. We find that our measurements of splay, twist, and bend elastic constants are consistent with previous estimates for the nematic phase. We further outline the implementation of our approach for the saddle-splay elastic constant, and find it to have a value at the limits of the Ericksen inequalities. We then proceed to report results for the elastic constants commonly known liquid crystals namely 4-pentyl-4'-cynobiphenyl (5CB) using atomistic model, and show that the values predicted by our approach are consistent with a subset of the available but limited experimental literature.
Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose
Penrose, Oliver
Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot of nonlinear elasticity or nonlinear elasticity Abstract A method is suggested for defining a deformation-dependent free energy in microscopic terms for a deformed elastic solid and applied to a simple microscopic model
Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum
Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.
1980-01-01
The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Yang, Zhou; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Zhong
2015-05-01
Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin.Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00841g
Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation
Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A.; Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J.; Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E.
2014-05-21
Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3?°C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.
An Iterative Global Optimization Algorithm for Potential Energy Minimization
An Iterative Global Optimization Algorithm for Potential Energy Minimization N. P. Moloi and M. M, potential energy, iterative, global optimization. 1 Introduction Potential energy functions are becoming and in structure-based drug design. These functions are often used as global optimization problems in search
Elasticity and Capillarity PMMH-ESPCI, Paris
Bico,José
Elasticity and Capillarity José Bico PMMH-ESPCI, Paris #12;Macro and microscopic exemples flexible.com 100 µm #12;Rackets ? #12;Elasticity vs. Capillarity Bending energy Surface energy RL w h Eh 3 R wL2 Eb
Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitzman, Murray
2013-03-01
Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.
Grain-boundary free energy in an assembly of elastic disks.
Lusk, Mark T; Beale, Paul D
2004-02-01
Grain-boundary free energy is estimated as a function of misoriention for symmetric tilt boundaries in an assembly of nearly hard disks. Fluctuating cell theory is used to accomplish this since the most common techniques for calculating interfacial free energy cannot be applied to such assemblies. The results are analogous to those obtained using a Leonard-Jones potential, but in this case the interfacial energy is dominated by an entropic contribution. Disk assemblies colorized with free and specific volume elucidate differences between these two characteristics of boundary structure. Profiles are also provided of the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies as a function of distance from the grain boundaries. Low angle grain boundaries are shown to follow the classical relationship between dislocation orientation/spacing and misorientation angle. PMID:14995530
Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates
Collett, T.S.
2002-01-01
The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.
1976-01-01
A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.
Naoto Yokoyama; Masanori Takaoka
2014-12-09
A single-wavenumber representation of nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., stretching energy spectrum is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wavenumber space, and analytical expressions of detailed energy budget in the nonlinear interactions are obtained for the first time in wave turbulence systems. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic and bending energies are comparable with each other at large wavenumbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, the stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wavenumbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode $a_{\\bm{k}}$ and its companion mode $a_{-\\bm{k}}$ is observed at the small wavenumbers. Energy transfer shows that the energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wavenumbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wavenumbers. A total-energy flux consistent with the energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.
Synergy of elastic and inelastic energy loss on ion track formation in SrTiO3
Weber, William J.; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Sachan, Ritesh; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Liu, Peng; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen
2015-01-01
While the interaction of energetic ions with solids is well known to result in inelastic energy loss to electrons and elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei in the solid, the coupled effects of these energy losses on defect production, nanostructure evolution and phase transformations in ionic and covalently bonded materials are complex and not well understood due to dependencies on electron-electron scattering processes, electron-phonon coupling, localized electronic excitations, diffusivity of charged defects, and solid-state radiolysis. Here we show that a colossal synergy occurs between inelastic energy loss and pre-existing atomic defects created by elastic energy loss in single crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3), resulting in the formation of nanometer-sized amorphous tracks, but only in the narrow region with pre-existing defects. These defects locally decrease the electronic and atomic thermal conductivities and increase electron-phonon coupling, which locally increase the intensity of the thermal spike for each ion. This work identifies a major gap in understanding on the role of defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron-phonon coupling; it also provides insights for creating novel interfaces and nanostructures to functionalize thin film structures, including tunable electronic, ionic, magnetic and optical properties. PMID:25578009
Bostock, Christopher J; Berrington, Michael J; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor
2011-08-26
The measurements of the Sherman function in elastic electron-cadmium scattering by Bartsch et al. [J. Phys. B 25, 1511 (1992)] have been in serious disagreement with scattering theories for nearly two decades. The recently developed relativistic convergent close-coupling method is applied to the problem and found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over the complete energy range measured. The unusually rapid variation in the spin asymmetry parameter in the vicinity of 4 eV projectile energy is now explained in terms of unitarity of the close-coupling formalism. PMID:21929240
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whetstone, Z. D.; Kearfott, K. J.
2015-07-01
This work describes preliminary investigation into the design of a compact, portable, variable energy neutron source. The proposed method uses elastic neutron scatter at specific angles to reduce the energy of deuterium-deuterium or deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutrons. The research focuses on D-T Monte Carlo simulations, both in idealized and more realistic scenarios. Systematic uncertainty of the method is also analyzed. The research showed promise, but highlighted the need for discrimination of multiply-scattered neutrons, either through a pulsed generator or associated particle imaging.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1988-01-01
The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.
Energy Consumption and Conservation Potential at a Georgia Textile Plant
Gurta, M. E.; Brown, M. L.
1994-01-01
is air-conditioned, the plant is an intensive user of electricity, fossil fuel, and water. Following completion of the energy analysis, recommendations to conserve energy and water resources were developed. Potential energy savings of approximately thirty...
ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT
An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croft, James F. E.; Hutson, Jeremy M.
2013-03-01
We show that multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) can be applied successfully as an efficient computational method for cold molecular collisions in Li+NH, which has a deep and strongly anisotropic interaction potential. In this strongly coupled system, closed-channel poles restrict the range over which the MQDT Y can be interpolated. We present an improved procedure to transform the MQDT reference functions so that the poles are removed from the energy range of interest. Effects due to very-long-range spin dipolar couplings are outside the scope of MQDT, but can be added perturbatively. This procedure makes it possible to calculate the elastic and inelastic cross sections, over the entire range of energies and fields needed to evaluate the feasibility of sympathetic cooling of NH by Li, using coupled-channel calculations at only five combinations of energy and field.
Magazu, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio
2012-10-15
Recently [S. Magazu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011)] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.
Microscopic self-energy calculations and dispersive optical-model potentials
S. J. Waldecker; C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff
2011-05-21
Nucleon self-energies for 40Ca, 48Ca, 60Ca isotopes are generated with the microscopic Faddeev-random-phase approximation (FRPA). These self-energies are compared with potentials from the dispersive optical model (DOM) that were obtained from fitting elastic-scattering and bound-state data for 40Ca and 48Ca. The \\textit{ab initio} FRPA is capable of explaining many features of the empirical DOM potentials including their nucleon asymmetry dependence. The comparison furthermore provides several suggestions to improve the functional form of the DOM potentials, including among others the exploration of parity and angular momentum dependence. The non-locality of the FRPA imaginary self-energy, illustrated by a substantial orbital angular momentum dependence, suggests that future DOM fits should consider this feature explicitly. The roles of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force and charge-exchange component in generating the asymmetry dependence of the FPRA self-energies are explored. The global features of the FRPA self-energies are not strongly dependent on the choice of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction.
Pakleza, Christophe; Cognet, Jean A. H.
2003-01-01
A new molecular modelling methodology is presented and shown to apply to all published solution structures of DNA hairpins with TTT in the loop. It is based on the theory of elasticity of thin rods and on the assumption that single-stranded B-DNA behaves as a continuous, unshearable, unstretchable and flexible thin rod. It requires four construction steps: (i) computation of the tri-dimensional trajectory of the elastic line, (ii) global deformation of single-stranded helical DNA onto the elastic line, (iii) optimisation of the nucleoside rotations about the elastic line, (iv) energy minimisation to restore backbone bond lengths and bond angles. This theoretical approach called ‘Biopolymer Chain Elasticity’ (BCE) is capable of reproducing the tri-dimensional course of the sugar–phosphate chain and, using NMR-derived distances, of reproducing models close to published solution structures. This is shown by computing three different types of distance criteria. The natural description provided by the elastic line and by the new parameter, ?, which corresponds to the rotation angles of nucleosides about the elastic line, offers a considerable simplification of molecular modelling of hairpin loops. They can be varied independently from each other, since the global shape of the hairpin loop is preserved in all cases. PMID:12560506
Coupled channel effect in elastic scattering and fusion for 6,7Li+28Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Mandira; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Majumdar, H.; Santra, S.; Parkar, V. V.; Golda, K. S.; Kailas, S.
2011-10-01
The fusion excitation and elastic angular distribution were measured for 6,7Li+28Si from below to above Coulomb barrier (? 3Vb) energies. The barrier distribution derived from the fusion data was found to be broad and asymmetric at the sub-barrier region, compared to 1D BPM estimation. Effect of rotational coupling on fusion was found to be not so dominant. Phenomenological optical potential parameters, with surface and volume type imaginary potentials, were obtained from f tting of elastic scattering data and energy dependence of real and imaginary surface strengths were investigated around the barrier. CDCC calculations considering only breakup of projectile were performed for 6,7Li+28Si with the elastic scattering data, using the code FRESCO. The effects of breakup of projectile on elastic cross section do not agree with the energy dependence of real and imaginary strength with volume type imaginary potential around the barrier.
The dp-elastic cross section measurement at the deuteron kinetic energy of 2.5 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurilkin, P.; Agakishiev, G.; Behnke, C.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dritsa, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Höhne, C.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Krizek, F.; Kuc, H.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.
2012-12-01
New results on the differential cross section in deuteron-proton elastic scattering are obtained at the deuteron kinetic energy of 2.5 GeV with the HADES spectrometer. The angular range of 69° - 125° in the center of mass system is covered. The obtained results are compared with the relativistic multiple scattering model calculation using the CD-Bonn deuteron wave function. The data at fixed scattering angles in the c.m. are in qualitative agreement with the constituent counting rules prediction.
Energy and Its Conservation Work: not always what you think
Glashausser, Charles
CHAPTER 6 Energy and Its Conservation Work: not always what you think Energy of motion: kinetic energy Energy of position: potential energy Gravitational potential energy The reference level Mechanical energy and its conservation Electric potential energy Springs: elastic potential energy Hooke's law
Low-energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering and the A(y) puzzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Michael H.
2000-10-01
Angular distributions of cross sections and complete sets of analyzing powers have been measured for d-p scattering at a center-of-mass energy of 667 +/- 1 keV. This set of high-precision data was compared to the most recent variational calculations with the nucleon- nucleon potential AV18 alone and with AV18 plus the UR three- nucleon potential. The calculations have the best agreement with the cross-section data while the comparison with the tensor analyzing powers showed good agreement. However, a comparison between the vector analyzing powers revealed differences of approximately 40% in the maxima of the angular distributions. These NAP discrepancies have been observed at Ec.m. >= 2.0 MeV as well as in the n-d scattering case. After the n-d experiments, the problem has been labelled the `` Ay Puzzle''. A ?2/datum analysis was performed with the lowest values achieved by the inclusion of a three- nucleon force in the theoretical calculations. This fact provides more credence for the existence of three-nucleon forces. However, the ?2/datum for the VAPs remained approximately 100. To investigate the root of the problem in addition to other differences between the theory and the data, a single-energy phase shift analysis (PSA) was performed. The best fits to the NAP data displayed an ~20% increase in the mixing parameter e/- and an increase in the splitting between 4 PJ phase shifts from the variational calculations with the AV18+UR potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh; Khoa, Dao T.
2015-09-01
The nucleon mean-field potential has been thoroughly investigated in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM) using the CDM3Y3 and CDM3Y6 density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction. The single-particle (SP) energies of nucleons in NM are determined according to the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, which gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT) of the SP potential at the Fermi momentum. Using the RT obtained exactly at the different NM densities and neutron-proton asymmetries, a consistent method is suggested to take into account effectively the momentum dependence of the RT of the SP potential within the standard HF scheme. To obtain a realistic momentum dependence of the nucleon optical potential (OP), the high-momentum part of the SP potential was accurately readjusted to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the nucleon OP over a wide range of energies. The impact of the RT and momentum dependence of the SP potential on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and nucleon effective mass has been studied in detail. The high-momentum tail of the SP potential was found to have a sizable effect on the slope of the symmetry energy and the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at supranuclear densities of the NM. Based on a local density approximation, the folding model of the nucleon OP of finite nuclei has been extended to take into account consistently the RT and momentum dependence of the nucleon OP in the same mean-field manner, and successfully applied to study the elastic neutron scattering on the lead target at the energies around the Fermi energy.
Mathie, E.L.; Smith, G.R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Vogler, F.; Daum, M.; Mango, S.; Konter, J.A.
1983-12-01
The ..pi..-d elastic differential cross-section and the vector analyzing power have been measured between CTHETA/sub c.m./ = 95/sup 0/ and 165/sup 0/ at incident pion energies between 117 and 151 MeV. Both observables show a smooth behavior as a function of angle and energy.
The Potential for Wind Energy in Atlantic Canada
Hughes, Larry
of many renewable sources of energy, such as solar, biomass, hydroelectric, and wind. This paper considersThe Potential for Wind Energy in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes and Sandy Scott Whale Lake Research World Renewable Energy Congress, Reading, September 1992. #12;Hughes/Scott: Wind Energy in Atlantic
Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource
energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop $5% of world primary energy con- sumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production are real, but the con- cerns are also justified. As investments in biomass energy increase, there needs
Potential energy landscapes of elemental and heterogeneous chalcogen clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro, John C.; Loucks, Roger J.; Balakrishnan, Jitendra; Varshneya, Arun K.
2006-02-01
We describe the potential energy landscapes of elemental S8 , Se8 , and Te8 clusters using disconnectivity graphs. Inherent structures include both ring and chain configurations, with rings especially dominant in Se8 . We also map the potential energy landscapes of heterogeneous Sen(S,Te)8-n clusters, which offer insights into the structure of heterogeneous chalcogen glasses.
Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration
none,
2009-09-01
This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.
Joost H. Weijs; Bruno Andreotti; Jacco H. Snoeijer
2013-05-30
The capillary forces exerted by liquid drops and bubbles on a soft solid are directly measured using molecular dynamics simulations. The force on the solid by the liquid near the contact line is not oriented along the liquid vapor interface nor perpendicular to the solid surface, as usually assumed, but points towards the liquid. It is shown that the elastic deformations induced by this force can only be explained if, contrary to an incompressible liquid, the surface stress is different from the surface energy. Using thermodynamic variations we show that the the surface stress and the surface energy can both be determined accurately by measuring the deformation of a slender body plunged in a liquid. The results obtained from molecular dynamics fully confirm those recently obtained experimentally [Marchand et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 094301 (2012)] for an elastomeric wire.
Hoshino, M; Limão-Vieira, P; Anzai, K; Kato, H; Cho, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Blanco, F; García, G; Ingólfsson, O; Tanaka, H
2014-09-28
We report absolute elastic differential cross sections for electron interactions with the C4F6 isomers, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4F6), hexafluoro-2-butyne (2-C4F6), and hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6). The incident electron energy range is 1.5-200 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varies from 15° to 150°. In all cases the absolute scale of the differential cross section was set using the relative flow technique, with helium as the reference species. Atomic-like behaviour in these scattering systems is shown here for the first time, and is further investigated by comparing the elastic cross sections for the C4F6 isomers with other fluorinated molecules, such as SF6 and CnF6 (n = 2, 3, and 6). We note that for all the six-F containing molecules, the scattering process for electron energies above 30 eV is indistinguishable. Finally, we report results for calculations of elastic differential cross sections for electron scattering from each of these isomers, within an optical potential method and assuming a screened corrected independent atom representation. The level of agreement between these calculations and our measurements is found to be quite remarkable in all cases. PMID:25273432
A'Amar, O M; Liou, L; Rodriguez-Diaz, E; De las Morenas, A; Bigio, I J
2013-09-01
The false-negative rate of ultrasound-guided sextant prostate biopsy has been estimated to be as high as 35 %. A significant percentage (10-35 %) of these prostate cancers diagnosed at a second or later attempt are high grade and, therefore, potentially lethal. We discuss the feasibility for performing optically guided biopsy using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) to reduce sampling errors and improve sensitivity. ESS measurements were performed on 42 prostate glands ex vivo and correlated with standard histopathological assessment. Sliced glands were examined with wavelength ranges of 330-760 nm. The ESS portable system used a new fiber-optic probe with integrated cutting tool, designed specifically for ex vivo pathology applications. ESS spectra were grouped by diagnosis from standard histopathological procedure and then classified using linear support vector machine. Preliminary data are encouraging. ESS data showed strong spectral trends correlating with the histopathological assignments. The classification results showed a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.87 for distinguishing dysplastic prostatic tissue from benign prostatic tissue. Similar results were obtained for distinguishing dysplastic prostatic tissue from prostatitis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. The negative predictive values obtained with ESS are better than those obtained with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided core-needle biopsy. PMID:23247663
HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS
PARSA,Z.
2000-04-07
In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.
