NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbaszadeh, M.; Sharifi, M. A.; Bahroudi, A.
2009-04-01
The most outer layer of the lithosphere responds elastically against any imposed stress. In general, the strength and thickness of the effective elastic lithosphere are reflected in its free air gravity, topographic, flexural and seismic characteristics. Therefore, it is so great to estimate elastic thickness of the lithosphere, . Gravity anomaly and topography spectral analysis is an appropriate way to estimate . Satellite derived gravity and topography/bathymetry provide homogeneous and uniformly accurate data, all over the world. In this paper, we used EIGEN-GL04C and ETOPO5 in a grid to generate free-air gravity anomaly and topography, respectively. By Fourier spectral analysis of the data and flexural isostacic model, we estimated in Iran. Finally, we could show there is strong correlation between and crust thickness in many regions which can be used to thermal gradient evaluation of the crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbaszadeh, Majid; Sharifi, Mohammad; Nikkhoo, Mehdi
2013-06-01
The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere has an important role in constraining compositional structure, geothermal gradient and tectonic forces within the lithosphere and the thickness of this layer can be used to evaluate the earthquakes' focal depth. Hence, assessment of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere by gravitational admittance method in Iran is the main objective of this paper. Although the global geopotential models estimated from the satellite missions and surface data can portray the Earth's gravity field in high precision and resolution, there are some debates about using them for lithosphere investigations. We used both the terrestrial data which have been provided by NCC (National Cartographic Center of Iran) and BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International), and the satellite-derived gravity and topography which are generated by EIGEN-GL04C and ETOPO5, respectively. Finally, it is concluded that signal content of the satellite-derived data is as rich as the terrestrial one and it can be used for the determination of the lithosphere bending.
Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Teik-Cheng
2014-04-01
Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads.
Tensile Instability in a Thick Elastic Body.
Overvelde, Johannes T B; Dykstra, David M J; de Rooij, Rijk; Weaver, James; Bertoldi, Katia
2016-08-26
A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in elastic bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality. PMID:27610857
Variations in effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bechtel, Timothy D.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Grieve, Richard A. F.
1990-01-01
A technique for estimating flexural rigidity that is not limited to sedimentary basins is used here to map variations in the effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere. The effective elastic thickness ranges from a minimum of about 4 km in the Basin and Range Province to more than 100 km in the Precambrian core of the continent. This finding supports the idea that flexural rigidity has increased with time since the last thermal event.
Coal Thickness Gauging Using Elastic Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nazarian, Soheil; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph
1999-01-01
The efforts of a mining crew can be optimized, if the thickness of the coal layers to be excavated is known before excavation. Wave propagation techniques can be used to estimate the thickness of the layer based on the contrast in the wave velocity between coal and rock beyond it. Another advantage of repeated wave measurement is that the state of the stress within the mine can be estimated. The state of the stress can be used in many safety-related decisions made during the operation of the mine. Given these two advantages, a study was carried out to determine the feasibility of the methodology. The results are presented herein.
Furrow Topography and the Elastic Thickness of Ganymede's Dark Terrain Lithosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pappalardo, Robert T.; Nimmo, Francis; Giese, Bernd; Bader, Christina E.; DeRemer, Lindsay C.; Prockter, Louise M.
2003-01-01
The effective elastic thickness of Ganymede's lithosphere tell of the satellite's thermal evolution through time. Generally it has been inferred that dark terrain, which is less tectonically deformed than grooved terrain, represents regions of cooler and thicker lithosphere [1]. The ancient dark terrain is cut by furrows, tectonic troughs about 5 to 20 km in width, which may have formed in response to large ancient impacts [1, 2]. We have applied the methods of [3] to estimate effective elastic thickness based on topographic profiles across tectonic furrows, extracted from a stereo-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of dark terrain in Galileo Regio [4]. Asymmetry in furrow topography and inferred flexure suggests asymmetric furrow fault geometry. We find effective elastic thicknesses 0.4 km, similar to analyzed areas alongside bright grooved terrain. Data and Analysis: A broken-plate elastic model.
On the Spatial Variability of the Martian Elastic Lithosphere Thickness: Evidence for Mantle Plumes?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grott, M.; Breuer, D.
2009-12-01
The elastic lithosphere thickness at the Martian North Pole has recently been constrained by estimating the flexural response of the lithosphere to loading at the polar caps and a minimum elastic thickness of 300 km has been determined. This is a factor of three to four larger than elastic thickness estimates for other Amazonian surface units like the Tharsis volcanoes, which exhibit elastic thicknesses around 75 to 90 km. Here we investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the Martian elastic lithosphere thickness and present a model which takes the locally varying crustal thickness, the local concentration of heat producing elements as well as variations of strain rate into account. The model predicts D = 225 km at the North Pole today, whereas D = 75-90 km is obtained at the Tharsis volcanoes if a mid Amazonian loading age is assumed. Therefore, although a large degree of spatial heterogeneity can be explained by the presented model, large elastic thicknesses in excess of 300 km cannot be reproduced. In order to fit all elastic thickness values derived from observations the mantle heat flow at the North Pole needs to be smaller than the global average. A local reduction of heat flow by 25% with respect to the chondritic value would be sufficient to explain the large elastic thicknesses observed there. However, a local reduction of heat flow can only be reconciled with a bulk chondritic concentration of heat producing elements in the Martian interior if the excess heat is deposited elsewhere. This could be achieved by mantle plumes, possibly active underneath Tharsis. The size and strength of such a plume is constrained by the elastic thickness at the Tharsis Montes and maximum average heat flows between 8 and 20 mW/m2, corresponding to central peak heat flows of 40 to 100 mW/m2, are consistent with the observations. Such a plume would leave a clear signature in the surface heat flow and should be readily detectable by in-situ heat flow measurements. Gray
The elastic thickness of the lithosphere in the Pacific Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmant, Stephane
1987-09-01
The effective elastic thickness T(e) of the oceanic lithosphere along the Hawaiian-Emperor, the Marquesas, the Pitcairn-Mururoa-Gloucester (PMG) chains, the Tuamotu archipelago, and the Samoa islands was determined by computing the deflection of a continuous elastic plate under the load of volcanoes and was constrained by the geoid heights over the oceans provided by Seasat. The prediction by Watts (1978) according to which the value of the T(e) should increase with the square root of crustal age of the lithosphere at the time of volcano emplacement was not confirmed; while the T(e) estimate of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and an isolated estimate in the Samoan group agree with the empirical trend found by Watts, the Marquesas and the PMG chains, as well as the previously analyzed Cook-Austral and Society chains, present anomalously low values which increase only slightly with age.
Chen, Jiankang; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Ji; Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi
2008-08-01
We studied thickness vibration of 2 elastic layers with an elastic interface mounted on a plate piezoelectric resonator. The effect of the interface elasticity on resonant frequencies was examined. The result obtained suggests an acoustic wave sensor for measuring the elastic property of an interface between 2 materials. PMID:18986911
Lithospheric structure of Africa: insights from its effective elastic thickness variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Gussinyé, M.; Metois, M.; Fernández, M.; Vergés, J.; Fullea, J.
2009-04-01
Detailed images of lithospheric structure can help understand how surface deformation is related to Earth's deep structure. A proxy for lithospheric structure is its effective elastic thickness, Te, which mainly depends on its thermal state and composition. We present a new effective elastic thickness, Te, map of the African lithosphere estimated using the coherence function between topography and Bouguer anomaly. The Bouguer anomaly used in this study derives from the EGM 2008 model, which constitutes the highest resolution gravity database over Africa, allowing a significant improvement on lateral resolution in Te. Our map shows that Te is high > 100 km, in the West African, Congo, Kalahari and Tanzania cratons. Of these, the Kalahari presents the thinnest elastic thicknesses and, based on additional seismic and mineral physics studies, we suggest this may reflect modification of the lithosphere by anomalously hot mantle beneath the lithosphere. The effective elastic thickness is lowest beneath the Afar and Main Ethiopian rifts, where the maximum extension and thinnest lithosphere of Africa occur. The Tanzania craton appears as two rigid blocks separated by a relatively low Te area located southwest of lake Victoria. This coincides with the centre of seismic radial anisotropy beneath the craton, suggested to be the Victoria plume head by Weertrane et al. [2003]. Along the eastern branch of the East African rift Te is low and increases abruptly at 2 to 3 degrees South, coinciding with a deepening of earthquake depocenter and a change from narrow to wide rifting. These and other considerations suggest that the southern part of the eastern branch is underlain by thick, rigid cratonic lithosphere. Finally, the northern part of Africa is characterised by low Te on the Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar and Cameroon line volcanic provinces, suggesting that the underlying lithospheric mantle has been thermally thinned. Corridors of low Te connect these volcanic provinces
Estimates of the Effective Elastic Thickness: Any signs of agreement?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, Dan
2016-04-01
There is little controversy about the value of Te estimated from oceanic measurements of gravity and bathymetry. Its value is often obtained from the relationship between the free air gravity and bathymetry in the spectral domain. Estimates of Te from those few regions where there is good 2D bathymetric coverage give values which vary from 2-4 km for spreading ridges to ˜ 20 km for old lithosphere like that beneath Hawaii. There is a general belief that the elastic thickness is controlled by the depth of an isotherm whose value is ˜ 450°C, and that Te < T_s, the seismogenic thickness, which closely follows the 600°C isotherm. In contrast, there is no agreement between different estimates of Te from continents, most of which are based on Forsyth's method using the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography. In regions of rough topography his approach gives estimates of Te that are similar to, though generally about double, those obtained from the free air gravity using the same approach as in the oceans. However, in regions with little topography, which includes most shields, the ratio between the two estimates often exceeds a factor of 5, with estimates of Te from Forsyth's method often exceeding 100 km, corresponding to a limiting isotherm of 1000°C or more. Laboratory experiments at such temperatures show that elastic stresses are relaxed in hours. This problem has generated a long running controversy. It is straightforward to show that estimates of Te from Bouguer gravity depend only on the ratio of the power spectra of free air gravity to topography when the two are incoherent (McK, 2015), and are independent of the actual value of T_e. In many shield regions the topography is indeed incoherent with the topography. No valid estimates of Te can then be obtained. However, it is nonetheless often possible to use the spectral ratio to estimate an upper bound on the value of T_e, which is generally < 30 km. Accurate maps of topography and gravity are now
Global model for the lithospheric strength and effective elastic thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.
2013-08-01
Global distribution of the strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere are estimated using physical parameters from recent crustal and lithospheric models. For the Te estimation we apply a new approach, which provides a possibility to take into account variations of Young modulus (E) within the lithosphere. In view of the large uncertainties affecting strength estimates, we evaluate global strength and Te distributions for possible end-member 'hard' (HRM) and a 'soft' (SRM) rheology models of the continental crust. Temperature within the lithosphere has been estimated using a recent tomography model of Ritsema et al. (2011), which has much higher horizontal resolution than previous global models. Most of the strength is localized in the crust for the HRM and in the mantle for the SRM. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. Changing from the SRM to HRM turns most of the continental areas from the totally decoupled mode to the fully coupled mode of the lithospheric layers. However, in the areas characterized by a high thermal regime and thick crust, the layers remain decoupled even for the HRM. At the same time, for the inner part of the cratons the lithospheric layers are coupled in both models. Therefore, rheological variations lead to large changes in the integrated strength and Te distribution in the regions characterized by intermediate thermal conditions. In these areas temperature uncertainties have a greater effect, since this parameter principally determines rheological behavior. Comparison of the Te estimates for both models with those determined from the flexural loading and spectral analysis shows that the 'hard' rheology is likely applicable for cratonic areas, whereas the 'soft' rheology is more representative for young orogens.
Elastic Thickness Estimates for Coronae Associated with Chasmata on Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoogenboom, T.; Martin, P.; Housean, G. A.
2005-01-01
Coronae are large-scale circular tectonic features surrounded by annular ridges. They are generally considered unique to Venus and may offer insights into the differences in lithospheric structure or mantle convective pattern between Venus and Earth. 68% of all coronae are associated with chasmata or fracture belts. The remaining 32% are located at volcanic rises or in the plains. Chasmata are linear to arcuate troughs, with trough parallel fractures and faults which extend for 1000 s of kilometers. Estimates of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T(sub e)) have been calculated in a number of gravity/topography studies of Venus and for coronae specifically. None of these studies, however, have explored the dependence of T(sub e) on the tectonic history of the region, as implied from the interpretation of relative timing relationships between coronae and surrounding features. We examine the relationship between the local T(sub e) and the relative ages of coronae and chasmata with the aim of further constraining the origin and evolution of coronae and chasmata systems.
How Accurately Do Spectral Methods Estimate Effective Elastic Thickness?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Gussinye, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Watts, A. B.; Velicogna, I.
2002-12-01
The effective elastic thickness, Te, is an important parameter that has the potential to provide information on the long-term thermal and mechanical properties of the the lithosphere. Previous studies have estimated Te using both forward and inverse (spectral) methods. While there is generally good agreement between the results obtained using these methods, spectral methods are limited because they depend on the spectral estimator and the window size chosen for analysis. In order to address this problem, we have used a multitaper technique which yields optimal estimates of the bias and variance of the Bouguer coherence function relating topography and gravity anomaly data. The technique has been tested using realistic synthetic topography and gravity. Synthetic data were generated assuming surface and sub-surface (buried) loading of an elastic plate with fractal statistics consistent with real data sets. The cases of uniform and spatially varying Te are examined. The topography and gravity anomaly data consist of 2000x2000 km grids sampled at 8 km interval. The bias in the Te estimate is assessed from the difference between the true Te value and the mean from analyzing 100 overlapping windows within the 2000x2000 km data grids. For the case in which Te is uniform, the bias and variance decrease with window size and increase with increasing true Te value. In the case of a spatially varying Te, however, there is a trade-off between spatial resolution and variance. With increasing window size the variance of the Te estimate decreases, but the spatial changes in Te are smeared out. We find that for a Te distribution consisting of a strong central circular region of Te=50 km (radius 600 km) and progressively smaller Te towards its edges, the 800x800 and 1000x1000 km window gave the best compromise between spatial resolution and variance. Our studies demonstrate that assumed stationarity of the relationship between gravity and topography data yields good results even in
Elastic bending modulus of single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2): finite thickness effect.
Jiang, Jin-Wu; Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon
2013-11-01
We derive, from an empirical interaction potential, an analytic formula for the elastic bending modulus of single-layer MoS2 (SLMoS2). By using this approach, we do not need to define or estimate a thickness value for SLMoS2, which is important due to the substantial controversy in defining this value for two-dimensional or ultrathin nanostructures such as graphene and nanotubes. The obtained elastic bending modulus of 9.61 eV in SLMoS2 is significantly higher than the bending modulus of 1.4 eV in graphene, and is found to be within the range of values that are obtained using thin shell theory with experimentally obtained values for the elastic constants of SLMoS2. This increase in bending modulus as compared to monolayer graphene is attributed, through our analytic expression, to the finite thickness of SLMoS2. Specifically, while each monolayer of S atoms contributes 1.75 eV to the bending modulus, which is similar to the 1.4 eV bending modulus of monolayer graphene, the additional pairwise and angular interactions between out of plane Mo and S atoms contribute 5.84 eV to the bending modulus of SLMoS2. PMID:24084656
Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.
1992-01-01
Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.
Elastic thickness and heat flux estimates for the uranian satellite Ariel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, G.; Nimmo, F.; Schenk, P.
2015-04-01
The surface of Ariel, an icy satellite orbiting Uranus, shows extensional tectonic features suggesting an episode of endogenic heating in the satellite's past. Using topography derived from stereo-photoclinometry, we identified flexural uplift at a rift zone suggesting elastic thickness values in the range 3.8-4.4 km. We estimate the temperature at the base of the lithosphere to be in the range 99-146 K, depending on the strain rate assumed, with corresponding heat fluxes of 28-92 mW/m2. Neither tidal heating, assuming Ariel's current eccentricity, nor radiogenic heat production from the silicate core are enough to cause the inferred heat fluxes. None of three proposed ancient mean-motion resonances produce equilibrium tidal heating values in excess of 4.3 mW/m2. Thus, the origin of the inferred high heat fluxes is currently mysterious.
Topological derivatives for fundamental frequencies of elastic bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobelev, Vladimir
2016-01-01
In this article a new method for topological optimization of fundamental frequencies of elastic bodies, which could be considered as an improvement on the bubble method, is introduced. The method is based on generalized topological derivatives. For a body with different types of inclusion the vector genus is introduced. The dimension of the genus is the number of different elastic properties of the inclusions being introduced. The disturbances of stress and strain fields in an elastic matrix due to a newly inserted elastic inhomogeneity are given explicitly in terms of the stresses and strains in the initial body. The iterative positioning of inclusions is carried out by determination of the preferable position of the new inhomogeneity at the extreme points of the characteristic function. The characteristic function was derived using Eshelby's method. The expressions for optimal ratios of the semi-axes of the ellipse and angular orientation of newly inserted infinitesimally small inclusions of elliptical form are derived in closed analytical form.
Deformation of an elastic shell with variable thickness: a comparison of different methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalousová, K.; Souček, O.; Čadek, O.
2012-08-01
Deformation of the outermost parts of single-plate planetary bodies is often modelled in terms of the response of a spherical elastic shell to surface or basal loading. As the thickness of such elastic lithosphere is usually much smaller than the radius of the body, the deformation is commonly approximated by that obtained for a thin elastic shell of uniform thickness. The main advantage of the thin shell approximation is its simplicity—the solution can be expressed analytically if the thickness of the shell is uniform, but even in the case of a thin shell of variable thickness, when the problem must be solved numerically, the computational costs are much lower than in a fully 3-D case. Here we analyse the error of the thin shell approximation by comparing it with the solution obtained for a shell of finite thickness using finite element methods. Special attention is paid to a shell of variable thickness and, in general, to the effect of elastic thickness variations on local deformation. For a shell of uniform thickness with the outer radius corresponding to Mars, we find that the error in radial displacement at low harmonic degrees (ℓ≤ 20) does not exceed 5 per cent for small shell thicknesses (d≤ 50 km) and 10 per cent for thick shells (d˜ 250 km). Similar accuracy is also found for a shell of variable thickness if the thin shell approximation is used. Our numerical tests indicate that local deformation of a shell is mostly sensitive to the average thickness of the shell in the near zone while the effect of thickness variations in the far zone can be neglected in the first approximation. Consequently, the extremely simple thin shell method, designed for shells of uniform thickness, can be effectively used to obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of deflection even in the case of a shell with varying thickness. Finally, we investigate the deformation of an elastic lithosphere due to viscous flow beneath the shell, and we propose an extension of the
Three-dimensional estimate of the lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Minzhang; Li, Jiancheng; Jin, Taoyong; Xu, Xinyu; Xing, Lelin; Shen, Chongyang; Li, Hui
2015-09-01
Using a new bathymetry grid formed with vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings (BAT_VGG), a 1° × 1° lithospheric effective elastic thickness (Te) grid of the Line ridge was calculated with the moving window admittance technique. As a comparison, both the GEBCO_08 and SIO V15.1 bathymetry datasets were used to calculate Te as well. The results show that BAT_VGG is suitable for the calculation of lithospheric effective elastic thickness. The lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge is shown to be low, in the range of 5.5-13 km, with an average of 8 km and a standard deviation of 1.3 km. Using the plate cooling model as a reference, most of the effective elastic thicknesses are controlled by the 150-300 °C isotherm. Seamounts are primarily present in two zones, with lithospheric ages of 20-35 Ma and 40-60 Ma, at the time of loading. Unlike the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, the lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge does not change monotonously. The tectonic setting of the Line ridge is discussed in detail based on our Te results and the seamount ages collected from the literature. The results show that thermal and fracture activities must have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the ridge.
Assessment of the Correlation between Crust and its Estimated Elastic Layer Thickness in Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbaszadeh, Majid; Nikkhoo, Mehdi
2010-05-01
Although crust plates movements are usually just under few centimeters during a year, it can deform elastic layer of rocks on the faults and, as a result, energy stores in the layer. Sometimes, just in a few seconds, the accumulated energy within the layer releases suddenly and an earthquake occur. The effective elastic thickness of lithosphere has a prominent role to predict the focal depth of earthquakes and their magnitude, as well. Since lithosphere is flexed by the mass of topography on the earth's surface, the spectral analysis of topography and gravity anomaly is an appropriate method to assess the flexure of lithosphere and estimate its elastic layer thickness. In this paper, by spectral analysis of free-air gravity anomaly and topography signals which were generated respectively from EIGEN-GL04C and ETOPO5 global models; elastic layer thickness in different regions of Iran are calculated. Comparing the crust thickness (obtained from CRUST2.0 model) and the estimated elastic layer thickness, a statistically significant correlation between the two parameters could be seen.
Elastic thickness and heat flux estimates for the Uranian satellite Ariel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, G.; Nimmo, F.; Schenk, P.
2013-12-01
The exterior of Ariel, an icy satellite orbiting Uranus, shows tectonic features suggesting an episode of endogenic heating in the satellite's past [1]. Using topography derived from stereo images, we identified flexural uplift at two different rift zones. The elastic thickness is estimated using the wavelength of the deformation [2], yielding elastic thickness values of 2-4 km for the first region and 5-8 km for the second region. Using creep parameters for ice [3] and the approach of [4], we estimate the temperature at the base of the lithosphere to be in the range 110 to 140 K, depending on the strain rate assumed. The corresponding heat fluxes are 40-120 mW/m^2 and 20-50 mW/m^2, respectively. Neither tidal heating assuming Ariel's current eccentricity nor radiogenic heat production from the silicate core are enough to cause the inferred heat flux. Unstable resonant configurations of the Uranian satellites may have occurred in the past [5], including a 2:1 mean-motion resonance between Ariel and Umbriel. This resonance would have generated a higher eccentricity, possibly explaining the endogenic heat source. However, the maximum equilibrium heating rate in Ariel due to this resonance [1] is 2.9 GW (0.6 mW/m2), inadequate to cause the inferred heat flux. The origin of the inferred high heat fluxes is thus currently mysterious. [1] Peale 1999 [2] Turcotte and Schubert 2002 [3] Goldsby and Kohlstedt 2001 [4] Nimmo et al. 2002 [5] Dermott et al. 1988
Determination of the Elastic Thickness of the Crust using GOES and LIDAR images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taghavi, Farahnaz; Ghalenoiee, Samira; Ebrahim-zadeh Ardestani, Vahid
2016-07-01
In this study, to identify the elastic thickness (Te) of the crust, the local variations of the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography in the three area included Canadian Shield region, Appalachian region, and Basin and Range region are determined. We use a coherence method based on Windowed Fourier Transform (WFT) under the assumption of an isotropic lithosphere. Data sources are selected from GOES and LIDAR images for Bouguer gravity and topography, respectively. First, the coherence distribution is calculated and then, the characteristic wavelengths are obtained where the coherence is 0.5. Results show that values of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere are 110km in the Canadian Shield region, 49km in the Appalachian region and 3.5km in the Basin and Range region. The results are in good agreement with the existing values calculated from other spectral methods. Key words: Effective elastic thickness, Coherence method, Bouguer gravity anomaly, topography, satellite images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, Keyhan; Abedi, Majid; Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Lotfian, Mohammad Hassan
2012-12-01
On the basis of plane elasticity theory (PET), the displacement and stress components in a thick-walled spherical pressure vessels made of heterogeneous materials subjected to internal and external pressure is developed. The mechanical properties except the Poisson's ratio are assumed to obey the parabolic variations throughout the thickness. Effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic deformations and stresses is investigated. The analytical solutions and the solutions carried out through the FEM have a good agreement. The values used in this study are arbitrary chosen to demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity on displacements, and stresses distributions.
Derivation of reaction cross sections from experimental elastic backscattering probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Gomes, P. R. S.
2013-10-01
The relationship between the backward elastic scattering probabilities and the reaction cross sections is derived. This is a very simple and useful method to extract reaction cross sections for heavy-ion systems. We compare the results of our method with those that use the traditional full elastic scattering angular distributions for several systems at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. From the calculated reaction and capture cross sections that use the present method, we derive the cross sections of other mechanisms for weak nearly spherical systems.
Zhu, Jun; Chen, Weiqiu; Yang, Jiashi
2014-09-01
We study the propagation of thickness-twist (TT) waves in a crystal plate of AT-cut quartz with periodically varying, piecewise constant thickness. The scalar differential equation by Tiersten and Smythe is employed. The problem is found to be mathematically equivalent to the motion of an electron in a periodic potential field governed by Schrodinger's equation. An analytical solution is obtained. Numerical results show that the eigenvalue (frequency) spectrum of the waves has a band structure with allowed and forbidden bands. Therefore, for TT waves, plates with periodically varying thickness can be considered as phononic crystals. The effects of various parameters on the frequency spectrum are examined. PMID:24924785
Tectonic inheritance of the Indian Shield: New insights from its elastic thickness structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratheesh-Kumar, R. T.; Windley, B. F.; Sajeev, K.
2014-03-01
A new evaluation of the elastic thickness (Te) structure of the Indian Shield, derived from isotropic fan wavelet methodology, documents spatial variations of lithospheric deformation in different tectonic provinces correlated with episodic tectono-thermal events. The Te variations corroborated by shear velocity, crustal thickness, and seismogenic thickness reveal the heterogeneous rheology of the Indian lithosphere. The thinned, attenuated lithosphere beneath Peninsular India is considered to be the reason for its mechanically weak strength (< 30 km), where a decoupled crust-mantle rheology under different surface/subsurface loading structures may explain the prominent low Te patterns. The arcuate Te structure of the Western Dharwar province and a NNE-trending band of low Te anomaly in the Southern Granulite Terrane are intriguing patterns. The average Te values (40-50 km) of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone, the Bastar Craton, and the northern Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt are suggestive of old, stable, Indian lithosphere, which was not affected by any major tectono-thermal events after cratonic stabilization. We propose that the anomalously high Te (60-85 km) and high S-wave velocity zone to the north of the Narmada-Son Lineament, mainly in NW Himalaya, and the northern Aravalli and Bundelkhand Cratons, suggest that Archean lithosphere characterized by a high velocity mantle keel supports the orogenic topographic loads in/near the Himalaya. The Te map clearly segments the volcanic provinces of the Indian Shield, where the signatures of the Reunion, Marion, and Kerguelen hotspots are indicated by significantly low Te patterns that correlate with plume- and rift-related thermal and mechanical rejuvenation, magmatic underplating, and crustal necking. The correlations between Te variations and the occurrence of seismicity over seismically active zones reveal different causal relationships, which led to the current seismogenic zonation of the Indian Shield.
Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng
2016-04-01
The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West
Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Jabbari, Mehdi; Ghannad, Mehdi
2014-01-01
Using disk form multilayers, a semi-analytical solution has been derived for determination of displacements and stresses in a rotating cylindrical shell with variable thickness under uniform pressure. The thick cylinder is divided into disk form layers form with their thickness corresponding to the thickness of the cylinder. Due to the existence of shear stress in the thick cylindrical shell with variable thickness, the equations governing disk layers are obtained based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). These equations are in the form of a set of general differential equations. Given that the cylinder is divided into n disks, n sets of differential equations are obtained. The solution of this set of equations, applying the boundary conditions and continuity conditions between the layers, yields displacements and stresses. A numerical solution using finite element method (FEM) is also presented and good agreement was found. PMID:24719582
Coating thickness and elastic modulus measurement using ultrasonic bulk wave resonance
Dixon, S.; Lanyon, B.; Rowlands, G.
2006-04-03
Measurement of the resonant through thickness ultrasonic modes of a homogeneous plate using a fast Fourier transform of the temporal data can be used to calculate plate thickness very accurately. We describe an extension of this principle to two-layer systems, examining a thin coating on a substrate of known properties. The resonant behavior of these systems is predicted and we explain how this approach is used to measure coating thickness and elastic modulus. Noncontact electromagnetic acoustic transducers are used for ultrasonic measurement, as they do not significantly affect the resonant response of the system, unlike alternative contact transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratheesh Kumar, R. T.; Windley, B. F.; Rajesh, V. J.; Santosh, M.