Energy in America: Progress and Potential.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.
An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…
Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies
Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.
1985-09-01
This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.
The black disk and the dip in the differential elastic cross section at asymptotic energy
I. Bautista; J. Dias de Deus
2012-12-08
We test the validity of the black disk limit in elastic scattering by studying the evolution of the dip in the scaling variable $\\tau=-t_{D}\\sigma^{tot}$, where $t_{D}$ is the transverse momentum squared at the dip and $\\sigma_{tot}$ the total cross section. As $s\\rightarrow \\infty $ and $-t_{D} \\rightarrow 0 $, $\\tau$ may consistently be approaching the black disc value, $\\tau \\xrightarrow[ \\sqrt{s}\\rightarrow \\infty ]{} \\tau_{BD}=35.92$ GeV$^{2}$ mb.
Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska
Hiester, T.R.
1980-06-01
This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.
Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chemical and Engineering News, 1974
1974-01-01
Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafson, Gösta; Lönnblad, Leif; Ster, András; Csörg?, Tamás
2015-10-01
In order to understand the initial partonic state in proton-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions, we investigate the total, inelastic, and (quasi-)elastic cross sections in p A and ? ? A collisions, as these observables are insensitive to possible collective effects in the final state interactions. We used as a tool the DIPSY dipole model, which is based on BFKL dynamics including non-leading effects, saturation, and colour interference, which we have extended to describe collisions of protons and virtual photons with nuclei. We present results for collisions with O, Cu, and Pb nuclei, and reproduce preliminary data on the pPb inelastic cross section at LHC by CMS and LHCb. The large NN cross section results in p A scattering that scales approximately with the area. The results are compared with conventional Glauber model calculations, and we note that the more subtle dynamical effects are more easily studied in the ratios between the total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections. The smaller photon interaction makes the ? ? A collisions more closely proportional to A, and we see here that future electron-ion colliders would be valuable complements to the p A collisions in studies of dynamical effects from correlations, coherence and fluctuations in the initial state in high energy nuclear collisions.
Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean
Samuels, G.
1984-12-01
Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.
Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials
Alexander Pikovski
2015-06-28
Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states.
Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikovski, Alexander
2015-11-01
Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states.
Periodic Discrete Energy for Long-Range Potentials
D. P. Hardin; E. B. Saff; Brian Simanek
2014-12-11
We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.
2015-01-01
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
2015-12-01
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330
Energy Stored in a Capacitor What is the potential energy, U, of a
Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University
Energy Stored in a Capacitor What is the potential energy, U, of a charged capacitor? Think of U energy by discharging capacitor VqWU == #12;Energy Stored in a Capacitor Charge capacitor by transferring takes positive work to charge capacitor #12;Energy Stored in a Capacitor At given instance potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harbola, Manoj; Myneni, Hemanadhan; Shamim, Md.
2014-03-01
The modified local spin density functional and the related local potential for excited-states are tested by employing the ionization potential theorem. The functional is constructed by splitting k-space. Since its functional derivative cannot be obtained easily, the corresponding potential is given by analogy to its ground-state counterpart. Further, to calculate the highest occupied orbital energy ?max accurately, the potential is corrected for its asymptotic behavior by employing the van Leeuwen-Barends correction to it. The highest occupied orbital energy ?max thus obtained is then compared with the ?SCF ionization energy calculated using the excited-state functional. It is shown that the two match quite accurately, demonstrating thereby that our approach of constructing excited-state functional is on sound footing.
Zorko, A; Kokalj, J; Komelj, M; Adamopoulos, O; Luetkens, H; Ar?on, D; Lappas, A
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated ?-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hai-Bo; Zheng, Na
2015-07-01
A version of Geant4 has been developed to treat high-energy proton radiography. This article presents the results of calculations simulating the effects of nuclear elastic scattering for various test step wedges. Comparisons with experimental data are also presented. The traditional expressions of the transmission should be correct if the angle distribution of the scattering is Gaussian multiple Coulomb scattering. The mean free path (which depends on the collimator angle) and the radiation length are treated as empirical parameters, according to transmission as a function of thickness obtained by simulations. The results can be used in density reconstruction, which depends on the transmission expressions. Supported by NSAF (11176001) and Science and Technology Developing Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012A0202006)
Zorko, A.; Kokalj, J.; Komelj, M.; Adamopoulos, O.; Luetkens, H.; Ar?on, D.; Lappas, A.
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated ?-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810
Exploring wind energy potential off the California coast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qingfang; Doyle, James D.; Haack, Tracy; Dvorak, Michael J.; Archer, Cristina L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.
2008-10-01
Wind energy represents the nearest term cost-effective renewable energy source. While efforts have been made to assess wind energy potential over land around the world, offshore wind energy resources are largely unexplored, in part because these regions have relatively sparse wind observations. In this study, the wind energy potential offshore of the California coast is evaluated using a well-tested high-resolution numerical model dataset. We found that along the coastline, the low-level winds exhibit strong spatial variation and are characterized by alternating windspeed maxima and minima near coastal promontories associated with the interaction between the marine boundary layer and coastal topography. Further analysis highlights the enormous and reliable wind energy development potential in these persistent offshore windspeed maxima.
H. M. Fried; P. H. Tsang; Y. Gabellini; T. Grandou; Y-M. Sheu
2015-11-25
A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.
Fried, H M; Gabellini, Y; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y-M
2015-01-01
A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.
New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei
Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.
2014-12-15
The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.
Feature Article Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Chemical
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Feature Article Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions: An Overview of Some Practical Methods H. BERNHARD SCHLEGEL Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan concept in the application of electronic structure methods to the study of molecular structures
Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.
Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B
2008-02-01
Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439
Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited
Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.
2009-03-04
For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.
Elastic models of the glass transition applied to a liquid with density anomalies
M. Pica Ciamarra; Peter Sollich
2015-08-19
Elastic models of the glass transition relate the relaxation dynamics and the elastic properties of structural glasses. They are based on the assumption that the relaxation dynamics occurs through activated events in the energy landscape whose energy scale is set by the elasticity of the material. Here we investigate whether such elastic models describe the relaxation dynamics of systems of particles interacting via a purely repulsive harmonic potential, focusing on a volume fraction and temperature range that is characterized by entropy--driven water--like density anomalies. We do find clear correlations between relaxation time and diffusivity on the one hand, and plateau shear modulus and Debye--Waller factor on the other, thus supporting the validity of elastic models of the glass transition. However, we also show that the plateau shear modulus is not related to the features of the underlying energy landscape of the system, at variance with recent results for power--law potentials. This challenges the common potential energy landscape interpretation of elastic models.
Potential energy landscapes of elemental and heterogeneous chalcogen clusters
Mauro, John C.; Loucks, Roger J.; Balakrishnan, Jitendra; Varshneya, Arun K.
2006-02-15
We describe the potential energy landscapes of elemental S{sub 8}, Se{sub 8}, and Te{sub 8} clusters using disconnectivity graphs. Inherent structures include both ring and chain configurations, with rings especially dominant in Se{sub 8}. We also map the potential energy landscapes of heterogeneous Se{sub n}(S,Te){sub 8-n} clusters, which offer insights into the structure of heterogeneous chalcogen glasses.
Elastic scattering of nuclear systems induced by weakly bound projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martí, G. V.; Fimiani, L.; Figueira, J. M.; Testoni, J. E.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Cárdenas, W. H. Z.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P.; de Barbará, E.; Hojman, D.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A.; Pacheco, A. J.
2012-02-01
The influence of the breakup channel on the elastic scattering and on the fusion process for systems that involve weakly bound stable nuclei has been widely investigated in the last years. One of the most used approaches to address these problems is to investigate the energy dependence of the nuclear interaction potential. For tightly bound systems at energies close to the Coulomb barrier, this energy dependence exhibits the behavior known as threshold anomaly. On the other hand, for various weakly bound systems the nuclear potential as a function of energy has a completely different behavior known as breakup threshold anomaly. In this report we present an overview of the subject discussing the different experimental measurements and theoretical interpretations that have been published. In this framework, we present the results of the elastic scattering cross sections for the 6,7Li+80Se systems that have been recently measured at the TANDAR laboratory and we discuss the conclusions obtained from these studies.
Kappa distribution in the presence of a potential energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livadiotis, George
2015-02-01
The present paper develops the theory and formulations of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems characterized by a nonzero potential energy. As yet, kappa distributions were used for the statistical description of the velocity or kinetic energy of particles but not of the potential energy. With the results provided here, it is straightforward to use the developed kappa distributions to describe any particle population of space plasmas subject to a nonnegligible potential energy. Starting from the kappa distribution of the Hamiltonian function, we develop the distributions that describe either the complete phase space or the marginal spaces of positions and velocities. The study shows, among others: (a) The kappa distributions of velocities that describe space plasmas can be vastly different from the standard formulation of the kappa distribution, because of the presence of a potential energy; the correct formulation should be given by the marginal kappa distribution of velocities by integrating the distribution of the Hamiltonian over the potential energy. (b) The long-standing problem of the divergence of the Boltzmannian exponential distribution for bounded radial potentials is solved using kappa distributions of negative kappa index. (c) Anisotropic distributions of velocities can exist in the presence of a velocity-dependent potential. (d) A variety of applications, including derivations/verifications of the following: (i) the Jeans', the most frequent, and the maximum radii in spherical/linear gravitational potentials; (ii) the Virial theorem for power law potentials; (iii) the generalized barometric formula, (iv) the plasma density profiles in Saturnian magnetosphere, and (v) the average electron magnetic moment in Earth's magnetotail.
Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.
Lee, Da-Sheng
2014-01-01
Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manning, Gerald S.
2015-09-01
We give a contemporary and direct derivation of a classical, but insufficiently familiar, result in the theory of linear elasticity—a representation for the energy of a stressed elastic rod with central axis that intrinsically takes the shape of a general space curve. We show that the geometric torsion of the space curve, while playing a crucial role in the bending energy, is physically unrelated to the elastic twist. We prove that the twist energy vanishes in the lowest-energy states of a rod subject to constraints that do not restrict the twist. The stretching and contraction energies of a free helical spring are computed. There are local high-energy minima. We show the possibility of using the spring to model the chirality of DNA. We then compare our results with an available atomic level energy simulation that was performed on DNA unconstrained in the same sense as the free spring. We find some possible reflections of springlike behavior in the mechanics of DNA, but, unsurprisingly, the base pairs lend a material substance to the core of DNA that a spring does not capture.
Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks
Koch, Werner Zhang, Dong H.
2014-07-14
We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.
Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies
Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.
2010-01-01
State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.
Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands
Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.
2013-02-01
This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.
Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in
Tailleux, Remi
Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in Stratified Fluids R´emi Tailleux in classi- cal thermodynamics, however, usually relies on the concept of exergy, and is usually measured Thermodynamic and fluid dynamics views of available energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Useful work, exergy
High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes
Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel
2013-10-22
A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.
Robust jumping performance and elastic energy recovery from compliant perches in tree frogs.
Astley, Henry C; Haruta, Alison; Roberts, Thomas J
2015-11-01
Arboreal animals often move on compliant branches, which may deform substantially under loads, absorbing energy. Energy stored in a compliant substrate may be returned to the animal or it may be lost. In all cases studied so far, animals jumping from a static start lose all of the energy imparted to compliant substrates and performance is reduced. Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) are particularly capable arboreal jumpers, and we hypothesized that these animals would be able to recover energy from perches of varying compliance. In spite of large deflections of the perches and consequent substantial energy absorption, frogs were able to regain some of the energy lost to the perch during the recoil. Takeoff velocity was robust to changes in compliance, but was lower than when jumping from flat surfaces. This highlights the ability of animals to minimize energy loss and maintain dependable performance on challenging substrates via behavioral changes. PMID:26538173
Role of energy dependent interaction potential in sub-barrier fusion of S2814i +Z9040r system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautam, Manjeet Singh; Sharma, Manoj K.
2015-08-01
We have analyzed the importance of the inelastic surface vibrations of colliding nuclei in the sub-barrier fusion enhancement of S2814i +Z9040r system by using the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) in conjunction with one dimensional Wong formula and the coupled channel formulation using the code CCFULL. The multi-phonon vibrational states of colliding nuclei seem to impart significant contribution. The coupling between relative motion of reactants and these relevant channels in turn produce anomalously large sub-barrier fusion enhancement over the expectations of one dimensional barrier penetration model. Furthermore, the effects of coupling to inelastic surface excitations are imitated due to energy dependence in the Woods-Saxon potential. In EDWSP model calculations, a wide range of diffuseness parameter much larger than the elastic scattering predictions is needed to account the observed fusion enhancement in the close vicinity of Coulomb barrier.
Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean
Samuels, G.
1984-08-01
Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.
Separable Representation of Energy-Dependent Optical Potentials
Linda Hlophe; Charlotte Elster
2015-12-22
Background. One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Results. Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n$+^{48}$Ca, n$+^{208}$Pb, and p$+^{208}$Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50~MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions. We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the $S$ matrix elements.
Separable Representation of Energy-Dependent Optical Potentials
Hlophe, Linda
2015-01-01
Background. One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity e...
On the nuclear interaction. Potential, binding energy and fusion reaction
I. Casinos
2008-05-22
The nuclear interaction is responsible for keeping neutrons and protons joined in an atomic nucleus. Phenomenological nuclear potentials, fitted to experimental data, allow one to know about the nuclear behaviour with more or less success where quantum mechanics is hard to be used. A nuclear potential is suggested and an expression for the potential energy of two nuclear entities, either nuclei or nucleons, is developed. In order to estimate parameters in this expression, some nucleon additions to nuclei are considered and a model is suggested as a guide of the addition process. Coulomb barrier and energy for the addition of a proton to each one of several nuclei are estimated by taking into account both the nuclear and electrostatic components of energy. Studies on the binding energies of several nuclei and on the fusion reaction of two nuclei are carried out.
Coda wave interferometry and the equilibration of energy in elastic media Roel Snieder
Snieder, Roel
potentially be used in non- destructive testing of materials to detect the formation of cracks, but it also- toring of dams and volcanoes. In such applications, the num- ber of receivers is often limited, so
Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr{sub 2}
Ormeci, A. |; Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.
1997-04-01
The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr{sub 2} have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson`s ratio and the direction dependence of Young`s modulus.
Elastic proteins: biological roles and mechanical properties.
Gosline, John; Lillie, Margo; Carrington, Emily; Guerette, Paul; Ortlepp, Christine; Savage, Ken
2002-01-01
The term 'elastic protein' applies to many structural proteins with diverse functions and mechanical properties so there is room for confusion about its meaning. Elastic implies the property of elasticity, or the ability to deform reversibly without loss of energy; so elastic proteins should have high resilience. Another meaning for elastic is 'stretchy', or the ability to be deformed to large strains with little force. Thus, elastic proteins should have low stiffness. The combination of high resilience, large strains and low stiffness is characteristic of rubber-like proteins (e.g. resilin and elastin) that function in the storage of elastic-strain energy. Other elastic proteins play very different roles and have very different properties. Collagen fibres provide exceptional energy storage capacity but are not very stretchy. Mussel byssus threads and spider dragline silks are also elastic proteins because, in spite of their considerable strength and stiffness, they are remarkably stretchy. The combination of strength and extensibility, together with low resilience, gives these materials an impressive resistance to fracture (i.e. toughness), a property that allows mussels to survive crashing waves and spiders to build exquisite aerial filters. Given this range of properties and functions, it is probable that elastic proteins will provide a wealth of chemical structures and elastic mechanisms that can be exploited in novel structural materials through biotechnology. PMID:11911769
Elasticity of -Helical Coiled Coils Charles W. Wolgemuth1
Wolgemuth, Charles
Elasticity of -Helical Coiled Coils Charles W. Wolgemuth1 and Sean X. Sun2 1 Department of Cell. Here we compute the conformation and elasticity of double-stranded coiled coils using a simple coarse-grained elastic model. By maximizing the contact between hydrophobic residues and minimizing the elastic energy
Wang,W.; Yang, L.; Huang, H.
2007-01-01
Recent experiments suggested that cholesterol and other lipid components of high negative spontaneous curvature facilitate membrane fusion. This is taken as evidence supporting the stalk-pore model of membrane fusion in which the lipid bilayers go through intermediate structures of high curvature. How do the high-curvature lipid components lower the free energy of the curved structure? Do the high-curvature lipid components modify the average spontaneous curvature of the relevant monolayer, thereby facilitate its bending, or do the lipid components redistribute in the curved structure so as to lower the free energy? This question is fundamental to the curvature elastic energy for lipid mixtures. Here we investigate the lipid distribution in a monolayer of a binary lipid mixture before and after bending, or more precisely in the lamellar, hexagonal, and distorted hexagonal phases. The lipid mixture is composed of 2:1 ratio of brominated di18:0PC and cholesterol. Using a newly developed procedure for the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method, we are able to isolate the bromine distribution and reconstruct the electron density distribution of the lipid mixture in the three phases. We found that the lipid distribution is homogenous and uniform in the lamellar and hexagonal phases. But in the distorted hexagonal phase, the lipid monolayer has nonuniform curvature, and cholesterol almost entirely concentrates in the high curvature region. This finding demonstrates that the association energies between lipid molecules vary with the curvature of membrane. Thus, lipid components in a mixture may redistribute under conditions of nonuniform curvature, such as in the stalk structure. In such cases, the spontaneous curvature depends on the local lipid composition and the free energy minimum is determined by lipid distribution as well as curvature.
Electrical energy and cost savings potential at DOD facilities
Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Lister, L.; DeBaille, L.
1996-06-01
The US Department of Defense (DOD) has been mandated to reduce energy consumption and costs by 20% from 1985 to 2000 and by 30% from 1985 to 2005. Reduction of electrical energy consumption at DOD facilities requires a better understanding of energy consumption patterns and energy and financial savings potential. This paper utilizes two independent studies--EDA (End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm) and MEIP (Model Energy Installation Program)--and whole-installation electricity use data obtained from a state utility to estimate electrical energy conservation potential (ECP) and cost savings potential (CSP) at the Fort Hood, Texas, military installation and at DOD nationwide. At Fort Hood, the authors estimated an annual electricity savings of 62.2 GWh/yr (18%), a peak demand savings of 10.1 MW (14%), and an annual energy cost savings of $6.5 million per year. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $41.1 million, resulting in a simple payback of 6.3 years. Across the DOD, they estimated an annual electricity savings of 4,900 GWh/yr, a peak demand savings of 694 MW, and an annual energy cost savings of $316 million per year. The estimated cost savings is 16% of the total nationwide DOD 1993 annual energy costs. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $1.23 billion, resulting in a simple payback of 3.9 years.
The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping.
Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J
2014-12-15
Many animals use catapult mechanisms to produce extremely rapid movements for escape or prey capture, resulting in power outputs far beyond the limits of muscle. In these catapults, muscle contraction loads elastic structures, which then recoil to release the stored energy extremely rapidly. Many arthropods employ anatomical 'catch mechanisms' to lock the joint in place during the loading period, which can then be released to allow joint motion via elastic recoil. Jumping vertebrates lack a clear anatomical catch, yet face the same requirement to load the elastic structure prior to movement. There are several potential mechanisms to allow loading of vertebrate elastic structures, including the gravitational load of the body, a variable mechanical advantage, and moments generated by the musculature of proximal joints. To test these hypothesized mechanisms, we collected simultaneous 3D kinematics via X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and single-foot forces during the jumps of three Rana pipiens. We calculated joint mechanical advantage, moment and power using inverse dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip and ilio-sacral joints. We found that the increasing proximal joint moments early in the jump allowed for high ankle muscle forces and elastic pre-loading, and the subsequent reduction in these moments allowed the ankle to extend using elastic recoil. Mechanical advantage also changed throughout the jump, with the muscle contracting against a poor mechanical advantage early in the jump during loading and a higher mechanical advantage late in the jump during recoil. These 'dynamic catch mechanisms' serve to resist joint motion during elastic loading, then allow it during elastic recoil, functioning as a catch mechanism based on the balance and orientation of forces throughout the limb rather than an anatomical catch. PMID:25520385
Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems
Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.
1982-11-01
This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badran, R. I.; Istaiti, A. I.; Mashaqbeh, W. N.; Al-Lehyani, I. H.
2015-10-01
Regge pole model is adopted to account for the angular distribution at backward angles for a set of elastic scattering processes of incident ?-particles by different isotopes of nickel ions, 58,60,62,64Ni, at different laboratory energies above Coulomb barrier. The reproduction of cross-sections at backward angles is preceded by an attempt to fit the experimental data at forward angles of the scattering. Three-parameter McIntyre model which is based on concept of strong absorption parametrization of the scattering matrix elements, has been employed to analyze and reproduce the experimental data of angular distribution of different elastic scattering reactions at forward angles. The three parameters extracted from McIntyre model analysis are employed as fixed entries in the fitting process of the full angle-range of angular distribution where another four free parameters are employed using the Regge pole model. Diffractive features observed in the angular distributions are studied. The Fresnel-type diffraction pattern is found dominant for all investigated elastic scatterings where Coulomb interaction is strong. The interaction radius of elastic scattering is found decreasing and the total cross-section increasing when the incident projectile energy increases. Moreover, the interaction radius and total reaction cross-section are found increasing with the increase in the size of target ion. Such diffractive behavior is consistent with the prescriptions of strong absorption model (SAM). Furthermore, the explanation of the diffractive features of studied elastic scattering reactions is model-independent. The Regge pole analysis reveals the existence of a pole which has its location, width, amplitude and phase angle exhibiting a common peak at energy of 24.1MeV with oscillatory behaviour at energies around this peak energy, for all elastic scattering of alpha particle on isotopes of Ni targets except that of 58Ni target which exhibits extra peaks for energy larger than 24.1MeV. We believe that the presence of poles is responsible for the oscillatory structure of the backward cross-sections. The variation of Regge pole parameters with both incident energy and size of target nucleus is illustrated.
Optimizing potential energy functions for maximal intrinsic hyperpolarizability
Zhou Juefei; Szafruga, Urszula B.; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Watkins, David S.
2007-11-15
We use numerical optimization to study the properties of (1) the class of one-dimensional potential energy functions and (2) systems of point nuclei in two dimensions that yield the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizabilities, which we find to be within 30% of the fundamental limit. In all cases, we use a one-electron model. It is found that a broad range of optimized potentials, each of very different character, yield the same intrinsic hyperpolarizability ceiling of 0.709. Furthermore, all optimized potential energy functions share common features such as (1) the value of the normalized transition dipole moment to the dominant state, which forces the hyperpolarizability to be dominated by only two excited states and (2) the energy ratio between the two dominant states. All optimized potentials are found to obey the three-level ansatz to within about 1%. Many of these potential energy functions may be implementable in multiple quantum well structures. The subset of potentials with undulations reaffirm that modulation of conjugation may be an approach for making better organic molecules, though there appear to be many others. Additionally, our results suggest that one-dimensional molecules may have larger diagonal intrinsic hyperpolarizability {beta}{sub xxx}{sup int} than higher-dimensional systems.
Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials
Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.
2012-09-15
For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into 'unperturbed' and 'perturbed' terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double {delta}-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new basis set expansion method is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.
Chen, Krishichayan X.; Lui, Y. -W; Button, J.; Youngblood, David H.
2010-01-01
the elastic-scattering data with the double-folding model using the density-dependent M3Y NN effective interaction and B(E2) and B(E3) values obtained for low-lying 2(+) and 3(-) states agreed with the adopted values. The results are compared with those...
Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry
Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.
1986-06-01
While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, J. M.; Greer, J. C.
2002-09-01
The program PAROPT has been written to extract forcefield parameters from ab initio calculations of potential energy surfaces (PES) and ab initio analytical forces. The ability to use either energies or forces, or a combination of the two to determine forcefield parameters is a novel feature of the program. Simulated annealing is used within the program to minimise the difference between a set of forces and energies calculated using ab initio techniques and the same quantities calculated using an empirical forcefield. Details of the program and methods used to extract forcefield parametrizations are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu
2012-05-01
Electroactive polymers such as piezoelectric elements are able to generate electric potential differences from induced mechanical deformations. They can be used to build devices to harvest ambient energy from natural flow-induced deformations, e.g., as flapping flags subject to flowing wind or artificial seaweed subject to waves or underwater currents. The objectives of this study are to (1) investigate the transient hydroelastic response and energy harvesting potential of flexible piezoelectric beams fluttering in incompressible, viscous flow, and (2) identify critical non-dimensional parameters that govern the response of piezoelectric beams fluttering in viscous flow. The fluid-structure interaction response is simulated using an immersed boundary approach coupled with a finite volume solver for incompressible, viscous flow. The effects of large beam deformation, membrane tension, and coupled electromechanical responses are all considered. Validation studies are shown for the motion of a flexible filament in uniform flow, and for a piezoelectric beam subject to base vibration. The predicted flutter velocities and frequencies also compared well with published experimental and numerical data over a range of Reynolds numbers for varying fluid and solid combinations. The results showed that for a heavy beam in a light fluid (i.e., high ?? regime), flutter incepts at a lower critical speed with a lower reduced frequency than for a light beam in a heavy fluid (i.e., low ?? regime). In the high ?? regime, flutter develops at the second mode and is only realized when the fluid inertial forces are in balance with the solid elastic restoring forces, which leads to large amplitude oscillations and complex wake patterns; the flutter speed is practically independent of the Reynolds number (Re) and solid to fluid mass ratio (??), because the response is dominated by the solid inertial forces. In the low ?? regime, fluid inertial forces dominate, flutter develops at higher modes and is only realized when the solid inertial forces are proportioned to the solid elastic restoring forces; the flutter speed depends on both Re and ??, and viscous force and beam tension effects tend to delay flutter and reduce vibration amplitudes, leading to thinner, more simplified wake patterns. The results demonstrate that energy extraction via fluttering piezoelectric beams is possible. The overall efficiency was observed to be influenced by the piezoelectric circuit resistance, which is known to be directly related to the square of the piezoelectric coupling factor. The results show that the maximum strain limit of piezoelectrics may be exceeded, and hence careful optimization of the material and geometry is recommended to maximize the energy capture for a given range of expected flow conditions while satisfying safety and reliability requirements.
Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands
2000-01-01
Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.
Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs
Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.
1998-06-19
In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than $100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)
Energy harvesting from axial fluid-elastic instabilities of a cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Kiran; Michelin, Sébastien; de Langre, Emmanuel
2012-04-01
A flexible cylindrical system unstable to flutter oscillations is analysed from the perspective of energy harvesting. In this work we analyse the non-linear reduced order model of a two-degree of freedom system of cylinders modelled with discrete stiffness and damping. The non-linear system of equations is solved in terms of cylinder deflection angles. We seek the flow speed range over which flutter oscillations are stable and correspondingly amenable to energy harvesting. Energy harvesters are modelled as viscous dashpots and the coefficients of damping are parametrised in order to determine combinations that harvest maximum power. We show that for harvesting the maximum possible energy the viscous dashpot should be placed away from the region driving the instability and for this model the optimal location is the fixed end. This result is robust to flow speed variation, action of viscous drag and to variations in cylinder geometry.
Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.
1978-01-01
Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.
Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials
Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.
2012-01-01
The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maibam, Jameson; Indrajit Sharma, B.; Bhattacharjee, Ramendu; Thapa, R. K.; Brojen Singh, R. K.
2011-11-01
We have studied the electronic, structural, and elastic properties of scandium carbide and yttrium carbide by means of accurate first principles total energy calculations using the full-potential linearized plane wave method (FP-LAPW). We have used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. Volume optimization, energy band structure, and density of states (DOS) of the systems are presented. The second order elastic constants have been calculated and other related quantities such as the Zener anisotropy factor, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, Kleinman parameter, Debye temperature, and sound velocities have been determined. The band gap calculation shows that YC is relatively more ionic than ScC.
Threshold anomaly in the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 209}Bi
Garcia, A. R.; Padron, I.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lacerda, T.; Garcia, V. N.
2007-12-15
The energy dependence of the optical potential for the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 209}Bi at near and subbarrier energies is studied. Elastic angular distributions and the reaction cross section were simultaneously fitted by performing some modifications in the ECIS code. A phenomenological optical model potential with the Woods-Saxon form was used. There are signatures that the so-called breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) is present in this system having a halo projectile {sup 6}He, as it had been found earlier for systems involving stable weakly bound nuclei.
Curvature of the universe and the dark energy potential
Sergio del Campo
2002-11-25
The flatness of an accelerating universe model (characterized by a dark energy scalar field $\\chi$) is mimicked from a curved model that is filled with, apart from the cold dark matter component, a quintessencelike scalar field $Q$. In this process, we characterize the original scalar potential $V(Q)$ and the mimicked scalar potential $V(\\chi)$ associated to the scalar fields $Q$ and $\\chi$, respectively. The parameters of the original model are fixed through the mimicked quantities that we relate to the present astronomical data, such that the equation state parameter $w_{_{\\chi}}$ and the dark energy density parameter $\\Omega_{\\chi}$.
Recent Results on Elastic and Inelastic Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alamanos, N.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.
In this review article, which corresponds to lectures given by one of us (N.A) at the third "Euroschool on Exotic Beams" held in Leuven in September 1995, we present experimental results and theoretical developments in heavy-ion elastic and inelastic scattering and Giant Resonance excitation. The paper contains a short review of the field with special emphasis on more recent results and problems. We start by recalling the theoretical situation concerning the description of nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering. We show that in the framework of the local density approximation, complex potentials derived from fundamental effective nucleon-nucleon interactions, describe successfully the data. However, the main part of the discussion on elastic scattering, is dedicated to the description of intermediate energy heavy-ion elastic scattering. We present different folding models for the calculation of the real part of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential, M3Y, DDM3Y, .... The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data mainly obtained at GANIL (20-100 Mev per nucleon). We show that a new density dependent interaction which reproduces the equilibrium density and the binding energy of normal nuclear matter, leads also to a satisfactory description of heavy-ion elastic scattering angular distributions. This interaction reproduces also the density and energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. We present a new simple effective interaction with a real and imaginary part for peripheral heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Finally the effect of the isospin and spin terms of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction on the nucleus-nucleus folded potentials is discussed. We introduce the deformed optical model potential which is the most frequently used model, to obtain inelastic scattering transition potentials. However the most direct approach to obtain transition potentials is from the folding of the transition densities with an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and the ground state density of the nucleus which is not excited. We show that the predictions of the optical and folding model are very different, especially for transitions dominated by nuclear excitation. The difference between the cross sections estimated within the deformed optical model and the folding model increases with multipolarity. Following the theoretical work of R. Satchler, we recommend the use of a folding model to extract deformation lengths and multipole moments from inelastic scattering measurements. We present the state of the field concerning Electric Giant Resonances and multiphonon excitations. We introduce the different sum rules which can be found usually in the literature and we show the link between them. The excitation of Giant Resonances with intermediate energy or high energy heavy ions, measured at GANIL or GSI and the technical problems met in the analysis of these experiments are discussed. Recent results concerning the two-phonon excitation of the Giant Quadrupole and Dipole mode are presented. Concerning the breathing mode, macroscopic and microscopic prescriptions introduced to access the compressibility of the nuclear matter are discussed. We show, in the light of theoretical arguments developed recently by J.P. Blaizot and collaborators, that microscopic calculations remain the most reliable tool for the determination of the nuclear matter compression modulus from the energy of the monopole vibration of nuclei.
Atmospheric Available Potential Energy Generation from a Satellite Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haynes, J. M.; Vonder Haar, T. H.
2013-12-01
Atmospheric available potential energy (APE) describes the total potential energy in the atmosphere that is available for conversion to kinetic energy in the form of circulations and storms. APE is defined as the difference between the total potential energy of the atmosphere and that of a reference state with a minimum possible total potential energy (i.e. a barotropic, stably stratified atmosphere). This study seeks to describe the seasonal generation of APE in the atmosphere with a particular focus on vertically-resolved observations obtained from the A-Train constellation of satellites. To calculate the rate of APE generation, three sources of diabatic heating are considered. Radiative and latent heating rates are calculated from CloudSat-based radiative flux and precipitation products. Sensible heat transfer from the surface (which is not readily calculated from A-Train based observations) is obtained from a combination of the observationally-based SEAFLUX database over the oceans and the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERAI) product over land. Zonal and eddy APE generation are then calculated using Lorenz's "exact method," which requires correlation of the heating rates with an efficiency factor related to the ERAI-derived atmospheric stratification. The spatial and temporal evolution of APE generation using this technique, and differences from the more commonly-utilized "approximate method" of calculation, will be presented and discussed.
Available Potential Energy and Exergy in Stratified Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tailleux, Rémi
2013-01-01
Lorenz's theory of available potential energy (APE) remains the main framework for studying the atmospheric and oceanic energy cycles. Because the APE generation rate is the volume integral of a thermodynamic efficiency times the local diabatic heating/cooling rate, APE theory is often regarded as an extension of the theory of heat engines. Available energetics in classical thermodynamics, however, usually relies on the concept of exergy and is usually measured relative to a reference-state maximizing entropy at constant energy, whereas APE's reference state minimizes potential energy at constant entropy. This review seeks to shed light on the two concepts; it covers local formulations of available energetics, alternative views of the dynamics/thermodynamics coupling, APE theory and the second law of thermodynamics, APE production/dissipation, extensions to binary fluids, mean/eddy decompositions, APE in incompressible fluids, APE and irreversible turbulent mixing, and the role of mechanical forcing on APE production.
Regional Differences in the Price-Elasticity of Demand for Energy
Bernstein, M. A.; Griffin, J.
2006-02-01
At the request of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RAND Corporation examined the relationship between energy demand and energy prices with the focus on whether the relationships between demand and price differ if these are examined at different levels of data resolution. In this case, RAND compares national, regional, state, and electric utility levels of data resolution. This study is intended as a first step in helping NREL understand the impact that spatial disaggregation of data can have on estimating the impacts of their programs. This report should be useful to analysts in NREL and other national laboratories, as well as to policy nationals at the national level. It may help them understand the complex relationships between demand and price and how these might vary across different locations in the United States.