2013-12-01
We use the Bouguer coherence (Morlet isostatic response function) technique to compute the spatial variation of effective elastic thickness (Te) of the Andaman subduction zone. The recovered Te map resolves regional-scale features that correlate well with known surface structures of the subducting Indian plate and the overriding Burma plate. The major structure on the India plate, the Ninetyeast Ridge (NER), exhibits a weak mechanical strength, which is consistent with the expected signature of an oceanic ridge of hotspot origin. However, a markedly low strength (0 < Te < 3 km) in that region, where the NER is close to the Andaman trench (north of 10°N), receives our main attention in this study. The subduction geometry derived from the Bouguer gravity forward modeling suggests that the NER has indented beneath the Andaman arc. We infer that the bending stresses of the viscous plate, which were reinforced within the subducting oceanic plate as a result of the partial subduction of the NER buoyant load, have reduced the lithospheric strength. The correlation, Te < Ts (seismogenic thickness) reveals that the upper crust is actively deforming beneath the frontal arc Andaman region. The occurrence of normal-fault earthquakes in the frontal arc, low Te zone, is indicative of structural heterogeneities within the subducting plate. The fact that the NER along with its buoyant root is subducting under the Andaman region is inhibiting the subduction processes, as suggested by the changes in trench line, interrupted back-arc volcanism, variation in seismicity mechanism, slow subduction, etc. The low Te and thinned crustal structure of the Andaman back-arc basin are attributed to a thermomechanically weakened lithosphere. The present study reveals that the ongoing back-arc spreading and strike-slip motion along the West Andaman Fault coupled with the ridge subduction exerts an important control on the frequency and magnitude of seismicity in the Andaman region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Parikshit; Urban, Matthew W.; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Greenleaf, James F.; Aquino, Wilkins
2015-07-01
The elastic and geometric properties of arteries have been long recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular disease. This work presents a robust technique for the noninvasive characterization of anisotropic elastic properties as well as thickness and diameter in arterial vessels. In our approach, guided waves are excited along arteries using the radiation force of ultrasound. Group velocity is used as the quantity of interest to reconstruct elastic and geometric features of the vessels. One of the main contributions of this work is a systematic approach based on sparse-grid collocation interpolation to construct surrogate models of arteries. These surrogate models are in turn used with direct-search optimization techniques to produce fast and accurate estimates of elastic properties, diameter, and thickness. One of the attractive features of the proposed approach is that once a surrogate model is built, it can be used for near real-time identification across many different types of arteries. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method using simulated and in vitro laboratory experiments on a silicon rubber tube and a porcine carotid artery. Our results show that using our proposed method, we can reliably identify the longitudinal modulus, thickness, and diameter of arteries. The circumferential modulus was found to have little influence in the group velocity, which renders the former quantity unidentifiable using the current experimental setting. Future work will consider the measurement of circumferential waves with the objective of improving the identifiability of the circumferential modulus.
Dutta, Parikshit; Urban, Matthew W; Le Maître, Olivier P; Greenleaf, James F; Aquino, Wilkins
2015-07-01
The elastic and geometric properties of arteries have been long recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular disease. This work presents a robust technique for the noninvasive characterization of anisotropic elastic properties as well as thickness and diameter in arterial vessels. In our approach, guided waves are excited along arteries using the radiation force of ultrasound. Group velocity is used as the quantity of interest to reconstruct elastic and geometric features of the vessels. One of the main contributions of this work is a systematic approach based on sparse-grid collocation interpolation to construct surrogate models of arteries. These surrogate models are in turn used with direct-search optimization techniques to produce fast and accurate estimates of elastic properties, diameter, and thickness. One of the attractive features of the proposed approach is that once a surrogate model is built, it can be used for near real-time identification across many different types of arteries. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method using simulated and in vitro laboratory experiments on a silicon rubber tube and a porcine carotid artery. Our results show that using our proposed method, we can reliably identify the longitudinal modulus, thickness, and diameter of arteries. The circumferential modulus was found to have little influence in the group velocity, which renders the former quantity unidentifiable using the current experimental setting. Future work will consider the measurement of circumferential waves with the objective of improving the identifiability of the circumferential modulus. PMID:26109582
Dutta, Parikshit; Urban, Matthew W.; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Greenleaf, James F.; Aquino, Wilkins
2015-01-01
The elastic and geometric properties of arteries have been long recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular disease. This work presents a robust technique for the noninvasive characterization of anisotropic elastic properties as well as thickness and diameter in arterial vessels. In our approach, guided waves are excited along arteries using the radiation force of ultrasound. Group velocity is used as the quantity of interest to reconstruct elastic and geometric features of the vessels. One of the main contributions of this work is a systematic approach based on sparse-grid collocation interpolation to construct surrogate models of arteries. These surrogate models are in turn used with direct-search optimization techniques to produce fast and accurate estimates of elastic properties, diameter, and thickness. One of the attractive features of the proposed approach is that once a surrogate model is built, it can be used for near real-time identification across many different types of arteries. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method using simulated and in vitro laboratory experiments on a silicon rubber tube and a porcine carotid artery. Our results show that using our proposed method, we can reliably identify the longitudinal modulus, thickness, and diameter of arteries. The circumferential modulus was found to have little influence in the group velocity, which renders the former quantity unidentifiable using the current experimental setting. Future work will consider the measurement of circumferential waves with the objective of improving the identifiability of the circumferential modulus. PMID:26109582
Fisher, K A
2007-01-26
In this letter, a low frequency ultrasonic resonance technique that operates in the (20 - 80 kHz) regime is presented that demonstrates detection of thickness changes on the order of +/- 10{micro}m. This measurement capability is a result of the direct correlation between the electrical impedance of an electro-acoustic transducer and the mechanical loading it experiences when placed in contact with a layered elastic structure. The relative frequency shifts of the resonances peaks can be estimated through a simple one-dimensional transmission model. Separate experimental measurements confirm this technique to be sensitive to subtle changes in the underlying layered elastic structure.
Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films.
Ao, Zhimin; Li, Sean
2011-01-01
The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T) and thickness (h)-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h) is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS) thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h) decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*), at which thickness Ef(T,h) deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ. PMID:21711747
Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films
2011-01-01
The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T) and thickness (h)-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h) is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS) thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h) decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*), at which thickness Ef(T,h) deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ. PMID:21711747
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lenske, H.
2015-11-01
We present a simple method to derive breakup probabilities of weakly bound nuclei by measuring only elastic (or quasi-elastic) scattering for the system under investigation and a similar tightly bound system. When transfer followed by breakup is an important process, one can derive only the sum of breakup and transfer probabilities.
The elasticity problem for a thick-walled cylinder containing a circumferential crack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.
1983-01-01
The elasticity problem for a long hollow circular cylinder containing an axisymmetric circumferential crack subjected to general nonaxisymmetric external loads is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations with the Fourier coefficients of the derivative of the crack surface displacement as density functions. The stress intensity factors and the crack opening displacement are calculated for a cylinder under uniform tension, bending by end couples, and self-equilibrating residual stresses.
The elasticity problem for a thick-walled cylinder containing a circumferential crack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.
1982-01-01
The elasticity problem for a long hollow circular cylinder containing an axisymmetric circumferential crack subjected to general nonaxisymmetric external loads is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations with the Fourier coefficients of the derivative of the crack surface displacement as density functions. The stress intensity factors and the crack opening displacement are calculated for a cylinder under uniform tension, bending by end couples, and self-equilibrating residual stresses.
Thickness and Elasticity of Gram-Negative Murein Sacculi Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy
Yao, X.; Jericho, M.; Pink, D.; Beveridge, T.
1999-01-01
Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the thickness of air-dried, collapsed murein sacculi from Escherichia coli K-12 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Air-dried sacculi from E. coli had a thickness of 3.0 nm, whereas those from P. aeruginosa were 1.5 nm thick. When rehydrated, the sacculi of both bacteria swelled to double their anhydrous thickness. Computer simulation of a section of a model single-layer peptidoglycan network in an aqueous solution with a Debye shielding length of 0.3 nm gave a mass distribution full width at half height of 2.4 nm, in essential agreement with these results. When E. coli sacculi were suspended over a narrow groove that had been etched into a silicon surface and the tip of the atomic force microscope used to depress and stretch the peptidoglycan, an elastic modulus of 2.5 × 107 N/m2 was determined for hydrated sacculi; they were perfectly elastic, springing back to their original position when the tip was removed. Dried sacculi were more rigid with a modulus of 3 × 108 to 4 × 108 N/m2 and at times could be broken by the atomic force microscope tip. Sacculi aligned over the groove with their long axis at right angles to the channel axis were more deformable than those with their long axis parallel to the groove axis, as would be expected if the peptidoglycan strands in the sacculus were oriented at right angles to the long cell axis of this gram-negative rod. Polar caps were not found to be more rigid structures but collapsed to the same thickness as the cylindrical portions of the sacculi. The elasticity of intact E. coli sacculi is such that, if the peptidoglycan strands are aligned in unison, the interstrand spacing should increase by 12% with every 1 atm increase in (turgor) pressure. Assuming an unstressed hydrated interstrand spacing of 1.3 nm (R. E. Burge, A. G. Fowler, and D. A. Reaveley, J. Mol. Biol. 117:927–953, 1977) and an internal turgor pressure of 3 to 5 atm (or 304 to 507 kPa) (A. L. Koch, Adv. Microbial
Lithospheric strength and its relationship to the elastic and seismogenic layer thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watts, A. B.; Burov, E. B.
2003-08-01
Plate flexure is a phenomenon that describes how the lithosphere responds to long-term (>105 yr) geological loads. By comparing the flexure in the vicinity of ice, volcano, and sediment loads to predictions based on simple plate models it has been possible to estimate the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere, Te. In the oceans, Te is the range 2-50 km and is determined mainly by plate and load age. The continents, in contrast, are characterised by Te values of up to 80 km and greater. Rheological considerations based on data from experimental rock mechanics suggest that Te reflects the integrated brittle, elastic and ductile strength of the lithosphere. Te differs, therefore, from the seismogenic layer thickness, Ts, which is indicative of the depth to which anelastic deformation occurs as unstable frictional sliding. Despite differences in their time scales, Te and Ts are similar in the oceans where loading reduces the initial mechanical thickness to values that generally coincide with the thickness of the brittle layer. They differ, however, in continents, which, unlike oceans, are characterised by a multi-layer rheology. As a result, Te≫Ts in cratons, many convergent zones, and some rifts. Most rifts, however, are characterised by a low Te that has been variously attributed to a young thermal age of the rifted lithosphere, thinning and heating at the time of rifting, and yielding due to post-rift sediment loading. Irrespective of their origin, the Wilson cycle makes it possible for low values to be inherited by foreland basins which, in turn, helps explain why similarities between Te and Ts extend beyond rifts into other tectonic regions such as orogenic belts and, occasionally, the cratons themselves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M. K.; Cloetingh, S.; Mooney, W. D.
2012-12-01
We estimate rheological parameters of the North American lithosphere based on the thermal, density and structural models obtained in previous studies (Mooney and Kaban, 2010, Tesauro et al., 2012). Temperature distribution in the North American lithosphere is obtained considering for the first time the effect of composition as a result of an integrative approach based on joint analysis of seismic and gravity data. Together with the thermal we produce a new compositional model of the uppermost mantle of North America. The results demonstrate that the lithospheric mantle is characterized by strong compositional heterogeneity, which is consistent with xenolith data. The use of the new crustal, compositional and thermal models gives us the chance to estimate lateral variation of rheology of the main lithospheric layers and to evaluate coupling-decoupling conditions at the layers' boundaries. In the North American Cordillera the strength is mainly localized in the crust, which is decoupled from the mantle lithosphere. In the cratons the strength is uniformly partitioned between the crust and the mantle lithosphere and all the layers are generally coupled. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. The obtained 3-D strength model is used to compute the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere. Te is derived from the thermo-rheological model using new equations that consider variations of the Young's Modulus in the lithosphere. A large variability of the strength and Te among the Achaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic lithosphere and also within specific geological provinces is observed. The new crustal model of North America is used also to compute the lateral pressure gradients (LPG) that can initiate horizontal ductile flow in the crust. Incorporation of these data in the channel flow models allows us to use potential gravity theory to assess
N13+p elastic resonance scattering via a thick-target method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y. B.; Wang, B. X.; Qin, X.; Bai, X. X.; Guo, B.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y. J.; Li, Z. H.; Lian, G.; Su, J.; Zeng, S.; Liu, W. P.
2008-04-01
The N13+p elastic resonance scattering has been studied in inverse kinematics via a thick-target method. A N13 secondary beam of 47.8±1.5 MeV produced by the H2(C12,N13)n reaction was used to bombard a 9.33 mg/cm2 (CH2)n target. The recoil protons were detected by a ΔE-E silicon counter telescope at θlab=15°. The performance of the setup was checked by C12+p elastic resonance scattering with the same (CH2)n target. The excitation function for the N13(p,p) elastic scattering was obtained in the energy interval of Ec.m.~0.5-3.2 MeV and was analyzed by using a multilevel R-matrix code MULTI7. Several low-lying excited states in O14 were surveyed. Our results confirm a very recent 2- assignment to the 6.8 MeV level and agree with the observation of a new 0- level at 5.7 MeV with a width of 400(45) keV.
Deriving capture and reaction cross sections from observed quasi-elastic and elastic backscattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lenske, H.
2014-12-01
Based on reaction theory, we suggest a useful method for extracting total and partial reaction and capture (complete fusion) cross sections from the experimental elastic and quasi-elastic backscattering excitation functions taken at a single angle. We also propose a method to predict the differential reaction cross section from the observed elastic-scattering angular distribution.
The long-wavelength admittance and effective elastic thickness of the Canadian Shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.
2014-06-01
The strength of the cratonic lithosphere has been controversial. On the one hand, many estimates of effective elastic thickness (Te) greatly exceed the crustal thickness, but on the other the great majority of cratonic earthquakes occur in the upper crust. This implies that the seismogenic thickness of cratons is much smaller than Te, whereas in the ocean basins they are approximately the same, leading to suspicions about the large Te estimates. One region where such estimates have been questioned is the Canadian Shield, where glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and mantle convection are thought to contribute to the long-wavelength undulations of the topography and gravity. To date these have not been included in models used to estimate Te from topography and gravity which conventionally are based only on loading and flexure. Here we devise a theoretical expression for the free-air (gravity/topography) admittance that includes the effects of GIA and convection as well as flexure and use it to estimate Te over the Canadian Shield. We use wavelet transforms for estimating the observed admittances, after showing that multitaper estimates, which have hitherto been popular for Te studies, have poor resolution at the long wavelengths where GIA and convection predominate, compared to wavelets. Our results suggest that Te over most of the shield exceeds 80 km, with a higher-Te core near the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. This means that the lack of mantle earthquakes in this craton is simply due to its high strength compared to the applied stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li; Wei, P. J.
2015-03-01
The propagation behaviour of Love wave in an initially stressed functionally graded magnetic-electric-elastic half-space carrying a homogeneous layer is investigated. The material parameters in the substrate are assumed to vary exponentially along the thickness direction only. The velocity equations of Love wave are derived on the electrically or magnetically open circuit and short circuit boundary conditions, based on the equations of motion of the graded magnetic-electric-elastic mate- rial with the initial stresses and the free traction boundary conditions of surface and the continuous boundary conditions of interface. The dispersive curves are obtained numerically and the influences of the initial stresses and the material gradient index on the dispersive curves are dis- cussed. The investigation provides a basis for the development of new functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic surface wave devices.
Effective elastic thickness of the Arabian plate: Weak shield versus strong platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir
2015-05-01
The fan wavelet method has been employed to calculate high-resolution maps of variations of the effective elastic thickness (EET) for the Arabian plate and surroundings. As the initial data, we use high-resolution gravity field, topography, and recent models of sedimentary basins. The western part of the plate is generally characterized by low to midvalues of EET (10-30 km) while the eastern one by high values (50 km and more in the core). This finding confirms that the pronounced asymmetry of the plate is rather associated with fundamental structural differences of the lithosphere than with a forced tilt of the plate due to the rifting in the west-southwest and subduction in the northeast. Therefore, the high topography in the western part of the plate is likely supported by relatively hot mantle that is also responsible for the decrease of EET. These results are generally in agreement with recent seismic tomography models.
Three-dimensional admittance analysis of lithospheric elastic thickness over the Louisville Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Minzhang; Li, Hui; Shen, Chongyang; Xing, Lelin; Hao, Hongtao
2016-04-01
Using bathymetry and altimetric gravity anomalies, a 1° × 1° lithospheric effective elastic thickness ( T e) model over the Louisville Ridge and its adjacent regions is calculated using the moving window admittance technique. For comparison, three bathymetry models are used: general bathymetric charts of the oceans, SIO V15.1, and BAT_VGG. The results show that BAT_VGG is more suitable for calculating T e than the other two models. T e along the Louisville Ridge was re-evaluated. The southeast of the ridge has a medium T e of 10-20 km, while T e increases dramatically seaward of the Tonga-Kermadec trench as a result of the collision of the Pacific and Indo-Australian plates.
On the Opening of Thick Walled Elastic Tubes: A Fluid-Structure Model for Acid Reflux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sudip; Kahrilas, Peter
2005-11-01
A coupled fluid-structure mathematical model was developed to quantify rapid opening of thick-walled elastic tubes, a phenomenon underlying biological flows such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The wall was modeled using non-linear finite deformation theory to predict space-time radial distention of an axisymmetric tube with luminal fluid flow. Anisotropic azimuthal and longitudinal muscle-induced stresses were incorporated, and interstitial material properties were assumed isotropic and linearly elastic. Fluid flow was modeled using lubrication theory with inertial correction. Opening and flow were driven by a specified inflow pressure and zero pressure gradient was specified at outflow. No-slip and surface force balance were applied at the fluid-wall interface. Viscoelasticity was modeled with ad hoc damping and the evolution of the tube geometry was predicted at mid-layer. A potentially important discovery was made when applied to studies of initiation of opening with GERD: while material stiffness is of minor consequence, small changes in resting lumen distension (˜2 mm diameter) may be a sensitive distinguishing feature of the disease.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tandon, K.; Lorenzo, J.; Robertson, A.; Long, Z.
2002-05-01
During very early stages of accretion, small continental blocks collide together and this process of continental accretion is not at all uniform. The study here focuses on the accretion of Eratosthenes Seamount (Southern Offshore Cyprus), a carbonate platform on a rifted sliver of continental crust colliding to another continental crust, Cyprus since Late Pliocene-Early Quaternary. Factors that control the process of accretion, geometry of foreland basins, back thrusting, and changes in structural style during the continental collision is linked to variations in Effective Elastic Thickness (EET). A variable EET map (across the strike of the subduction boundary as well as down dip) is computed for Eratosthenes Seamount. Modeled flexure deflection is matched to seafloor bathymetry, Cyprus topography, and marine Bouguer gravity anomalies. The hypothesis we are testing is that the accretion is more advanced at places where change in EET values is lower compared to the immediate vicinity. Calculated EET of the Eratosthenes Seamount is done using an elastic half-beam model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daly, E.; Brown, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ebinger, C. J.
2004-11-01
There have been some inconsistencies in estimates of the effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere Te based upon admittance or coherence relationships between gravity and topography. This paper compares multitaper and wavelet methods to analyse the coherence between Bouguer gravity and bathymetric data over the Irish Atlantic margin. The analyses show that similar lateral Te variations can be recovered from the data, but demonstrate that the size of the data window can give rise to a significant downward bias in Te estimates. A seismically constrained 3-D gravity inversion over the Rockall basin shows the presence of surface and subsurface loads whose ratio is loosely correlated with load ratio variations generated from the wavelet coherence method. The Te and load ratio, f variations can be plausibly related to major geological structures on the margin. If the load ratio variations can be interpreted geologically, it implies that spectral based methods to estimate effective elastic thickness must incorporate subsurface loads within the underlying theoretical model. On the Irish Atlantic margin, Te is generally low (6-18 km) and is associated with a NE-SW Caledonian trend. The weakest lithosphere is in the southern Rockall basin, Porcupine bank and Porcupine basin and the strongest lithosphere is along the Rockall-Hatton region. The low Te values are consistent with results from other passive margins. The reasons for such low Te values on the Irish Atlantic margin remain unclear, but may be the consequence of Te being frozen into the lithosphere when loads were emplaced during continental breakup and temperature gradients were high. The process of sedimentation and the presence of fluids may be contributory factors. There is an indication of a geological and rheological divide between the Rockall-Hatton region and the Rockall basin, possibly associated with the Caledonian orogenic front.
Elastic thickness of the lithosphere and tectonic evolution: implications for GIA models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy
2015-04-01
Rheological properties used in GIA models require independent verifications and possible modifications. To estimate the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere in simple platform areas we use peneplain distortion, which enable us to compute isostatic response from sediment load and compare the results with observed changes in geometry. This was done for several different platform regions: - Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield, including structural elements of the Russian Platform - Barents Sea platform areas - Kara and Western Siberian domain - Eastern Siberian Platform In the East European and East Siberian old cratons we modeled isostatic distortion of Neoproterozoic Ediacaran peneplain and some other relevant surfaces. For the Arctic we used Mid-Late Jurassic surface (JP) as a distinct unconformity and well-traced (by seismic and well data) surface in the Arctic region. The isostatic distortion of peneplains under sediment load / erosion for the old Archean - Proterozoic cratons in general confirms earlier rheology model with the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere around 5x10**23 Nm (effective elastic thickness of 30-40 km), but could be slightly lower in the Barents basins. Deviations are generally relatively small and could be explained by e.g. by averaging over fault-zones, tectonic events, compaction structures and density variations. However, the situation for the Kara-Western Siberian domain is very different, with large deviations between observations and calculations. With a slight reduction of the effective elastic thickness in the Kara Sea to 10-20 km the fit is much better. Based on the results we suggest two different major types of lithosphere rigidity in the area. This seems reasonable because they typify domains with different crustal age. Western Siberian platform, with Kara continuation has much younger basement, in addition to significant magmatic activity and Early Mesosoic extension. The lithosphere rigidity is a function of age and temperature; as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jiang; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi
2005-06-01
For the assessment of the elasticity of the arterial wall, we have developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791] for measuring the minute change in thickness due to heartbeats and the elasticity of the arterial wall with transcutaneous ultrasound. For various reasons, for example, an extremely small deformation of the wall, the minute change in wall thickness during one heartbeat is largely influenced by noise in these cases and the reliability of the elasticity distribution obtained from the maximum change in thickness deteriorates because the maximum value estimation is largely influenced by noise. To obtain a more reliable cross-sectional image of the elasticity of the arterial wall, in this paper, a matching method is proposed to evaluate the waveform of the measured change in wall thickness by comparing the measured waveform with a template waveform. The maximum deformation, which is used in the calculation of elasticity, was determined from the amplitude of the matched model waveform to reduce the influence of noise. The matched model waveform was obtained by minimizing the difference between the measured and template waveforms. Furthermore, a random error, which was obtained from the reproducibility among the heartbeats of the measured waveform, was considered useful for the evaluation of the reliability of the measured waveform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Gussinye, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Tassara, A.
2007-12-01
We present a new map of spatial variations in effective elastic thickness, Te, along the Andes, estimated using Bouguer coherence. The Te variations reflect interactions between subducting slab and pre-existing terrane structure. In the forearc, conductive cooling of the continent by the subducting slab exerts primary control on rigidity, resulting in Te that is highest (~ 40 km) where the oceanic lithosphere is oldest and coldest (~ 20° S). In the central Andes, Te is relatively low (~ 20 km) along the volcanic chain, the Altiplano and Puna plateaus. We interpret this weakening to reflect a high geothermal gradient maintained by advective magmatic processes, a shallow and hot asthenosphere, and a very weak lower crust throughout this region. East of the plateaus, high Te delineates underthrusting of the Brazilian shield. North and south of the plateaus, areas experiencing flat subduction are characterized by high Te, high shear wave velocity, thick thermal boundary layer and low heat flow, indicating that continental lithosphere there is thicker, colder and stronger. Based on these relationships we suggest that variations in slab dip along the margin relate to variations in structure of the continental lithosphere. In particular, we propose that upper plate structure influences the width and viscosity of the asthenospheric wedge, which control the suction moment responsible for the subduction angle at depths ~ 70--100 km. When oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath thin continental lithosphere, the low viscosity asthenosphere allows the slab to detach from the continent and sink into the mantle at normal angles. However, when oceanic lithosphere subducts near or beneath thick and strong continental lithosphere, the asthenospheric wedge narrows and corner flow drags high viscosity mantle from the base of the thick (> 150 km), cold continent into the wedge. Suction forces increase both with narrowing of the wedge and with increasing viscosity. We estimate the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PéRez-Gussinyé, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Tassara, A.
2008-02-01
We present a new map of the spatial variations in effective elastic thickness, Te, along the Andes estimated using Bouguer coherence. The Te variations reflect interactions between subducting slab and preexisting terrane structure. In the forearc, conductive cooling of the continent by the subducting slab exerts primary control on rigidity, resulting in Te that is highest (˜40 km) where the oceanic lithosphere is oldest and coldest (˜20°S). In the central Andes, Te is relatively low (˜20 km) along the volcanic chain and the Altiplano and Puna plateaus. We interpret this weakening to reflect a high geothermal gradient maintained by advective magmatic processes, a shallow and hot asthenosphere, and a very weak lower crust throughout this region. East of the plateaus, high Te delineates underthrusting of the Brazilian shield. Finally, north and south of the plateaus, flat subduction areas are characterized by high Te, high shear wave velocity, thick thermal lithosphere, and low heat flow, indicating that continental lithosphere there is thicker, colder, and stronger. On the basis of these relationships we suggest that variations in slab dip along the margin relate to variations in structure of the continental lithosphere. In particular, we propose that upper plate structure influences the width and viscosity of the asthenospheric wedge, which control the suction moment responsible for the subduction angle at depths ≥70-100 km. For example, when oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath thin continental lithosphere, the low-viscosity asthenosphere allows the slab to detach from the continent and sink into the mantle at normal angles. However, when oceanic lithosphere subducts close or beneath thick and strong continental lithosphere, the asthenospheric wedge narrows and corner flow drags high-viscosity mantle from the base of the thick (>150 km), cold continent into the wedge. Suction forces increase with both narrowing of the wedge and its increasing viscosity. We
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalnins, L. M.; Watts, A. B.
2010-05-01
We have developed a moving window admittance technique to determine the relationship between free-air gravity anomaly and bathymetry as a function of wavelength over the world's ocean basins and their margins. Preliminary results from the western Pacific Ocean show that the technique resolves the effective elastic thickness of the oceanic lithosphere, Te, to better than ±5 km for Te < 30 km over horizontal distances of a few tens of km. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of our results using different tapering schemes (e.g. single versus multitaper) and synthetic tests that illustrate our ability to recover Te in the region of long wavelength features such as trench outer rises, mid-plate swells and mid-ocean ridges. By investigating observed admittances in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, we have found that there is a 'critical wavelength' that separates the relatively short wavelength contributions of lithospheric flexure to the gravity field from longer wavelength effects such as those associated with mantle dynamics. We examine here this 'critical wavelength' and its implications for swell compensation depths, plate cooling models, and mantle convection.
Variations of the lithospheric strength and elastic thickness in North America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Mooney, Walter D.
2015-07-01
We evaluate the effect of temperature variations on strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere of the North American (NA) continent. To this purpose, we use two thermal models that are corrected for compositional variations and anelasticity effects in the upper mantle. These thermal models are obtained from a joint inversion of gravity data and two recent seismic tomography models (NA07 and SL2013sv). The crustal rheology was defined using NACr14, the most recent NA crustal model. This model specifies seismic velocities and thickness for a three-layer model of the crystalline crust. Strength in the lithosphere and in the crust has similar distributions, indicating that local geotherms play a dominant role in determining strength rather than crustal composition. A pronounced contrast is present in strength between cratonic and off-cratonic regions. Lithospheric strength in the off-cratonic regions is prevalently localized within the crust and Te shows low values (<20 km), while the inner part of the cratons is characterized by a strong lithosphere with large Te (>150 km). In contrast to previous results, our models indicate that Phanerozoic regions located close to the edge of the cratons, as the Appalachians, are characterized by low strength. We also find that locally weak zones exist within the cratons (e.g., beneath the intracratonic Illinois Basin and Midcontinent rift). Seismic tomography models NA07 and SL2013sv differ mainly in some peripheral parts of the cratons, as the Proterozoic Canadian Platform, the Grenville, and the western part of the Yavapai-Mazatzal province, where the integrated strength for the model NA07 is 10 times larger than in model SL2013sv due to a temperature difference (>200°C) in the uppermost mantle. The differences in Te between the two models are less pronounced. In both models, Proterozoic regions reactivated by Meso-Cenozoic tectonics (e.g., Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi Embayment) are characterized
Indentation-derived elastic modulus of multilayer thin films: Effect of unloading induced plasticity
Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu -Lin
2015-08-13
Nanoindentation is useful for evaluating the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of multilayer thin film materials. A fundamental assumption in the derivation of the elastic modulus from nanoindentation is that the unloading process is purely elastic. In this work, the validity of elastic assumption as it applies to multilayer thin films is studied using the finite element method. The elastic modulus and hardness from the model system are compared to experimental results to show validity of the model. Plastic strain is shown to increase in the multilayer system during the unloading process. Additionally, the indentation-derived modulus of a monolayer material shows no dependence on unloading plasticity while the modulus of the multilayer system is dependent on unloading-induced plasticity. Lastly, the cyclic behavior of the multilayer thin film is studied in relation to the influence of unloading-induced plasticity. Furthermore, it is found that several cycles are required to minimize unloading-induced plasticity.
Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.
Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille
2014-06-01
It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems. PMID:24907783
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S.; Wang, L.
2009-04-01
The effective elastic thickness (Te) of continental lithosphere is one important parameter that describes the response of the lithosphere to long-term loads. However, the estimation of Te is still controversial and various forward and inverse methods have been proposed since the last 20 years. Besides the general application of gravity-topography based inverse method, thermal aspect and related technique is more emphasized, since the mechanical behavior of lithosphere is obviously influenced by temperature. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere in China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J. Geophys. Res., 1995, 100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different areas of China due to diverse and complicated geological evolution and associated change in thermal regime. Te is much larger than the crustal thickness in the regions where the heat flow is really low (usually less than 50mW/m2) and the lithosphere is relatively thick, indicating much more contribution from the upper mantle to the whole strength of lithosphere. Under this condition, the rheology of the mantle with olivine dominates the deformation manner and processes of the lithosphere and the typical cases in China are those blocks (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan) in central-western China. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66
Derivation of capture cross sections from quasi-elastic excitation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Gomes, P. R. S.
2013-04-01
The relationship between the quasi-elastic excitation function and the capture cross section is derived. The quasi-elastic data is shown to be a useful tool to extract the capture cross sections and the angular momenta of the captured systems for the reactions 16O+144,154Sm,208Pb, 20Ne+208Pb, and 32S+90,96Zr near and above the Coulomb barrier energies.
Wang, Shiliang; Chen, Guoliang; Huang, Han; Ma, Shujun; Xu, Hongyi; He, Yuehui; Zou, Jin
2013-12-20
Single-crystal tungsten nanobelts with thicknesses from tens to hundreds of nanometers, widths of several micrometers and lengths of tens of micrometers were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition. Surface energy minimization was believed to have played a crucial role in the growth of the synthesized nanobelts enclosed by the low-energy {110} crystal planes of body-centered-cubic structure. The anisotropic growth of the crystallographically equivalent {110} crystal planes could be attributable to the asymmetric concentration distribution of the tungsten atom vapor around the nanobelts during the growth process. The elastic moduli of the synthesized tungsten nanobelts with thicknesses ranging from 65 to 306 nm were accurately measured using a newly developed thermal vibration method. The measured modulus values of the tungsten nanobelts were thickness-dependent. After eliminating the effect of surface oxidization using a core-shell model, the elastic modulus of tungsten nanobelts became constant, which is close to that of the bulk tungsten value of 410 GPa. PMID:24270939
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.
2005-01-01
We have calculated admittance spectra using the spatio-spectral method [14] for Venus by moving the central location of the spectrum over a 1 grid, create 360x180 admittance spectra. We invert the observed admittance using top-loading (TL), hot spot (HS), and bottom loading (BL) models, resulting in elastic, crustal, and lithospheric thickness estimates (Te, Zc, and Zl) [0]. The result is a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Estimated values of Te and Zc concur with previous TL local admittance results, but BL estimates indicate larger values than previously suspected.
Time-domain ultrasonic measurement of the thickness of a sub-half-wavelength elastic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Changyi; Kinra, Vikram K.
1992-07-01
A technique is reported for the ultrasonic nondestructive measurement of the thickness of extremely thin (sub-wavelength) adhesive layers in adhesively bonded joints without the use of Fourier transforms. The entire ultrasonic NDE is carried out in the time domain and can be used by a trained technician without a college education. Aluminum plates ranging in thickness from 0.089 to 12.675 mm were tested using a 1-MHz transducer. The error was found to be one percent for h/lambda (specimen thickness/wavelength) down to 0.010. In dimensional terms, plates with a thickness of 100 microns can be measured with an accuracy of + or - 1 micron. This technique can also be used in conjunction with the electromagnetic-acoustic transducer technology in which only low-frequency transducers are presently available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S.; Wang, L.
2006-12-01
The effective elastic thickness (Te) of lithosphere is one parameter describing the responses of the lithosphere to long term forces, and is still controversial in estimation by different methods. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere in continental China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J.G.R., 1995,100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different sub-areas in continental China due to different geological evolution and associated thermal regimes. Te is much greater than the crustal thickness in the area where the heat flow is really low and the lithosphere is really thick, indicating much more contribution from the lithospheric mantle and the dominative control of the mantle with olivine on the rheology of the lithosphere, and the major basins (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan basins) in central-western China share this characteristic. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66km with crustal thickness of 45km. Te is less than the crustal thickness in the region where the heat flow is relatively high, and approximates to the crustal brittle-ductile transition depth, suggesting more contribution from the crust and the dominative control of the felsic crust on the rheology of the lithosphere, and this phenomenon is obvious in the SE coastal China, eastern North China and the orogenic belts. Compared the estimated Te with the seismogenic layer thickness (Ts) available in China, it is also found that the Te is much greater than Ts in the major basins with low heat flow, and is similar to Ts in the active zones with high heat flow, which is inconsistent with that Te is usually smaller than Ts proposed by Maggi et al., Geology,2000,28(6):495-498. Generally, two end elements rheological modes for continental lithosphere of the strong crust-weak mantle and the weak crust-strong mantle are all available in continental China considering different thermal regime, composition and geological
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Gussinyé, M.; Metois, M.; Fernández, M.; Vergés, J.; Fullea, J.; Lowry, A. R.
2009-09-01
Detailed information on lateral variations in lithospheric properties can aid in understanding how surface deformation relates to deep Earth processes. The effective elastic thickness, Te, of the lithosphere is a proxy for lithospheric strength. Here, we present a new Te map of the African lithosphere estimated from coherence analysis of topography and Bouguer anomaly data. The latter data set derives from the EGM 2008 model, the highest resolution gravity database over Africa, enabling a significant improvement in lateral resolution of Te. The methodology used for Te estimation improves upon earlier approaches by optimally combining estimates from several different window sizes and correcting for an estimation bias term. Our analysis finds that Te is high, ~ 100 km, in the West African, Congo, Kalahari and Tanzania cratons. Of these, the Kalahari exhibits the lowest Te. Based in part on published seismic and mineral physics constraints, we suggest this may reflect modification of Kalahari lithosphere by anomalously hot asthenospheric mantle. Similarly, the Tanzania craton exhibits relatively lower Te east of Lake Victoria, where a centre of seismic radial anisotropy beneath the craton has been located and identified with a plume head, thus suggesting that here too, low Te reflects modification of cratonic lithosphere by an underlying hot mantle. The lowest Te in Africa occurs in the Afar and Main Ethiopian rifts, where lithospheric extension is maximum. In the western Ethiopian plateau a local Te minimum coincides with published images of a low P and S seismic velocity anomaly extending to ~ 400 km depth. Finally, the Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar and Cameroon line volcanic provinces are characterised by low Te and no deep-seated seismic anomalies in the mantle. Corridors of relatively low Te connect these volcanic provinces to the local Te minima within the western Ethiopian plateau. We interpret the low Te to indicate thinner lithosphere within the corridors than in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Gussinye, M.; Metois, M.; Fernandez, M.; Verges, J.; Fullea, J.; Lowry, A. R.
2009-12-01
Detailed information on lateral variations in lithospheric properties can aid in understanding how surface deformation relates to deep Earth processes. The effective elastic thickness, Te, of the lithosphere is a proxy for lithospheric strength. Here, we present a new Te map of the African lithosphere estimated from coherence analysis of topography and Bouguer anomaly data. The latter data set derives from the EGM 2008 model, the highest resolution gravity database over Africa, enabling a significant improvement in lateral resolution of Te. The methodology used for Te estimation improves upon earlier approaches by optimally combining estimates from several different window sizes and correcting for an estimation bias term. Our analysis finds that Te is high, ~ 100 km, in the West African, Congo, Kalahari and Tanzania cratons. Of these, the Kalahari exhibits the lowest Te. Based in part on published seismic and mineral physics constraints, we suggest this may reflect modification of Kalahari lithosphere by anomalously hot asthenospheric mantle. Similarly, the Tanzania craton exhibits relatively lower Te east of Lake Victoria, where a centre of seismic radial anisotropy beneath the craton has been located and identified with a plume head, thus suggesting that here too, low Te reflects modification of cratonic lithosphere by an underlying hot mantle. The lowest Te in Africa occurs in the Afar and Main Ethiopian rifts, where lithospheric extension is maximum. In the western Ethiopian plateau a local Te minimum coincides with published images of a low P and S seismic velocity anomaly extending to ~400 km depth. Finally, the Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar and Cameroon line vo provinces lcanic are characterised by low Te and no deep-seated seismic anomalies in the mantle. Corridors of relatively low Te connect these volcanic provinces to the local Te minima within the western Ethiopian plateau. We interpret the low Te to indicate thinner lithosphere within the corridors than in
Lavrentyev, A I; Rokhlin, S I
2001-04-01
An ultrasonic method proposed by us for determination of the complete set of acoustical and geometrical properties of a thin isotropic layer between semispaces (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102 (1997) 3467) is extended to determination of the properties of a coating on a thin plate. The method allows simultaneous determination of the coating thickness, density, elastic moduli and attenuation (longitudinal and shear) from normal and oblique incidence reflection (transmission) frequency spectra. Reflection (transmission) from the coated plate is represented as a function of six nondimensional parameters of the coating which are determined from two experimentally measured spectra: one at normal and one at oblique incidence. The introduction of the set of nondimensional parameters allows one to transform the reconstruction process from one search in a six-dimensional space to two searches in three-dimensional spaces (one search for normal incidence and one for oblique). Thickness, density, and longitudinal and shear elastic moduli of the coating are calculated from the nondimensional parameters determined. The sensitivity of the method to individual properties and its stability against experimental noise are studied and the inversion algorithm is accordingly optimized. An example of the method and experimental measurement for comparison is given for a polypropylene coating on a steel foil. PMID:11350002
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; El-Azab, A.; Mal, Ajit K.
1996-01-01
Electroactive thin-film polymers are candidate sensors and actuators materials. They are also finding significant potential in muscle mechanisms and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In these applications, polymer thin films of thickness varying between 20 and 300 micrometers are utilized. The authors are currently studying the potential use of platewave dispersion curve measurements as an effective gauging tool for electroactive thin-film polymers.
Indentation-derived elastic modulus of multilayer thin films: Effect of unloading induced plasticity
Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu -Lin
2015-08-13
Nanoindentation is useful for evaluating the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of multilayer thin film materials. A fundamental assumption in the derivation of the elastic modulus from nanoindentation is that the unloading process is purely elastic. In this work, the validity of elastic assumption as it applies to multilayer thin films is studied using the finite element method. The elastic modulus and hardness from the model system are compared to experimental results to show validity of the model. Plastic strain is shown to increase in the multilayer system during the unloading process. Additionally, the indentation-derived modulus of a monolayermore » material shows no dependence on unloading plasticity while the modulus of the multilayer system is dependent on unloading-induced plasticity. Lastly, the cyclic behavior of the multilayer thin film is studied in relation to the influence of unloading-induced plasticity. Furthermore, it is found that several cycles are required to minimize unloading-induced plasticity.« less
Effect of scaffold elasticity on the gene expression of annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells
Zhu, Caihong; Li, Jun; Liu, Chen; Zhou, Pinghui; Yang, Huilin; Li, Bin
2015-01-01
This article provides more experimental details and findings of the study as to how the elasticity of scaffold material modulates the gene expression of annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells (AFSCs) (Zhu et al., 2015 [1]). The detailed synthetic route and characterizations of four kinds of biodegradable poly(ether carbonate urethane)ureas (PECUUs) are described. After AFSCs were cultured on electrospun PECUU fibrous scaffolds, the cell proliferation and gene expression analyses were performed to explore the effect of substrate elasticity on the growth and differentiation characteristics of AFSCs. PMID:26793744
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, Jon F.
2014-09-01
The effective elastic thickness (Te) is a geometric measure of the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere, which describes the resistance to bending under the application of applied, vertical loads. As such, it is likely that its magnitude has a major role in governing the tectonic evolution of both continental and oceanic plates. Of the several ways to estimate Te, one has gained popularity in the 40 years since its development because it only requires gravity and topography data, both of which are now readily available and provide excellent coverage over the Earth and even the rocky planets and moons of the solar system. This method, the ‘inverse spectral method’, develops measures of the relationship between observed gravity and topography data in the spatial frequency (wavenumber) domain, namely the admittance and coherence. The observed measures are subsequently inverted against the predictions of thin, elastic plate models, giving estimates of Te and other lithospheric parameters. This article provides a review of inverse spectral methodology and the studies that have used it. It is not, however, concerned with the geological or geodynamic significance or interpretation of Te, nor does it discuss and compare Te results from different methods in different provinces. Since the three main aspects of the subject are thin elastic plate flexure, spectral analysis, and inversion methods, the article broadly follows developments in these. The review also covers synthetic plate modelling, and concludes with a summary of the controversy currently surrounding inverse spectral methods, whether or not the large Te values returned in cratonic regions are artefacts of the method, or genuine observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelicon, Primož; Razpet, Alenka; Markelj, Sabina; Čadež, Iztok; Budnar, Miloš
2005-01-01
Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) with an absorber foil using a 4.2 MeV 7Li2+ beam was utilized for evaluation of hydrogen depth profiles. Since recoil cross-sections when using Li ions as projectiles are not well known, the energy dependent ratio between the experimental yield and the yield calculated using the Rutherford recoil cross-section was obtained from an ERDA spectrum of a thick polyimide (Kapton) sample. It was estimated that this ratio does not significantly depend on sample composition. Therefore it was used for correction of measured spectra analyzed by existing simulation and evaluation programs in which the Rutherford recoil cross-sections were applied. The correction procedure has been verified in round-robin measurements of well-characterized Si:H thin layers. Application of the method for determination of a hydrogen depth concentration profile in hydrogen-containing graphite samples is presented.
Elastic modulus and surface tension of a polyurethane rubber in nanometer thick films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Meiyu; McKenna, Gregory
2014-03-01
Estane is a kind of polyurethane with thermodynamically incompatible hard and soft segments. In this study the macro and micro properties of Estane have been characterized and compared. The viscoelastic properties of this material in bulk scale have been determined using dynamic rheometry. Time-temperature superposition was found to be applicable for this material, and a master curve was successfully constructed from the dynamic shear responses of G'(ω) and G''(ω) . Also a novel nano bubble inflation method was used to obtain the creep compliance of the Estane ultrathin films and the results show stiffening in the rubbery region for the Estane over thicknesses ranging from 110nm to 22nm. The dependence of the rubbery stiffening on film thickness is studied and the relative influences of nano confinement and surface tension effect are analyzed using both a direct stress strain analysis and an energy balance method for the membrane. The contributions of surface tension and nano confinement are considered separately. Office of Naval Research under project No.N00014-11-1-0424.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamani, Ahmad; Samiee, Jafar; Kirby, Jon F.
2014-11-01
The effective elastic thickness, Te, has been calculated in the collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia in Iran from the wavelet coherence. The wavelet coherence is calculated from Bouguer anomalies and topography data using the isotropic fan wavelet method, and gives Te values between 14.2 and 62.2 km. The lower value is found in the Central Iranian Blocks and the East Iranian Belt which are bounded by several large strike-slip faults with lithospheric origin. The higher value occurs in the east of the South Caspian Sea Basin. The resulting Te map shows positive and negative correlation with shear wave velocity and surface heat flow, respectively. A comparison between the seismogenic thickness (Ts) and Te in Iran suggests that Te > Ts. Results of the load ratio in Iran indicate that in most of the study area surface loads are much more prevalent than subsurface loads, except in the Central Iranian Blocks and NW of Iran. Intermediate to low Te values in Iran were inherited from multiple rifting and orogenic activities from Late Precambrian (∼650 Ma) to present day which are not only reflected in thin and warm lithosphere but also an increasing seismicity rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Larin, Kirill V.
2015-06-01
Wave models that have been used to extract the biomechanical properties of the cornea from the propagation of an elastic wave are based on an assumption of thin-plate geometry. However, this assumption does not account for the effects of corneal curvature and thickness. This study conducts finite element (FE) simulations on four types of cornea-like structures as well as optical coherence elastography (OCE) experiments on contact lenses and tissue-mimicking phantoms to investigate the effects of curvature and thickness on the group velocity of an elastic wave. The elastic wave velocity as determined by FE simulations and OCE of a spherical shell section decreased from ˜2.8 m/s to ˜2.2 m/s as the radius of curvature increased from 19.1 mm to 47.7 mm and increased from ˜3.0 m/s to ˜4.1 m/s as the thickness of the agar phantom increased from 1.9 mm to 5.6 mm. Both the FE simulation and OCE results confirm that the group velocity of the elastic wave decreases with radius of curvature but increases with thickness. These results demonstrate that the effects of the curvature and thickness must be considered in the further development of accurate wave models for reconstructing biomechanical properties of the cornea.
Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Larin, Kirill V.
2015-01-01
Wave models that have been used to extract the biomechanical properties of the cornea from the propagation of an elastic wave are based on an assumption of thin-plate geometry. However, this assumption does not account for the effects of corneal curvature and thickness. This study conducts finite element (FE) simulations on four types of cornea-like structures as well as optical coherence elastography (OCE) experiments on contact lenses and tissue-mimicking phantoms to investigate the effects of curvature and thickness on the group velocity of an elastic wave. The elastic wave velocity as determined by FE simulations and OCE of a spherical shell section decreased from ∼2.8 m/s to ∼2.2 m/s as the radius of curvature increased from 19.1 mm to 47.7 mm and increased from ∼3.0 m/s to ∼4.1 m/s as the thickness of the agar phantom increased from 1.9 mm to 5.6 mm. Both the FE simulation and OCE results confirm that the group velocity of the elastic wave decreases with radius of curvature but increases with thickness. These results demonstrate that the effects of the curvature and thickness must be considered in the further development of accurate wave models for reconstructing biomechanical properties of the cornea. PMID:26130825
Water permeability of aquaporin-4 channel depends on bilayer composition, thickness, and elasticity.
Tong, Jihong; Briggs, Margaret M; McIntosh, Thomas J
2012-11-01
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel in the mammalian brain, particularly abundant in astrocytes, whose plasma membranes normally contain high concentrations of cholesterol. Here we test the hypothesis that the water permeabilities of two naturally occurring isoforms (AQP4-M1 and AQP4-M23) depend on bilayer mechanical/structural properties modulated by cholesterol and phospholipid composition. Osmotic stress measurements were performed with proteoliposomes containing AQP4 and three different lipid mixtures: 1), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG); 2), PC, PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol; and 3), sphingomyelin (SM), PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M1 were 3.3 ± 0.4 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s (mean ± SE), 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.4 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M23 were 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, 0.8 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. Thus, for each isoform the unit permeabilities strongly depended on bilayer composition and systematically decreased with increasing bilayer compressibility modulus and bilayer thickness. These observations suggest that altering lipid environment provides a means of regulating water channel permeability. Such permeability changes could have physiological consequences, because AQP4 water permeability would be reduced by its sequestration into SM:cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains. Conversely, under ischemic conditions astrocyte membrane cholesterol content decreases, which could increase AQP4 permeability. PMID:23199918
Water Permeability of Aquaporin-4 Channel Depends on Bilayer Composition, Thickness, and Elasticity
Tong, Jihong; Briggs, Margaret M.; McIntosh, Thomas J.
2012-01-01
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel in the mammalian brain, particularly abundant in astrocytes, whose plasma membranes normally contain high concentrations of cholesterol. Here we test the hypothesis that the water permeabilities of two naturally occurring isoforms (AQP4-M1 and AQP4-M23) depend on bilayer mechanical/structural properties modulated by cholesterol and phospholipid composition. Osmotic stress measurements were performed with proteoliposomes containing AQP4 and three different lipid mixtures: 1), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG); 2), PC, PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol; and 3), sphingomyelin (SM), PG, with 40 mol % cholesterol. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M1 were 3.3 ± 0.4 × 10−13 cm3/s (mean ± SE), 1.2 ± 0.1 × 10−13 cm3/s, and 0.4 ± 0.1 × 10−13 cm3/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. The unit permeabilities of AQP4-M23 were 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10−13 cm3/s, 0.8 ± 0.1 × 10−13 cm3/s, and 0.3 ± 0.1 × 10−13 cm3/s in PC:PG, PC:PG:cholesterol, and SM:PG:cholesterol, respectively. Thus, for each isoform the unit permeabilities strongly depended on bilayer composition and systematically decreased with increasing bilayer compressibility modulus and bilayer thickness. These observations suggest that altering lipid environment provides a means of regulating water channel permeability. Such permeability changes could have physiological consequences, because AQP4 water permeability would be reduced by its sequestration into SM:cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains. Conversely, under ischemic conditions astrocyte membrane cholesterol content decreases, which could increase AQP4 permeability. PMID:23199918
Sarna, Michal; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Hermanowicz, Pawel; Wnuk, Dawid; Burda, Kvetoslava; Sanak, Marek; Czyż, Jarosław; Michalik, Marta
2015-01-01
During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development. PMID:25679502
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Gussinye, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Watts, A. B.; Velicogna, I.
2003-12-01
The effective elastic thickness, Te, represents the response to long-term loading of the lithosphere; it is thus a useful measure of its strength. However, the use of different methods and assumptions to calculate Te yield different results, leading to controversial interpretations of the relationship of Te to rheology. We investigate the ability of the Bouguer coherence and free air admittance to recover Te assuming that surface and subsurface loads exist. We use synthetic data to show that the estimated Te using both functions is similar; the recovery with admittance is somewhat poorer due to leakage problems. When the underlying Te is constant, the bias and variance of the resulting Te increases with decreasing analysis window size and increasing underlying Te value. When Te varies spatially, Te estimation using sliding, overlapping windows retrieves a structure that approximates the true spatial variability, but window sizes must be chosen carefully. In light of these results, we analyse Te in Fennoscandia using both techniques and obtain similar estimates. Te is 20-40 km in the Caledonides, 40- 60 km in the Swedish Svecofennides, 40-60 km in the Kola peninsula and 70-100 km in southern Karelia and Svecofennian central Finland. These estimates are not biased by unrecovered post-glacial rebound and also potential noise introduced by long-term erosion and sedimentation does not appear to affect Te. An independent estimate of Te using rheological modelling, confirms that Te in central Finland should be high. Because Te exceeds crustal thickness ( ˜ 60 km), the mantle must contribute significant strength to the total. Te is also larger than the seismogenic thickness, thus indicating that they represent different physical behaviours. In general, Te in Fennoscandia increases with tectonic age, seismic lid thickness and decreasing heat flow. Te is low where seismicity is frequent and high where it is reduced. In Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere, the relationship
Pressure derivatives of elastic moduli of fused quartz to 10 kb
Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.; Wilson, W.H.
1967-01-01
Measurements of the longitudinal and shear moduli were made on fused quartz to 10 kb at 24??5??C. The anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus K at low pressure, ???K ???P 0, at higher pressures. The pressure derivative of the rigidity modulus ???G ???P remains constant and negative for the pressure range covered. A 15-kb hydrostatic pressure vessel is described for use with ultrasonic pulse instrumentation for precise measurements of elastic moduli and density changes with pressure. The placing of the transducer outside the pressure medium, and the use of C-ring pressure seals result in ease of operation and simplicity of design. ?? 1967.
Aqueous Levels of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor and Macular Choroidal Thickness in High Myopia
Chen, Wei; Guan, Yubo; He, Guanghui; Li, Zhiwei; Song, Hui; Xie, Shiyong; Han, Quanhong
2015-01-01
Purpose. To investigate the correlation between aqueous and serum levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and macular choroidal thickness in high myopia patients, both with and without choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods. Serum and aqueous levels of PEDF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 36 high myopia patients (36 eyes) with no CNV (non-CNV group), 14 high myopia patients (14 eyes) with CNV (CNV group), and 42 nonmyopia patients (42 eyes) (control group). Macular choroidal thickness was measured by enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Results. Aqueous levels of PEDF were significantly higher in CNV group compared with non-CNV (P < 0.001) and control (P < 0.001) groups. Macular choroidal thicknesses were significantly decreased in the non-CNV and CNV groups compared with the control (P < 0.001) group. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012) was found between the CNV and non-CNV groups. There was a positive correlation between aqueous PEDF and macular choroidal thickness in the non-CNV group (P = 0.005), but no correlation with the CNV group. No correlation between serum PEDF and macular choroidal thickness was detected in the three groups. Conclusion. Variations in aqueous PEDF levels coincide with changes in macular choroidal thickness in high myopia patients with no CNV, while no such relationship exists in high myopia patients with CNV. PMID:26491554
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggers, G. L.; Lewis, K. W.; Simons, F. J.
2012-12-01
Venus has undergone a markedly different evolution than Earth. Its tectonics do not resemble the plate-tectonic system observed on Earth, and many surface features—such as tesserae and coronae—lack terrestrial equivalents. To understand Venus' tectonics is to understand its lithosphere. Lithospheric parameters such as the effective elastic thickness have previously been estimated from the correlation between topography and gravity anomalies, either in the space domain or the spectral domain (where admittance or coherence functions are estimated). Correlation and spectral analyses that have been obtained on Venus have been limited by geometry (typically, only rectangular or circular data windows were used), and most have lacked robust error estimates. There are two levels of error: the first being how well the correlation, admittance or coherence can be estimated; the second and most important, how well the lithospheric elastic thickness can be estimated from those. The first type of error is well understood, via classical analyses of resolution, bias and variance in multivariate spectral analysis. Understanding this error leads to constructive approaches of performing the spectral analysis, via multi-taper methods (which reduce variance) with well-chosen optimal tapers (to reduce bias). The second type of error requires a complete analysis of the coupled system of differential equations that describes how certain inputs (the unobservable initial loading by topography at various interfaces) are being mapped to the output (final, measurable topography and gravity anomalies). The equations of flexure have one unknown: the flexural rigidity or effective elastic thickness—the parameter of interest. Fortunately, we have recently come to a full understanding of this second type of error, and derived a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) method that results in unbiased and minimum-variance estimates of the flexural rigidity under a variety of initial
Baseline Maritime Aerosol: Methodology to Derive the Optical Thickness and Scattering Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, Yoram J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Satellite Measurements of the global distribution of aerosol and their effect on climate should be viewed in respect to a baseline aerosol. In this concept, concentration of fine mode aerosol particles is elevated above the baseline by man-made activities (smoke or urban pollution), while coarse mode by natural processes (e.g. dust or sea-spray). Using 1-3 years of measurements in 10 stations of the Aerosol Robotic network (ACRONET we develop a methodology and derive the optical thickness and properties of this baseline aerosol for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Defined as the median for periods of stable optical thickness (standard deviation < 0.02) during 2-6 days, the median baseline aerosol optical thickness over the Pacific Ocean is 0.052 at 500 am with Angstrom exponent of 0.77, and 0.071 and 1.1 respectively, over the Atlantic Ocean.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalnins, L. M.; Watts, A. B.
2009-08-01
We have used free-air gravity anomaly and bathymetric data, together with a moving window admittance technique, to determine the spatial variation in oceanic elastic thickness, Te, in the Western Pacific ocean. Synthetic tests using representative seamounts show that Te can be recovered to an accuracy of ± 5 km for plates up to 30 km thick, with increased accuracy of ± 3 km for Te ≤ 20 km. The Western Pacific has a T e range of 0-50 km, with a mean of 9.4 km and a standard deviation of 6.8 km. The T e structure of the region is dominated by relatively high Te over the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain, intermediate values over the Marshall Islands, Gilbert Ridge, and Marcus-Wake Guyots, and low values over the Line Islands, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Caroline Islands, Shatsky Rise, Hess Rise, and Musician Seamounts. Plots of Te at sites with radiometric ages suggest that Te is to first order controlled by the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading. In areas that backtrack into the South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA), Te may be as low as the depth to the 180 ± 120 °C isotherm at least locally. In the northern part of the study area including the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain, Te correlates with the depth to 310 ± 120 °C. These best-fitting isotherms imply peak rates of volcanism during 100-120 Ma (Early Cretaceous) and 140-150 Ma (Late Jurassic). The corresponding addition of 8 × 10 6 km 3 and 4 × 10 6 km 3 of volcanic material to the surface of the oceanic crust would result in long-term sea-level rises of 20 m and 10 m respectively. The Late Jurassic volcanic event, like the later Early Cretaceous event, appears to have influenced the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate convergent boundaries, resulting in increased volcanism and orogenesis.
Improvements to the Two-Thickness Method for Deriving Acoustic Properties of Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palumbo, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.; Klos, Jacob; Park, Junhong
2004-01-01
The characteristic impedance and other derivative acoustic properties of a material can be derived from impedance tube data using the specific impedance measured from samples with two different thicknesses. In practice, samples are chosen so that their respective thicknesses differ by a factor of 2. This simplifies the solution of the equations relating the properties of the two samples so that the computation of the characteristic impedance is straightforward. This approach has at least two drawbacks. One is that it is often difficult to acquire or produce samples with precisely a factor of 2 difference in thickness. A second drawback is that the phase information contained in the imaginary part of the propagation constant must be unwrapped before subsequent computations are performed. For well-behaved samples, this is not a problem. For ill behaved samples of unknown properties, the phase unwrapping process can be tedious and difficult to automate. Two alternative approaches have been evaluated which remove the factor-of-2 sample thickness requirement and directly compute unwrapped phase angles. One uses a Newton-Raphson approach to solve for the roots of the samples' simultaneous equations. The other produces a wave number space diagram in which the roots are clearly discernable and easily extracted. Results are presented which illustrate the flexibility of analysis provided by the new approaches and how this can be used to better understand the limitations of the impedance tube data.