Elastic scattering and transfer reactions for the system 7Be + 58Ni at Coulomb barrier energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Lay, J. A.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Parkar, V. V.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Rusek, K.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.
2015-09-01
We investigated the reaction induced by the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be on the closed proton shell nucleus 58Ni at 22.0 MeV bombarding energy. The 7Be beam was produced by means of the in-flight technique with the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL (Italy). Charged reaction products were mass and charge identified in a rather wide angular range and their energy distributions were analyzed to infer some information on the production mechanism. The relevance of direct processes, especially 3He- and 4He-stripping, as well as compound nucleus reactions is critically reviewed.
Sturgeon Conservation: Insights From Elasticity Analysis MART R. GROSS
Gross, Mart
Sturgeon Conservation: Insights From Elasticity Analysis MART R. GROSS Department of Zoology elasticity analyses for three sturgeon species, the shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus, and white sturgeon A. transmontanus, to calculate the potential to increase
Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.
1976-01-01
Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.
Reference pressure changes and available potential energy in isobaric coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, F. R.
1985-01-01
A formulation of the available potential energy (APE) equation in isobaric coordinates which alleviates the need for computing temporal derivatives of reference pressure and describes how work done relates to changes in the APE of a limited region is presented. The APE budget equation possesses terms analogous to those in Johnson's (1970) isentropic version. It is shown that APE changes result from either mechanical work inside the domain or an exchange of energy via boundary processes with the surrounding environment.
Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.
1975-01-01
Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.
Off-Shell NN Potential and Triton Binding Energy
Y. Song; R. Machleidt
1994-03-31
The NONLOCAL Bonn-B potential predicts 8.0 MeV binding energy for the triton (in a charge-dependent 34-channel Faddeev calculation) which is about 0.4 MeV more than the predictions by LOCAL NN potentials. We pin down origin and size of the nonlocality in the Bonn potential, in analytic and numeric form. The nonlocality is due to the use of the correct off-shell Feynman amplitude of one-boson-exchange avoiding the commonly used on-shell approximations which yield the local potentials. We also illustrate how this off-shell behavior leads to more binding energy. We emphasize that the increased binding energy is not due to on-shell differences (differences in the fit of the NN data or phase shifts). In particular, the Bonn-B potential reproduces accurately the $\\epsilon_1$ mixing parameter up to 350 MeV as determined in the recent Nijmegen multi-energy NN phase-shift analysis. Adding the relativistic effect from the relativistic nucleon propagators in the Faddeev equations, brings the Bonn-B result up to 8.2 MeV triton binding. This leaves a difference of only 0.3 MeV to experiment, which may possibly be explained by refinements in the treatment of relativity and the inclusion of other nonlocalities (e.~g., quark-gluon exchange at short range). Thus, it is conceivable that a realistic NN potential which describes the NN data up to 300 MeV correctly may explain the triton binding energy without recourse to 3-N forces; relativity would play a major role for this result.
DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ELASTIC ACCUMULATOR USING POLYURETHANE
Barth, Eric J.
.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu ABSTRACT Hydraulic accumulators (HAs) have been used successfully in regenerative braking systems application of these devices is regenerative braking. A conventional braking system uses friction between. In contrast, regenerative braking harnesses the kinetic energy of a vehicle during braking, instead of letting
Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.
This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…
Teaching Field Concept and Potential Energy at A-Level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, C. H.
1986-01-01
Argues for a greater emphasis on the reality of fields in electronics and gravitation instruction. Advocates that the potential energy in a system be regarded as stored in the field rather than in the material bodies of the system. Provides a rationale and examples for this position. (ML)
The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations
Neumaier, Arnold
The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations J. P. K. Doye Â· R. H to be modelled. Morse clusters provide a particularly tough test system for global optimization algorithms of a biomolecule. In particular, large values are very challenging and, until now, no unbiased global optimization
Figueira, J. M.; Arazi, A.; Carnelli, P.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Lubian, J.; Monteiro, D. S.; Gomes, P. R. S.
2010-02-15
Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 144}Sm systems were measured with high accuracy at bombarding energies from 85% up to 170% of the Coulomb barrier. An optical model analysis was performed, and the relevant parameters of the real and imaginary parts of the optical potential were extracted. The results are compared with those previously published for the tightly bound {sup 12}C+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm systems. The usual threshold anomaly observed in the behavior of the potential of tightly bound systems was not observed for either weakly bound system. This absence is attributed to the repulsion due to breakup coupling which cancels the attraction arising from couplings with bound channels.
Study of chirally motivated low-energy $K^-$ optical potentials
A. Cieply; E. Friedman; A. Gal; J. Mares
2001-06-09
The $K^-$ optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space $K^-N$ $t$ matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach to the low-energy $\\bar K N$ data. The chiral-model parameters are fitted to a select subset of the low-energy data {\\it plus} the $K^-$ atomic data throughout the periodic table. The resulting attractive $K^-$ optical potentials are relatively `shallow', with central depth of the real part about 55 MeV, for a fairly reasonable reproduction of the atomic data with $\\chi^2 / N \\approx 2.2$. Relatively `deep' attractive potentials of depth about 180 MeV, which result in other phenomenological approaches with $\\chi^2 / N \\approx 1.5$, are ruled out within chirally motivated models. Different physical data input is required to distinguish between shallow and deep $K^-$ optical potentials. The ($K^{-}_{\\rm stop},\\pi$) reaction could provide such a test, with exclusive rates differing by over a factor of three for the two classes of potentials. Finally, forward ($K^-,p$) differential cross sections for the production of relatively narrow deeply bound $K^-$ {\\it nuclear} states are evaluated for deep $K^-$ optical potentials, yielding values considerably lower than those estimated before.
Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations
Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.
1980-01-01
the extra cost and extra energy saving. Due to higher costs of energy at present and in the foreseeable future, good opportunities exist to retrofit existing thermal envelopes with extra insulation. Potential costs and savings in the residential, commercial...
LHC Physics Potential vs. Energy: Considerations for the 2011 Run
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN
2011-02-01
Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I quantify the advantage of increasing the beam energy from 3.5 TeV to 4 TeV. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u {bar d}, qq, and gq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes. This note extends the analysis presented in Ref. [1]. Full-size figures are available as pdf files at lutece.fnal.gov/PartonLum11/.
Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea
2015-04-01
The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.
Theoretical Optical Potential Derived From Nucleon-Nucleon Chiral Potentials
Vorabbi, M; Giusti, C
2015-01-01
Background: Elastic scattering is probably the main event in the interactions of nucleons with nuclei. Even if this process has been extensively studied in the last years, a consistent description starting from microscopic two- and many-body forces is still missing. Purpose: In this work we study the domain of applicability of microscopic chiral potentials in the construction of an optical potential. Methods: We basically followed the KMT approach to build a microscopic complex optical potential and then we performed some test calculations on $^{16}$O at different energies. Results: Our conclusion is that a particular set of potentials (with spectral function regularization and a cut-off for the Lippmann-Schwinger equation at relatively high energies $\\sim 600$ MeV) has the best performances reproducing the scattering observables. Conclusions: Our work shows that building an optical potential within Chiral Perturbation Theory is a promising approach to the description of elastic proton scattering, in particul...
Do we understand near-forward elastic scattering up to TeV energies?
Bourrely, Claude; Wu, Tai Tsun
2015-01-01
In 1970, on purely theoretical grounds, all total hadronic total cross sections were predicted to increase without limit for higher and higher energies. This was contrary to the conventional belief at that time. In 1978, an accurate phenomeno- logical model was formulated for the case of proton-proton and antiproton-proton interactions. The parameters for this model were slightly improved in 1984 using the additional available experimental data. Since then, for thirty years these param- eters have not changed. This development, including especially the difficult task of formulating this phenomenological model and the comparison of the predictions of this model with later experimental results, is summarized.
Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud
2013-02-01
We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.
How Deep is the Antinucleon Optical Potential at FAIR energies
T. Gaitanos; M. Kaskulov; H. Lenske
2011-08-11
The key question in the interaction of antinucleons in the nuclear medium concerns the deepness of the antinucleon-nucleus optical potential. In this work we study this task in the framework of the non-linear derivative (NLD) model which describes consistently bulk properties of nuclear matter and Dirac phenomenology of nucleon-nucleus interactions. We apply the NLD model to antinucleon interactions in nuclear matter and find a strong decrease of the vector and scalar self-energies in energy and density and thus a strong suppression of the optical potential at zero momentum and, in particular, at FAIR energies. This is in agreement with available empirical information and, therefore, resolves the issue concerning the incompatibility of G-parity arguments in relativistic mean-field (RMF) models. We conclude the relevance of our results for the future activities at FAIR.
Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgin, Ö.
2012-04-01
Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.
Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stear, J.
2014-12-01
Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.
Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs
McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2008-06-15
This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under consideration.
Anderson, Daniel M; Benson, James D; Kearsley, Anthony J
2014-12-01
Mathematical modeling plays an enormously important role in understanding the behavior of cells, tissues, and organs undergoing cryopreservation. Uses of these models range from explanation of phenomena, exploration of potential theories of damage or success, development of equipment, and refinement of optimal cryopreservation/cryoablation strategies. Over the last half century there has been a considerable amount of work in bio-heat and mass-transport, and these models and theories have been readily and repeatedly applied to cryobiology with much success. However, there are significant gaps between experimental and theoretical results that suggest missing links in models. One source for these potential gaps is that cryobiology is at the intersection of several very challenging aspects of transport theory: it couples multi-component, moving boundary, multiphase solutions that interact through a semipermeable elastic membrane with multicomponent solutions in a second time-varying domain, during a two-hundred Kelvin temperature change with multi-molar concentration gradients and multi-atmosphere pressure changes. In order to better identify potential sources of error, and to point to future directions in modeling and experimental research, we present a three part series to build from first principles a theory of coupled heat and mass transport in cryobiological systems accounting for all of these effects. The hope of this series is that by presenting and justifying all steps, conclusions may be made about the importance of key assumptions, perhaps pointing to areas of future research or model development, but importantly, lending weight to standard simplification arguments that are often made in heat and mass transport. In this first part, we review concentration variable relationships, their impact on choices for Gibbs energy models, and their impact on chemical potentials. PMID:25240602
Energy Policy 32 (2004) 289297 The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy
Delaware, University of
2004-01-01
Energy Policy 32 (2004) 289297 The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy of solar electric power in the form of photovoltaics to meet future US energy demand with the projected needs: a comparison of projections of solar electric energy generation and Arctic National Wildlife
Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement
Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis
1997-01-01
There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.
Low-energy elastic positron cross sections for H2 and N2 using an ab initio target polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenfen, W.; Mazon, K. T.; Michelin, S. E.; Arretche, F.
2012-10-01
Using an ab initio model to account the polarization effects of molecules in the presence of slow positrons, we have obtained low-energy positron cross sections for H2 and N2 molecules. The polarization model proposed here is calculated with the expected values of the positron-electron interaction operator in the polarized target wave function for each fixed distance of the positron. Together with the electrostatic potential, this polarization describes the interaction potential in a static-polarization approximation. Within this interaction level, we have obtained differential and integral cross sections that are in good agreement with recent measurements of the Trento group and other theoretical approaches.
Advanced Elastic/Inelastic Nuclear Data Development Project
Harmon, Frank; Chowdhury, Partha; Greife, Uwe; Fisher Hicks, Sally; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Rahn Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Hill, Tony; Kawano, Toshihiko; Slaughter, David
2015-06-08
The optical model is used to analyze the elastic and inelastic scattering of nucleons, deuterons, hellions, tritons, and alpha particles by the nuclei. Since this paper covers primarily neutron-nucleus scattering, the focus will be limited to only that interaction. For the sake of this model, the nucleus is described as a blob of nuclear matter with properties based upon its number of nucleons. This infers that a single potential can describe the interaction of particles with different energies with different nuclei.
Energy gap in graphene nanoribbons with structured external electric potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apel, W.; Pal, G.; Schweitzer, L.
2011-03-01
The electronic properties of graphene zigzag nanoribbons with electrostatic potentials along the edges are investigated. Using the Dirac-fermion approach, we calculate the energy spectrum of an infinitely long nanoribbon of finite width w, terminated by Dirichlet boundary conditions in the transverse direction. We show that a structured external potential that acts within the edge regions of the ribbon can induce a spectral gap and thus switch the nanoribbon from metallic to insulating behavior. The basic mechanism of this effect is the selective influence of the external potentials on the spinorial wave functions that are topological in nature and localized along the boundary of the graphene nanoribbon. Within this single-particle description, the maximal obtainable energy gap is Emax???vF/w, i.e., ?0.12 eV for w=15 nm. The stability of the spectral gap against edge disorder and the effect of disorder on the two-terminal conductance is studied numerically within a tight-binding lattice model. We find that the energy gap persists as long as the applied external effective potential is larger than ?0.55×W, where W is a measure of the disorder strength. We argue that there is a transport gap due to localization effects even in the absence of a spectral gap.
U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential
Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter
2008-09-30
This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).
Dissociation Energies and Potential Energy Functions for the Ground X 1
Le Roy, Robert J.
-Crossing' A 1 + States of NaH Sadru-Dean Walji, Katherine M. Sentjens and Robert J. Le Roy Department determination of centrifugal (non-adiabatic) and potential-energy (adiabatic) Born-Oppenheimer breakdown potential energy function and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) correction functions that explain all
A Boundary Integral Method for Computing Elastic Moment Tensors for Ellipses and Ellipsoids
Kang, Hyeonbae
elastic composites. In this paper, we compute the elastic moment tensors for ellipses and ellipsoids of perturbations of the elastic energy [11, 10] and in models of the effective properties of dilute elasticA Boundary Integral Method for Computing Elastic Moment Tensors for Ellipses and Ellipsoids Habib
Single-nucleon potential decomposition of the nuclear symmetry energy
Rong Chen; Bao-Jun Cai; Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-An Li; Xiao-Hua Li; Chang Xu
2012-03-24
The nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ and its density slope $L(\\rho)$ can be decomposed analytically in terms of the single-nucleon potential in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Using three popular nuclear effective interaction models which have been extensively used in nuclear structure and reaction studies, namely, the isospin and momentum dependent MDI interaction model, the Skyrme Hartree-Fock approach and the Gogny Hartree-Fock approach, we analyze the contribution of different terms in the single-nucleon potential to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ and $L(\\rho)$. Our results show that the observed different density behaviors of $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ for different interactions are essentially due to the variation of the symmetry potential $U_{sym,1}(\\rho,k)$. Furthermore, we find that the contribution of the second-order symmetry potential $U_{sym,2}(\\rho,k)$ to the $L(\\rho)$ generally cannot be neglected. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the magnitude of the $U_{sym,2}(\\rho,k)$ is generally comparable with that of $U_{sym,1}(\\rho,k)$, indicating the second-order symmetry potential $U_{sym,2}(\\rho,k)$ may have significant corrections to the widely used Lane approximation to the single-nucleon potential in extremely neutron(proton)-rich nuclear matter.
An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface
Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon; Scheiner, Steve
2014-06-28
The (O{sub 3}){sub 2} dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O{sub 3} monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O?O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm{sup ?1}. In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified.
Geochemical energy potentially available to organisms in martian hydrothermal systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varnes, E. S.; Jakosky, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.
2001-11-01
Although a global average of energy available to potentially support life from chemosynthesis on Mars has been estimated, issues of how the energy is distributed and which environments have the greatest potential to support life remain unresolved. We have begun to address these questions by developing numerical geochemical models of martian hydrothermal systems using the software package EQ3/6. In order to model hydrothermal systems, the elemental composition of the initial fluid (the groundwater) and the initial host rock with which it interacts must be defined. The host rock was defined using the composition of LEW 88516, which is similar to the martian mantle. This host rock was reacted at high temperature (350 deg C) with a series of groundwaters. Groundwaters are either pure water in equilibrium with present martian atmosphere or in equilibrium with Pathfinder-composition soils and the atmosphere. The hot fluid resulting from the rock/groundwater reaction was then reacted with increments of fresh groundwater, simulating the mixing that occurs in hydrothermal systems. During mixing, oxidation and reduction reactions are kinetically inhibited; organisms may exploit this inhibition to derive metabolic energy. The maximum amount of energy an organism can obtain from a given reaction is determined from the Gibbs free energy of that reaction. For each model run, we have calculated the Gibbs free energy of reactions that are important for terrestrial chemosynthetic organisms and likely representative for putative martians. Our results indicate that substantial amounts of energy may be derived from these reactions, but they depend sensitively on the oxidation state of the groundwater and whether saturated species precipitate to equilibrium. Thus, it is unknown whether sufficient energy is available to support martian life, although it is likely that suitable environments exist.
Parallel unconstrained minimization of potential energy in LAMMPS
Plantenga, T.
1997-10-13
This report describes a new minimization capability added to LAMMPS V4.0. Minimization of potential energy is used to find molecular conformations that are close to structures found in nature. The new minimization algorithm uses LAMMPS subroutines for calculating energy and force vectors, and follows the LAMMPS partitioning scheme for distributing large data objects on multiprocessor machines. Since gradient-based algorithms cannot tolerate nonsmoothness, a new Coulomb style that smoothly cuts off to zero at a finite distance is provided. This report explains the minimization algorithm and its parallel implementation within LAMMPS. Guidelines are given for invoking the algorithm and interpreting results.
Quintom dark energy models with nearly flat potentials
Setare, M. R.; Saridakis, E. N.
2009-02-15
We examine quintom dark energy models, produced by the combined consideration of a canonical and a phantom field, with nearly flat potentials and dark energy equation-of-state parameter w{sub DE} close to -1. We find that all such models converge to a single expression for w{sub DE}(z), depending only on the initial field values and their derivatives. We show that this quintom paradigm allows for a description of the transition through -1 in the near cosmological past. In addition, we provide the necessary conditions for the determination of the direction of the -1 crossing.
Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, M. R.; Schuck, P.; Sadigh, B.; Marian, J.
2013-08-01
In body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystals, 1/2?111? screw dislocations exhibit high intrinsic lattice friction as a consequence of their nonplanar core structure, which results in a periodic energy landscape known as the Peierls potential UP. The main features determining plastic flow, including its stress and temperature dependences, can be derived directly from this potential, hence its importance. In this Letter, we use thermodynamic integration to provide a full thermodynamic extension of UP for bcc Fe. We compute the Peierls free energy path as a function of stress and temperature and show that the critical stress vanishes at 700 K, supplying the qualitative elements that explain plastic behavior in the athermal limit.
Nuclear momentum distribution and potential energy surface in hexagonal ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele
2011-03-01
The proton momentum distribution in ice Ih has been recently measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering and calculated from open path integral Car-Parrinello simulation. Here we report a detailed investigation of the relation between momentum distribution and potential energy surface based on both experiment and simulation results. The potential experienced by the proton is largely harmonic and characterized by 3 principal frequencies, which can be associated to weighted averages of phonon frequencies via lattice dynamics calculations. This approach also allows us to examine the importance of quantum effects on the dynamics of the oxygen nuclei close to the melting temperature. Finally we quantify the anharmonicity that is present in the potential acting on the protons. This work is supported by NSF and by DOE.
Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces
Ruedenberg, K.
1993-12-01
By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.
Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs
Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.
2012-06-20
In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.
Hydrodynamic Theory of Granular Solids: Permanent, Transient and Granular Elasticity
Yimin Jiang; Mario Liu
2007-06-10
Although fully elastic when static, granular media become transiently elastic when being slowly sheared -- during which both the elastic energy and stress relax. Starting from this observation, we cogently derive the framework for granular hydrodynamics, a set of differential equations consistent with general principles of physics, especially reversible and irreversible thermodynamics. In addition, an expression for the granular elastic energy is reviewed and further discussed.
Isospin dependence of 6He+p optical potential and the symmetry energy
Dao T. Khoa; Hoang Sy Than
2005-02-21
A consistent folding analysis of the elastic p(6He,6He)p scattering and charge exchange p(6He,6Li*)n reaction data measured at Elab=41.6A MeV has been performed within the coupled channels formalism. We have used the isovector coupling to link the isospin dependence of 6He+p optical potential to the cross section of p(6He,6Li*)n reaction exciting the 0+ isobaric analog state (IAS) at 3.563 MeV in 6Li. Based on these results and the Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter using the same isospin-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, we were able to confirm that the most realistic value of the symmetry energy Esym is around 31 MeV. Our analysis has also shown that the measured charge exchange p(6He,6Li*)n data are quite sensitive to the halo tail of the 6He density used in the folding calculation and the IAS of 6Li is likely to have a halo structure similar to that established for the ground state of 6He.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir
1997-03-01
The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.
Isospin dependence of {sup 6}He+p optical potential and the symmetry energy
Khoa, Dao T.; Hoang Sy Than
2005-04-01
A consistent folding analysis of the elastic p({sup 6}He,{sup 6}He)p scattering and charge exchange p({sup 6}He,{sup 6}Li{sup *})n reaction data measured at E{sub lab}=41.6A MeV has been performed within the coupled channels formalism. We have used the isovector coupling to link the isospin dependence of {sup 6}He+p optical potential to the cross section of p({sup 6}He,{sup 6}Li{sup *})n reaction exciting the 0{sup +} isobaric analog state (IAS) at 3.563 MeV in {sup 6}Li. Based on these results and the Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter using the same isospin-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, we were able to confirm that the most realistic value of the symmetry energy E{sub sym} is around 31 MeV. Our analysis has also shown that the measured charge exchange p({sup 6}He,{sup 6}Li{sup *})n data are quite sensitive to the halo tail of the {sup 6}He density used in the folding calculation and the IAS of {sup 6}Li is likely to have a halo structure similar to that established for the ground state of {sup 6}He.
Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa
Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.
2008-01-01
This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amadei, A.; Apol, M. E. F.; Di Nola, A.; Berendsen, H. J. C.
1996-01-01
A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must be a near Gaussian one, according to the central limit theorem. We obtained expressions for the free energy and entropy with respect to the ideal gas, in terms of the potential energy moments. These can be linked to the average potential energy and its derivatives in temperature. Using thermodynamical relationships we also produce a general differential equation for the free energy as a function of temperature at fixed volume. In this paper we investigate possible exact and approximated solutions. The method was tested on a theoretical model for a solid (classical harmonic solid) and some experimental liquids. The harmonic solid has an energy distribution, which can be derived exactly from the theory. Experimental free energies of water and methanol could be reproduced very well over a temperature range of more than 300 K. For water, where the appropriate experimental data were available, also the energy and heat capacity could be reproduced very well.
Gagne, Douglas; Haase, Scott; Oakleaf, Brett; Hurlbut, David; Akar, Sertac; Wall, Anna; Turchi, Craig; Pienkos, Philip; Melius, Jennifer; Melaina, Marc
2015-11-01
This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.
Finite-temperature elasticity of fcc Al: Atomistic simulations and ultrasonic measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Hieu H.; Williams, Michael E.; Mahaffey, Patrick; Radovic, Miladin; Arroyave, Raymundo; Cagin, Tahir
2011-08-01
Though not very often, there are some cases in the literature where discrepancies exist in the temperature dependence of elastic constants of materials. A particular example of this case is the behavior of C12 coefficient of a simple metal, aluminum. In this paper we attempt to provide insight into various contributions to temperature dependence in elastic properties by investigating the thermoelastic properties of fcc aluminum as a function of temperature through the use of two computational techniques and experiments. First, ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) are used in combination with quasiharmonic theory to calculate the elastic constants at finite temperatures through a strain-free energy approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations using tight-binding potentials are then used to extract the elastic constants through a fluctuation-based formalism. Through this dynamic approach, the different contributions (Born, kinetic, and stress fluctuations) to the elastic constants are isolated and the underlying physical basis for the observed thermally induced softening is elucidated. The two approaches are then used to shed light on the relatively large discrepancies in the reported temperature dependence of the elastic constants of fcc aluminum. Finally, the polycrystalline elastic constants (and their temperature dependence) of fcc aluminum are determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) and compared to previously published data as well as the atomistic calculations performed in this work.
Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.
2014-05-01
Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).
Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings
Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.
2010-06-09
Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.
Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading
Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.
1994-12-01
The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.
Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of yttrium carbide (YC).
Suo, Bingbing; Balasubramanian, Krishnan
2007-06-14
The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states of yttrium carbide (YC) and its cation are calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field and the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) levels of theory. Fifteen low-lying electronic states of YC with different spin and spatial symmetries were identified. The X (4)Sigma- state prevails as the ground state of YC, and a low-lying excited A (4)Pi state is found to be 1661 cm(-1) higher at the MRSDCI level. The computations of the authors support the assignment of the observed spectra to a B (4)Delta(Omega=72)<--A (4)Pi(Omega=52) transition with a reinterpretation that the A (4)Pi state is appreciably populated under the experimental conditions as it is less than 2000 cm(-1) of the X (4)Sigma- ground state, and the previously suggested (4)Pi ground state is reassigned to the first low-lying excited state of YC. The potential energy curves of YC+ confirm a previous prediction by Seivers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6322 (1996)] that the ground state of YC+ is formed through a second pathway at higher energies. The calculated ionization energy of YC is 6.00 eV, while the adiabatic electron affinity is 0.95 eV at the MRSDCI level. The computed ionization energy of YC and dissociation energy of YC+ confirm the revised experimental estimates provided by Seivers et al. although direct experimental measurements yielded results with greater errors due to uncertainty in collisional cross sections for YC+ formation. PMID:17581052
Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of yttrium carbide (YC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suo, Bingbing; Balasubramanian, Krishnan
2007-06-01
The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states of yttrium carbide (YC) and its cation are calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field and the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) levels of theory. Fifteen low-lying electronic states of YC with different spin and spatial symmetries were identified. The X?-4 state prevails as the ground state of YC, and a low-lying excited A?4 state is found to be 1661cm-1 higher at the MRSDCI level. The computations of the authors support the assignment of the observed spectra to a B?4(? =7/2)?A?4(?=5/2) transition with a reinterpretation that the A?4 state is appreciably populated under the experimental conditions as it is less than 2000cm-1 of the X?-4 ground state, and the previously suggested ?4 ground state is reassigned to the first low-lying excited state of YC. The potential energy curves of YC + confirm a previous prediction by Seivers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6322 (1996)] that the ground state of YC+ is formed through a second pathway at higher energies. The calculated ionization energy of YC is 6.00eV, while the adiabatic electron affinity is 0.95eV at the MRSDCI level. The computed ionization energy of YC and dissociation energy of YC+ confirm the revised experimental estimates provided by Seivers et al. although direct experimental measurements yielded results with greater errors due to uncertainty in collisional cross sections for YC+ formation.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization
Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin
2014-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ra...
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization.
Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin
2015-08-10
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ratio beyond optical absorption only, which is experimentally demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26367914
Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.
2010-04-01
Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.
Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Bhutadia, Harshad; Antony, Bobby; Mason, Nigel
2011-11-15
This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.
GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.
2008-05-01
Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of 5.0 m/s and 4.6 m/s, respectively. Wind power density ratings for Mojave are 240 w/m2 and 153 w/m2 at Palmdale. These results help confirm that wind energy continues to offer a clean, cost-effective, inexhaustible, and readily available means of helping to curb global warming while answering the increasing demand for electricity.
Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.
Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division
2007-11-30
The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.
Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries
Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L
1992-01-01
The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods
Shepard, R.
1993-12-01
This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods.
Shepard, R.
2006-01-01
This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces (PES) involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. Most of our work focuses on general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of molecular geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.
Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide
Crusius, Johann-Philipp Hassel, Egon; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard
2014-10-28
A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.
Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry
Garrett-Price, B.A.
1985-02-01
This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.
Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1979-01-01
A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.
Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules
Chang, Yan-Tyng
1991-11-01
A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.
Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report
Hodge, D.S.
1996-08-01
The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraus, Patrick; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Gösweiner, Christian; Apolloner, Florian; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Ernst, Wolfgang E.
2014-12-01
The exact elastic close-coupling formalism is used to compare the performance of several interaction potentials suggested in literature for describing the measured elastic diffraction peak intensities in helium scattering experiments. The coupling parameters have been analytically calculated for the corrugated Morse potential on a hexagonal surface structure and adapted for usage with similar interaction potentials. The potentials used have been fitted to previously known bound state energies complemented by two additional levels which are found by improving energy resolution. It is established that the shifted Morse potential reproduces the experimental He-Sb(111) bound state more closely than the other considered potential shapes. The performance of several interaction potentials in describing the elastic scattering intensities is presented and discussed. Morse and Morse-related potentials provide the best compromise for the description of elastic scattering intensities. The different effects of the potential shape were determined by comparing the calculated scattering intensities.
Cellular Uptake of Elastic Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xin; Shi, Xinghua; Gao, Huajian
2011-08-01
A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is of essential importance to nanomedicine and safe applications of nanotechnology. Here we investigate the adhesive wrapping of a soft elastic vesicle by a lipid membrane. We show that there exist a maximum of five distinct wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the vesicle size, adhesion energy, surface tension of membrane, and bending rigidity ratio between vesicle and membrane. These results are of immediate interest to the study of vesicular transport and endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.
Jozwik Biala, Iwona; Jagielski, Jacek K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Sattonay, G.; Debelle, A.; Mylonas, S.; Monnet, I.; Thome, Lionel
2013-07-13
A judicious choice of irradiation parameters and experimental methodology allowed the visualization of the tracks created by swift heavy ions in pyrochlores over the entire ion trajectories. Several peculiarities were observed: a layered structure of tracks composed of an amorphous core surrounded by a strained crystalline envelope, a change of the track diameter as a function of the ion slowing down, a loss of parallelism of tracks, a transformation from continuous to discontinuous regime, and an increasing contribution of elastic collisions at large depths. These observations are compared to the respective amount of electronic and nuclear energy losses.
Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Marti, G. V.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.
2010-08-04
We have measured elastic excitation functions for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al system, in an energy range close to its Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab} = 8.4 MeV) in steps of 0.25 MeV. For this purpose, an array of eight surface-barrier detectors was used. To get an insight on the background composition (mainly {alpha} particles), a telescope-detector was used for atomic-number identification. Identical measurements for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 27}Al system are planned for the near future.
Microscopic optical model potentials for p-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies
Hemalatha, M.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Kailas, S.; Haider, W.
2007-03-15
A comparative study of the microscopic optical potentials viz., semimicroscopic with extended Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux interaction and microscopic Brueckner theory using Hamada-Johnston as well as Urbana V14 soft-core internucleon interactions, has been carried out. These microscopic optical potentials are compared with that of Dirac phenomenology (DP) for the polarized proton-{sup 40}Ca elastic scattering at 35 MeV and 200 MeV. These potentials have different shapes for 200 MeV below 4 fm. In particular, for the real part of the central potential, only the Dirac phenomenology and the microscopic optical potential calculated with the Hamada-Johnston interaction exhibit the well known wine-bottle-bottom shape. It is found that the calculated observables (cross section, analyzing power and spin rotation function) using these potentials having different shapes, compare well with the experiment.
Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.
Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng
2016-01-15
In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072
Freezing of energy of a soliton in an external potential
Dario Bambusi; Alberto Maspero
2015-03-30
In this paper we study the dynamics of a soliton in the generalized NLS with a small external potential $\\epsilon V$ of Schwartz class. We prove that there exists an effective mechanical system describing the dynamics of the soliton and that, for any positive integer $r$, the energy of such a mechanical system is almost conserved up to times of order $\\epsilon^{-r}$. In the rotational invariant case we deduce that the true orbit of the soliton remains close to the mechanical one up to times of order $\\epsilon^{-r}$.
Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng
2016-01-01
In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Theory of sequence-dependent DNA elasticity Bernard D. Colemana)
Swigon, David
Theory of sequence-dependent DNA elasticity Bernard D. Colemana) Department of Mechanics, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Received 21 October 2002; accepted 17 January 2003 The elastic properties the contribution n of the nth base-pair step to the elastic energy is assumed to be given by a function ~ n of six
Tattersall, Wade; Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland ; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur ; Buckman, Stephen J.; Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur ; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco
2014-01-28
Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric
2010-03-01
Motile eukaryotic cells propel themselves in viscous fluids by passing waves of bending deformation down their flagella. An infinitely long flagellum achieves a hydrodynamically optimal low-Reynolds number locomotion when the angle between its local tangent and the swimming direction remains constant along its length. Optimal flagella therefore adopt the shape of a helix in three dimensions (smooth) and that of a sawtooth in two dimensions (nonsmooth). Physically, biological organisms (or engineered microswimmers) must expend internal energy in order to produce the waves of deformation responsible for the motion. Here we propose a physically motivated derivation of the optimal flagellum shape. We determine analytically and numerically the shape of the flagellar wave which leads to the fastest swimming for a given appropriately defined energetic expenditure. Our novel approach is to define an energy which includes not only the work against the surrounding fluid, but also (1) the energy stored elastically in the bending of the flagellum, (2) the energy stored elastically in the internal sliding of the polymeric filaments which are responsible for the generation of the bending waves (microtubules), and (3) the viscous dissipation due to the presence of an internal fluid. This approach regularizes the optimal sawtooth shape for two-dimensional deformation at the expense of a small loss in hydrodynamic efficiency. The optimal waveforms of finite-size flagella are shown to depend on a competition between rotational motions and bending costs, and we observe a surprising bias toward half-integer wave numbers. Their final hydrodynamic efficiencies are above 6%, significantly larger than those of swimming cells, therefore indicating available room for further biological tuning.
Surface phenomena in elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1981-01-01
Problems of elasticity associated with the behavior of free surfaces of elastic bodies are reviewed with particular reference to the propagation of characteristic waves and the criteria of wrinkling of free surfaces. All transformations are given for the case when a free surface of an elastic body is streamlined by the flow of inviscid fluid. The wrinkling phenomenon is illustrated by example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signorini, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Di Meo, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Boiano, A.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Sandoli, M.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Veronese, F.