Vertical thickness of Saturn's B ring as derived from CIRS-CASSINI thermal data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, C. C.; Reffet, E.; Verdier, M.
2013-12-01
The CIRS-CASSINI spectrometer has continuously observed Saturn's rings since the spacecraft orbit insertion in 2004. The thermal behavior of the rings has been scrutinized along kronian seasons. Meanwhile, thermal models have been developed in an attempt to reproduce thermal phase effect, orbital and seasonal temperature variations or vertical temperature gradient across the rings as a function of particle properties and ring structure. A new thermal model [1] has been developed specifically for the B ring, where the vertical heat transport by the vertical motion of particles might be limited. It calculates ring temperatures along seasons as a function of both ring properties (thickness, volume filling factor, particle size) and particle properties (regolith grain size, porosity, albedo or emissivity), including heat transport by conduction, radiation or contact. Compared to data, it provides, among others, first-hand insights into the ring thickness H and its variation with distance to Saturn. The observed variation of the unlit side temperature with the solar elevation indeed helps constraining the heat diffusion time through the ring, and consequently its thickness. In the densest part of the B ring, at a distance a=105,000 km, the thickness is found to be H about 2 m with a thickness-to-particle size ratio H/R about 17 for a mono-sized population of particles. The observed correlation of the temperature gradient through the ring with optical depth is better understood if correlated with an increase in thickness H rather then an increase in volume filling factor. Under this assumption, a radial profile of thickness is derived from data. The implication of this result on the estimation of the current ring mass is discussed. [1] Ferrari, C. and E. Reffet, The dark side of Saturn's B ring: Seasons as clues to its structure, Icarus 223 (2013) 28-39.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burov, E. B.
2010-03-01
Depending on the conditions and time scale, the lithosphere exhibits elastic, brittle-plastic or viscous-ductile properties. As suggested by rock mechanics experiments, a large part of the long-term lithospheric strength is supported in the ductile regime. Unfortunately, these data, validated for strain rates ˜ 10 - 6 s - 1 , small scales (few cm) and simplified conditions, cannot be univocally interpolated to geological time and spatial scales (strain rates ˜ 10 - 17 -10 - 13 s - 1 , 100-1000 km spatial scales, complex conditions) without additional parameterization. An adequate parameterization has to be based on "real-time" observations of large-scale deformation. Indeed, for the oceanic lithosphere, the Goetze and Evan's brittle-elastic-ductile yield strength envelopes derived from data of experimental rock mechanics were successfully validated by a number of geodynamic scale observations such as the observations of plate flexure and the associated Te (equivalent elastic thickness) estimates. Yet, for continents, the uncertainties of flexural models and of the other data sources are much stronger due to the complex structure and history of continental plates. For example, in one continental rheology model, dubbed "jelly sandwich", the strength mainly resides in the crust and mantle, while in another, dubbed "crème-brûlée", the mantle is weak and the strength is limited to the upper crust. These models have arisen because of conflicting results from distributed earthquake, elastic thickness ( Te) and rheology data. We address these problems by examining the plausibility of each rheological model from general physical considerations. We review the elastic thickness ( Te) estimates and their relationship to the seismogenic layer thickness ( Ts) to show that these two quantities have no direct physical relation. We also show that some of small Te must be artifacts of inconsistent formulation of the mechanical problem in some Free-Air anomaly admittance models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, A. S.; Zilberman, P. E.; Kravchenko, V. B.; Ogrin, Iu. F.; Temiriazev, A. G.; Filimonova, L. M.
1984-01-01
The first observation of a resonant electrostrictive interaction of magnetostatic waves with Lamb elastic waves in structures that include a tangentially saturation-magnetized YIG film of submicron thickness on a substrate of gadolinium-gallium garnet is reported. Also reported are distinctive features of the propagation of a magnetostatic-wave pulse in such structures as the result of magnetoelastic coupling. A sweep-frequency generator tunable over the 2-4 GHz range was used for measurements in the continuous mode.
Shakya, Poonam; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Naveen; Vellachi, Remya; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Dubey, Prasoon; Singh, Kiranjeet; Shrivastava, Sonal; Shrivastava, Sameer; Maiti, S. K.; Hasan, Anwarul; Singh, K. P.
2016-01-01
An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM) of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS) and open wound (C) in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS). In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM). Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III) as compared to control (I) and b-CS (II) on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III) as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats. PMID:27127678
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Shu Yan; Goodway, Chris; Done, Robert; Evans, Beth; Kirichek, Oleg; Bowden, Zoë
2012-09-01
Positions of elastic plastic interfaces play a vital role in safe design and safe use of high pressure vessels. The ENGIN-X neutron diffractometer at the ISIS facility was used to measure the residual strain profiles in a series of aluminium vessels which had been subjected to different pressure levels. The positions of elastic plastic interfaces of the autofrettaged pressure vessels were identified. The results revealed that the residual strain magnitude and the depth of the plastic region will increase with increasing autofrettage pressure level. When autofrettage pressure produces an elastic-plastic boundary at a greater depth than the geometric mean position of the vessel wall, reverse yielding will occur, hence the loss of the vessels' elastic ability to its subsequent loading. The neutron experimental results agreed well with both the suggestions from existing literatures and the results from FE simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, S.; Lambeck, K.; Lidberg, M.
2012-07-01
Crustal deformation in Fennoscandia is associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process that is caused by ongoing stress release of the mantle after removal of the Late Pleistocene ice sheet by ˜10 cal ka BP. With an earth model of defined structure and rheology and an ice-sheet model of known melting history, the GIA process can be simulated by geophysical models, and the surface deformation rates can be calculated and used to compare with global positioning system (GPS) observations. Therefore, the crustal deformation rates observed by GPS in Fennoscandia provide constraints on the geophysical models. On the basis of two ice sheet models (ANU-ICE and ICE-5G) reconstructed independently by the Australian National University (ANU) and University of Toronto, we use the GPS-derived deformation rates to invert for lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity in Fennoscandia. The results show that only a three-layer earth model can be resolved from current GPS data, providing robust estimates of effective lithosphere thickness, upper and lower mantle viscosity. The earth models estimated from inversion of GPS data with two different ice sheet models define a narrow range of parameter space: the lithosphere thickness between 93 and 110 km, upper mantle viscosity between 3.4 and 5.0 × 1020 Pa s, and lower mantle viscosity between 7 × 1021 and 13 × 1021 Pa s. The estimates are consistent with those inverted from relative sea-level indicators.
Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo
2016-01-01
Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars triangularis, and left lingual cortices were thinner in patients with MDD than in healthy controls. Among the MDD group, right pericalcarine, right medical orbitofrontal, right rostral middle frontal, right postcentral, right inferior temporal, right cuneus, right precuneus, left frontal pole, left superior frontal, left superior temporal, left rostral middle frontal and left lingual cortices had inverse correlations with methylation of BDNF promoters. Higher levels of BDNF promoter methylation may be closely associated with the reduced cortical thickness among patients with MDD. Serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in MDD, and showed an inverse relationship with BDNF methylation only in healthy controls. Particularly the prefrontal and occipital cortices seem to indicate key regions in which BDNF methylation has a significant effect on structure. PMID:26876488
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rounce, D. R.; McKinney, D. C.
2014-07-01
Debris thickness is an important characteristic of debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas. The debris thickness controls the melt rates of the glaciers, which has large implications for hydrologic models, the glaciers' response to climate change, and the development of glacial lakes. Despite its importance, there is little knowledge of how the debris thickness varies over these glaciers. This paper uses an energy balance model in conjunction with Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery to derive thermal resistances, which are the debris thickness divided by the thermal conductivity. Model results are reported in terms of debris thickness using an effective thermal conductivity derived from field data. The developed model accounts for the nonlinear temperature gradient in the debris cover to derive reasonable debris thicknesses. Fieldwork performed on Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier in September 2013 was used to compare to the modeled debris thicknesses. Results indicate that accounting for the nonlinear temperature gradient is crucial. Furthermore, correcting the incoming shortwave radiation term for the effects of topography and resampling to the resolution of the thermal band's pixel is imperative to deriving reasonable debris thicknesses. Since the topographic correction is important, the model will improve with the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM). The main limitation of this work is the poor resolution (60 m) of the satellite's thermal band. The derived debris thicknesses are reasonable at this resolution, but trends related to slope and aspect are unable to be modeled on a finer scale. Nonetheless, the study finds this model derives reasonable debris thicknesses on this scale and was applied to other debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.
2014-12-01
The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds VREV<≧VREVE, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < tREV ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (VREVE
Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.
2014-12-10
The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at
Thickness and mass of Saturn's B ring as derived from its seasonal temperature variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, C.; Reffet, E.; Verdier, M.
2014-04-01
Structural and thermal properties of Saturn's B ring and its particles are derived from orbital and seasonal temperatures variations observed by the CIRS infrared spectrometer between 2004 and 2009. Our multi-scale thermal model [1], best suited to model heat transfer in dense rings, is adjusted to data. Most observations were focused on the center B ring, at 105,000 km from Saturn. At this distance, a very good fit is obtained for conductive particles embedded in a moderately conductive ring medium. Assuming a bulk composition of water ice, the thermal inertia of particles is found to be of the order of Γ1 = 160 - 200 J/m2/K/s1/2. It varies with seasons because part of the heat transfer through the particle happens via radiation. For the same reason, the ring thermal inertia also varies with seasons. Its value, around 30-40 J/m2/K/s1/2, is very comparable to the thermal inertia of icy satellites regoliths. The ring filling factor is found to be relatively high, D=0.34, typical of a compact medium and compatible with output of numerical simulations of their dynamics. The thickness of the B ring at this distance of Saturn is estimated at 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The correlation of the vertical thermal gradient between lit and unlit sides with the optical depth is easily reproduced if the variations in optical depth of the B ring are due to varying thickness. Its vertical thickness H is found to range between 1 and 3 meters across the B2, B3 and B4 rings (Figure 1). It is thinner than the neighbouring C ring and Cassini Division. This can be understood as a consequence of self-gravity which acts at reducing the vertical excursion of ring particles within self-gravity wakes. Radial variation of the surface mass density is deduced from the thickness using aspect-ratios H/λ of self-gravity wakes detected there. It ranges between 300 and about 2000 kg/m2. The inferred B ring mass is MB = 8.7 ± 1.7 1018 kg and the total ring mass is MR = 1.4 ± 0.17 1019 kg. This mass is expected
CARMELLO, Juliana Cabrini; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; RIBEIRO, Lígia Nunes de Moraes; CLARO NETO, Salvador; GUAGLIANONI, Dalton Geraldo; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira
2012-01-01
The need to develop new dental luting agents in order to improve the success of treatments has greatly motivated research. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and film thickness (FT) of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil (COP) with or without addition of different quantities of filler (calcium carbonate - CaCO3). Material and Methods Eighty specimens were manufactured (DTS N=40; FT N=40) and divided into 4 groups: Pure COP; COP 10%; COP 50% and zinc phosphate (control). The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and submitted to the tests. The DTS test was performed in the MTS 810 testing machine (10 KN, 0.5 mm/min). For FT test, the cements were sandwiched between two glass plates (2 cm2) and a load of 15 kg was applied vertically on the top of the specimen for 10 min. The data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The values of DTS (MPa) were: Pure COP- 10.94±1.30; COP 10%- 30.06±0.64; COP 50%- 29.87±0.27; zinc phosphate- 4.88±0.96. The values of FT (µm) were: Pure COP- 31.09±3.16; COP 10%- 17.05±4.83; COP 50%- 13.03±4.83; Zinc Phosphate- 20.00±0.12. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups (DTS - p=1.01E-40; FT - p=2.4E-10). Conclusion The experimental dental luting agent with 50% of filler showed the best diametral tensile strength and film thickness. PMID:22437672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischmann, J. A.; Drugan, W. J.; Plesha, M. E.
2013-07-01
We derive the macroscopic elastic moduli of a statistically isotropic particulate aggregate material via the homogenization methods of Voigt (1928) (kinematic hypothesis), Reuss (1929) (static hypothesis), and Hershey (1954) and Kröner (1958) (self-consistent hypothesis), originally developed to treat crystalline materials, from the directionally averaged elastic moduli of three regular cubic packings of uniform spheres. We determine analytical expressions for these macroscopic elastic moduli in terms of the (linearized) elastic inter-particle contact stiffnesses on the microscale under the three homogenization assumptions for the three cubic packings (simple, body-centered, and face-centered), assuming no particle rotation. To test these results and those in the literature, we perform numerical simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) to measure the overall elastic moduli of large samples of randomly packed uniform spheres with constant normal and tangential contact stiffnesses (linear spring model). The beauty of DEM is that simulations can be run with particle rotation either prohibited or unrestrained. In this first part of our two-part series of papers, we perform DEM simulations with particle rotation prohibited, and we compare these results with our theoretical results that assumed no particle rotation. We show that the self-consistent homogenization assumption applied to the locally body-centered cubic (BCC) packing most accurately predicts the measured values of the overall elastic moduli obtained from the DEM simulations, in particular Poisson's ratio. Our new analytical self-consistent results lead to significantly better predictions of Poisson's ratio than all prior published theoretical results. Moreover, our results are based on a direct micromechanics analysis of specific geometrical packings of uniform spheres, in contrast to all prior theoretical analyses, which were based on difficult-to-verify hypotheses involving overall inter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reffet, E.; Verdier, M.; Ferrari, C.
2015-07-01
Structural and thermal properties of Saturn's B ring and its particles are derived from orbital and seasonal temperatures variations observed by the Cassini CIRS spectrometer between 2004 and 2009 equinox. Our multiscale thermal model (Ferrari, C., Reffet, E. [2013]. Icarus 223, 28-39), which assumes negligible heat transfer by vertical motion of particles in dense rings, is adjusted to the data. Most observations were focused on the center of the B ring, at 105,000 km from Saturn. A very good fit is obtained for conductive particles embedded in a moderately conductive ring medium. Assuming a bulk composition of water ice, the thermal inertia of particles is found to be Γ1 = 160-200J /m2 /K /s 1 / 2 and to vary with seasons as part of the heat transfer is radiative, then temperature-dependent. For the same reason, the thermal inertia of the ring, Γ0 , varies with seasons, between 30 and 35 J /m2 /K /s 1 / 2 . It is very comparable to the thermal inertia of icy satellite surfaces. The porosity of particles p1 found to fit this thermal inertia is very high (0.93) and may emphasize an inappropriate modeling of particles by an effective porous medium. The ring filling factor is fairly high, D = 0.34 ± 0.01 , but stays typical of a compact medium and compatible with the output of numerical simulations of dense ring dynamics. The thickness of the B ring at 105,000 km from Saturn is estimated at HS = 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The observed correlation of its optical depth with the thermal gradient between lit and unlit sides is easily reproduced by the model if the radial variations in optical depth are due to varying thickness HS (a) with constant filling factor. This thickness varies between 1 and 3 m across theB2,B3 and B4 regions. It is thinner than the neighboring C ring and Cassini Division. This can be understood as a consequence of self-gravity. The ring surface mass density Σ = (1 -p1)ρ0DHS (a) derived from these structural parameters is too low for a self
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krumholz, Mark R.
2014-01-01
I describe DESPOTIC, a code to Derive the Energetics and SPectra of Optically Thick Interstellar Clouds. DESPOTIC represents such clouds using a one-zone model, and can calculate line luminosities, line cooling rates, and in restricted cases line profiles using an escape probability formalism. It also includes approximate treatments of the dominant heating, cooling and chemical processes for the cold interstellar medium, including cosmic ray and X-ray heating, grain photoelectric heating, heating of the dust by infrared and ultraviolet radiation, thermal cooling of the dust, collisional energy exchange between dust and gas, and a simple network for carbon chemistry. Based on these heating, cooling and chemical rates, DESPOTIC can calculate clouds' equilibrium gas and dust temperatures, equilibrium carbon chemical state and time-dependent thermal and chemical evolution. The software is intended to allow rapid and interactive calculation of clouds' characteristic temperatures, identification of their dominant heating and cooling mechanisms and prediction of their observable spectra across a wide range of interstellar environments. DESPOTIC is implemented as a PYTHON package, and is released under the GNU General Public License.
Doster, W.; Nakagawa, H.; Appavou, M. S.
2013-07-28
Numerous neutron scattering studies of bio-molecular dynamics employ a qualitative analysis of elastic scattering data and atomic mean square displacements. We provide a new quantitative approach showing that the intensity at zero energy exchange can be a rich source of information of bio-structural fluctuations on a pico- to nano-second time scale. Elastic intensity scans performed either as a function of the temperature (back-scattering) and/or by varying the instrumental resolution (time of flight spectroscopy) yield the activation parameters of molecular motions and the approximate structural correlation function in the time domain. The two methods are unified by a scaling function, which depends on the ratio of correlation time and instrumental resolution time. The elastic scattering concept is illustrated with a dynamic characterization of alanine-dipeptide, protein hydration water, and water-coupled protein motions of lysozyme, per-deuterated c-phycocyanin (CPC) and hydrated myoglobin. The complete elastic scattering function versus temperature, momentum exchange, and instrumental resolution is analyzed instead of focusing on a single cross-over temperature of mean square displacements at the apparent onset temperature of an-harmonic motions. Our method predicts the protein dynamical transition (PDT) at T{sub d} from the collective (α) structural relaxation rates of the solvation shell as input. By contrast, the secondary (β) relaxation enhances the amplitude of fast local motions in the vicinity of the glass temperature T{sub g}. The PDT is specified by step function in the elastic intensity leading from elastic to viscoelastic dynamic behavior at a transition temperature T{sub d}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doster, W.; Nakagawa, H.; Appavou, M. S.
2013-07-01
Numerous neutron scattering studies of bio-molecular dynamics employ a qualitative analysis of elastic scattering data and atomic mean square displacements. We provide a new quantitative approach showing that the intensity at zero energy exchange can be a rich source of information of bio-structural fluctuations on a pico- to nano-second time scale. Elastic intensity scans performed either as a function of the temperature (back-scattering) and/or by varying the instrumental resolution (time of flight spectroscopy) yield the activation parameters of molecular motions and the approximate structural correlation function in the time domain. The two methods are unified by a scaling function, which depends on the ratio of correlation time and instrumental resolution time. The elastic scattering concept is illustrated with a dynamic characterization of alanine-dipeptide, protein hydration water, and water-coupled protein motions of lysozyme, per-deuterated c-phycocyanin (CPC) and hydrated myoglobin. The complete elastic scattering function versus temperature, momentum exchange, and instrumental resolution is analyzed instead of focusing on a single cross-over temperature of mean square displacements at the apparent onset temperature of an-harmonic motions. Our method predicts the protein dynamical transition (PDT) at Td from the collective (α) structural relaxation rates of the solvation shell as input. By contrast, the secondary (β) relaxation enhances the amplitude of fast local motions in the vicinity of the glass temperature Tg. The PDT is specified by step function in the elastic intensity leading from elastic to viscoelastic dynamic behavior at a transition temperature Td.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.
2013-12-01
The flexural rigidity of the Earth's cratonic regions is a topic of much controversy. While many studies have suggested that cratons possess high elastic strength, others maintain that the continental lithosphere is everywhere weak. In this study we focus on the Canadian shield, and show that perceived evidence for weak cratonic lithosphere is compromised by shortcomings of the spectral analysis technique. Here we compare estimates of the admittance between free-air gravity and topography in the spectral domain from wavelet and multitaper methods. We apply particular attention to their long wavelength values, since it is here that the signals from mantle convection, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and flexure are often present together. Our results show that, when used with certain parameter values, the multitaper method has a comparatively poor resolution at long wavelengths, and hence is not always able to distinguish between the harmonics due to convection and flexural processes. This renders it unreliable for estimating the flexural rigidity. We then show that the wavelet method does have the requisite properties to make this distinction, since it is able to correctly resolve a low-admittance dip at long wavelengths in both synthetic and real data. When the observed wavelet admittance of the Canadian shield is inverted against the predictions of a combined flexural, convection and GIA model, we find that the shield possesses a core of high effective elastic thickness (Te), greater than 118 km to 95% confidence, located to the immediate south-west of Hudson Bay.
Du, Ping; Suhaeri, Muhammad; Subbiah, Ramesh; Van, Se Young; Park, Jimin; Kim, Sang Heon; Park, Kwideok; Lee, Kangwon
2016-03-01
Biophysical properties of the microenvironment, including matrix elasticity and topography, are known to affect various cell behaviors; however, the specific role of each factor is unclear. In this study, fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM) was used as cell culture substrate and physically modified to investigate the influence of its biophysical property changes on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) behavior in vitro. These FDMs were physically modified by simply storing them at different temperatures: the one stored at 4°C, maintained its original properties, was considered natural FDM, whereas the ones stored at -20°C or -80°C, exhibited a distinct surface morphology, were considered physically modified FDM. Physical modification induced matrix fiber rearrangement in FDM, forming different microstructures on the surface as characterized by focused ion beam (FIB)-cryoSEM. A significant increase of matrix elasticity was found with physically modified FDMs as determined by atomic force microscopy. HUVEC and hMSC behaviors on these natural and physically modified FDMs were observed and compared with each other and with gelatin-coated coverslips. HUVECs showed a similar adhesion level on these substrates at 3 h, but exhibited different proliferation rates and morphologies at 24 h; HUVECs on natural FDM proliferated relatively slower and assembled to capillary-like structures (CLSs). It is observed that HUVECs assembled to CLSs on natural FDMs are independent on the exogenous growth factors and yet dependent on nonmuscle myosin II activity. This result indicates the important role of matrix mechanical properties in regulating HUVECs vascular morphogenesis. As for hMSCs multilineage differentiation, adipogenesis is improved on natural FDM that with lower matrix elasticity, while osteogenesis is accelerated on physically modified FDMs that with higher matrix elasticity, these results further confirm the crucial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
PéRez-Gussinyé, Marta; Lowry, Anthony R.; Watts, Anthony B.; Velicogna, Isabella
2004-10-01
There is considerable controversy regarding the long-term strength of continents (Te). While some authors obtain both low and high Te estimates from the Bouguer coherence and suggest that both crust and mantle contribute to lithospheric strength, others obtain estimates of only <25 km using the free-air admittance and suggest that the mantle is weak. At the root of this controversy is how accurately Te can be recovered from coherence and admittance. We investigate this question by using synthetic topography and gravity anomaly data for which Te is known. We show that the discrepancies stem from comparison of theoretical curves to multitaper power spectral estimates of free-air admittance. We reformulate the admittance method and show that it can recover synthetic Te estimates similar to those recovered using coherence. In light of these results, we estimate Te in Fennoscandia and obtain similar results using both techniques. Te is 20-40 km in the Caledonides, 40-60 km in the Swedish Svecofennides, 40-60 km in the Kola peninsula, and 70-100 km in southern Karelia and Svecofennian central Finland. Independent rheological modeling, using a xenolith-controlled geotherm, predicts similar high Te in central Finland. Because Te exceeds crustal thickness in this area, the mantle must contribute significantly to the total strength. Te in Fennoscandia increases with tectonic age, seismic lithosphere thickness, and decreasing heat flow, and low Te correlates with frequent seismicity. However, in Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere the relationship of Te to age is ambiguous, suggesting that compositional variations may influence the strength of continents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-07-01
Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multi component sensors, the potential for tradeoff between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22 and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23 and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44 and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-09-01
Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischmann, J. A.; Drugan, W. J.; Plesha, M. E.
2013-07-01
In Part I, Fleischmann et al. (2013), we performed theoretical analyses of three cubic packings of uniform spheres (simple, body-centered, and face-centered) assuming no particle rotation, employed these results to derive the effective elastic moduli for a statistically isotropic particulate material, and assessed these results by performing numerical discrete element method (DEM) simulations with particle rotations prohibited. In this second part, we explore the effect that particle rotation has on the overall elastic moduli of a statistically isotropic particulate material. We do this both theoretically, by re-analyzing the elementary cells of the three cubic packings with particle rotation allowed, which leads to the introduction of an internal parameter to measure zero-energy rotations at the local level, and numerically via DEM simulations in which particle rotation is unrestrained. We find that the effects of particle rotation cannot be neglected. For unrestrained particle rotation, we find that the self-consistent homogenization assumption applied to the locally body-centered cubic packing incorporating particle rotation effects most accurately predicts the measured values of the overall elastic moduli obtained from the DEM simulations, in particular Poisson's ratio. Our new self-consistent results and theoretical modeling of particle rotation effects together lead to significantly better theoretical predictions of Poisson's ratio than all prior published results. Moreover, our results are based on a direct micromechanics analysis of specific geometrical packings of uniform spheres, in contrast to prior theoretical analyses based on hypotheses involving overall inter-particle contact distributions. Thus, our results permit a direct assessment of the reasons for the theory-experiment discrepancies noted in the literature with regard to previous theoretical derivations of the macroscopic elastic moduli for particulate materials, and our new theoretical results
Bifano, Michael F P; Kaul, Pankaj B; Prakash, Vikas
2010-06-11
This paper reports dependency of specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance on cross-sectional geometry (tube versus rod) and size (i.e., diameter and wall thickness), in free-standing isotropic non-metallic crystalline nanostructures. The analysis is performed using dispersion relations found by numerically solving the Pochhammer-Chree frequency equation for a tube. Estimates for the allowable phonon dispersion relations within the crystal lattice are obtained by modifying the elastic acoustic dispersion relations so as to account for the discrete nature of the material's crystal lattice. These phonon dispersion relations are then used to evaluate the specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance in the nanostructures as a function of the nanostructure geometry and size. Two major results are revealed in the analysis: increasing the outer diameter of a nanotube while keeping the ratio of the inner to outer tube radius (gamma) fixed increases the total number of available phonon modes capable of thermal population. Secondly, decreasing the wall thickness of a nanotube (i.e., increasing gamma) while keeping its outer diameter fixed, results in a drastic decrease in the available phonon mode density and a reduction in the frequency of the longitudinal and flexural acoustic phonon modes in the nanostructure. The dependency of the nanostructure's specific heat on temperature indicates 1D, 2D, and 3D geometric phonon confinement regimes. Transition temperatures for each phonon confinement regime are shown to depend on both the nanostructure's wall thickness and outer radius. Compared to nanowires (gamma = 0), the frequency reduction of acoustic phonon modes in thinner walled nanotubes (gamma = 0.96) is shown to elevate the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube between 0.2 and 150 K. At 20 K, the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube (gamma = 0.96) becomes 300% greater than that of a solid nanowire. For temperatures above
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ampuero, Jean Paul; Mao, Xiaolin
2016-04-01
The interaction between earthquakes, fault network geometry and fault zone structure is a key question motivating the integration of dynamic rupture and long-term crustal deformation modeling. Here, we address the scaling between fault structural properties from the perspective of dynamic and quasi-static processes involved in fault system evolution. Faults are surrounded by materials damaged through quasi-static and dynamic processes, forming damaged zones whose thickness and damage intensity may vary as a function of fault maturity and length. In the vicinity (typically less than a few hundred meters) of their principal slip surface, faults develop an "inner damage zone", usually characterized by micro-fracture observations. At a larger scale, faults develop an "outer damage zone" of secondary macroscopic fault branches at their tips, which organize into fans of splay faults. Inner damage zones can significantly affect earthquake ruptures, enhance near-field ground motions and facilitate fluid transport in the crust. Fault zone trapped waves can generate pulse-like rupture and oscillatory rupture speed, facilitate supershear rupture transition and allow for steady rupture propagation at speeds that are unstable or inadmissible in homogeneous media. The effects of a fault damage zone crucially depend on its thickness. Field observations of inner damage zone thickness as a function of cumulated slip show linear scaling at small slip but saturation at large slip, with maximum damage zone thickness of a few hundred meters. We previously developed fracture mechanics theoretical arguments and dynamic rupture simulations with off-fault inelastic deformation that predict saturation of the thickness of co-seismic damage zone controlled by the depth extent of the seismogenic zone. In essence, the stress intensity factor at the front of a rupture, which controls the distance reached by the large off-fault stresses that cause damage, scales with the shortest characteristic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rack, Wolfgang; Haas, Christian; Langhorne, Pat; Leonard, Greg; Price, Dan; Barnsdale, Kelvin; Soltanzadeh, Iman
2014-05-01
Melting and freezing processes in the ice shelf cavities of the Ross and McMurdo Ice Shelves significantly influence the sea ice formation in McMurdo Sound. Between 2009 and 2013 we used a helicopter-borne laser and electromagnetic induction sounder (EM bird) to measure thickness and freeboard profiles across the ice shelf and the landfast sea ice, which was accompanied by extensive field validation, and coordinated with satellite altimeter overpasses. Using freeboard and thickness, the bulk density of all ice types was calculated assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. Significant density steps were detected between first-year and multi-year sea ice, with higher values for the younger sea ice. Values are overestimated in areas with abundance of sub-ice platelets because of overestimation in both ice thickness and freeboard. On the ice shelf, bulk ice densities were sometimes higher than that of pure ice, which can be explained by both the accretion of marine ice and glacial sediments. For thin ice, the freeboard to thickness conversion critically depends on the knowledge of snow properties. Our measurements allow tuning and validation of snow cover simulations using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulated snowcover is used to calculate ice thickness from satellite derived freeboard. The results of our measurements, which are supported by the New Zealand Antarctic programme, draw a picture of how oceanographic processes influence the ice shelf morphology and sea ice formation in McMurdo Sound, and how satellite derived freeboard of ICESat and CryoSat together with information on snow cover can potentially capture the signature of these processes.
The Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Full-Thickness Skin Grafts
Hao, Haojie; Huang, Hong; Chen, Deyun; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong
2016-01-01
Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASCs on full-thickness skin grafts. Specifically, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs that are mediated via regulation of the phenotypes of activated macrophages. Methods. ASCs were isolated, cultured, and injected under full-thickness skin grafts in 15 rats (ASC group). An additional 15 rats served as controls (PBS group). Skin graft survival assessment and vascularization detection were assessed with H&E staining and laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDF). The effects of ASCs on angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen accumulation-promoting, and antiscarring were assessed. Results. We found that the skin graft survival rate was significantly increased in the ASC group. The neovascularization, collagen deposition, collagen type I to type III ratio, and levels of VEGF and TGF-β3 in the ASC group were markedly higher than those in the PBS group at day 14. Additionally, in the ASC group, the levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were remarkably decreased, whereas the levels of IL-10 and Arg-1 were substantially increased. Conclusions. Our results confirm that ASCs transplantation can effectively improve full-thickness skin graft survival. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory role of ASCs may indirectly contribute to skin graft survival via its effect on macrophage polarization. PMID:27413735
The Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Full-Thickness Skin Grafts.
Wang, Juan; Hao, Haojie; Huang, Hong; Chen, Deyun; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong
2016-01-01
Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ASCs on full-thickness skin grafts. Specifically, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs that are mediated via regulation of the phenotypes of activated macrophages. Methods. ASCs were isolated, cultured, and injected under full-thickness skin grafts in 15 rats (ASC group). An additional 15 rats served as controls (PBS group). Skin graft survival assessment and vascularization detection were assessed with H&E staining and laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDF). The effects of ASCs on angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, collagen accumulation-promoting, and antiscarring were assessed. Results. We found that the skin graft survival rate was significantly increased in the ASC group. The neovascularization, collagen deposition, collagen type I to type III ratio, and levels of VEGF and TGF-β3 in the ASC group were markedly higher than those in the PBS group at day 14. Additionally, in the ASC group, the levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were remarkably decreased, whereas the levels of IL-10 and Arg-1 were substantially increased. Conclusions. Our results confirm that ASCs transplantation can effectively improve full-thickness skin graft survival. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory role of ASCs may indirectly contribute to skin graft survival via its effect on macrophage polarization. PMID:27413735
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knackstedt, Mark A.; Arns, Christoph H.; Saadatfar, Mohammad; et al.
2006-09-01
We describe a three-dimensional imaging and analysis study of eight industrial cellular foam morphologies. The foam morphologies were generated by differing industrial processing methods. Tomograms are acquired on an X-ray micro-computed tomography facility at scales of approximately equal to (5mm)3 at resolutions down to 7μm. The image quality is sufficient in all cases to measure local structure and connectivity of the foamed material, and the field of view large enough to calculate a range of material properties. Phase separation into solid and porous components is straightforward.Three-dimensional structural characteristics are measured directly on the porous and solid phases of the images. A number of morphological parameters are obtained, including pore volume-to-surface-area ratio, connectivity, the pore and solid phase size distributions defined by maximal sphere openings and chord length measurements. We further calculate the pore size distribution associated with capillary pressure via simulating of mercury drainage on the digital images.The binarized microstructures are used as a basis for calculations of transport properties (fluid permeability, diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and elastic moduli. From the data, we generate property-porosity relationships for the range of foam morphologies imaged and quantitatively analyse the effects of porosity and microstructure on the resultant properties of the foams.We compare our numerical data to commonly used theoretical and empirical property-porosity relationships. For thermal conductivity, we find that the numerical results agree extremely well with an empirical expression based on experimental data of various foams. The upper Hashin-Shtrikman bound also provides an excellent prediction of the data across all densities. From simulation of the diffusivity, we can define the tortuosity of the pore space within the cellular solid. We find that different processing methods lead to strong variations in the
Use of Fish Scale-Derived BioCornea to Seal Full-Thickness Corneal Perforations in Pig Models
Lin, Han-Tse; Huang, Min-Chang; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Hjortdal, Jesper
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to test the use of BioCornea, a fish scale-derived collagen matrix for sealing full-thickness corneal perforations in mini-pigs. Two series of experiments were carried out in 8 Lan-Yu and 3 Göttingen mini-pigs, respectively. A 2mm central full thickness corneal perforation was made with surgical scissors and 2mm trephines. The perforations were sealed immediately by suturing BioCornea to the wounded cornea. The conditions of each patched cornea were followed-up daily for 3 or 4 days. Status of operated eyes was assessed with slit lamp examination or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Animals were sacrificed after the study period and the corneas operated were fixated for histological examination. Both OCT imaging and handheld slit lamp observations indicated that a stable ocular integrity of the perforated corneas was maintained, showing no leakage of aqueous humor, normal depth of anterior chamber and only mild swelling of the wounded cornea. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the patched cornea showed no epithelial ingrowths to the perforated wounds and no severe leucocyte infiltration of the stroma. The fish scale-derived BioCornea is capable to seal full-thickness corneal perforation and stabilize the integrity of ocular anterior chamber in pre-clinic mini-pig models. BioCornea seems to be a safe and effective alternative for emergency treatment of corneal perforations. PMID:26599018
Evans, E A
1983-07-01
Observation of cell membrane buckling and cell folding in micropipette aspiration experiments was used to evaluate the bending rigidity of the red blood cell membrane. The suction pressure required to buckle the membrane surface initially was found to be about one-half to two-thirds of the pressure that caused the cell to fold and move up the pipet. A simple analytical model for buckling of a membrane disk supported at inner and outer radii correlates well with the observed buckling pressures vs. pipet radii. The buckling pressure is predicted to increase in inverse proportion to the cube of the pipet radius; also, the buckling pressure depends inversely on the radial distance to the toroidal rim of the cell, normalized by the pipet radius. As such, the pressure required to buckle the membrane with 1 X 10(-4) cm diam pipet would be about four times greater than with a 2 X 10(-4) cm pipet. This is the behavior observed experimentally. Based on analysis of the observed buckling data, the membrane bending or curvature elastic modulus is calculated to be 1.8 X 10(-12) dyn-cm. PMID:6882860
Global features of ionospheric slab thickness derived from JPL TEC and COSMIC observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, He; Liu, Libo
2016-04-01
The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST) is the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2-layer peak electron density (NmF2), describing the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) TEC data and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of JPL TEC and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions; and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The pre-sunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the post-sunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. The dependence of EST on solar activity is very complicated. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon is found that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120° E in longitude and 30° to 75° S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and southern hemisphere summer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzibovskis, Raitis; Vembris, Aivars; Pudzs, Kaspars
2016-08-01
Nowadays most organic devices consist of thin (below 100 nm) layers. Information about the morphology and energy levels of thin films at such thickness is essential for the high efficiency devices. In this work we have investigated thin films of 2-(4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-benzylidene)-indene-1,3-dione (DMABI) and 2-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)benzylidene)-2H-indene-1,3-dione (DMABI-6Ph). DMABI-6Ph is the same DMABI molecule with attached bulky groups which assist formation of amorphous films from solutions. Polycrystalline structure was obtained for the DMABI thin films prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum and amorphous structure for the DMABI-6Ph films prepared by spin-coating method. Images taken by SEM showed separate crystals or islands at the thickness of the samples below 100 nm. The ionization energy of the studied compounds was determined using photoemission yield spectroscopy. A vacuum level shift of 0.40 eV was observed when ITO electrode was covered with the thin film of the organic compound. Despite of the same active part of the investigated molecules the ITO/DMABI interface is blocking electrons while ITO/DMABI-6Ph interface is blocking holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Liu, Jianxin; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Sun, Ya
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with the spatial variation of the elastic thickness (Te) in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen and its implications for the understanding of lithospheric structure and deformation. New Te maps of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen are generated from the new combined satellite-terrestrial gravity (EIGEN6C3stat) and topography (ETOPO1) models using the fan wavelet coherence technique. The high-Te values (> 60 km) are observed in the Indian shield and the Tarim basin; while the low-Te values (< 40 km) are prevailing over most of the Tibetan Plateau. We also find that the Te distributions estimated using the high and low central wavenumber (i.e., |k0 |) wavelets are different in southern Tibet. By combining constraints from the current seismic and thermo-rheological modeling, this difference may reflect that the strength of the lithosphere in southern Tibet mainly resides in the lithospheric mantle. Within most parts of central and northern Tibet, the Te values are relatively low (< 30 km), indicating that the entire lithosphere is weak. Our analysis finds that the Te variations are probably associated with changes in lithosphere structure. We interpret the abrupt changes in Te between southern and northern Tibet to indicate the location of the underthrusting strong Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet. Our results suggest that the northern limit of the underthrusting Indian plate reaches as far north as the Hindu Kush and the southwestern margin of the Tarim basin (near 70 °- 80 °E), and extends along the Bangong-Nujiang Suture in the central (80 °- 87 °E). Eastward between 87 °E- 93 °E, it may move to the Indus-Tsangpo Suture, indicating a delamination of Indian mantle lithosphere there. Further to the east, it may underthrust northward beneath the eastern Qiangtang block.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Fei; Shi, Tongguang
2016-04-01
Two-year records of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Intermediate Product (IP) data on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 550 nm were evaluated by comparing them with sun-sky radiometer measurements from the Chinese sun hazemeter network (CSHNET) and the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical properties over eastern China were then investigated using collocated VIIRS IP data and CSHNET and AERONET measurements.Results show that the performances of the current VIIRS IP AOT retrievals at the provisional stage were consistent with ground measurements. Similar characteristics of seasonal and monthly variations were found among the measurements, though the observational methodologies were different, showing maxima in the summer and spring and minima in the winter and autumn.
Derivation of total filtration thickness for diagnostic x-ray source assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekimoto, Michiharu; Katoh, Yoh
2016-08-01
The method defined by the IEC 60522 for determining the inherent filtration of an x-ray source device is applicable only for a limited range of tube voltage. Because the users cannot legally remove the x-ray movable diaphragm of the x-ray source device, total filtration, which is the sum of the additional filtration diaphragm movable for specific filtration and x-ray, cannot be measured. We develop a method for simply obtaining the total filtration for different tube voltage values. Total filtration can be estimated from a ratio R‧ of the air kerma Kx+T\\prime , which is measured with an Al plate with thickness T, and Kx\\prime measured without an Al plate. The conditions of the target material of the x-ray source device are then entered into the Report 78 Spectrum Processor to calculate the air kerma K x and K x+T for Al thicknesses x and (x + T), respectively, to obtain R. The minimum value of x, which is the difference between the R and R‧, is the total filtration of the x-ray source device. The total filtration calculated using the industrial x-ray source device was within ±1% in the 40–120 kV range. This method can calculate the total filtration using air kerma measurements with and without the Al plate. Therefore, the load on the x-ray tube can be reduced, and preparation of multiple Al plates is not necessary. Furthermore, for the 40–120 kV tube voltage range, the user can easily measure the total filtration.
Derivation of total filtration thickness for diagnostic x-ray source assembly.
Sekimoto, Michiharu; Katoh, Yoh
2016-08-21
The method defined by the IEC 60522 for determining the inherent filtration of an x-ray source device is applicable only for a limited range of tube voltage. Because the users cannot legally remove the x-ray movable diaphragm of the x-ray source device, total filtration, which is the sum of the additional filtration diaphragm movable for specific filtration and x-ray, cannot be measured. We develop a method for simply obtaining the total filtration for different tube voltage values. Total filtration can be estimated from a ratio R' of the air kerma [Formula: see text], which is measured with an Al plate with thickness T, and [Formula: see text] measured without an Al plate. The conditions of the target material of the x-ray source device are then entered into the Report 78 Spectrum Processor to calculate the air kerma K x and K x+T for Al thicknesses x and (x + T), respectively, to obtain R. The minimum value of x, which is the difference between the R and R', is the total filtration of the x-ray source device. The total filtration calculated using the industrial x-ray source device was within ±1% in the 40-120 kV range. This method can calculate the total filtration using air kerma measurements with and without the Al plate. Therefore, the load on the x-ray tube can be reduced, and preparation of multiple Al plates is not necessary. Furthermore, for the 40-120 kV tube voltage range, the user can easily measure the total filtration. PMID:27444803
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, He; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing
2016-01-01
The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST), defined as the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2), describes the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from TEC data obtained from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM) and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal, and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of GIM and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions, and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The presunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the postsunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. Both enhancements are attributed to the more remarkable electron density decay of NmF2 compared to that of TEC. The dependence of EST on solar activity is related to the inconsistent solar activity dependences of electron density at different altitudes. Furthermore, it is interesting that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120°E in longitude and 30° to 75°S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and the Southern Hemisphere summer. This phenomenon is supposed to be related to the effects of geomagnetic declination-related plasma vertical drifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, M. J.; Parra, J.; Weissling, B.; Ackley, S. F.; Maksym, T. L.; Wilkinson, J.; Wagner, T.
2011-12-01
Sea ice is a critical component of the Earth's climate system and is a highly complex media. The physical characteristics are important in interpretation of remote sensing data. Sea ice characteristics such as snow surface topography, snow depth and ice thickness were derived from in situ measurements obtained during the J.C. Ross (ICEBell) and Oden Southern Ocean (OSO) expeditions during the austral summer of 2010-11. Select areas of sea ice floes in the Bellingshausen, Weddell and Amundsen Seas were measured using terrestrial scanning LiDAR (TSL) and also by conventional gridded and transect surveys. Snow depths were obtained at 2-5 meter sampling intervals and ice thickness was estimated by both electromagnetic induction (EMI) and auger drilling at 2-5 meter intervals. The LiDAR data is gridded to a 10cm rasterized data set. The field data from multiple floes in different regions provide a unique three dimensional perspective of sea ice elevation, snow depth and derived freeboard. These floes are visualized in both space and spectral domains and analyzed using classic statistical and geostatistical methods to assess surface roughness, snow depth, and the effects of differing scales on data resolution. The correlation lengths needed for isostatic equilibrium of freeboard were determined. These relationships are useful in assessing radar and laser altimetry data from airborne and satellite sources.
Drake, David B; Wong, Lesley G
2003-04-01
Topical hemostatic agents are used frequently to control bleeding of skin graft donor sites. In this study, the hemostatic properties of Vivostat (Vivolution A/S, Birkerød, Denmark) patient-derived fibrin sealant were compared with a control group of spray thrombin solution, which is considered an industry standard for topical hemostasis. Treatments were applied simultaneously to two randomly chosen halves of a single split-thickness single donor site in patients in five United States surgical centers. The time to achieve satisfactory hemostasis (< or =10 min) was estimated on each half of the wound as the time at which active bleeding had stopped and the wound was suitable for application of a surgical dressing. The time to hemostasis of wounds treated with Vivostat (Vivolution A/S) patient-derived sealant was significantly shorter in comparison with wounds treated with thrombin solution (medians: Vivostat, 31 seconds; thrombin, 58 seconds; p=0.0012). No abnormalities in wound healing were reported for either treatment site 1 week after the operation. Vivostat (Vivolution A/S) sealant is a more rapidly effective topical hemostatic agent than thrombin on split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:12671377
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.
2003-11-01
We explore the relationship between column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) on the Terra/Aqua satellites and hourly fine particulate mass (PM2.5) measured at the surface at seven locations in Jefferson county, Alabama for 2002. Results indicate that there is a good correlation between the satellite-derived AOT and PM2.5 (linear correlation coefficient, R = 0.7) indicating that most of the aerosols are in the well-mixed lower boundary layer during the satellite overpass times. There is excellent agreement between the monthly mean PM2.5 and MODIS AOT (R > 0.9), with maximum values during the summer months due to enhanced photolysis. The PM2.5 has a distinct diurnal signature with maxima in the early morning (6:00 ~ 8:00AM) due to increased traffic flow and restricted mixing depths during these hours. Using simple empirical linear relationships derived between the MODIS AOT and 24hr mean PM2.5 we show that the MODIS AOT can be used quantitatively to estimate air quality categories as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with an accuracy of more than 90% in cloud-free conditions. We discuss the factors that affect the correlation between satellite-derived AOT and PM2.5 mass, and emphasize that more research is needed before applying these methods and results over other areas.
Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Chang Sup; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Cha, Hyung Joon
2015-12-14
As biodegradable scaffolds, protein hydrogels have considerable potential, particularly for bioartificial organs and three-dimensional space-filling materials. However, their low strength and stiffness have been considered to be limitations for enduring physiological stimuli. Therefore, protein hydrogels have been commonly utilized as delivery vehicles rather than as supporting materials. In this work, sea anemone tentacle-derived recombinant silk-like protein (aneroin) was evaluated as a potential material for a mechanically durable protein hydrogel. Inspired by the natural hardening mechanism, photoinitiated dityrosine cross-linking was employed to fabricate an aneroin hydrogel. It was determined that the fabricated aneroin hydrogel was approximately 10-fold stiffer than mammalian cardiac or skeletal muscle. The aneroin hydrogel provided not only structural support but also an adequate environment for cells. It exhibited an adequate swelling ability and microstructure, which are beneficial for facilitating mass transport and cell proliferation. Based on its mechanical and biological properties, this aneroin hydrogel could be used in various biomedical applications, such as cell-containing patches, biomolecule carriers, and artificial extracellular matrices. PMID:26539814
2016-01-01
The construction of regularization operators presented in this work is based on the introduction of strain or damage micromorphic degrees of freedom in addition to the displacement vector and of their gradients into the Helmholtz free energy function of the constitutive material model. The combination of a new balance equation for generalized stresses and of the micromorphic constitutive equations generates the regularization operator. Within the small strain framework, the choice of a quadratic potential w.r.t. the gradient term provides the widely used Helmholtz operator whose regularization properties are well known: smoothing of discontinuities at interfaces and boundary layers in hardening materials, and finite width localization bands in softening materials. The objective is to review and propose nonlinear extensions of micromorphic and strain/damage gradient models along two lines: the first one introducing nonlinear relations between generalized stresses and strains; the second one envisaging several classes of finite deformation model formulations. The generic approach is applicable to a large class of elastoviscoplastic and damage models including anisothermal and multiphysics coupling. Two standard procedures of extension of classical constitutive laws to large strains are combined with the micromorphic approach: additive split of some Lagrangian strain measure or choice of a local objective rotating frame. Three distinct operators are finally derived using the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A new feature is that a free energy function depending solely on variables defined in the intermediate isoclinic configuration leads to the existence of additional kinematic hardening induced by the gradient of a scalar micromorphic variable. PMID:27274684
Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Eiji; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Akamine, Takuya
2016-09-01
To test the validity of published equations, anterior forearm muscle thickness (MT-ulna) of 158 Japanese older adults (72 men and 86 women) aged 50-79 y was measured with ultrasound. Appendicular lean soft tissue mass (aLM) was estimated from MT-ulna using two equations (body height without [eqn 1] and with [eqn 2]) previously published in the literature. Appendicular lean mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA), and this method served as the reference criterion. There was a strong correlation between DXA-derived and ultrasound-estimated aLM in both equations (r = 0.882 and r = 0.944). Total error was 2.60 kg for eqn (1) and 1.38 kg for eqn (2). A Bland-Altman plot revealed that there was no systematic bias between DXA-derived and ultrasound-estimated aLM; however, eqn (1) overestimated aLM compared with DXA-derived aLM. Our results suggest that an ultrasound MT-ulna equation that includes body height is appropriate and useful for estimating aLM in Japanese adults. PMID:27321173
Swaminathan, Ganesh; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Moore, Lee; Zborowski, Maciej; Ramamurthi, Anand
2016-04-01
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent abnormal aortal expansions that result from chronic proteolytic breakdown of elastin and collagen fibers by matrix metalloproteases. Poor elastogenesis by adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) limits regenerative repair of elastic fibers, critical for AAA growth arrest. Toward overcoming these limitations, we recently demonstrated significant elastogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived SMCs (BM-SMCs) and their proelastogenesis and antiproteolytic effects on rat aneurysmal SMCs (EaRASMCs). We currently investigate the effects of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) labeling of BM-SMCs, necessary to magnetically guide them to the AAA wall, on their functional benefits. Our results indicate that SPION-labeling is noncytotoxic and does not adversely impact the phenotype and elastogenesis by BM-SMCs. In addition, SPION-BM-SMCs showed no changes in the ability of the BM-SMCs to stimulate elastin regeneration and attenuate proteolytic activity by EaRASMCs. Together, our results are promising toward the utility of SPIONs for magnetic targeting of BM-SMCs for in situ AAA regenerative repair. PMID:26830683
Machula, Hans; Ensley, Burt; Kellar, Robert
2014-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the physiological effects of electrospun tropoelastin scaffolds as therapeutic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) delivery vehicles for the treatment of full-thickness dermal wounds. Approach: Using the process of electrospinning, several prototype microfiber scaffolds were created with tropoelastin. Initial testing of scaffold biocompatibility was performed in vitro through ADSC culture, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for assessment of ADSC attachment, morphology, and new extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. The wound healing effects of ADSC-seeded scaffolds were then evaluated in a murine dermal excisional wound model. Results: For the in vitro study, SEM revealed exceptional biocompatibility of electrospun tropoelastin for ADSCs. In the wound-healing study, ADSC-treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced wound closure and epithelial thickness compared to controls. Innovation: This is the first report on the use of tropoelastin-based biomaterials as delivery vehicles for therapeutic ADSCs. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that tropoelastin-based ADSC delivery vehicles significantly accelerate wound healing compared to controls that represent the current clinical standard of care. Furthermore, the unique mechanical and biochemical characteristics of tropoelastin may favor its use over other biological or synthetic scaffolds for the treatment of certain pathologies due to its unique intrinsic mechanical properties. PMID:24804156
Mehrabani, D.; Babazadeh, M.; Tanideh, N.; Zare, S.; Hoseinzadeh, S.; Torabinejad, S.; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O.
2015-01-01
Background: Articular cartilage defect can lead to degradation of subchondral bone and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the healing effect of transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in full-thickness femoral articular cartilage defects in rabbit. Methods: 12 rabbits were equally divided into cell-treated and control groups. In cell-treated group, 2×106 cells of third passage suspended in 1 mL of DMEM was injected into articular defect. The control group just received 1 mL of DMEM. Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin and streptomycin and 2 mM L-glutamine were used for cell culture. To induce cartilage defect, 4 mm articular cartilage full-thickness defect was created in the knee. For histological evaluation in each group (H&E, safranin-O and toluidine blue), 3 rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks and 3 animals, 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: In cell therapy group post-transplantation, no abnormal gross findings were noticed. Neo-formed tissues in cell-treated groups were translucent with a smooth and intact surface and less irregularity. In cell-treated group after 8 weeks post-transplantation, the overall healing score of experimental knees were superior when compared to other groups. Conclusion: We showed that Ad-MSCs, as an available and non-invasive produced source of cells, could be safely administered in knee osteochondral defects. PMID:26576262
Keller, Krista A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E P Scott; Kass, Philip H; Guzman, Sanchez-Migallon David; Park, Shin Ae; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Gustavsen, Kate A; Murphy, Christopher J
2014-12-01
Wounds in reptiles are a common reason for presentation to a veterinarian. At this time there is limited information on effective topical medications to aid in wound closure. The objectives of this study were to translate the splinted, full-thickness dermal wound model, validated in mice, to the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and to determine the effect of topical becaplermin (BP), a platelet-derived growth factor (0.01%), on the rate of wound closure. Ten bearded dragons were anesthetized and two full-thickness cutaneous wounds were made on the dorsum of each lizard. Encircling splints were applied surrounding each wound and subsequently covered by a semi-occlusive dressing. Five lizards had one wound treated with BP and the adjacent wound treated with a vehicle control. Five additional lizards had one wound treated with saline and the second wound treated with a vehicle control. Wounds were imaged daily, and the wound area was measured using digital image analysis. The change in percentage wound closure over 17 days and the time to 50% wound closure was compared among the four treatment groups. There was no significant difference in wound closure rates between BP-treated and saline-treated wounds or in the time to 50% wound closure between any treatments. Vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to saline-treated wounds closed significantly slower than did BP (P < 0.010), saline (P < 0.001), and vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to BP-treated wounds (P < 0.013). Our preliminary study indicates that the splinted wound model, with modifications, may be used to determine wound closure rates in bearded dragons. When compared with saline, BP did not have a significant effect on wound closure rates, while the vehicle alone delayed wound closure. Histologic analysis of experimentally created wounds throughout the wound healing process is needed to further evaluate the effects of these treatments on reptile dermal wound healing. PMID:25632675
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.
2009-01-01
A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profile derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical pro les can be related by a set of equations when the correlation distance of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches the random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from the random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data support these assumptions. However, the correlation distance sometimes becomes large, which might be an indication of precipitation. The cloud correlation distance is equivalent to the de-correlation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth [2000] when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toomey, M.; Vierling, L.
2004-12-01
Landsat TM and ASTER satellite data can be used to make physically-based estimates of equivalent water thickness (EWT) in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem. EWT is a measure of ecosystem water status and is an important parameter for studying ecosystem dynamics, fire potential, and biological responses to climate change. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectances were simulated using the LIBERTY and GeoSAIL leaf and canopy reflectance models; the results were used to calculate a NIR/SWIR ratio and a normalized NIR/SWIR index. Index-EWT relationships were modeled and inverted for EWT derivation. Landsat and ASTER were used to make reasonably accurate estimates of EWT (± 17.3% and 19.4% mean error, respectively); TM band 5 and ASTER band 4 produced the best results. Exclusion of plots with dense understory vegetation reduced point scatter substantially, especially with Landsat (r2 = 0.847, ±13%), indicating that this method can provide robust EWT quantification in homogeneous conifer ecosystems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberger, Bernhard
2016-01-01
Large-scale topography may be due to several causes, including (1) variations in crustal thickness and density structure, (2) oceanic lithosphere age differences, (3) subcrustal density variations in the continental lithosphere, and (4) convective flow in the mantle beneath the lithosphere. The last contribution in particular may change with time and be responsible for continental inundations; distinguishing between these contributions is therefore important for linking Earth's history to its observed geological record. As a step towards this goal, this paper aims at such distinction for the present-day topography: The approach taken is deriving a "model" topography due to contributions (3) and (4), along with a model geoid, using a geodynamic mantle flow model. Both lithosphere thickness and density anomalies beneath the lithosphere are inferred from seismic tomography. Density anomalies within the continental lithosphere are uncertain, because they are probably due to variations in composition and temperature, making a simple scaling from seismic to density anomalies inappropriate. Therefore, we test a number of different assumptions regarding these. As a reality check, model topography is compared, in terms of both correlation and amplitude ratio, to "residual" topography, which follows from observed topography after subtracting contributions (1) and (2). The model geoid is compared to observations as well. Comparatively good agreement is found if there is either an excess density of ≈0.2% in the lithosphere above ≈150 km depth, with anomalies below as inferred from tomography, or if the excess density is ≈0.4% in the entire lithosphere. Further, a good fit is found for viscosity ≈1020 Pas in the asthenosphere, increasing to ≈1023 Pas in the lower mantle above D″. Results are quite dependent on which tomography models they are based on; for some recent ones, topography correlation is ≈0.6, many smaller scale features are matched, topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberger, Bernhard
2016-04-01
Large-scale topography may be due to several causes, including (1) variations in crustal thickness and density structure, (2) oceanic lithosphere age differences, (3) subcrustal density variations in the continental lithosphere and (4) convective flow in the mantle beneath the lithosphere. The last contribution in particular may change with time and be responsible for continental inundations; distinguishing between these contributions is therefore important for linking Earth's history to its observed geological record. As a step towards this goal, this paper aims at such distinction for the present-day topography: the approach taken is deriving a `model' topography due to contributions (3) and (4), along with a model geoid, using a geodynamic mantle flow model. Both lithosphere thickness and density anomalies beneath the lithosphere are inferred from seismic tomography. Density anomalies within the continental lithosphere are uncertain, because they are probably due to variations in composition and temperature, making a simple scaling from seismic to density anomalies inappropriate. Therefore, we test a number of different assumptions regarding these. As a reality check, model topography is compared, in terms of both correlation and amplitude ratio, to `residual' topography, which follows from observed topography after subtracting contributions (1) and (2). The model geoid is compared to observations as well. Comparatively good agreement is found if there is either an excess density of ≈0.2 per cent in the lithosphere above ≈150 km depth, with anomalies below as inferred from tomography, or if the excess density is ≈0.4 per cent in the entire lithosphere. Further, a good fit is found for viscosity ≈1020 Pa s in the asthenosphere, increasing to ≈1023 Pa s in the lower mantle above D'. Results are quite dependent on which tomography models they are based on; for some recent ones, topography correlation is ≈0.6, many smaller scale features are matched
Meinhold, Lars; Clement, David; Tehei, M; Daniel, R. M.; Finney, J.L.; Smith, Jeremy C
2008-11-01
The temperature dependence of the dynamics of mesophilic and thermophilic dihydrofolate reductase is examined using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. It is demonstrated that the distribution of atomic displacement amplitudes can be derived from the elastic scattering data by assuming a (Weibull) functional form that resembles distributions seen in molecular dynamics simulations. The thermophilic enzyme has a significantly broader distribution than its mesophilic counterpart. Furthermore, although the rate of increase with temperature of the atomic mean-square displacements extracted from the dynamic structure factor is found to be comparable for both enzymes, the amplitudes are found to be slightly larger for the thermophilic enzyme. Therefore, these results imply that the thermophilic enzyme is the more flexible of the two.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diez, A.; Eisen, O.