2013-03-01
The quasi elastic scattering of a 17O projectile from a 58Ni target has been studied at beam energies ranging from 42.5 to 55.0 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The total reaction cross sections were derived from the measured angular distributions by using an optical model fit within the coupled-channel code FRESCO. These cross sections are very similar to those measured for 17F (loosely bound by 0.6 MeV), mirror nucleus of 17O (tightly bound by 4.14 MeV). This outcome points out that, in this energy range, the small binding energy of the 17F valence proton has negligible influence onto the reactivity of such a loosely bound projectile, contrary to simple expectations, and to what observed for other loosely bound nuclei. The reaction dynamics seems to be influenced mainly by the Coulomb interaction which is similar for both mirror projectiles.
Colloidal particles driven across periodic optical potential energy landscapes
Michael P. N. Juniper; Arthur V. Straube; Dirk G. A. L. Aarts; Roel P. A. Dullens
2015-12-17
We study the motion of colloidal particles driven by a constant force over a periodic optical potential energy landscape. Firstly, the average particle velocity is found as a function of the driving velocity and the wavelength of the optical potential energy landscape. The relationship between average particle velocity and driving velocity is found to be well described by a theoretical model treating the landscape as sinusoidal, but only at small trap spacings. At larger trap spacings, a non-sinusoidal model for the landscape must be used. Subsequently, the critical velocity required for a particle to move across the landscape is determined as a function of the wavelength of the landscape. Finally, the velocity of a particle driven at a velocity far exceeding the critical driving velocity is examined. Both of these results are again well described by the two theoretical routes, for small and large trap spacings respectively. Brownian motion is found to have a significant effect on the critical driving velocity, but a negligible effect when the driving velocity is high.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Gravitational potential energy and active deformation in the Apennines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, N.; England, P.; Hunstad, I.; Selvaggi, G.
2014-07-01
We use velocity measurements from a network of continuous GPS sites spanning the Apennines of peninsular Italy to test the hypothesis that the active deformation of the region is explained by variations in gravitational potential energy of the lithosphere. The simple geometry of the mountain chain allows us to treat the deformation as two-dimensional, neglecting gradients of velocity along the strike of the chain. Under this assumption, the integral of gravitational potential energy per unit area of the lithosphere (GPE) in the direction perpendicular to the chain is related by a simple expression to the velocity in the same direction. We show that the observed velocities match this expression with an RMS misfit of 0.5 mm/yr. This agreement suggests that deformation of the Apennines reflects a balance, within the mountain chain itself, between lateral variations in GPE and the stresses required to deform the lithosphere. Forces arising from processes external to the belt are not required to explain the observations.
Energy Conservation Simplified
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hecht, Eugene
2008-01-01
The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…
Sarralde, Juan José; Quinn, David James; Wiesmann, Daniel; Steemers, Koen
2014-07-07
the consumption and the generation of resources need to be assessed. In terms of urban environmental sustainability, the potential to generate renewable energy within the city boundaries is a research topic of growing interest, being solar energy one of the main...
Wu, Qinglin
Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Potential of Poultry Litter for Energy Generation ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 4. Current Markets and Demand for Poultry Litter
Morphed Potential Energy Surfaces from the Spectroscopy of Weakly Bound Complexes
Rivera-Rivera, Luis A.
2012-07-16
In this research the so-called potential morphing method was used to generate reliable interaction potential energy surfaces for weakly bound complexes. The potential morphing method is based on the optimization of modified ...
Folding model calculations for 6He+12C Elastic Scattering
Ibraheem, Awad A
2015-01-01
In the framework of the double folding model, we used the {\\alpha}+2n and di-triton configurations for the nuclear matter density of the 6He nucleus to generate the real part of the optical potential for the system 6He+12C. As an alternative, we also use the high energy approximation to generate the optical potential for the same system. The derived potentials are employed to analyze the elastic scattering differential cross section at energies of 38.3, 41.6 and 82.3 MeV/nucleon. For the imaginary part of the potential we adopt the squared Woods-Saxon form. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding measured data as well as with available results in literature. The calculated total reaction cross sections are investigated and compared with the optical limit Glauber model description.
Folding model calculations for 6He+12C Elastic Scattering
Awad A. Ibraheem
2015-11-02
In the framework of the double folding model, we used the {\\alpha}+2n and di-triton configurations for the nuclear matter density of the 6He nucleus to generate the real part of the optical potential for the system 6He+12C. As an alternative, we also use the high energy approximation to generate the optical potential for the same system. The derived potentials are employed to analyze the elastic scattering differential cross section at energies of 38.3, 41.6 and 82.3 MeV/nucleon. For the imaginary part of the potential we adopt the squared Woods-Saxon form. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding measured data as well as with available results in literature. The calculated total reaction cross sections are investigated and compared with the optical limit Glauber model description.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orchini, A.; Mazzino, A.; Guerrero, J.; Festa, R.; Boragno, C.
2013-09-01
Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored flat plate in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the plate by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between plate and fluid, spring elastic constant, and distance between the plate center of mass and the spring anchor point on the plate. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number numerical simulations. Finally, the limiting case corresponding to a simply supported rigid rod is also analyzed and the resulting flapping instability traced back to a simple resonance condition. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem that has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, which is the source of energy one aims to extract.
Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in eight potential energy crops.
Shi, Gangrong; Cai, Qingsheng
2009-01-01
The production of energy crops that can be used for biodiesel production is a sustainable approach for the removal of metal pollutants by phytoremediation. This study investigated the cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance of eight potential energy crops. After growth for 28 days in substrates containing 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg Cd x kg(-1), seedlings were evaluated for growth parameters, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and Cd accumulation. All eight crops were moderately tolerant to Cd toxicity, with four [i.e., hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum), castor (Ricinus communis) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea)] being more tolerant than the others. Three of these crops (hemp, flax and peanut) had higher Cd accumulation capacities. The roots of peanut and hemp had high bioconcentration factors (BCF>1000), while flax shoots accumulated a higher concentration of Cd (>100 mg/kg). These results demonstrate that it is possible to grow energy crops on Cd-contaminated soil. Hemp, flax and peanut are excellent candidates for phytoremediation. PMID:19393309
Epicardial Application Of Laser Energy In Vivo: Acute Arrhythmogenic Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Mark H.; Ben-Shachar, Giora; Beder, Stanley D.; Sivakoff, Mark; Riemenschneider, Thomas A.
1986-01-01
In order to assess the effect of laser energy on the heart's rhythm, 7 newborn pigs each had 3 two-second applications of laser energy directly to the left ventricular epicardial surface. A quartz fiberoptic delivery system was used. All piglets (in all 21 applications) had ventricular arrhythmia induced. This varied from single premature ventricular contractions to sustained(112 seconds) ventricular tachycardia (6/7 piglets). The sustained ventri-cular tachycardia exhibited electrophysiologic criteria of a "re-entrant" mechanism. Fifteen minutes following lasing, programmed ventricular stimulation, a technique that indicates whether a substrate may be present for spontaneous re-entrant arrhythmias, showed induced arrhythmia in only 2/7 pigs, neither sustained. We conclude that epicardial application of laser energy frequently results in significant ventricular arrhythmia. This arrhythmia appears to be re-entrant in nature. Fowever, shortly following lasing, sustained arrhythmia could not be induced. Therefore, we feel that more knowledge about the arrhythmogenic potential of laser lesions is needed prior to wide-spread clinical application.
Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials
Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.
2013-02-21
First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electron–hole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electron–hole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.
Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1977-01-01
A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.
Contribution of Elasticity in Slab Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourel, L.; Goes, S. D. B.; Morra, G.
2014-12-01
Previous studies have shown that plate rheology exerts a dominant control on the shape and velocity of subducting plates. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of the, often disregarded, role of elasticity in slab bending at the trench, using simple, yet fully dynamic, set of 2.5D models where an elastic, visco-elastic or visco-elasto-plastic plate subducts freely into a purely viscous mantle. We derive a scaling relationship between the bending radius of visco-elastic slabs and the Deborah number, De, which is the ratio of Maxwell time over deformation time. We show that De controls the ratio of elastically stored energy over viscously dissipated energy and find that at De exceeding 10-2, it requires substantially less energy to bend a visco-elastic slab to the same shape as a purely viscous slab with the same viscosity (90% less for De=0.1). Elastically stored energy at higher De facilitates slab unbending and hence favours retreating modes of subduction, while trench advance only occurs for some cases with De<10-2. We use our scaling relation to estimate apparent Deborah numbers, Deapp, from a global compilation of subduction-zone parameters. Values range from 10-3 to >1, where most zones have low Deapp<10-2, but a few young plates have Deapp>0.1. Slabs with Deapp ? 10-2 either have very low viscosities, ?10 times mantle viscosity, or they may be yielding, in which case our apparent Deborah number may underestimate actual De by up to an order of magnitude. If a significant portion of the low Deapp slabs yield, then elastically stored energy may actually be important in quite a large number of subduction zones. Interestingly, increasing Deapp correlates with increasing proportion of larger seismic events (b-value) in both instrumental and historic catalogues, indicating that increased contribution of elasticity may facilitate rupture in larger, less frequent earthquakes.
A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models
Salmon, Rick
A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models RICK SALMON numerical models that conserve analogs of the energy and potential enstrophy; one need only discretize, in the inviscid limit, conserve energy and an arbitrary ad- ditional invariant related to the potential vorticity
Energy storage in carbon nanotube super-springs
Hill, Frances Ann
2008-01-01
A new technology is proposed for lightweight, high density energy storage. The objective of this thesis is to study the potential of storing energy in the elastic deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Prior experimental ...
Rabochiy, Pyotr; Wolynes, Peter G; Lubchenko, Vassiliy
2013-12-01
We compute the temperature-dependent barrier for ?-relaxations in several liquids, without adjustable parameters, using experimentally determined elastic, structural, and calorimetric data. We employ the random first order transition (RFOT) theory, in which relaxation occurs via activated reconfigurations between distinct, aperiodic minima of the free energy. Two different approximations for the mismatch penalty between the distinct aperiodic states are compared, one due to Xia and Wolynes (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2000, 97, 2990), which scales universally with temperature as for hard spheres, and one due to Rabochiy and Lubchenko (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 12A534), which employs measured elastic and structural data for individual substances. The agreement between the predictions and experiment is satisfactory, given the uncertainty in the measured experimental inputs. The explicitly computed barriers are used to calculate the glass transition temperature for each substance--a kinetic quantity--from the static input data alone. The temperature dependence of both the elastic and structural constants enters the temperature dependence of the barrier over an extended range to a degree that varies from substance to substance. The lowering of the configurational entropy, however, seems to be the dominant contributor to the barrier increase near the laboratory glass transition, consistent with previous experimental tests of the RFOT theory using the XW approximation. In addition, we compute the temperature dependence of the dynamical correlation length, also without using adjustable parameters. These agree well with experimental estimates obtained using the Berthier et al. (Science 2005, 310, 1797) procedure. Finally, we find the temperature dependence of the complexity of a rearranging region is consistent with the picture based on the RFOT theory but is in conflict with the assumptions of the Adam-Gibbs and "shoving" scenarios for the viscous slowing down in supercooled liquids. PMID:24195747
Lee, Kyuho; Berland, Kristian; Yoon, Mina; Andersson, Stig; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per; Lundqvist, Bengt I
2012-10-24
Detailed physisorption data from experiment for the H(2) molecule on low-index Cu surfaces challenge theory. Recently, density functional theory (DFT) has been developed to account for nonlocal correlation effects, including van der Waals (dispersion) forces. We show that the functional vdW-DF2 gives a potential-energy curve, potential-well energy levels and difference in lateral corrugation promisingly close to the results obtained by resonant elastic backscattering-diffraction experiments. The backscattering barrier is sensitive to the choice of exchange functional approximation. Further, the DFT-D3 and TS-vdW corrections to traditional DFT formulations are also benchmarked, and deviations are analyzed. PMID:23032859
Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.
Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment
2007-04-20
This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.
Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves for OsH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavides-Garcia, M.; Balasubramanian, K.
1991-11-01
Complete active space (CASSCF) followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) and second-order CI (SOCI) are carried out on 21 low-lying electronic states of OsH. Spin-orbit effects are investigated using the relativistic CI (RCI) methodology. The ground state of OsH is found to be 4? symmetry with R e = 1.606 Å, ?e = 2138 cm -1, De = 2.317 eV, and ?e = -1.651 D in the absence of spin-orbit interactions, while the ground state is found to be a strong mixture of 4?( {5}/{2}) and 4?( {5}/{2}) including spin-orbit coupling. Potential energy surfaces for 21 low-lying electronic states are reported. Allowed electronic transitions from the ground X4? and some other low-lying states are predicted. The nature and bonding of the low-lying electronic states are analyzed through Mulliken populations.
Potential energy surface discontinuities in local correlation methods.
Russ, Nicholas J; Crawford, T Daniel
2004-07-01
We have examined the occurrence of discontinuities in bond-breaking potential energy surfaces given by local correlation methods based on the Pulay-Saebø orbital domain approach. Our analysis focuses on three prototypical dissociating systems: the C-F bond in fluoromethane, the C-C bond in singlet, ketene, and the central C-C bond in propadienone. We find that such discontinuities do not occur in cases of homolytic bond cleavage due to the inability of the Pipek-Mezey orbital localization method to separate singlet-coupled charges on distant fragments. However, for heterolytic bond cleavage, such as that observed in singlet ketene and propadienone, discontinuities occur both at stretched geometries and near equilibrium. These discontinuities are usually small, but may be of the same order of magnitude as the localization error in some cases. PMID:15260595
Potential energy surface discontinuities in local correlation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russ, Nicholas J.; Crawford, T. Daniel
2004-07-01
We have examined the occurence of discontinuities in bond-breaking potential energy surfaces given by local correlation methods based on the Pulay-Saebø orbital domain approach. Our analysis focuses on three prototypical dissociating systems: the C-F bond in fluoromethane, the C-C bond in singlet, ketene, and the central C-C bond in propadienone. We find that such discontinuities do not occur in cases of homolytic bond cleavage due to the inability of the Pipek-Mezey orbital localization method to separate singlet-coupled charges on distant fragments. However, for heterolytic bond cleavage, such as that observed in singlet ketene and propadienone, discontinuities occur both at stretched geometries and near equilibrium. These discontinuities are usually small, but may be of the same order of magnitude as the localization error in some cases.
Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential
Peter Hugo Nelson
2014-09-13
A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-García, J. P.; Cubero, M.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Falou, H. A.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A. M.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Walden, P.
2015-10-01
We present a detailed analysis of the elastic scattering and breakup channel for the reaction of 11Li on 208Pb at incident laboratory energies of 24.3 and 29.8 MeV, measured at the radioactive ion beam facility of TRIUMF, in Vancouver, Canada. A large yield of 9Li fragments was detected by four charged particle telescopes in a wide angular range. The experimental angular and energy distributions of these 9Li fragments have been compared to coupled-reaction-channel and continuum-discretized coupled-channel calculations. The large production of 9Li fragments at small angles can be explained by considering a direct breakup mechanism, while at medium-large angles a competition between direct breakup and neutron transfer to the continuum of the 208Pb target was observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menietti, J. D.; Burch, J. L.
1981-01-01
The relationship between auroral electron energy flux and the inferred accelerating potential drop for accelerated Maxwellian distributions is investigated on the basis of Atmospheric Explorer D spectral measurements. An analytical approximation for the total downward energy flux carried by an isotropic Maxwellian electron population accelerated by a field-aligned electrostatic potential drop is derived which is valid for values of the electron energy/characteristic accelerated Maxwellian distribution energy which are less than the difference between the ratio of the magnetic field strengths at the altitude of observation and the altitude of potential drop, and unity. Data from the Low Energy Electron Experiment on board AE D obtained on both the dayside and the nightside during periods of significant inverted-V type electron precipitation shows that the 455 energy spectra considered, 160 of them, obtained between 60 and 85 deg invariant latitude, could be fit to accelerated Maxwellian distributions. The 160 Maxwellian spectra are then shown to be in agreement with the predictions of the accelerated Maxwellian model. Finally, analysis of individual spectra suggests that the altitude of the inferred potential drop is at a maximum near the center of the inverted-V structures.
Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials
Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta
2001-07-22
Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.
Bönisch, Matthias; Calin, Mariana; van Humbeeck, Jan; Skrotzki, Werner; Eckert, Jürgen
2015-03-01
While the current research focus in the search for biocompatible low-modulus alloys is set on ?-type Ti-based materials, the potential of fully martensitic Ti-based alloys remains largely unexplored. In this work, the influence of composition and pre-straining on the elastic properties of martensitic binary Ti-Nb alloys was studied. Additionally, the phase formation was compared in the as-cast versus the quenched state. The elastic moduli and hardness of the studied martensitic alloys are at a minimum of 16wt.% Nb and peak between 23.5 and 28.5wt.% Nb. The uniaxial deformation behavior of the alloys used is characterized by the absence of distinct yield points. Monotonic and cyclic (hysteretic) loading-unloading experiments were used to study the influence of Nb-content and pre-straining on the elastic moduli. Such experiments were also utilized to assess the recoverable elastic and anelastic deformations as well as hysteretic energy losses. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of non-linear elastic from anelastic strains, which govern the stress and strain limits to which a material can be loaded without deforming it plastically. It is shown that slight pre-straining of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys can lead to considerable reductions in their elastic moduli as well as increases in their total reversible strains. PMID:25579952
Few-Body Effects in Elastic Scattering of Light Exotic Nuclei
Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Descouvemont, P.