2014-08-01
A preferred orientation of the anisotropic ice crystals influences the viscosity of the ice bulk and the dynamic behaviour of glaciers and ice sheets. Knowledge about the distribution of crystal anisotropy, to understand its contribution to ice dynamics, is mainly provided by crystal orientation fabric (COF) data from ice cores. However, the developed anisotropic fabric does not only influence the flow behaviour of ice, but also the propagation of seismic waves. Two effects are important: (i) sudden changes in COF lead to englacial reflections and (ii) the anisotropic fabric induces an angle dependency on the seismic velocities and, thus, also recorded traveltimes. A framework is presented here to connect COF data with the elasticity tensor to determine seismic velocities and reflection coefficients for cone and girdle fabrics from ice-core data. We connect the microscopic anisotropy of the crystals with the macroscopic anisotropy of the ice mass, observable with seismic methods. Elasticity tensors for different fabrics are calculated and used to investigate the influence of the anisotropic ice fabric on seismic velocities and reflection coefficients, englacially as well as for the ice-bed contact. Our work, therefore, provides a contribution to remotely determine the state of bulk ice anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diez, A.; Eisen, O.
2015-02-01
A preferred orientation of the anisotropic ice crystals influences the viscosity of the ice bulk and the dynamic behaviour of glaciers and ice sheets. Knowledge about the distribution of crystal anisotropy is mainly provided by crystal orientation fabric (COF) data from ice cores. However, the developed anisotropic fabric influences not only the flow behaviour of ice but also the propagation of seismic waves. Two effects are important: (i) sudden changes in COF lead to englacial reflections, and (ii) the anisotropic fabric induces an angle dependency on the seismic velocities and, thus, recorded travel times. A framework is presented here to connect COF data from ice cores with the elasticity tensor to determine seismic velocities and reflection coefficients for cone and girdle fabrics. We connect the microscopic anisotropy of the crystals with the macroscopic anisotropy of the ice mass, observable with seismic methods. Elasticity tensors for different fabrics are calculated and used to investigate the influence of the anisotropic ice fabric on seismic velocities and reflection coefficients, englacially as well as for the ice-bed contact. Hence, it is possible to remotely determine the bulk ice anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten
2014-12-01
Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.; Lan, C.; Mehrotra, S.
1972-01-01
The computer program used to determine the rigid and elastic stability derivatives presented in the summary report is listed in this appendix along with instructions for its use, sample input data and answers. This program represents the airplane at subsonic and supersonic speeds as (a) thin surface(s) (without dihedral) composed of discrete panels of constant pressure according to the method of Woodward for the aerodynamic effects and slender beam(s) for the structural effects. Given a set of input data, the computer program calculates an aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix and a structural influence coefficient matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Ryu, Jungho
2016-06-01
The effects of crystalline orientation on the ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films deposited on (111)-oriented Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using a modified spincoating method have been studied. The texture and the microstructure of the thick films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, respectively. The XRD results implied that the texture of the PZT films was sensitive to the pyrolysis conditions after spin-coating, but less dependent on the film's thickness. The texture had mainly a (111)-orientation for pyrolysis temperatures from 330 to 400 °C, and changes in the (100)- orientation occurred for pyrolysis temperatures at or above 450 °C after annealing at 650 °C for 5 min. The formation of a preferred texture could be explained by using the intermetallic phases and the internal stress energies between the substrate and the film. The ferroelectric properties of the PZT films fabricated by using this method have been found to be enhanced as compared to those of the PZT films fabricated by using the conventional spin-coating method and to be correlated to the microstructure of the film.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroeve, J. C.; Barrett, A. P.; Laxon, S.; Serreze, M. C.
2012-12-01
Confidence in climate models to provide reliable projections of future climate is largely built on how well they can reproduce observed features of recent climate. Although all models participating in the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) show declining Arctic sea ice over the period of observations, trends from most models remain smaller than observed. The ability of climate models to capture the observed variability in the sea ice extent depends in part on how well they are able to simulate the observed sea ice thickness distribution, since models with an overly thick initial ice cover tend to lose their summer ice cover later than models with initially thinner ice given the same climatic forcing. While long-term, basin-wide sea ice thickness data are not available for the Arctic Ocean, a combination of satellite data from ERS1/2, ICESat, and Cryosat, together with sea ice thicknesses derived from data from NASA's Operation IceBridge, provide a record of the evolution of ice thickness across the Arctic from the early 1990s to present. Submarine sonar data are used to extend the record further back in time but coverage is more limited. This data illustrates that the thickest ice is found north of the Canadian Archipelago, with thinner ice along the Eurasian side of the Arctic. We use the combined records of satellite- and air-borne sea ice thickness data from the early 1990s to present to evaluate how well CMIP5 models capture the spatial distribution of the mean winter ice thickness fields and how this relates to the observed summer trends in sea ice extent. Performance metrics are developed for models representations of observed sea ice extent and thickness. Metrics are used as a basis for conditioning probabalistic predictions of sea ice cover in the Arctic. Three approaches are used for conditioning predictions; 1) a selection of a subset of best performing models based on thickness and extent metrics; 2) a weighting of all models
Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1979-01-01
Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, K.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.
2010-12-01
Seismic coda is formed by superposed signals caused by scatterers. When heterogeneous condition is changed due to crustal deformations, coda-Q should vary reflecting the physical state if the materials. When the spatial scale of scatters in a medium becomes comparable with or smaller then the wavelength of seismic waves traveling through, it becomes very difficult to analyze the coda-wave quantitatively in terms of the location of scatterers, scattering mechanisms, etc. For inhomogeneous medium, it is natural to deal with stochastic methodologies to interpret seismic data. In this regard coda-Q has been frequently used as a stochastic measure of the medium in which seismic waves propagate. Since objectives of recent structural surveys include spatiotemporal or time-lapse variation of physical properties of underground medium, we propose a new geophysical monitoring method using the stochastic parameters if these parameters reflect changes of physical state of the medium. Several observed examples are reported that the relationship between the coda-Q and the number of earthquakes (e.g., Aki,2004). Aki (2004) said that the interrelation between the coda-Q and the number of earthquakes might be a key to understand the change in the state of crustal stress field. Here, we hypothesize that the change of the coda- Q reflects that of the stress magnitude and direction and try to focus on the relationship between the coda-Q and loaded stress which could cause earthquakes. The purpose of this study is to relate this relationship to non-stochastic quantity of the underground physical state, i.e., the stress to test our hypothesis. We employ two methods to achieve our objectives. One is Finite Difference Method (FDM), and the other is Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM). FDM is superior in the calculation of large field and saving calculation time. BIEM is superior in the free shape of boundaries. These two methods are applied to a numerical model of elastic body
Thick plate flexure. [for lithospheric models of Mars and earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comer, R. P.
1983-01-01
Analytical expressions are derived for the displacements and stresses due to loading of a floating, uniform, elastic plate of arbitrary thickness by a plane or axisymmetric harmonic load. The solution is exact except for assumptions of small strains and linear boundary conditions, and gravitation within the plate is neglected. For typical earth parameters its predictions are comparable to those of the usual thin plate theory frequently assumed in studies of lithospheric flexure, gravity and regional isostasy. Even for a very thick lithosphere, which may exist in some regions of Mars, the thin plate theory is a better approximation to the thick plate solution than the elastic half-space limit, except for short-wavelength loads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, K.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.
2009-12-01
Coda-wave is the summation of the scattered waves caused by scatterers such as cracks and medium inhomogeneities in the rock. Coda-wave is composed of P-wave, S-wave and variety of other waves. When the spatial scale of inhomogeneities become comparable with seismic wavelength, it becomes very difficult to analyze the coda-wave quantitatively in terms of the location of scatterers, scattering mechanisms, etc. As a consequence, it is very hard in general to apply a method of deterministic structural analysis to use coda waves. For inhomogeneous meda, it is natural to deal with stochastic methdologies to interpret seismic data. In this regard, coda-Q, i.e., parameters of attenuation or decay of energy scattered by medium inhomogeneities, has been frequently used as a stochastic measure of the medium in which seismic waves propagate. Since objectives of recent structural surveys include spatiotemporal or time-lapse variation of physical properties of underground medium, we would like to exploit the stochastic parameters if these parameters reflect any changes of physical state of the medium. The purpose of this study is to relate this parameter to non-stochastic propertyies of the underground property. In this study, we performed a simulation on seismic wave propagation in an elastic medium using a two-dimensional finite difference method. In our numerical calculatoins, seismic scatters were randomly placed in the simulation model. Coda-Q values are estimated using simulated waveforms for a set of various loading stresses that was applied to the model. Since the scatters are displaced due to loaded stresses, Coda-Q values are obtained against loading stresses and directions. In order to estimate the magnitude of stress and the direction of the principal stress, we used a variation of the envelope of coda-wave. Analysis of coda-wave revealed proportional relations between the loading stress and attenuation factor of the envelope. For the direction of the principal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deming, J. W.; Ewert, M.; Bowman, J. S.
2013-12-01
The brines of polar winter sea ice are inhabited by significant densities of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) that experience a range of extreme conditions depending on location in, and age of, the ice. Newly formed sea ice in winter expels microbes (and organic exudates) onto the surface of the ice, where they can be wicked into frost flowers or into freshly deposited snow, resulting in populations at the ice-air and air-snow interfaces characterized by even more extreme conditions. The influence of snow thickness over the ice on the fate of these microbes, and their potential for dispersal or mediation of exchanges with other components of the ice-snow system, is not well known. Examination of in situ temperature data from the Mass Balance Observatory (MBO) offshore of Barrow, Alaska, during the winter of 2011 allowed recognition of an hierarchy of fluctuation regimes in temperature and (by calculation) brine salinity, where the most stable conditions were encountered within the sea ice and the least stable highest in the snow cover, where temperature fluctuations were significantly more energetic as determined by an analysis of power spectral density. A prior analysis of snow thickness near the MBO had already revealed significant ablation events, potentially associated with bacterial mortality, that would have exposed the saline (microbe-rich) snow layer to wind-based dispersal. To better understand the survival of marine bacteria under these dynamic and extreme conditions, we conducted laboratory experiments with Arctic bacterial isolates, subjecting them to simulations of the freezing regimes documented at the MBS. The impact of the fluctuation regime was shown to be species-specific, with the organism of narrower temperature and salinity growth ranges suffering 30-50% mortality (which could be partially relieved by providing protection against salt-shock). This isolate, the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H (temperature range
On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.
1971-01-01
Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohan, Eduard; Naili, Salah; Lemaire, Thibault
2015-09-01
We propose a model of complex poroelastic media with periodic or locally periodic structures observed at microscopic and mesoscopic scales. Using a two-level homogenization procedure, we derive a model coherent with the Biot continuum, describing effective properties of such a hierarchically structured poroelastic medium. The effective material coefficients can be computed using characteristic responses of the micro- and mesostructures which are solutions of local problems imposed in representative volume elements describing the poroelastic medium at the two levels of heterogeneity. In the paper, we discus various combinations of the interface between the micro- and mesoscopic porosities, influence of the fluid compressibility, or solid incompressibility. Gradient of porosity is accounted for when dealing with locally periodic structures. Derived formulae for computing the poroelastic material coefficients characterize not only the steady-state responses with static fluid, but are relevant also for quasistatic problems. The model is applicable in geology, or in tissue biomechanics, in particular for modeling canalicular-lacunar porosity of bone which can be characterized at several levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tátrai, Erika; Ranganathan, Sudarshan; Ferencz, Mária; Debuc, Delia Cabrera; Somfai, Gábor Márk
2011-05-01
Purpose: To compare thickness measurements between Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and time-domain OCT images analyzed with a custom-built OCT retinal image analysis software (OCTRIMA). Methods: Macular mapping (MM) by StratusOCT and MM5 and MM6 scanning protocols by an RTVue-100 FD-OCT device are performed on 11 subjects with no retinal pathology. Retinal thickness (RT) and the thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) obtained with the MM6 protocol are compared for each early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS)-like region with corresponding results obtained with OCTRIMA. RT results are compared by analysis of variance with Dunnett post hoc test, while GCC results are compared by paired t-test. Results: A high correlation is obtained for the RT between OCTRIMA and MM5 and MM6 protocols. In all regions, the StratusOCT provide the lowest RT values (mean difference 43 +/- 8 μm compared to OCTRIMA, and 42 +/- 14 μm compared to RTVue MM6). All RTVue GCC measurements were significantly thicker (mean difference between 6 and 12 μm) than the GCC measurements of OCTRIMA. Conclusion: High correspondence of RT measurements is obtained not only for RT but also for the segmentation of intraretinal layers between FD-OCT and StratusOCT-derived OCTRIMA analysis. However, a correction factor is required to compensate for OCT-specific differences to make measurements more comparable to any available OCT device.
Frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion for interstratified dispersive elastic parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen
2016-08-01
The elastic impedance equation is extended to frequency dependent elastic impedance equation by taking partial derivative to frequency. With this equation as the forward solver, a practical frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion approach is presented to implement the estimation of the interstratified dispersive elastic parameters which makes full use of the frequency information of elastic impedances. Three main steps are included in this approach. Firstly, the elastic Bayesian inversion is implemented for the estimation of elastic impedances from different incident angle. Secondly, with those estimated elastic impedances, their variations are used to estimate P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity. Finally, with the prior elastic impedance and P-wave and S-wave velocity information, the frequency dependent elastic variation with incident angle inversion is presented for the estimation of the interstratified elastic parameters. With this approach, the interstratified elastic parameters rather than the interface information can be estimated, making easier the interpretation of frequency dependent seismic attributes. The model examples illustrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed method in P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion estimation. The field data example validates the possibility and efficiency in hydrocarbon indication of the estimated P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion.
Tátrai, Erika; Ranganathan, Sudarshan; Ferencz, Mária; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera; Somfai, Gábor Márk
2011-01-01
Purpose: To compare thickness measurements between Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and time-domain OCT images analyzed with a custom-built OCT retinal image analysis software (OCTRIMA). Methods: Macular mapping (MM) by StratusOCT and MM5 and MM6 scanning protocols by an RTVue-100 FD-OCT device are performed on 11 subjects with no retinal pathology. Retinal thickness (RT) and the thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) obtained with the MM6 protocol are compared for each early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS)-like region with corresponding results obtained with OCTRIMA. RT results are compared by analysis of variance with Dunnett post hoc test, while GCC results are compared by paired t-test. Results: A high correlation is obtained for the RT between OCTRIMA and MM5 and MM6 protocols. In all regions, the StratusOCT provide the lowest RT values (mean difference 43 ± 8 μm compared to OCTRIMA, and 42 ± 14 μm compared to RTVue MM6). All RTVue GCC measurements were significantly thicker (mean difference between 6 and 12 μm) than the GCC measurements of OCTRIMA. Conclusion: High correspondence of RT measurements is obtained not only for RT but also for the segmentation of intraretinal layers between FD-OCT and StratusOCT-derived OCTRIMA analysis. However, a correction factor is required to compensate for OCT-specific differences to make measurements more comparable to any available OCT device. PMID:21639572
McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise
2016-03-01
Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445
Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni
2016-01-01
Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871
Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni; Yue, Wang; Kaihong, Ji
2016-01-01
Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871
Viscous Effects in the Elastodynamics of Thick Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, A. R.; Tessler, A.
1997-01-01
A viscoelastic higher-order thick beam finite element formulation is extended to include elastodynamic deformations. The material constitutive law is a special differential form of the Maxwell solid. In the constitutive model, the elastic strains and the conjugate viscous strains are coupled through a system of first- order ordinary differential equations. The total time-dependent stress is the superposition of its elastic and viscous components. The elastodynamic equations of motion are derived from the virtual work principle. Computational examples are carried out for a thick orthotropic cantilevered beam. A quasi-static relaxation problem is employed as a validation test for the elastodynamic algorithm. The elastodynamic code is demonstrated by analyzing the damped vibrations of the beam which is deformed and then released to freely vibrate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, J.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.
2011-08-01
Regular aerosol observations based on well-calibrated instruments have led to a better understanding of the aerosol radiative budget on Earth. In recent years, these instruments have played an important role in the determination of the increase of anthropogenic aerosols by means of long-term studies. Only few investigations regarding long-term trends of aerosol optical characteristics (e.g. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and Ångström Exponent (ÅE)) have been derived from ground-based observations. This paper aims to derive and discuss linear trends of AOT (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) and ÅE (440-870 nm) using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) spectral observations. Additionally, temporal trends of Coarse- and Fine-mode dominant AOTs (CAOT and FAOT) have been estimated by applying an aerosol classification based on accurate ÅE and Ångström Exponent Difference (ÅED). In order to take into account the fact that cloud disturbance is having a significant influence on the trend analysis of aerosols, we introduce a weighted least squares regression depending on two weights: (1) monthly standard deviation and (2) Number of Observations (NO) per month. Temporal increase of FAOTs prevails over regions dominated by emerging economy or slash-burn agriculture in East Asia and South Africa. On the other hand, insignificant or negative trends for FAOTs are detected over Western Europe and North America. Over desert regions, both increase and decrease of CAOTs are observed depending on meteorological conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.
1972-01-01
The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey
2016-04-01
We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the
Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.
2001-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Elastic Solution of a Constrained FG Short Cylinder Under Axially Variable Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefi, Mohammad; Mohammad-Rezaei Bidgoli, Elyas
2016-06-01
Elastic analysis of a functionally graded thick cylinder under longitudinally variable mechanical loadings is studied in the present paper. The modulus of elasticity is graded along the thickness direction based on the power law function. The cylinder is subjected to variable pressure along the longitudinal direction. First order shear deformation theory is employed for description of a two dimensional displacement field. This is due to fully constrained boundary conditions of the cylinder. An analytical approach was proposed for solution of non homogenous system of differential equations and derivation of homogenous and particular solutions. This approach has capability to model different types of loading (constant, linear and other types) along the longitudinal direction. The effect of different constant and variable loads is considered on the elastic results of FG cylinder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, B. F.
2016-05-01
The equivalent water thickness (EWT, including mascon) solutions derived from the GRACE time-variable gravity (TVG) data are gaining recognition. We examine the physics of this practice from first principle in light of the non-uniqueness of 3-D gravitational inversion. We raise caveats on the indiscriminate utilization of the EWT solutions, because a surface EWT solution cannot represent an internal process in a physically meaningful way. In practice, EWT is often a good-enough representation of the reality as the predominant TVG signals do originate from surficial processes such as the water cycle, but it should be recognized that all internal geophysical processes leave signatures to different extent in the TVG observations. Treating all TVG as EWT will render physical quantities in general not directly resolvable by gravity to be misinterpreted. As the TVG observations span longer and improve in precision, the gravity itself, rather than EWT, should still be the quantity of choice. This is not just a problem of model uncertainties or numerical errors, but one in the understanding and treatment in the interest of the rigor of physics.
Models for elastic shells with incompatible strains
Lewicka, Marta; Mahadevan, L.; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
The three-dimensional shapes of thin lamina, such as leaves, flowers, feathers, wings, etc., are driven by the differential strain induced by the relative growth. The growth takes place through variations in the Riemannian metric given on the thin sheet as a function of location in the central plane and also across its thickness. The shape is then a consequence of elastic energy minimization on the frustrated geometrical object. Here, we provide a rigorous derivation of the asymptotic theories for shapes of residually strained thin lamina with non-trivial curvatures, i.e. growing elastic shells in both the weakly and strongly curved regimes, generalizing earlier results for the growth of nominally flat plates. The different theories are distinguished by the scaling of the mid-surface curvature relative to the inverse thickness and growth strain, and also allow us to generalize the classical Föppl–von Kármán energy to theories of prestrained shallow shells. PMID:24808750
Singular layers for transmission problems in thin shallow shell theory: Elastic junction case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merabet, Ismail; Chacha, D. A.; Nicaise, Serge
2010-05-01
In this Note we study two-dimensional transmission problems for the linear Koiter's model of an elastic multi-structure composed of two thin shallow shells with the same thickness ɛ≪1, in the elastic junction case. We suppose that the loading is singular, that the elastic coefficients are of different order on each part ( O(ɛ) and O(1) respectively) and that the elastic stiffness coefficient of the hinge is k=O(ɛ). The formal limit problem fails to give a solution satisfying all boundary and transmission conditions; it gives only the outer solution. We derive the inner limit problem which allows us to describe the transmission layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraru, Gheorghe; Mursa, Condrat
2006-12-01
In this book we present the basic concepts of the theory of elasticity: stress and deformation states (plane and three-dimensional) and generalized Hooke's law. We present a number of problems which have applications in strength analysis. The book includes a synthesis of the theory of elasticity and modern methods of applied mathematics. This book is designed for students, post graduate students and specialists in strength analysis. the book contains a number of appendixes which includes: elements of matrix-calculation, concepts of tensorial calculation, the Fourier transform, the notion of improper integrals,singular and hypersingular integrals, generalized functions, the Dirac Delta function
Brinkman, K
2009-01-08
Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).
Theory of epithelial elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož
2015-11-01
We propose an elastic theory of epithelial monolayers based on a two-dimensional discrete model of dropletlike cells characterized by differential surface tensions of their apical, basal, and lateral sides. We show that the effective tissue bending modulus depends on the apicobasal differential tension and changes sign at the transition from the flat to the fold morphology. We discuss three mechanisms that stabilize the finite-wavelength fold structures: Physical constraint on cell geometry, hard-core interaction between non-neighboring cells, and bending elasticity of the basement membrane. We show that the thickness of the monolayer changes along the waveform and thus needs to be considered as a variable rather than a parameter. Next we show that the coupling between the curvature and the thickness is governed by the apicobasal polarity and that the amplitude of thickness modulation along the waveform is proportional to the apicobasal differential tension. This suggests that intracellular stresses can be measured indirectly by observing easily measurable morphometric parameters. We also study the mechanics of three-dimensional structures with cylindrical symmetry.
Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi
2015-01-01
Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167
Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi
2015-01-01
Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167
Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía
2015-09-01
The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:26189005
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, S.; Cornet, C.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Thieuleux, F.
2012-05-01
Cloud optical thickness (COT) is one of the most important parameter for the characterization of cloud in the Earth radiative budget. Its retrieval strongly depends on instrument characteristics and on many cloud and environment factors. Using coincident observations from POLDER/PARASOL and MODIS/AQUA in the A-train constellation, geographical distributions and seasonal changes of COT are presented, in good agreement with general cloud climatology characteristics. Retrieval uncertainties mainly associated to sensor spatial resolution, cloud inhomogeneity and microphysical assumptions are also discussed. Comparisons of COT derived from POLDER and MODIS illustrate that as the primary factor, the sensor spatial resolution impacts COT retrievals and statistics through both cloud detection and sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity sensitivity. The uncertainties associated to cloud microphysics assumptions, namely cloud phase, particle size and shape, also impact significantly COT retrievals. For clouds with unambiguous cloud phase, strong correlations exist between the two COTs, with MODIS values comparable to POLDER ones for liquid clouds and MODIS values larger than POLDER ones for ice clouds. The large differences observed in ice phase cases are due to the use of different microphysical models in the two retrieval schemes. In cases when the two sensors disagree on cloud phase decision, COT retrieved assuming liquid phase are systematically larger. The angular biases related to specific observation geometries are also quantified and discussed in particular based on POLDER observations. Those exhibit a clear increase of COT with decreasing sun elevation and a decrease of COT in forward scattering directions due to sub-pixel inhomogeneities and shadowing effects, this especially for lower sun. It also demonstrates unrealistic COT variations in the rainbow and backward directions due to inappropriate cloud optical properties representation and an important increase of COT in the
Thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of an AT-cut quartz mesa resonator.
He, Huijing; Liu, Jinxi; Yang, Jiashi
2011-10-01
We study thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of an AT-cut quartz plate mesa resonator with stepped thickness. The equations of anisotropic elasticity are used with the omission of the small elastic constant c(56). An analytical solution is obtained using Fourier series from which the resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and energy trapping are calculated and examined. The solution shows that a mesa resonator exhibits strong energy trapping of thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes, and that the trapping is sensitive to some of the structural parameters of the resonator. PMID:21989869
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Abhisek; Sharma, Rashmi; Kumar, Raj; Basu, Sujit
2015-10-01
Sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius mission and sea surface temperature (SST) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for the years 2012-2014 are assimilated into the global Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITGCM). Investigation of the impact of assimilation of these two data sets on simulated mixed layer depth (MLD) and barrier layer thickness (BLT) forms the core of our study. The method of assimilation is the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter. Several assimilation runs are performed. Single-parameter assimilation, as well as joint assimilation, is conducted. To begin with, the model simulated SST and SSS are compared with independent Argo observations of these two parameters. Use of latitudinally varying error variances, which is a novel feature of our study, gives rise to the significant improvement in the simulation of SSS and SST. The best result occurs when joint assimilation is performed. Afterward, simulated MLD and BLT are compared with the same parameters derived from Argo observations forming an independent validation data set. Comparisons are performed both in temporal and spatial domains. Significant positive impact of assimilation is found in all the cases studied, and joint assimilation is found to outperform single-parameter assimilation in each of the cases considered. It is found that simulations of MLD and BLT improve up to 24% and 29%, respectively, when a joint assimilation of SSS and SST is carried out.
Stress intensity factors in a reinforced thick-walled cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.
1984-01-01
An elastic thick-walled cylinder containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced by an elastic membrane on its inner surface. The model is intended to simulate pressure vessels with cladding. The formulation of the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. Various special cases including that of a crack terminating at the cylinder-reinforcement interface are investigated and numerical examples are given. Results indicate that in the case of the crack touching the interface the crack surface displacement derivative is finite and consequently the stress state around the corresponding crack tip is bounded; and generally, for realistic values of the stiffness parameter, the effect of the reinforcement is not very significant.
Elastic constants of layers in isotropic laminates.
Heyliger, Paul R; Ledbetter, Hassel; Kim, Sudook; Reimanis, Ivar
2003-11-01
The individual laminae elastic constants in multilayer laminates composed of dissimilar isotropic layers were determined using ultrasonic-resonance spectroscopy and the linear theory of elasticity. Ultrasonic resonance allows one to measure the free-vibration response spectrum of a traction-free solid under periodic vibration. These frequencies depend on pointwise density, laminate dimensions, layer thickness, and layer elastic constants. Given a material with known mass but unknown constitution, this method allows one to extract the elastic constants and density of the constituent layers. This is accomplished by measuring the frequencies and then minimizing the differences between these and those calculated using the theory of elasticity for layered media to select the constants that best replicate the frequency-response spectrum. This approach is applied to a three-layer, unsymmetric laminate of WpCu, and very good agreement is found with the elastic constants of the two constituent materials. PMID:14649998
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Impact of Hydration Media on Ex Vivo Corneal Elasticity Measurements
Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noël M.
2014-01-01
Objectives To determine the effect of hydration media on ex vivo corneal elasticity. Methods Experiments were conducted on forty porcine eyes retrieved from an abattoir (10 eyes each for PBS, BSS, Optisol, 15% Dextran). The epithelium was removed and the cornea was excised with an intact scleral rim and placed in 20% Dextran overnight to restore its physiological thickness. For each hydration media, corneas were evenly divided into two groups: one with an intact scleral rim and the other without. Corneas were mounted onto a custom chamber and immersed in a hydration medium for elasticity testing. While in each medium, corneal elasticity measurements were performed for 2 hours: at 5-minute intervals for the first 30 minutes and then 15-minute intervals for the remaining 90 minutes. Elasticity testing was performed using nanoindentation with spherical indenters and Young’s modulus was calculated using the Hertz model. Thickness measurements were taken before and after elasticity testing. Results The percentage change in corneal thickness and elasticity was calculated for each hydration media group. BSS, PBS, and Optisol showed an increase in thickness and Young’s moduli for corneas with and without an intact scleral rim. 15% Dextran exhibited a dehydrating effect on corneal thickness and provided stable maintenance of corneal elasticity for both groups. Conclusions Hydration media affects the stability of corneal thickness and elasticity measurements over time. 15% Dextran was most effective in maintaining corneal hydration and elasticity, followed by Optisol. PMID:25603443
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming
2010-09-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.
Elastic guided waves in a coated spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Song; Shang, Xinchun; Pan, Ernian
2016-04-01
Elastic-guided wave inspection technique is important in non-destructive detection of coated shell structures. It is based on the wave propagation characteristics and various factors which influences it. In this paper, the dispersion equations of the spherical shell are derived by the decomposition approach in order to investigate the influences of the coating thickness and viscoelastic damping on the dispersion characteristics. The viscoelastic properties of the coating layer are modelled by the standard linear solid with two damping factors in the Láme constants. The dispersion equation of the coated shell is deduced by the transfer matrix method, and the dispersion and attenuation curves for different thicknesses and damping factors are calculated. The frequency range which is less affected by coating is identified by comparing the dispersion curves of the bare shell to those of the coated shell with different coating thicknesses. The effect of damping factors on the mode shapes is also examined. The present numerical results on the elastic guided wave in coated spherical shell would provide a theoretical basis for non-destructive inspections in layered spherical shell structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jandaghian, A. A.; Rahmani, O.
2016-03-01
In this study, free vibration analysis of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) nanobeams resting on a Pasternak foundation is investigated based on nonlocal theory and Timoshenko beam theory. Coupling effects between electric, magnetic, mechanical and thermal loading are considered to derive the equations of motion and distribution of electrical potential and magnetic potential along the thickness direction of the METE nanobeam. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained using the Hamilton principle and discretized via the differential quadrature method (DQM). Numerical results reveal the effects of the nonlocal parameter, magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loading, Winkler spring coefficients, Pasternak shear coefficients and height-to-length ratio on the vibration characteristics of METE nanobeams. It is observed that the natural frequency is dependent on the magnetic, electric, temperature, elastic medium, small-scale coefficient, and height-to-length ratio. These results are useful in the mechanical analysis and design of smart nanostructures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic materials.
Jia, Hongbao; Sun, Jinghua; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong
2012-10-10
Transmission measurements have been used to investigate the optical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ZrO(2) films synthesized by the solgel route. The optical constants of PVP/ZrO(2) films deposited on quartz substrates were determined by fitting transmission spectra in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm with the Tauc-Lorentz and Cody-Lorentz physical models. Combined with Urbach tail, both models give a good description of transmission data and reveal that refractive index of film slightly decreases with increasing PVP mass fraction. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements were also performed on PVP/ZrO(2) films to complement the thicknesses. The value of film thickness, including interface information from transmission spectra, is consistent with that result obtained from XRR, indicating that fitting transmission spectrum is a high reliable optical characterization. PMID:23052070
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
clearly needed. We also show how the combination of single-crystal elasticity data and volume compression data for diopside can be used to constrain the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus -- an important parameter for modeling seismic velocities in mantle assemblages. More broadly, the mineral elasticity data set can provide insights into the systematic variation of elastic properties that are of great importance in mineral physics and geophysics. We will examine the role of anisotropy, Vp/Vs variations, pressure derivatives of elastic moduli, and auxetic behavior to name a few properties of interest. The pioneering work on mineral elasticity carried out by Bob Liebermann has made an immense contribution to this important database, as well as providing strong scientific motivation for this work.
Surface sensitivity of elastic peak electron spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonski, A.
2016-08-01
New theoretical model describing the sampling depth of elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) has been proposed. Surface sensitivity of this technique can be generally identified with the maximum depth reached by trajectories of elastically backscattered electrons. A parameter called the penetration depth distribution function (PDDF) has been proposed for this description. Two further parameters are descendant from this definition: the mean penetration depth (MPD) and the information depth (ID). From the proposed theory, relatively simple analytical expressions describing the above parameters can be derived. Although the Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used to estimate the sampling depth of EPES, this approach may require a considerable amount of computations. In contrast, the analytical model proposed here (AN) is very fast and provides the parameters PDDF, MPD and ID that very well compare with results of MC simulations. As follows from detailed comparisons performed for four elements (Al, Ni, Pd and Au), the AN model practically reproduced complicated emission angle dependences of the MPDs and the IDs, correctly indicating numerous maximum and minimum positions. In the energy range from 200 eV to 5 keV, the averaged percentage differences between MPDs obtained from the MC and the AN models were close to 4%. An important conclusion resulting from the present studies refers to the procedure of determination of the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) from EPES. Frequently, the analyzed sample is deposited as a thin overlayer on a smooth substrate. From an analysis of the presently obtained IDs, is follows that 99% of trajectories in analyzed experimental configurations reaches depth not exceeding 2.39 in units of IMFP. Thus, one can postulate that a safe minimum thickness of an overlayer should be larger than about 3 IMFPs. For example, the minimum thickness of an Al overlayer shoud be about 8 nm at 5000 eV.
Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports
Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji
1995-11-01
An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
AFM Investigation of Liquid-Filled Polymer Microcapsules Elasticity.
Sarrazin, Baptiste; Tsapis, Nicolas; Mousnier, Ludivine; Taulier, Nicolas; Urbach, Wladimir; Guenoun, Patrick
2016-05-10
Elasticity of polymer microcapsules (MCs) filled with a liquid fluorinated core is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Accurately characterized spherical tips are employed to obtain the Young's moduli of MCs having four different shell thicknesses. We show that those moduli are effective ones because the samples are composites. The strong decrease of the effective MC elasticity (from 3.0 to 0.1 GPa) as the shell thickness decreases (from 200 to 10 nm) is analyzed using a novel numerical approach. This model describes the evolution of the elasticity of a coated half-space according to the contact radius, the thickness of the film, and the elastic moduli of bulk materials. This numerical model is consistent with the experimental data and allows simulating the elastic behavior of MCs at high frequencies (5 MHz). While the quasi-static elasticity of the MCs is found to be very dependent on the shell thickness, the high frequency (5 MHz) elastic behavior of the core leads to a stable behavior of the MCs (from 2.5 to 3 GPa according to the shell thickness). Finally, the effect of thermal annealing on the MCs elasticity is investigated. The Young's modulus is found to decrease because of the reduction of the shell thickness due to the loss of the polymer. PMID:27058449
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng
2016-09-01
A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.
Collis, Jon M; M Metzler, Adam
2014-01-01
The seafloor is considered to be a thin surface layer overlying an elastic half space. In addition to layers of this type being thin, they may also have shear wave speeds that can be small (order 100 m/s). Both the thin and low-shear properties, viewed as small parameters, can cause mathematical and numerical singularities to arise. Following the derivation presented by Gilbert [Geophys. J. Int. 133, 230-232 (1998)], the surface layer is approximated as a thick, finite-thickness interface, and modified ocean bottom fluid-solid interface conditions are derived as jump conditions across the interface. The resultant interface conditions are incorporated into a seismo-acoustic parabolic equation solution, and this interface-based solution is benchmarked against existing solutions and previously derived modified fluid-solid interface jump conditions. Accuracy quantification is given via dimensionless interface thickness parameters. PMID:24437751
Elastic properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jia-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhan, Zhao-Yao; Li, Tie; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Cheng-Yan
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets suspended over circular holes were measured by an atomic force microscope nanoindentation method. The continuum mechanic model was introduced to calculate the elastic modulus and pretension of BP nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14.3 to 34 nm. Elastic modulus of BP nanosheets declines with thickness, and the maximum value is 276 ± 32.4 GPa. Besides, the effective strain of BP ranges from 8 to 17% with a breaking strength of 25 GPa. Our results show that BP nanosheets serve as a promising candidate for flexible electronic applications.
Neutron elastic scatter for detection and identification of obscured objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomberg, Henry J.; Charatis, George; Wang, David; McEllistrem, Marcus R.
1993-11-01
Neutron Elastic Scatter (NES) may be used for non-destructively assaying materials for the presence of narcotics, explosives, or other contraband. The technology relies on the high penetrating power of neutrons to reach through varying thickness of shielding materials, and also on the large probabilities for elastic scattering of neutrons. Elastic scattering probabilities are the largest of all neutron induced events, exceeding any single non-elastic process typically by a factor of ten or more. Indeed, usually the elastic scattering probability is larger than the sum of all inelastic processes.
Applications of film thickness equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.
Figueroa-Vega, Nicté; Moreno-Frías, Carmen; Malacara, Juan Manuel
2015-01-01
Menopause, the cessation of menses, occurs with estrogens decline, low-grade inflammation, and impaired endothelial function, contributing to atherosclerotic risk. Intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early subclinical biomarker of atherosclerosis. Inflammation may have a role on symptoms: hot flashes, anxiety, and depressive mood, which also are related to endothelial dysfunction, increased IMT and cardiovascular risk. In this study we compared several inflammatory markers in early vs. late postmenopausal women and studied the association of IMT and symptoms with these markers in the full sample. In a cross-sectional design including 60 women (53.1±4.4 years old) at early and late postmenopause, we evaluated the expression of CD62L, ICAM-1, PSGL-1, CD11b, CD11c, and IL-8R on PBMC by flow cytometry. Serum soluble ICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sCD62E, sCD62P, CXCL8, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Plasma levels of microparticles (MPs) were determined by FACS. Finally, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. We observed that ICAM-1 expression by lymphocytes and serum sVCAM-1 levels were augmented at late postmenopause. Late postmenopause women with severe hot flashes had increased expression of CD62L and IL-8R on neutrophils. By multivariate analysis, the carotid IMT was strongly associated with membrane-bound TNF-α, CD11b expression, Annexin V+ CD3+ MPs, LPS-induced NO production, HDL-cholesterol and age. Depressive mood was associated negatively with PSGL-1 and positively with LPS-induced NO. Finally, Log(AMH) levels were associated with carotid IMT, IL-8R expression and time since menopause. IMT and depressive mood were the main clinical features related to vascular inflammation. Aging, hormonal changes and obesity were also related to endothelial dysfunction. These findings provide further evidence for a link between estrogen deficiency and low-grade inflammation in endothelial impairment in mature women. PMID:25993480
Hopf solitons and elastic rods
Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul; Speight, Martin
2011-03-15
Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Reza; Torabi, Jalal
2016-06-01
Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, the vibration behavior of circular double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs) resting on the Winkler- and Pasternak-type elastic foundations in a thermal environment is investigated. The governing equation is derived on the basis of Eringen's nonlocal elasticity and the classical plate theory (CLPT). The initial thermal loading is assumed to be due to a uniform temperature rise throughout the thickness direction. Using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method and periodic differential operators in radial and circumferential directions, respectively, the governing equation is discretized. DLGSs with clamped and simply-supported boundary conditions are studied and the influence of van der Waals (vdW) interaction forces is taken into account. In the numerical results, the effects of various parameters such as elastic medium coefficients, radius-to-thickness ratio, thermal loading and nonlocal parameter are examined on both in-phase and anti-phase natural frequencies. The results show that the thermal load and elastic foundation respectively decreases and increases the fundamental frequencies of DLGSs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rejith, Pullanhiyodan Puthiyaveedu; Vidya, Sukumariamma; Thomas, Jijimon Kumbukkattu
2015-12-01
Enhancement in critical current density (Jc) and flux pinning force (Fp) in superconducting thick films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) added with small quantities of nanopowders of HfO2, BaHfO3 and YBa2HfO5.5, coated on YBa2ZrO5.5 substrate by dip-coating technique is reported. Critical current density measurements were done over an applied magnetic field using standard four probe technique and the results are compared with that of pure YBCO. High critical current density (Jc) of ∼4.84 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field was obtained for 2 wt% of YBa2HfO5.5 added YBCO. A systematic increase in Jc observed in YBCO films prepared by the addition of nano HfO2, BaHfO3 and YBa2HfO5.5, attributed to the formation of a non-reacting 'derived secondary phase' YBa2HfO5.5 (YBHO) in the YBCO matrix. YBCO-YBa2HfO5.5 composite thick films have showed eightfold increases in Jc (3.29 MA/cm2) at 77 K and 0.4 T compared to pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ film (0.37 MA/cm2), while maintaining a high transition temperature (Tc). The development of effective pinning centers in nano particle added YBCO thick film have enhanced the flux pinning force from 1.8 GN/m3 for pure YBCO to a maximum value of 13.15 GN/m3 for YBCO-YBa2HfO5.5. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of secondary phase, derived in the matrix.
Kelp, G; Tätte, T; Pikker, S; Mändar, H; Rozhin, A G; Rauwel, P; Vanetsev, A S; Gerst, A; Merisalu, M; Mäeorg, U; Natali, M; Persson, I; Kessler, V G
2016-04-01
Tin oxide is considered to be one of the most promising semiconductor oxide materials for use as a gas sensor. However, a simple route for the controllable build-up of nanostructured, sufficiently pure and hierarchical SnO2 structures for gas sensor applications is still a challenge. In the current work, an aqueous SnO2 nanoparticulate precursor sol, which is free of organic contaminants and sorbed ions and is fully stable over time, was prepared in a highly reproducible manner from an alkoxide Sn(OR)4 just by mixing it with a large excess of pure neutral water. The precursor is formed as a separate liquid phase. The structure and purity of the precursor is revealed using XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, HRTEM imaging, FTIR, and XRF analysis. An unconventional approach for the estimation of the particle size based on the quantification of the Sn-Sn contacts in the structure was developed using EXAFS spectroscopy and verified using HRTEM. To construct sensors with a hierarchical 3D structure, we employed an unusual emulsification technique not involving any additives or surfactants, using simply the extraction of the liquid phase, water, with the help of dry butanol under ambient conditions. The originally generated crystalline but yet highly reactive nanoparticles form relatively uniform spheres through self-assembly and solidify instantly. The spheres floating in butanol were left to deposit on the surface of quartz plates bearing sputtered gold electrodes, producing ready-for-use gas sensors in the form of ca. 50 μm thick sphere-based-films. The films were dried for 24 h and calcined at 300 °C in air before use. The gas sensitivity of the structures was tested in the temperature range of 150-400 °C. The materials showed a very quickly emerging and reversible (20-30 times) increase in electrical conductivity as a response to exposure to air containing 100 ppm of H2 or CO and short (10 s) recovery times when the gas flow was stopped. PMID:26960813
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelp, G.; Tätte, T.; Pikker, S.; Mändar, H.; Rozhin, A. G.; Rauwel, P.; Vanetsev, A. S.; Gerst, A.; Merisalu, M.; Mäeorg, U.; Natali, M.; Persson, I.; Kessler, V. G.
2016-03-01
Tin oxide is considered to be one of the most promising semiconductor oxide materials for use as a gas sensor. However, a simple route for the controllable build-up of nanostructured, sufficiently pure and hierarchical SnO2 structures for gas sensor applications is still a challenge. In the current work, an aqueous SnO2 nanoparticulate precursor sol, which is free of organic contaminants and sorbed ions and is fully stable over time, was prepared in a highly reproducible manner from an alkoxide Sn(OR)4 just by mixing it with a large excess of pure neutral water. The precursor is formed as a separate liquid phase. The structure and purity of the precursor is revealed using XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, HRTEM imaging, FTIR, and XRF analysis. An unconventional approach for the estimation of the particle size based on the quantification of the Sn-Sn contacts in the structure was developed using EXAFS spectroscopy and verified using HRTEM. To construct sensors with a hierarchical 3D structure, we employed an unusual emulsification technique not involving any additives or surfactants, using simply the extraction of the liquid phase, water, with the help of dry butanol under ambient conditions. The originally generated crystalline but yet highly reactive nanoparticles form relatively uniform spheres through self-assembly and solidify instantly. The spheres floating in butanol were left to deposit on the surface of quartz plates bearing sputtered gold electrodes, producing ready-for-use gas sensors in the form of ca. 50 μm thick sphere-based-films. The films were dried for 24 h and calcined at 300 °C in air before use. The gas sensitivity of the structures was tested in the temperature range of 150-400 °C. The materials showed a very quickly emerging and reversible (20-30 times) increase in electrical conductivity as a response to exposure to air containing 100 ppm of H2 or CO and short (10 s) recovery times when the gas flow was stopped.Tin oxide is considered to be one of the
Yang, Zengtao; Hu, Yuantai; Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi
2009-01-01
We point out an implication of the Poynting effect in nonlinear elasticity. It is shown that, due to the Poynting effect, thickness-stretch vibration can be induced in a plate thickness-shear mode resonator of rotated Y-cut quartz when the thickness-shear deformation is no longer infinitesimal. This nonlinear coupling is particularly strong when the frequency of the thickness-stretch mode is twice the frequency of the thickness-shear mode. The induced thickness-stretch vibration affects the operating thickness-shear mode through Mathieu's equation. PMID:19213649
Reflection of acoustic wave from the elastic seabed with an overlying gassy poroelastic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Weiyun; Wang, Zhihua; Zhao, Kai; Chen, Guoxing; Li, Xiaojun
2015-10-01
Based on the multiphase poroelasticity theory, the reflection characteristics of an obliquely incident acoustic wave upon a plane interface between overlying water and a gassy marine sediment layer with underlying elastic solid seabed are investigated. The sandwiched gassy layer is modelled as a porous material with finite thickness, which is saturated by two compressible and viscous fluids (liquid and gas). The closed-form expression for the amplitude ratio of the reflected wave, called reflection coefficient, is derived theoretically according to the boundary conditions at the upper and lower interfaces in our proposed model. Using numerical calculation, the influences of layer thickness, incident angle, wave frequency and liquid saturation of sandwiched porous layer on the reflection coefficient are analysed, respectively. It is revealed that the reflection coefficient is closely associated with incident angle and sandwiched layer thickness. Moreover, in different frequency ranges, the dependence of the wave reflection characteristics on moisture (or gas) variations in the intermediate marine sediment layer is distinguishing.
Shape from equal thickness contours
Cong, G.; Parvin, B.
1998-05-10
A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.
Acoustic Radiation Force Elasticity Imaging in Diagnostic Ultrasound
Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Palmeri, Mark L.
2013-01-01
The development of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods has been the focus of intense research activity since the mid-1990s. In characterizing the mechanical properties of soft tissues, these techniques image an entirely new subset of tissue properties that cannot be derived with conventional ultrasound techniques. Clinically, tissue elasticity is known to be associated with pathological condition and with the ability to image these features in vivo, elasticity imaging methods may prove to be invaluable tools for the diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease. This review focuses on ultrasound-based elasticity imaging methods that generate an acoustic radiation force to induce tissue displacements. These methods can be performed non-invasively during routine exams to provide either qualitative or quantitative metrics of tissue elasticity. A brief overview of soft tissue mechanics relevant to elasticity imaging is provided, including a derivation of acoustic radiation force, and an overview of the various acoustic radiation force elasticity imaging methods. PMID:23549529
Ji, Hongfen; Ren, Wei; Wang, Lingyan; Shi, Peng; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoqing; Yao, Xi; Lau, Sien-Ting; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk
2011-01-01
Lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) ferroelectric thick films were prepared by a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) modified sol-gel method. The NBT thick films annealed from 500°C to 750°C exhibit a perovskite structure. The relationship between annealing temperature, thickness, and electrical properties of the thick films has been investigated. The dielectric constants and remnant polarizations of the thick films increase with annealing temperature. The electrical properties of the NBT films show strong thickness dependence. As thickness increases from 1.0 to 4.8 μm, the dielectric constant of the NBT films increases from 620 to 848, whereas the dielectric loss is nearly independent of the thickness. The remnant polarization of the NBT thick films also increases with increasing thickness. The leakage current density first decreases and then increases with film thickness. PMID:21989868
Ji, Hongfen; Ren, Wei; Wang, Lingyan; Shi, Peng; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoqing; Yao, Xi; Lau, Sien-Ting; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk
2011-10-01
Lead-free NaBi(0.5)TiO(3) (NBT) ferroelectric thick films were prepared by a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) modified sol-gel method. The NBT thick films annealed from 500°C to 750°C exhibit a perovskite structure. The relationship between annealing temperature, thickness, and electrical properties of the thick films has been investigated. The dielectric constants and remnant polarizations of the thick films increase with annealing temperature. The electrical properties of the NBT films show strong thickness dependence. As thickness increases from 1.0 to 4.8 μm, the dielectric constant of the NBT films increases from 620 to 848, whereas the dielectric loss is nearly independent of the thickness. The remnant polarization of the NBT thick films also increases with increasing thickness. The leakage current density first decreases and then increases with film thickness. PMID:21989868
Colloidal Particles that Rapidly Change Shape via Elastic Instabilities.
Epstein, Eric; Yoon, Jaewon; Madhukar, Amit; Hsia, K Jimmy; Braun, Paul V
2015-12-01
The fabrication and properties of pH-responsive colloidal particles are reported, which change shape rapidly (less than 200 ms), nearly independent of the diffusion of the pH altering species that trigger their actuation, and far more rapid than their Brownian motion. These particles are mechanically bistable, as revealed by their hysteretic shape response. Finite element analysis (FEA) shows that mechanical hysteresis and bistability derives from the colloids' spherical curvature. Mechanical characterization of the bilayered polymers comprising the colloidal particles shows that viscoelastic relaxation plays a non-negligible role in limiting the shape switching rate; however, energy landscapes obtained from FEA simulations suggest that by tuning the elastic moduli and thicknesses of the constituent polymer layers, microparticles of the size shown here may be fabricated to actuate on timescales as fast as 1 μs. PMID:26449185
Approximate method for controlling solid elastic waves by transformation media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jin; Chang, Zheng; Hu, Gengkai
2011-11-01
By idealizing a general mapping as a series of local affine ones, we derive approximately transformed material parameters necessary to control solid elastic waves within classical elasticity theory. The transformed elastic moduli are symmetric, and can be used with Navier's equation to manipulate elastic waves. It is shown numerically that the method can provide a powerful tool to control elastic waves in solids in case of high frequency or small material gradient. Potential applications can be anticipated in nondestructive testing, structure impact protection, petroleum exploration, and seismology.
Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.
1995-01-01
The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for
Sabatelli, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences), mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand. PMID:26999511
Sabatelli, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences), mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand. PMID:26999511
The influence of binder film thickness on the mechanical properties of binder films in tension.
Ononokpono, O E; Spring, M S
1988-02-01
The physicomechanical properties of films of different thicknesses, made from methylcellulose and gelatinized maize starch, have been studied in tension. There was a linear relation between film thickness and tensile strength, toughness, elastic resilence and elongation at fracture. Young's modulus increased with decreasing film thickness particularly with films with a thickness of less than 15 micron. PMID:2897444
Determination of Ice Crust Thickness from Flanking Cracks Along Ridges on Europa
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Billings, S. E.; Kattenhorn, S. A.
2002-01-01
We use equations describing the deflection of an elastic plate below a line load to estimate ice crust thickness below ridges on Europa. Using a range of elastic parameters, ice thickness is calculated to fall in the range 0.2 2.6 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Elasticity of a soap film junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elias, F.; Janiaud, E.; Bacri, J.-C.; Andreotti, B.
2014-03-01
We investigate the elasticity of an isolated, threefold junction of soap films (Plateau border), which displays static undulations when liquid rapidly flows into it. By analyzing the shape of the Plateau border (thickness R and transverse displacement) as a function of the liquid flow rate Q, we show experimentally and theoretically that the elasticity of the Plateau border is dominated by the bending of the soap films pulling on the Plateau border. In this asymptotic regime, the undulation wavelength obeys the scaling law ˜Q2 R-2 and the decay length ˜Q2 R-4.
Elastic modulus of viral nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yue; Ge, Zhibin; Fang, Jiyu
2008-09-01
We report an experimental and theoretical study of the radial elasticity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotubes. An atomic force microscope tip is used to apply small radial indentations to deform TMV nanotubes. The initial elastic response of TMV nanotubes can be described by finite-element analysis in 5nm indentation depths and Hertz theory in 1.5nm indentation depths. The derived radial Young’s modulus of TMV nanotubes is 0.92±0.15GPa from finite-element analysis and 1.0±0.2GPa from the Hertz model, which are comparable with the reported axial Young’s modulus of 1.1GPa [Falvo , Biophys. J. 72, 1396 (1997)].
Digital instability of a confined elastic meniscus.
Biggins, John S; Saintyves, Baudouin; Wei, Zhiyan; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Mahadevan, L
2013-07-30
Thin soft elastic layers serving as joints between relatively rigid bodies may function as sealants, thermal, electrical, or mechanical insulators, bearings, or adhesives. When such a joint is stressed, even though perfect adhesion is maintained, the exposed free meniscus in the thin elastic layer becomes unstable, leading to the formation of spatially periodic digits of air that invade the elastic layer, reminiscent of viscous fingering in a thin fluid layer. However, the elastic instability is reversible and rate-independent, disappearing when the joint is unstressed. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that the transition to the digital state is sudden (first-order), the wavelength and amplitude of the fingers are proportional to the thickness of the elastic layer, and the required separation to trigger the instability is inversely proportional to the in-plane dimension of the layer. Our study reveals the energetic origin of this instability and has implications for the strength of polymeric adhesives; it also suggests a method for patterning thin films reversibly with any arrangement of localized fingers in a digital elastic memory, which we confirm experimentally. PMID:23858433
Digital instability of a confined elastic meniscus
Biggins, John S.; Saintyves, Baudouin; Wei, Zhiyan; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Mahadevan, L.
2013-01-01
Thin soft elastic layers serving as joints between relatively rigid bodies may function as sealants, thermal, electrical, or mechanical insulators, bearings, or adhesives. When such a joint is stressed, even though perfect adhesion is maintained, the exposed free meniscus in the thin elastic layer becomes unstable, leading to the formation of spatially periodic digits of air that invade the elastic layer, reminiscent of viscous fingering in a thin fluid layer. However, the elastic instability is reversible and rate-independent, disappearing when the joint is unstressed. We use theory, experiments, and numerical simulations to show that the transition to the digital state is sudden (first-order), the wavelength and amplitude of the fingers are proportional to the thickness of the elastic layer, and the required separation to trigger the instability is inversely proportional to the in-plane dimension of the layer. Our study reveals the energetic origin of this instability and has implications for the strength of polymeric adhesives; it also suggests a method for patterning thin films reversibly with any arrangement of localized fingers in a digital elastic memory, which we confirm experimentally. PMID:23858433
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10-3- 1 fb range.
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1 fb range. PMID:27314712
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, A.; Annett, M. S.; Gendron, G.
2001-01-01
A {1,2}-order theory for laminated composite and sandwich plates is extended to include thermoelastic effects. The theory incorporates all three-dimensional strains and stresses. Mixed-field assumptions are introduced which include linear in-plane displacements, parabolic transverse displacement and shear strains, and a cubic distribution of the transverse normal stress. Least squares strain compatibility conditions and exact traction boundary conditions are enforced to yield higher polynomial degree distributions for the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress through the plate thickness. The principle of virtual work is used to derive a 10th-order system of equilibrium equations and associated Poisson boundary conditions. The predictive capability of the theory is demonstrated using a closed-form analytic solution for a simply-supported rectangular plate subjected to a linearly varying temperature field across the thickness. Several thin and moderately thick laminated composite and sandwich plates are analyzed. Numerical comparisons are made with corresponding solutions of the first-order shear deformation theory and three-dimensional elasticity theory. These results, which closely approximate the three-dimensional elasticity solutions, demonstrate that through - the - thickness deformations even in relatively thin and, especially in thick. composite and sandwich laminates can be significant under severe thermal gradients. The {1,2}-order kinematic assumptions insure an overall accurate theory that is in general superior and, in some cases, equivalent to the first-order theory.
Elastic internal flywheel gimbal
Rabenhorst, D.W.
1981-01-13
An elastic joint mounting and rotatably coupling a rotary inertial energy storage device or flywheel, to a shaft, the present gimbal structure reduces vibration and shock while allowing precession of the flywheel without the need for external gimbal mounts. The present elastic joint usually takes the form of an annular elastic member either integrally formed into the flywheel as a centermost segment thereof or attached to the flywheel or flywheel hub member at the center thereof, the rotary shaft then being mounted centrally to the elastic member.