2010-04-30
Elastic scattering of light weakly bound nuclei is studied within the Feshbach generalized optical model. The model explicitly takes into account the contribution of the projectile break-up continuum treated within a microscopic few-cluster model. The model is tested on deuteron and {sup 6}Li elastic scattering by different targets at intermediate energies. The generalized optical potentials are then calculated for {sup 6}He (230 MeV)+{sup 12}C reaction treating the projectile nucleus either within two-body (alpha+{sup 2}n) or three-body (alpha+n+n) approximations. The obtained differences are analyzed.
An Accurate Potential Energy Surface for H2O
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
We have carried out extensive high quality ab initio electronic structure calculations of the ground state potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function (DMF) for H2O. A small adjustment is made to the PES to improve the agreement of line positions from theory and experiment. The theoretical line positions are obtained from variational ro-vibrational calculations using the exact kinetic energy operator. For the lines being fitted, the root-mean-square error was reduced from 6.9 to 0.08 /cm. We were then able to match 30,092 of the 30,117 lines from the HITRAN 96 data base to theoretical lines, and 80% of the line positions differed less than 0.1 /cm. About 3% of the line positions in the experimental data base appear to be incorrect. Theory predicts the existence of many additional weak lines with intensities above the cutoff used in the data base. To obtain results of similar accuracy for HDO, a mass dependent correction to the PH is introduced and is parameterized by simultaneously fitting line positions for HDO and D2O. The mass dependent PH has good predictive value for T2O and HTO. Nonadiabatic effects are not explicitly included. Line strengths for vibrational bands summed over rotational levels usually agree well between theory and experiment, but individual line strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature line list containing about 380 million lines has been generated using the present PES and DMF
Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations
May, E.K.
1980-04-01
Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.
Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of La-Compounds
Raypuria, G. S.; Singh, K. C.; Baraiya, A. K.; Gupta, D. C.
2011-07-15
The Phase transition and elastic properties of La-monochalcogenides have been investigated under pressure by means of a modified charge-transfer potential model which incorporates the Coulomb interaction modified by Coulomb screening due to the delocalization of electron of rare-earth atom leading to many-body interactions, covalency effect and overlap repulsion extended up to second-nearest neighbours. Under high pressure the coordination increases and they transform from rock-salt to CsCl structure. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse and harmonic elastic moduli their agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers. Present model is capable of explaining the Cauchy's discrepancy correctly.
Elastic Scattering and Fusion of {sup 6}Li on {sup 64}Zn at the Barrier
Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Amorini, F.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rizzo, F.; Torresi, D.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Goryunov, O.; Ostashko, V.; Papa, M.; Zadro, M.
2011-10-28
Elastic-scattering angular distributions for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 64}Zn system were measured at energies from below to above the Coulomb barrier. The experimental data were analyzed within the optical model to study the energy dependence of the interaction potential. The results suggest the presence of the breakup threshold anomaly. Preliminary results on the fusion cross-sections for the same system are also reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Kai; Woh Lye, Sun; Miao, Jianmin; Tang, Lihua; Hu, Xiao
2015-10-01
This paper presents the fabrication, modeling and characterization of an out-of-plane electret-based vibrational energy harvester (e-VEH) that has both positive and negative charged electret plates integrated into a single seismic mass system. Strong electrostatic spring-softening effect is induced due to the electric field provided by the double-charged electret plates. An elastic stopper is introduced for reliability concern by limiting the motion of seismic mass and meanwhile serves as a functional element to realize spring-hardening effect. The device has an overall volume of about 0.14?cm3 and is fabricated based on MEMS compatible silicon micromachining technology. When subject to weak excitations, the device exhibits an approximately linear frequency response but changes to a significantly larger broadband when strongly excited due to the combined nonlinear effect from electrostatic force and a mechanical elastic stopper. At a high excitation level of 0.48?g, the experimental results show that the device has 3 dB bandwidths of 3.7 Hz for frequency-up sweep and 2.8 Hz for frequency-down sweep, respectively, which demonstrate a large enhancement compared to the linear response (1.3 Hz). An optimal output power of 0.95 ?W is also achieved with a low resonance of 95 Hz. This corresponds to a normalized power density of 37.4 ?W cm-3 g-2.
Gosta Gustafson; Leif Lonnblad; Andras Ster; Tamas Csorgo
2015-07-13
In order to understand the initial partonic state in proton-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions, we investigate the total, inelastic, and (quasi-)elastic cross sections in pA and gamma-A collisions, as these observables are insensitive to possible collective effects in the final state interactions. We used as a tool the DIPSY dipole model, which is based on BFKL dynamics including non-leading effects, saturation, and colour interference, which we have extended to describe collisions of protons and virtual photons with nuclei. We present results for collisions with O, Cu, and Pb nuclei, and reproduce preliminary data on the pPb inelastic cross section at LHC by CMS and LHCb. The large NN cross section results in pA scattering that scales approximately with the area. The results are compared with conventional Glauber model calculations, and we note that the more subtle dynamical effects are more easily studied in the ratios between the total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections. The smaller photon interaction makes the gamma-A collisions more closely proportional to A, and we see here that future electron-ion colliders would be valuable complements to the pA collisions in studies of dynamical effects from correlations, coherence and fluctuations in the initial state in high energy nuclear collisions.
Cai, Wei
ME340B Elasticity of Microscopic Structures Wei Cai Stanford University Winter 2004 Problem in all 4 steps? (c) What is the elastic energy inside the inclusion EI , and what is the elastic energy 12 = (other components of e ij = 0). (a) What is the total elastic energy of the system E
Bytautas, L.; Ruedenberg, K.
2008-06-06
A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion.
Effect of the breakup on the fusion and elastic scattering of weakly bound projectiles on {sup 64}Zn
Gomes, P.R.S.; Padron, I.; Anjos, R.M.; Lubian, J.; Veiga, R.; Chamon, L.C.; Liguori Neto, R.; Crema, E.; Added, N.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Tenreiro, C.; Hussein, M. S.
2005-03-01
We study the behavior of the fusion, breakup, reaction, and elastic scattering of different projectiles on {sup 64}Zn, at near and above barrier energies. We present fusion and elastic scattering data with the tightly bound {sup 16}O and the stable weakly bound {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 9}Be projectiles. The data are analyzed by coupled channel calculations. The total fusion cross sections for these systems are not affected by the breakup process at energies above the barrier. The elastic (noncapture) breakup cross section is important at energies close to and above the Coulomb barrier and increases the reaction cross sections. In addition, we show that the breakup process at near and below barrier energies is responsible for the vanishing of the usual threshold anomaly of the optical potential and gives rise to a new type of anomaly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labudde, R. A.
1972-01-01
An attempt has been made to keep the programs as subroutine oriented as possible. Usually only the main programs are directly concerned with the problem of total cross sections. In particular the subroutines POLFIT, BILINR, GASS59/MAXLIK, SYMOR, MATIN, STUDNT, DNTERP, DIFTAB, FORDIF, EPSALG, REGFAL and ADSIMP are completely general, and are concerned only with the problems of numerical analysis and statistics. Each subroutine is independently documented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Chun-Sheng; Dai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Dong
2015-01-01
We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The bound state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approximation approach. We find that the inter-dimensional degeneracy symmetry exists for the molecular system represented by the modified Rosen-Morse potential. For fixed vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the 61?u state of the 7Li2 molecule and the X3? state of the SiC radical increase as D increases. We observe that the behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system.
Potential energy, free energy, and entropy barriers in a minimal glassy model
Xin Du; Eric R. Weeks
2015-11-30
We study glassy dynamics using a model of three soft Brownian particles confined to a two-dimensional circular region. If the circular region is large, the disks freely rearrange, but rearrangements are rarer for smaller system sizes. We directly measure a one-dimensional free energy landscape characterizing the dynamics. This landscape has two local minima corresponding to the two distinct disk configurations, separated by a free energy barrier which governs the rearrangement rate. We study several different interaction potentials and demonstrate that the free energy barrier is composed of a potential energy barrier and an entropic barrier. The heights of both of these barriers depend on temperature and system size, demonstrating how non-Arrhenius behavior can arise close to the glass transition.
Applicability of the systematic helium-3 potential for triton-nucleus reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong-Li; Guo, Hai-Rui; Han, Yin-Lu; Shen, Qing-Biao
2015-01-01
The elastic scattering angular distributions of triton are calculated by the obtained systematic helium-3 global optical model potential parameters and compared with the available experimental data. These results show that the present global optical model potential can give a reasonable description of the elastic scattering of triton. The total reaction cross-sections of triton as a function of energy per nucleon are also further investigated and the reasonable results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasa, A. R.; Reddy, J. N.
2013-03-01
The aim of this paper is to develop the governing equations for a fully constrained finitely deforming hyperelastic Cosserat continuum where the directors are constrained to rotate with the body rotation. This is the generalization of small deformation couple stress theories and would be useful for developing mathematical models for an elastic material with embedded stiff short fibers or inclusions (e.g., materials with carbon nanotubes or nematic elastomers, cellular materials with oriented hard phases, open cell foams, and other similar materials), that account for certain longer range interactions. The theory is developed as a limiting case of a regular Cosserat elastic material where the directors are allowed to rotate freely by considering the case of a high "rotational mismatch energy". The theory is developed using the formalism of Lagrangian mechanics, with the static case being based on Castigliano's first theorem. By considering the stretch U and the rotation R as additional independent variables and using the polar decomposition theorem as an additional constraint equation, we obtain the governing and as well as the boundary conditions for finite deformations. The resulting equations are further specialized for plane strain and axisymmetric finite deformations, deformations of beams and plates with small strain and moderate rotation, and for small deformation theories. We also show that the boundary conditions for this theory involve "surface tension" like terms due to the higher gradients in the strain energy function. For beams and plates, the rotational gradient dependent strain energy does not require additional variables (unlike Cosserat theories) and additional differential equations; nor do they raise the order of the differential equations, thus allowing us to include a material length scale dependent response at no extra "computational cost" even for finite deformation beam/plate theories
Effect of ? potential on the ?-/?+ ratio in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wen-Mei; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei
2015-11-01
Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (IBUU) transport model, effects of the ? resonance potential on the free n /p and ?-/?+ ratios in the central collision of 197Au+197Au at beam energies of 200 and 400 MeV/nucleon are studied. It is found that the effect of the ? potential on the ratio of pre-equilibrium free n /p is invisible. The effect of ? isovector potential on the kinetic-energy-integrating ratio of ?-/?+ may be observable only at lower incident beam energies and with stiffer symmetry energy. The strength of the ? isoscalar potential affects the height of the ?-/?+ ratio around the Coulomb peak but does not affect the kinetic-energy-integrating ratio ?-/?+ . In heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, relating to the question of nonconservation of energy on ? or ? productions, one can replace the ? potential by the nucleon isoscalar potential especially when a soft symmetry energy is employed.
Subbiah, A.; Nilsson, L. J.; Larson, E. D.
1995-01-01
KRAFT PULP MILL: POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ADVANCED BIOMASS COGENERATION Anand Subbiah Lars 1. Nilsson' Eric D. Larson" Senior Engineer Visiting Research Fellow Research Engineer Synergic Resources Corp. Center for Energy and Center..., 1994. 3. Aho, W.O., and Boner, T., BPA Industrial Test Program: SIC Repon on the Nonhwest Pulp and Paper Industry, Prepared by EKONO Inc., Bellevue, Washington, for Northwest Pulp and Paper Association, August, 1985. 4. Consonni, S., and Larson, E...
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter
Kuflik, Eric; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2015-01-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER), which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross-section of its elastic scattering on Standard Model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross-section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the $10^{-3}-1$ fb range.
Energy conservation potential of the US Department of Energy interim commercial building standards
Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.
1993-12-01
This report describes a project conducted to demonstrate the whole-building energy conservation potential achievable from full implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interim Energy Conservation Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. DOE`s development and implementation of energy performance standards for commercial buildings were established by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, Public Law (PL) 94-385, 42 USC 6831 et seq., hereinafter referred to as the Act. In accordance with the Act, DOE was to establish performance standards for both federal and private sector buildings ``to achieve the maximum practicable improvements in energy efficiency and use of non-depletable resources for all new buildings``.
IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim
2014-05-01
The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 ?Wm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 ?Wm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 ?Wm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only AMT data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block, with the resistive upper layer extending to depths of 3.5-7 km west of the Shannawona fault, a major structure that cuts the batholith. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that this buried granite is at a depth of 400 m beneath the centre of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide conduits for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites, which is crucial in defining their geothermal energy potential. Thermal conductivity and geochemical data will be incorporated to constrain the heat contribution of granites to the Irish crust.
A new local theory of available potential energy for quantifying energy pathways in the oceans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tailleux, Remi
2013-04-01
Lorenz's theory of available potential energy (APE) has recently received much attention in the context of ocean energetics, for it is increasingly realized to be a key tool for clarifying the relative importance of the surface buoyancy fluxes in powering the ocean circulation, a controversial issue over the past 15 years or so. So far, however, most recent approaches have been restricted to global APE budgets, often for idealized equations of state, which is arguably of limited interest to understand the precise nature of the energy pathways in the oceans. Here, we will present a local extension of the theory of available potential energy, which is developed for the primitive equations that form the basis of most current general ocean circulation models, and which is valid for an arbitrary nonlinear equation of state. Another advantage of the new theory is that it does not require the reference state underlying Lorenz's APE theory to be necessarily the state of minimum potential energy obtained in an adiabatic re-arrangement of the fluid parcels, and hence does not suffer from traditional difficulties pertaining to how to do the sorting of the fluid parcels. The main result of this work is the ability in some instances to link local conversion of APE into kinetic energy directly to the local production of APE by surface fluxes. The framework is also shown to be useful to provide an energy-based characterization of oceanic water masses.
On the potential energy in an electrostatically bound two-body system
K. Wilhelm; B. N. Dwivedi
2014-08-30
The potential energy problem in an electrostatically bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of the electrostatic force and in analogy to the potential energy in a gravitationally bound system. The physical processes are described that result in the variation of the potential energy as a function of the distance between the charged bodies. The energy is extracted from distributions of hypothetical interaction entities modified by the charged bodies.
Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreirós, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A. H.
2015-10-01
We show that, as happens in graphene, elastic deformations couple to the electronic degrees of freedom as pseudogauge fields in Weyl semimetals. We derive the form of the elastic gauge fields in a tight-binding model hosting Weyl nodes and see that this vector electron-phonon coupling is chiral, providing an example of axial gauge fields in three dimensions. As an example of the new response functions that arise associated with these elastic gauge fields, we derive a nonzero phonon Hall viscosity for the neutral system at zero temperature. The axial nature of the fields provides a test of the chiral anomaly in high energy with three axial vector couplings.
DNA Twist Elasticity: Mechanics and Thermal Fluctuations
Supurna Sinha; Joseph Samuel
2010-11-30
The elastic properties of semiflexible polymers are of great importance in biology. There are experiments on biopolymers like double stranded DNA, which twist and stretch single molecules to probe their elastic properties. It is known that thermal fluctuations play an important role in determining molecular elastic properties, but a full theoretical treatment of the problem of twist elasticity of fluctuating ribbons using the simplest worm like chain model (WLC) remains elusive. In this paper, we approach this problem by taking first a mechanical approach and then incorporating thermal effects in a quadratic approximation applying the Gelfand-Yaglom (GY) method for computing fluctuation determinants. Our study interpolates between mechanics and statistical mechanics in a controlled way and shows how profoundly thermal fluctuations affect the elasticity of semiflexible polymers. The new results contained here are: 1) a detailed study of the minimum energy configurations with explicit expressions for their energy and writhe and plots of the extension versus Link for these configurations. 2) a study of fluctuations around the local minima of energy and approximate analytical formulae for the free energy of stretched twisted polymers derived by the Gelfand Yaglom method. We use insights derived from our mechanical approach to suggest calculational schemes that lead to an improved treatment of thermal fluctuations. From the derived formulae, predictions of the WLC model for molecular elasticity can be worked out for comparison against numerical simulations and experiments.
Threshold anomaly with weakly bound projectiles: Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Be+{sup 27}Al
Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Muri, C.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.; Chamon, L.C.; Neto, R. Liguori; Added, N.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Marti, G.V.; Capurro, O.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; Testoni, J.E.; Abriola, D.
2004-11-01
Elastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 9}Be on {sup 27}Al was measured at near barrier energies. The optical model data analysis with the real and imaginary parts of a global double-folding potential does not show strong evidence of the usual threshold anomaly. The same result was obtained by using a Woods-Saxon shape optical potential and calculating the potential strengths at the strong absorption radius. The reason for this behavior may be explained by the presence of break-up and/or transfer channels at low energies.
Deuteron Elastic-Scattering at 110 and 120 Mev
Betker, A. C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Semon, D. R.; Tribble, Robert E.; Xu, HM; Zaruba, A. F.
1993-01-01
Deuteron elastic scattering cross sections have been measured at 110 and 120 MeV on C, Ni-58, and Pb-208. Optical model potentials have been extracted and compared to deuteron global optical model potentials....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ordóñez, G.; Osma, G.; Vergara, P.; Rey, J.