Elastic ring deformation and pedestal contact status analysis of elastic ring squeeze film damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian
2015-06-01
This paper investigates the dynamic parametric characteristic of the elastic ring squeeze film damper (ERSFD). Firstly, the coupled oil film Reynolds equations and dynamic equations of an ERSFD supported rotor system are established. The finite differential method and numerical simulation are used to analyze the oil film pressure distribution, bearing capacity of ERSFD, oil film stiffness and damping characteristics during a vibration period. Then, based on the oil film pressure results, the deformation of elastic ring is revealed by the finite element method. Finally, pedestal contact status is analyzed according to the change of oil film thickness during a vibration period. The results reveal that the oil film pressure is sectionally continuous, the deformation of elastic ring is complex under the compression of inner and outer oil film, and different pedestal contacts occur in a vibration period. The level of nonlinearity of the bearing capacity, oil film stiffness and damping can be effectively lightened by application of the elastic ring.
Irrigation water demand: A meta-analysis of price elasticities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheierling, Susanne M.; Loomis, John B.; Young, Robert A.
2006-01-01
Metaregression models are estimated to investigate sources of variation in empirical estimates of the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Elasticity estimates are drawn from 24 studies reported in the United States since 1963, including mathematical programming, field experiments, and econometric studies. The mean price elasticity is 0.48. Long-run elasticities, those that are most useful for policy purposes, are likely larger than the mean estimate. Empirical results suggest that estimates may be more elastic if they are derived from mathematical programming or econometric studies and calculated at a higher irrigation water price. Less elastic estimates are found to be derived from models based on field experiments and in the presence of high-valued crops.
Influence of point defects on the elastic properties of mantle minerals and superhard materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yun-Yuan
Perfect crystals do not exist in nature. Defects in crystals modify their physical and chemical properties. Elastic properties relate stress to reversible strain and reflect the strength of interatomic bonding forces, which may be influenced by defects. This thesis advances our understanding of how defects influence the elastic properties of mantle minerals and superhard materials. In this study, I focused on defects associated with ferric iron (Fe 3+) and hydrogen (H) substitution in mantle minerals with application to interpreting the water content of the mantle from observed seismic wave speeds. High-pressure, single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out to determine the comparative compressibility of hydrous and anhydrous Fo90 wadsleyite, the dominant phase in Earth's mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth). The results show that hydration of wadsleyite with 1 wt.% H2O reduces its bulk modulus by 4.7%, but has no influence on its pressure derivative. Therefore, the reduction in bulk sound velocity of wadsleyite associated with H defects should persist to mantle pressures. In another study, the equation of state and electronic spin state of ferric iron (Fe3+) in Fe-Al-phase D were determined, pertaining to dense hydrous magnesium silicates that could potentially transport water into the lower mantle. The results show that Fe3+ undergoes a gradual spin transition between 40 and 65 GPa, causing pronounced bulk-elastic softening of Fe-Al phase D within the spin transition pressure interval. Results provide an alternative interpretation for small-scale seismic heterogeneities beneath the Pacific rim. In addition to mantle silicates, I have determined the influence of nitrogen defects on the elastic properties of natural and synthetic diamond. The measurements of elastic moduli of synthetic nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) and natural type Ia diamond feature a newly developed optical contact micrometer for ultrasonic sample thickness measurements
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
Postinstability models in elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1984-01-01
It is demonstrated that the instability caused by the failure of hyperbolicity in elasticity and associated with the problem of unpredictability in classical mechanics expresses the incompleteness of the original model of an elastic medium. The instability as well as the ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem are eliminated by reformulating the original model.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2014-10-21
Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587
Contribution of Elasticity in Slab Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourel, L.; Goes, S. D. B.; Morra, G.
2014-12-01
Previous studies have shown that plate rheology exerts a dominant control on the shape and velocity of subducting plates. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of the, often disregarded, role of elasticity in slab bending at the trench, using simple, yet fully dynamic, set of 2.5D models where an elastic, visco-elastic or visco-elasto-plastic plate subducts freely into a purely viscous mantle. We derive a scaling relationship between the bending radius of visco-elastic slabs and the Deborah number, De, which is the ratio of Maxwell time over deformation time. We show that De controls the ratio of elastically stored energy over viscously dissipated energy and find that at De exceeding 10-2, it requires substantially less energy to bend a visco-elastic slab to the same shape as a purely viscous slab with the same viscosity (90% less for De=0.1). Elastically stored energy at higher De facilitates slab unbending and hence favours retreating modes of subduction, while trench advance only occurs for some cases with De<10-2. We use our scaling relation to estimate apparent Deborah numbers, Deapp, from a global compilation of subduction-zone parameters. Values range from 10-3 to >1, where most zones have low Deapp<10-2, but a few young plates have Deapp>0.1. Slabs with Deapp ≤ 10-2 either have very low viscosities, ≤10 times mantle viscosity, or they may be yielding, in which case our apparent Deborah number may underestimate actual De by up to an order of magnitude. If a significant portion of the low Deapp slabs yield, then elastically stored energy may actually be important in quite a large number of subduction zones. Interestingly, increasing Deapp correlates with increasing proportion of larger seismic events (b-value) in both instrumental and historic catalogues, indicating that increased contribution of elasticity may facilitate rupture in larger, less frequent earthquakes.
Transparent material thickness measurements by Raman scattering.
Pershin, Sergey M; Lednev, Vasily N; Yulmetov, Renat N; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Bunkin, Alexey F
2015-07-01
An efficient and simple and convenient technique for transparent samples thickness measurements by Raman spectroscopy is suggested. The elastic scattering can be effectively used for sample border indication if the refractive index changes more than 3%, while it fails to detect an ice-to-water border of floating ice. The alternative is to use Raman spectroscopy to detect the interface between different layers of transparent materials. The difference between the Raman spectra of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and water, and between ice and liquid water were employed to locate the PMMA-water and ice-water interfaces, while elastic scattering was used for air-solid surface detection. This approach yields an error of 2%-5% indicating that it is promising to express a remote and noninvasive thickness measurement technique in field experiments. PMID:26193136
Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreiros, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Hernandez Vozmediano, Maria Angeles
We show that, as it happens in graphene, elastic deformations couple to the electronic degrees of freedom as pseudo gauge fields in Weyl semimetals. We derive the form of the elastic gauge fields in a tight-binding model hosting Weyl nodes and see that this vector electron-phonon coupling is chiral, providing an example of axial gauge fields in three dimensions. As an example of the new response functions that arise associated to these elastic gauge fields, we derive a non-zero phonon Hall viscosity for the neutral system at zero temperature. The axial nature of the fields provides a test of the chiral anomaly in high energy with three axial vector couplings. European Union structural funds and the Comunidad de Madrid MAD2D-CM Program (S2013/MIT-3007).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, M.
1985-01-01
Nonlinear strain displacement relations for three-dimensional elasticity are determined in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. To develop a two-dimensional theory, the displacements are expressed by trigonometric series representation through-the-thickness. The nonlinear strain-displacement relations are expanded into series which contain all first and second degree terms. In the series for the displacements only the first few terms are retained. Insertion of the expansions into the three-dimensional virtual work expression leads to nonlinear equations of equilibrium for laminated and thick plates and shells that include the effects of transverse shearing. Equations of equilibrium and buckling equations are derived for flat plates and cylindrical shells. The shell equations reduce to conventional transverse shearing shell equations when the effects of the trigonometric terms are omitted and to classical shell equations when the trigonometric terms are omitted and the shell is assumed to be thin.
Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-08-18
Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.
An improved plate theory of order (1,2) for thick composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, A.
1992-01-01
A new (1,2)-order theory is proposed for the linear elasto-static analysis of laminated composite plates. The basic assumptions are those concerning the distribution through the laminate thickness of the displacements, transverse shear strains and the transverse normal stress, with these quantities regarded as some weighted averages of their exact elasticity theory representations. The displacement expansions are linear for the inplane components and quadratic for the transverse component, whereas the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are respectively quadratic and cubic through the thickness. The main distinguishing feature of the theory is that all strain and stress components are expressed in terms of the assumed displacements prior to the application of a variational principle. This is accomplished by an a priori least-square compatibility requirement for the transverse strains and by requiring exact stress boundary conditions at the top and bottom plate surfaces. Equations of equilibrium and associated Poisson boundary conditions are derived from the virtual work principle. It is shown that the theory is particularly suited for finite element discretization as it requires simple C(sup 0)- and C(sup -1)-continuous displacement interpolation fields. Analytic solutions for the problem of cylindrical bending are derived and compared with the exact elasticity solutions and those of our earlier (1,2)-order theory based on the assumed displacements and transverse strains.
Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua
2015-01-01
Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049
Elastic properties of inhomogeneous media with chaotic structure.
Novikov, V V; Wojciechowski, K W; Belov, D V; Privalko, V P
2001-03-01
The elastic properties of an inhomogeneous medium with chaotic structure were derived within the framework of a fractal model using the iterative averaging approach. The predicted values of a critical index for the bulk elastic modulus and of the Poisson ratio in the vicinity of a percolation threshold were in fair agreement with the available experimental data for inhomogeneous composites. PMID:11308722
Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes
Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba
2004-11-15
We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.
Elastic membranes in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostwick, Joshua; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen
2014-11-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and DNA, have finer internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically ``confined'' by another object. We study the shape stability of elastic membranes in a ``confining'' box and introduce repulsive van der Waals forces to prevent the membrane from intersecting the wall. We aim to define the parameter space associated with mitochondria-like deformations. We compare the confined to `unconfined' solutions and show how the structure and stability of the membrane shapes changes with the system parameters.
Modeling and characterization of through-the-thickness properties of 3D woven composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartranft, Dru; Pravizi-Majidi, Azar; Chou, Tsu-Wei
1995-01-01
The through-the-thickness properties of three-dimensionally (3D) woven carbon/epoxy composites have been studied. The investigation aimed at the evaluation and development of test methodologies for the property characterization in the thickness direction, and the establishment of fiber architectures were studied: layer-to-layer Angle Interlock, through-the-thickness Orthogonal woven preform with surface pile was also designed and manufactured for the fabrication of tensile test coupons with integrated grips. All the preforms were infiltrated by the resin transfer molding technique. The microstructures of the composites were characterized along the warp and fill (weft) directions to determine the degree of yarn undulations, yarn cross-sectional shapes, and microstructural dimensions. These parameters were correlated to the fiber architecture. Specimens were designed and tested for the direct measurement of the through-the-thickness tensile, compressive and shear properties of the composites. Design optimization was conducted through the analysis of the stress fields within the specimen coupled with experimental verification. The experimentally-derived elastic properties in the thickness direction compared well with analytical predictions obtained from a volume averaging model.
Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.
Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J
2015-06-01
Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p < 0.001) and sector position (p < 0.001) in this population of children. The innermost annulus (closest to the edge of the optic disc) exhibited the thinnest choroid (mean 77 ± 16 μm) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 μm). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 μm) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 μm). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p < 0.001). RNFL thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p < 0.001), and showed differences in thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle
Athermal nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids.
Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar
2010-08-01
We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the elastic response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear elastic constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear elastic constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear elastic constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external strain near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the strain where the mechanical instability takes place. PMID:20866874
Athermal nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar
2010-08-01
We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the elastic response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear elastic constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear elastic constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear elastic constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external strain near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the strain where the mechanical instability takes place.
Mechanism of Resilin Elasticity
Qin, Guokui; Hu, Xiao; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.
2012-01-01
Resilin is critical in the flight and jumping systems of insects as a polymeric rubber-like protein with outstanding elasticity. However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for resilin elasticity remains undefined. Here we report the structure and function of resilin from Drosophila CG15920. A reversible beta-turn transition was identified in the peptide encoded by exon III and for full length resilin during energy input and release, features that correlate to the rapid deformation of resilin during functions in vivo. Micellar structures and nano-porous patterns formed after beta-turn structures were present via changes in either the thermal or mechanical inputs. A model is proposed to explain the super elasticity and energy conversion mechanisms of resilin, providing important insight into structure-function relationships for this protein. Further, this model offers a view of elastomeric proteins in general where beta-turn related structures serve as fundamental units of the structure and elasticity. PMID:22893127
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quilliet, Catherine; Quemeneur, François; Marmottant, Philippe; Imhof, Arnout; Pépin-Donat, Brigitte; van Blaaderen, Alfons
2010-03-01
The deflation of elastic spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of elastic parameters, some of them being quantitatively explained through simple calculations. This allows to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some biological objects. The extension of this process to other geometries allows to modelize vegetal objects such as the ultrafast trap of carnivorous plants.
Stress distribution in continuously heterogeneous thick laminated pressure vessels
Verijenko, V.E.; Adali, S.; Tabakov, P.Y.
1995-11-01
Stress analysis of multilayered pressure vessels possessing cylindrical anisotropy and under internal, external and interlaminar pressure is given. The special case when the axis of anisotropy coincides with the axis of symmetry Oz and the stresses do not vary long the generator is investigated. In this case there exists a plane of elastic symmetry normal to this axis at every point of the cylinder so that each layer may be considered s orthotropic. However, elastic properties can vary through the thickness of a layer. Exact elasticity solutions are obtained for both open-ended and closed-ended cylinders using a stress function approach. The method of solution allows the forces on the layer interfaces to be taken into account with relative ease. Numerical results are presented for thick cylinders with isotropic and orthotropic layers, and stress distributions across the thickness are given.
Elastic Collisions and Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Steven
2009-04-01
Elastic collisions are fascinating demonstrations of conservation principles. The mediating force must be conservative in an elastic collision. Truly elastic collisions take place only when the objects in collision do not touch, e.g. magnetic bumpers on low friction carts. This requires that we define a collision as a momentum transfer. Elastic collisions in 1-D can be solved in general and the implications are quite remarkable. For example, a heavy object moving initially towards a light object followed by an elastic collision results in a final velocity of the light object greater than either initial velocity. This is easily demonstrated with low friction carts. Gravitational elastic collisions involving a light spacecraft and an extremely massive body like a moon or planet can be approximated as 1-D collisions, such as the ``free return'' trajectory of Apollo 13 around the moon. The most fascinating gravitational collisions involve the gravitational slingshot effect used to boost spacecraft velocities. The maximum gravitational slingshot effect occurs when approaching a nearly 1-D collision, revealing that the spacecraft can be boosted to greater than twice the planet velocity, enabling the spacecraft to travel much further away from the Sun.
Crystal orientation dependence of elastic precursor strength in pentaerythritol tetranitrate
Dick, J.J.; Whitehead, M.C.; Martinez, A.R.
1993-08-01
Elastic precursor shock strengths were measured using VISAR instrumentation on pentaerythritol tetranitrate crystals 2.9 to 6.4 mm thick. Input shock strength was 1.2 GPa. A factor of 3 difference in elastic shock strength and a factor of 2 difference in critical resolved shear stress were observed depending on the crystal orientation. The order of increasing elastic shock strength was [100], [101],[110], and [001]. This is the same order as that obtained in our analysis for increasing steric hindrance to shear, indicating that the relative strength of different orientations of this molecular crystal under shock conditions is governed by steric hindrance to shear.
Anisotropic elasticity of DyScO3 substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janovská, Michaela; Sedlák, Petr; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal; Marton, Pavel; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Hlinka, Jiří
2012-09-01
The full elastic tensor of orthorhombic dysprosium scandate (DyScO3) at room temperature was determined by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). Measurements were performed on three 500 μm thick substrates with orientations (110), (100) and (001) in the Pbnm (a < b < c) setting. For this purpose, a modification of the RUS method was developed, enabling simultaneous processing of the resonant spectra of several platelet-shaped samples with different crystallographic orientations. The obtained results are compared with ab initio calculations and with elastic constants of other rare-earth scandates, and are used for discussion of the in-plane elasticity of the (110)-oriented substrate.
Experimental elastic and quasi-elastic angular distributions provide transfer probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lenske, H.
2016-05-01
Following a similar approach suggested recently to derive breakup probabilities [Phys. Rev. C 92, 054620 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054620], we present a simple method to derive transfer probabilities by measuring only elastic or quasi-elastic scattering for the system under investigation with the positive transfer Q values and a similar system with closed transfer channels. Our estimations and transfer data for the two-neutron stripping in the 18O+206Pb reaction are in a reasonable agreement.
Elasticity and Fluctuations of Frustrated Nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Doron; Sharon, Eran; Diamant, Haim
2016-06-01
We derive a reduced quasi-one-dimensional theory of geometrically frustrated elastic ribbons. Expressed in terms of geometric properties alone, it applies to ribbons over a wide range of scales, allowing the study of their elastic equilibrium, as well as thermal fluctuations. We use the theory to account for the twisted-to-helical transition of ribbons with spontaneous negative curvature and the effect of fluctuations on the corresponding critical exponents. The persistence length of such ribbons changes nonmonotonically with the ribbon's width, dropping to zero at the transition. This and other statistical properties qualitatively differ from those of nonfrustrated fluctuating filaments.
Elasticity of plagioclase feldspars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. Michael; Angel, Ross J.; Ross, Nancy L.
2016-02-01
Elastic properties are reported for eight plagioclase feldspars that span compositions from albite (NaSi3AlO8) to anorthite (CaSi2Al2O8). Surface acoustic wave velocities measured using Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering and compliance sums from high-pressure X-ray compression studies accurately determine all 21 components of the elasticity tensor for these triclinic minerals. The overall pattern of elasticity and the changes in individual elastic components with composition can be rationalized on the basis of the evolution of crystal structures and chemistry across this solid-solution join. All plagioclase feldspars have high elastic anisotropy; a* (the direction perpendicular to the b and c axes) is the softest direction by a factor of 3 in albite. From albite to anorthite the stiffness of this direction undergoes the greatest change, increasing twofold. Small discontinuities in the elastic components, inferred to occur between the three plagioclase phases with distinct symmetry (C1>¯, I1>¯, and P1>¯), appear consistent with the nature of the underlying conformation of the framework-linked tetrahedra and the associated structural changes. Measured body wave velocities of plagioclase-rich rocks, reported over the last five decades, are consistent with calculated Hill-averaged velocities using the current moduli. This confirms long-standing speculation that previously reported elastic moduli for plagioclase feldspars are systematically in error. The current results provide greater assurance that the seismic structure of the middle and lower crusts can be accurately estimated on the basis of specified mineral modes, chemistry, and fabric.
Wave propagation in a periodic elastic-piezoelectric axial-bending coupled beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Yin, Tao
2013-11-01
The wave propagation in a periodic elastic-piezoelectric axial-bending coupled beam is investigated in this paper by considering the mechanical-electrical coupling behavior. The strain energy and kinetic energy of each sub-cell are first formulated to extract the dynamic stiffness matrices, and then the compatibility and continuity conditions at the interface between the adjacent cells are utilized to derive the transfer matrix that governs the propagation of the wave along the periodic piezoelectric beam. By employing the Lyapunov exponent method, the dynamic behaviors of the periodic beam structure are evaluated with different base beam materials, dimension ratios, piezoelectric constants and elastic stiffness. The results indicate that regardless of the length ratio, there exist certain frequency intervals, where the width and magnitude of the prominent stop band of the aluminum beam with periodic piezoelectric patches are always broader and larger than those of the steel base system. In addition, as the thickness ratio decreases, the location of the stop band tends to move toward a higher frequency. Numerical studies also demonstrate that different piezoelectric constants and elastic stiffness affect the characteristics of wave propagation in completely different fashions. The investigation in the present study provides basic guidelines to design periodic elastic-piezoelectric laminate structures in order to achieve desired filtering characteristics. Perfect continuity exists, but no slip exists, at the interface. The transverse displacement w1(x,t) is the same for both layers. The rotary inertias and the shear deformations in both layers are negligible. The liner theories of elasticity and piezoelectricity are applicable. The applied voltage is uniform along the beam. Small amplitude vibration is present. The deformation of the elastic-piezoelectric two-layer beam component (sub-cell 1) of length l1 is illustrated in Fig. 2.In Fig. 2, u1b and up are the axial
Li, Tianlei; Lee, Jinhaeng; Gao, Yanfei
2009-01-01
Frictionless contact between an arbitrarily-shaped rigid indenter and an elastically anisotropic film-on-substrate system can be regarded as being superposed incrementally by a flat-ended punch contact, the shape and size of which are determined by the indenter shape, indentation depth (or applied load) and elastic properties of film and substrate. For typical nanoindentation applications, the indentation modulus can thus be approximated from the response of a circular contact with pressure of the form of [1 - (r/a){sup 2}]{sup -1/2}, where r is the radial coordinate and a is the contact radius. The surface-displacement Green's function for elastically anisotropic film-on-substrate system is derived in closed-form by using the Stroh formalism and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. The predicted dependence of the effective modulus on the ratio of film thickness to contact radius agrees well with detailed finite element simulations. Implications in evaluating film modulus by nanoindentation technique are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangodagamage, C.; Rowland, J. C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Brumby, S. P.; Liljedahl, A.; Wainwright, H. M.; Sloan, V. L.; Altmann, G.; Skurikhin, A. N.; Shelef, E.; Wilson, C. J.; Dafflon, B.; Peterson, J.; Ulrich, C.; Gibbs, A.; Tweedie, C. E.; Painter, S. L.; Wullschleger, S. D.
2014-12-01
Landscape attributes that vary with micro-topography, such as active layer thickness (ALT) in ice-wedge polygon ground, are labor-intensive to document in the field at large spatial extents, necessitating remotely sensed methods. Robust techniques to estimate ALT over large areas would improve understanding of coupled dynamics between permafrost, hydrology and landsurface processes, and improve simulations of the rate and timing of release of soil carbon from permafrost settings. In particular, it would provide critically needed data to parameterize and initialize soil property information in permafrost models and evaluate model predictions for large, complex domains. In this work, we demonstrate a new data fusion approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating cm scale ALT in a 5 km2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We used topographic (directed distance, slope, wavelet-curvature) and spectral (NDVI) metrics derived from multisensor data obtained from LiDAR and WorldView-2 platforms to develop a simple data fusion algorithm using statistical machine learning. This algorithm was used to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. A comparison of the estimates with ground-based measurements documented the accuracy (±4.4 cm, r2=0.76) of the approach. Our findings suggest that the broad climatic variability associated with warming air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, but the smaller-scale variability could be controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic variables. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping subsurface properties over large areas from readily available remote sensing data. Methodology of Mapping and Characterization Polygons:We convolve LiDAR elevations with multiscale wavelets and objectively chose appropriate scales to map interconnected troughs of high- and low-centered polygons. For the ice wedges where LiDAR surface expressions (troughs) are not well developed, we used
Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D; Metzler, Adam M; Preston, Kimberly S
2016-05-01
Sound propagation predictions for ice-covered ocean acoustic environments do not match observational data: received levels in nature are less than expected, suggesting that the effects of the ice are substantial. Effects due to elasticity in overlying ice can be significant enough that low-shear approximations, such as effective complex density treatments, may not be appropriate. Building on recent elastic seafloor modeling developments, a range-dependent parabolic equation solution that treats the ice as an elastic medium is presented. The solution is benchmarked against a derived elastic normal mode solution for range-independent underwater acoustic propagation. Results from both solutions accurately predict plate flexural modes that propagate in the ice layer, as well as Scholte interface waves that propagate at the boundary between the water and the seafloor. The parabolic equation solution is used to model a scenario with range-dependent ice thickness and a water sound speed profile similar to those observed during the 2009 Ice Exercise (ICEX) in the Beaufort Sea. PMID:27250161
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus
2015-07-01
We discuss elastic instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking elastic transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T3 law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical elasticity is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the strain tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors.
Norris, Andrew N.
2014-01-01
We consider a periodic lattice structure in d=2 or 3 dimensions with unit cell comprising Z thin elastic members emanating from a similarly situated central node. A general theoretical approach provides an algebraic formula for the effective elasticity of such frameworks. The method yields the effective cubic elastic constants for three-dimensional space-filling lattices with Z=4, 6, 8, 12 and 14, the last being the ‘stiffest’ lattice proposed by Gurtner & Durand (Gurtner & Durand 2014 Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20130611. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0611)). The analytical expressions provide explicit formulae for the effective properties of pentamode materials, both isotropic and anisotropic, obtained from the general formulation in the stretch-dominated limit for Z=d+1. PMID:25484608
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017
Elastic membranes in confinement.
Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H
2016-07-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. PMID:27440257
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus
2015-07-10
We discuss elastic instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking elastic transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T(3) law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical elasticity is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the strain tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors. PMID:26207483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Dong-Yeon; Yoon, Euijoon; Park, Joon-Shik; Kim, Tae-Song; Kang, Sung-Goon; Ha, Jowoong
2003-09-01
The pyroelectric and dielectric properties of Pb(Zr0.3,Ti0.7)O3 (PZT) thin films are systematically investigated as functions of film thickness ranging from 0.3 to 1 μm. For better detectivity of the film, high pyroelectric coefficient, low dielectric coefficient and loss tangent are needed. It can be achieved by highly textured (111) preferred orientation and dense microstructure. To minimize the unwanted preferred orientation with increasing film thickness, a step-by-step annealing process and highly textured (111) Pt bottom electrodes are applied. With increasing film thickness, the squareness of polarization hysteresis loops and remanent polarization values are maximized. Although there is a slight variation of preferred orientation with film thickness, dielectric properties are markedly changed due to microstructural variation. Because of the large improvement of loss tangent, the figure of merit is improved with film thickness. It is maximized at a thickness of 1 μm. The maximum pyroelectric coefficient measured by the Byer-Roundy method is 38 nC/cm2K.
Elastic fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear
Kawase, Tetsuaki; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko
2012-01-01
Adaptation to constant vibration (acoustic oscillation) is likely to confer a specific morphology at the bone–tendon and bone–ligament interfaces at the ear ossicles, which therefore represent an exciting target of enthesis research. We histologically examined (i) the bone attachments of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and (ii) the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint obtained from seven elderly donated cadavers. Notably, both aldehyde-fuchsin and elastic-Masson staining demonstrated that the major fibrous component of the entheses was not collagen fibers but mature elastic fibers. The positive controls for elastic fiber staining were the arterial wall elastic laminae included in the temporal bone materials. The elastic fibers were inserted deeply into the type II collagen-poor fibrocartilage covering the ear ossicles. The muscle tendons were composed of an outer thin layer of collagen fibers and an inner thick core of elastic fibers near the malleus or stapes. In the unique elastic fiber-mediated entheses, hyaluronan, versican and fibronectin were expressed strongly along the elastic fibers. The hyaluronan seemed to act as a friction-reducing lubricant for the elastic fibers. Aggrecan was labeled strongly in a disk- or plica-like fibrous mass on the inner side of the elastic fiber-rich ligament, possibly due to compression stress from the ligament. Tenascin-c was not evident in the entheses. The elastic fiber-mediated entheses appeared resistant to tissue destruction in an environment exposed to constant vibration. The morphology was unlikely to be the result of age-related degeneration. PMID:22803514
Effective Elastic Modulus of Film-on-Substrate Systems under Normal and Tangential Contact
Gao, Yanfei; Xu, Haitao; Oliver, Warren C.; Pharr, George Mathews
2008-01-01
The load and depth sensing indentation method has been widely used to characterize the mechanical properties of the thin film-substrate systems. The measurement accuracy critically depends on our knowledge of the effective elastic modulus of this heterogeneous system. In this work, based on the exact solution of the Green's function in the Fourier space, we have derived the analytical relationship between the surface tractions and displacements, which depends on the ratio of the film thickness to contact size and the generalized Dundurs parameters that describe the modulus mismatch between the film and substrate materials. The use of the cumulative superposition method shows that the contact stiffness of any axisymmetric contact is the same as that of a flat-ended punch contact. Therefore, assuming the surface traction of the form of [1-(r/a)2]-1/2 with radial coordinate r and contact size a, we can obtain an approximate representation of the effective elastic moduli, which agree extremely well with the finite element simulations for both normal and tangential contacts. Motivated by a recently developed multidimensional nanocontact system, we also explore the dependence of the ratio of tangential to normal contact stiffness on the ratio of film thickness to contact radius and the Dundurs parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibi, M.; Ribe, N. M.; Bonn, Daniel
2007-10-01
A rope falling onto a solid surface typically forms a series of regular coils. Here, we study this phenomenon using laboratory experiments (with cotton threads and softened spaghetti) and an asymptotic “slender-rope” numerical model. The excellent agreement between the two with no adjustable parameters allows us to determine a complete phase diagram for elastic coiling comprising three basic regimes involving different force balances (elastic, gravitational, and inertial) together with resonant “whirling string” and “whirling shaft” eigenmodes in the inertial regime.
Corneal thickness in glaucoma.
De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J
1976-02-01
The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273
Thickness mode EMIS of constrained proof-mass piezoelectric wafer active sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin
2015-11-01
This paper addresses theoretical and experimental work on thickness-mode electromechanical (E/M) impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of proof-mass piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PMPWAS). The proof-mass (PM) concept was used to develop a new method for tuning the ultrasonic wave modes and for relatively high frequency local modal sensing by the PM affixed on PWAS. In order to develop the theoretical basis of the PMPWAS tuning concept, analytical analyses were conducted by applying the resonator theory to derive the EMIS of a PWAS constrained on one and both surfaces by isotropic elastic materials