2014-06-01
Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemanadhan, M.; Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K.
2014-06-01
The modified local spin density (MLSD) functional and the related local potential for excited states is tested by employing the ionization potential theorem. The exchange functional for an excited state is constructed by splitting k-space. Since its functional derivative cannot be obtained easily, the corresponding exchange potential is given by an analogy to its ground-state counterpart. Further, to calculate the highest occupied orbital energy ?max accurately, the potential is corrected for its asymptotic behaviour by employing the van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB) correction to it. ?max so obtained is then compared with the ?SCF ionization energy calculated using the MLSD functional with self-interaction correction for the orbitals involved in the transition. It is shown that the two match quite accurately. The match becomes even better by tuning the LB correction with respect to a parameter in it.
A Nano-Power Class-AB Current Multiplier for Energy-based Action Potential Detector
Serdijn, Wouter A.
A Nano-Power Class-AB Current Multiplier for Energy-based Action Potential Detector Chutham Sawigun designed to be used in an energy-based action potential detector is presented. The multiplier is considered An action potential or spike detector is an important part of neural recording implants. The detector
Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics
Schiferl, S.K.
1985-02-01
The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Monteiro, D. S.; Otomar, D. R.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Guimaraes, V.
2009-01-15
High-precision data of backward-angle elastic and quasielastic scattering for the weakly bound {sup 6}Li projectile on {sup 144}Sm target at deep-sub-barrier, near-, and above-barrier energies were measured. From the deep-sub-barrier data, the surface diffuseness of the nuclear interacting potential was studied. Barrier distributions were extracted from the first derivatives of the elastic and quasielastic excitation functions. It is shown that sequential breakup through the first resonant state of the {sup 6}Li is an important channel to be included in coupled-channels calculations, even at deep-sub-barrier energies.
Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for NH + NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1992-01-01
The potential energy surface (PES) for NH + NO was characterized using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) gradient calculations to determine the stationary point geometries and frequencies followed by CASSCF/internally contracted configuration interaction (CCI) calculations to refine the energetics. The present results are in qualitative accord with the BAC-MP4 calculations, but there are differences as large as 8 kcal/mol in the detailed energetics. Addition of NH to NO on a (2)A' surface, which correlated with N2 + OH or H + N2O products, involves barriers of 3.2 kcal/mol (trans) and 6.3 kcal/mol (cis). Experimental evidence for these barriers is found in earlier works. The (2)A' surface has no barrier to addition, but does not correlate with products. Surface crossings between the barrierless (2)A' surface and the (2)A' surface may be important. Production of N2 + OH products is predicted to occur via a planar saddle point of (2)A' symmetry. This is in accord with the preferential formation of II(A') lambda doublet levels of OH in earlier experiments. Addition of NH (1)delta to NO is found to occur on an excited state surface and is predicted to lead to N2O product as observed in earlier works.
An energy balance model based on potential vorticity homogenization
Kirk-Davidoff, D.B.; Lindzen, R.S.
2000-01-15
It has long been suggested that the extratropical eddies originating in baroclinic instability act to neutralize the atmosphere with respect to baroclinic instability. These studies focused on the Charney-Stern condition for stability, and since the implication of this condition was the elimination of meridional temperature gradients at the surface, contrary to observations, there appeared little possibility that the hypothesis was correct. However, Lindzen found that potential vorticity (PV) mixing along isentropic surfaces accompanied by elevated tropopause height and/or reduced jet width could also lead to baroclinic neutralization. Since it is not obvious what implications such a neutral state would have for meridional structure of wind and especially temperature, the authors examine, as a first step, in this paper the implications of an assumed fixed PV gradient in the extratropical troposphere. It is shown that this assumption, combined with an assumption of a moist adiabatic temperature structure in the Tropics, a constraint on surface static stability, and overall radiative equilibrium, suffices to constrain a model earth's zonal mean climate. Comparison of the model climate with the observed climate, and variation of certain of the model's assumptions to resolve differences, allow the authors to consider the role of deep convection in the climate of the midlatitudes, to investigate the connection between surface turbulent heat fluxes and meridional energy fluxes carried by baroclinic eddies, and to deduce the role of the stratosphere's overturning circulation in determining the height of the tropopause.
(Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods)
Broyde, S.
1990-01-01
The objective of our work has been, for many year, to elucidate on a molecular level at atomic resolution the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons, and their less mutagenic chemically related analogs and unmodified DNAs, as controls. The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to obtain an understanding of the relationship DNA structures and mutagenicity. Our methods for elucidating structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and have, very recently, been able to incorporate the first experimental information from NMR studies by other workers in our calculations. The specific computational methods we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space program DUPLEX, developed and written by Dr. Brain Hingerty to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of the important static structures with full solvation and salt are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a milieu that best mimics the natural environment of the cell. In addition, we have been developing new strategies for searching conformation space and building DNA duplexes from favored subunit structures. 30 refs., 12 figs.
Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods
Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.
1992-07-01
Our objective, has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by 2-aminofluorene and its N-acetyl derivative, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence, for example by the formation of hairpin loops in appropriate sequences, but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. We use computational methods and have been able to incorporate the first data from NMR studies in our calculations. Computational approaches are important because x-ray and spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations, with full solvent and salt, of the important static structures are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics the natural aqueous environment of the cell as well as can be done with current available computing resources.
Bonding and elastic properties of amorphous AlYB14
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Music, Denis; Hensling, Felix; Pazur, Tomas; Bednarcik, Jozef; Hans, Marcus; Schnabel, Volker; Hostert, Carolin; Schneider, Jochen M.
2013-09-01
We have studied the bonding and elastic properties of amorphous AlYB14 using theoretical and experimental means. Based on pair distribution functions and Voronoi tessellation, the icosahedral bonding is expected. A rather large Young's modulus of 365 GPa is predicted for amorphous AlYB14. To verify these predictions, we have measured density, pair distribution functions, binding energy and elastic properties of Al-Y-B thin films synthesized by magnetron sputtering. The calculated and measured densities are with a deviation of 3.5% in good agreement. The measured binding energy and pair distribution functions are also consistent with icosahedral bonding. The measured Young's modulus is 305±19 GPa, which is 16% smaller than the theoretical value and hence in good agreement. Overall consistency between theory and experiments was obtained indicating that the computational strategy employed here is useful to describe correlations between bonding, elasticity, density as well as (chemical) short range order and may hence enable future knowledge-based design of these ternary borides which show great potential for surface protection applications.
Wrinkling patterns on floating elastic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Narayanan
2009-03-01
A polymer sheet floating on the surface of a fluid is an ideal arena for studying elastic instabilities in thin sheets. In our experiments we use polystyrene sheets whose typical lateral size, L ˜ 3 cm, and whose thickness, t ranges from 30 to 300 nm, yielding aspect ratios L/t of up to 10^6. In their unperturbed state, they lie on the surface of a pool of water, stretched flat by surface tension. We can then generate a rich variety of wrinkling patterns by perturbing the surface locally with capillary forces,ootnotetextJ. Huang et al., Science 317, 650 (2007). or with controlled displacements at one or more points on the surface. I will review our understanding of the length scales that characterise these localised patterns. A simple experimental setting in which a multiplicity of these length scales come into play is a situation analogous to an Euler buckling experiment performed on the surface of a fluid. We push two sides of a rectangular sheet towards each other, creating a global pattern of parallel wrinkles whose wavelength is given by a balance between gravitational potential energy of the fluid and bending energy of the sheet. These wrinkles develop a cascade of fine structure at higher wavenumbers close to the uncompressed edges of the sheet. The length scale over which this cascade occurs is the capillary length, whereas the wavenumber at the edge of the sheet reflects a balance between bending energy and surface tension. We discuss the evidence that this is a fundamentally new type of elastic cascade, which proceeds to higher wavenumbers by smooth evolution of the wrinkles, rather than by discrete, sharply localised branching. Work done in collaboration with J. Huang, E. Cerda, B. Davidovitch, W.H. de Jeu, T.P. Russell, C. D. Santangelo
The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lew, V.
1980-04-01
The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Casey, James
1993-01-01
A simple experiment concerning the elasticity of wood is described that can easily be performed at home. The forces needed to produce a stress in wood are measured and compared. Provides a mathematical discussion of the elasticity and stress of wood. (MVL)
Postinstability models in elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1984-01-01
It is demonstrated that the instability caused by the failure of hyperbolicity in elasticity and associated with the problem of unpredictability in classical mechanics expresses the incompleteness of the original model of an elastic medium. The instability as well as the ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem are eliminated by reformulating the original model.
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
Topographies and dynamics on multidimensional potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Keith Douglas
The stochastic master equation is a valuable tool for elucidating potential energy surface (PES) details that govern structural relaxation in clusters, bulk systems, and protein folding. This work develops a comprehensive framework for studying non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics using the master equation. Since our master equations depend upon accurate partition function models for use in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRK(M) transition state theory, this work introduces several such models employing various harmonic and anharmonic approximations and compares their predicted equilibrium population distributions with those determined from molecular dynamics. This comparison is performed for the fully-delineated surfaces (KCl)5 and Ar9 to evaluate model performance for potential surfaces with long- and short-range interactions, respectively. For each system, several models perform better than a simple harmonic approximation. While no model gives acceptable results for all minima, and optimal modeling strategies differ for (KCl)5 and Ar9, a particular one-parameter model gives the best agreement with simulation for both systems. We then construct master equations from these models and compare their isothermal relaxation predictions for (KCl)5 and Ar9 with molecular dynamics simulations. This is the first comprehensive test of the kinetic performance of partition function models of its kind. Our results show that accurate modeling of transition-state partition functions is more important for (KCl)5 than for Ar9 in reproducing simulation results, due to a marked stiffening anharmonicity in the transition-state normal modes of (KCl)5. For both systems, several models yield qualitative agreement with simulation over a large temperature range. To examine the robustness of the master equation when applied to larger systems, for which full topographical descriptions would be either impossible or infeasible, we compute relaxation predictions for Ar11 using a master equation constructed from data representing the full PES, and compare these predictions to those of reduced master equations based on statistical samples of the full PES. We introduce a sampling method which generates random, Boltzmann-weighted, energetically 'downhill' sequences. The study reveals that, at moderate temperatures, the slowest relaxation timescale converges as the number of sequences in a sample grows to ~1000. Furthermore, the asymptotic timescale is comparable to the full-PES value.
Passive elastic mechanism to mimic fish-muscle action in anguilliform swimming
Ramananarivo, Sophie; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Thiria, Benjamin
2013-01-01
Swimmers in nature use body undulations to generate propulsive and manoeuvring forces. The anguilliform kinematics is driven by muscular actions all along the body, involving a complex temporal and spatial coordination of all the local actuations. Such swimming kinematics can be reproduced artificially, in a simpler way, by using the elasticity of the body passively. Here, we present experiments on self-propelled elastic swimmers at a free surface in the inertial regime. By addressing the fluid–structure interaction problem of anguilliform swimming, we show that our artificial swimmers are well described by coupling a beam theory with the potential flow model of Lighthill. In particular, we show that the propagative nature of the elastic wave producing the propulsive force is strongly dependent on the dissipation of energy along the body of the swimmer. PMID:23985737
Energy of Cohesion, Compressibility, and the Potential Energy Functions of the Graphite System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girifalco, L. A.; Lad, R. A.
1956-01-01
The lattice summations of the potential energy of importance in the graphite system have been computed by direct summation assuming a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential between carbon atoms. From these summations, potential energy curves were constructed for interactions between a carbon atom and a graphite monolayer, between a carbon atom and a graphite surface, between a graphite monolayer and a semi-infinite graphite crystal and between two graphite semi-infinite crystals. Using these curves, the equilibrium distance between two isolated physically interacting carbon atoms was found to be 2.70 a, where a is the carbon-carbon distance in a graphite sheet. The distance between a surface plane and the rest of the crystal was found to be 1.7% greater than the interlayer spacing. Theoretical values of the energy of cohesion and the compressibility were calculated from the potential curve for the interaction between two semi-infinite crystals. They were (delta)E(sub c) = -330 ergs/sq cm and beta =3.18x10(exp -12)sq cm/dyne, respectively. These compared favorably with the experimental values of (delta)E(sub c) = -260 ergs/sq cm and beta = 2.97 X 10(exp -2) sq cm/dyne.
Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico
2011-01-01
This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa). PMID:21689919
A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.
1981-01-01
To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.
Efficient control of series elastic actuators through the exploitation of resonant modes
Albert, Kevin B. (Kevin Bjorn)
2007-01-01
This thesis explores the efficiency potential inherent to series elastic actuators during oscillatory tasks. Series elastic actuators have a spring intentionally placed at the actuator output that provides good force ...
Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yildiz, Faruk
2009-01-01
Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…
Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.
Consonni, Stefano; Vigano, Federico
2011-09-15
Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detz, H.; Strasser, G.
2013-08-01
This work evaluates the suitability of the empirical Tersoff potential for structural calculations in ternary III-V alloys, using parameter sets for the corresponding binary compounds. In particular, the elastic properties of randomly alloyed InxGa1 - xAs, InxAl1 - xAs and GaAs1 - xSbx are compared to values obtained experimentally over the whole composition range. Different In-As interactions were evaluated for InxGa1 - xAs to provide an optimum fit around the technologically relevant composition of 53% In, required for lattice-matching with InP substrates. The experimental values of the bulk modulus were reproduced with an error well below 5% for all three ternaries, while the calculations led to deviations in the shear modulus of up to 13%. For the particular compositions, lattice-matched to InP, the error in the bulk modulus is well below 2%, while for the shear modulus an error around 10% has to be expected, according to this analysis.
Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.
2015-01-01
Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ? B (NF?B) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NF?B inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = ?0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NF?B signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of NF?B signalling in middle-aged and older exercising adults may potentially lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:26378681
Energy expressions for model exchange potentials: Beyond the Levy--Perdew virial relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaiduk, Alex P.; Staroverov, Viktor N.
2012-02-01
The common way to assign energies to Kohn--Sham exchange potentials is by using the Levy--Perdew virial relation. However, for model potentials that are not functional derivatives, this approach leads to energy expressions that lack translational invariance. We point out that there is a more general procedure for constructing density functionals from model potentials, of which the Levy--Perdew relation is just a special case. Using this generalization we propose a method for converting model potentials into density functionals that ensures translational invariance of the energy. To illustrate our approach we construct a competitively accurate exchange functional from the model potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael
2015-05-01
Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.
Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.
2013-03-01
Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.
Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.
2013-02-01
Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.
Free energy versus potential energy landscapes of drug-like molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abraham, Yonas; Harris, Rebecca; Hammond, Philip S.; Schmitt, Jeffrey D.
2006-03-01
To gain information about molecular shape tendencies, the life science community has traditionally focused primarily on conformational search methodologies that explore the Potential Energy Surface (PES). The output of these methods is a collation of so-called minimum energy conformers. In our effort to gain more insight into molecular shape and overall behavior, we have used both PES conformational search techniques and ab initio molecular dynamics to study a set of neuronal nicotinic receptor (NNR) ligands that possess a non-trivial structure-affinity relationship. This latter method, properly executed, provides the free energy landscape. In this poster we show the sometimes dramatic difference in predicted behavior between these two methods. Significantly, conformers predicted to be highly populated in one method are disallowed in the other method. This work constitutes our first exploration into the use of an ab initio derived free energy landscape to better understand small molecules of biological interest.
Plenkiewicz, B.; Plenkiewicz, P.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1986-04-15
It has been found recently from the analysis of low-energy electron-transmission experiments that the scattering mean free path lambda of excess hot electrons in solid xenon films oscillates with energy. We show in this paper that in these experiments lambda is predominantly controlled by the combined effect of both acoustical-phonon scattering and scattering by neutral point defects, and that its energy dependence is entirely caused by the changes in electron effective mass with energy.
Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar
2010-03-01
A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.
Buckling and nonlocal elasticity of charged membranes.
Netz, R R
2001-11-01
The elastic behavior of an interacting, and, in specific, of a charged flexible membrane is considered. In the first part of this paper the effective nonlocal elastic energy of a membrane due to a pairwise and arbitrary intra-membrane interaction is derived. Nonlocal elasticity is included to all orders, this description, therefore, corresponds to an infinite resummation of the standard gradient expansion. In the second part, the pair interaction between segments of an (on average) neutral membrane consisting of mobile positive and negative charges is derived both field theoretically in the Gaussian approximation and using a simple ion-pairing approximation. This model might also apply to strongly charged membranes with strongly condensed counter ions. The resulting contribution to the elastic energy is negative and thus favors undulations of the membrane. The bending modulus is extracted from the large-scale or small-momentum behavior of the elastic kernel and found to be comparable to k(B)T for the case where ion pairing is dominant. The large-momentum elastic response exhibits a markedly different scaling than the small-momentum regime and sensitively depends on the small-distance cutoff and thus on molecular details. PMID:11735917
Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams in the United States
Haas, Kevin A.; Fritz, Hermann M.; French, Steven P.; Smith, Brennan T.; Neary, Vincent
2011-06-29
The project documented in this report created a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology.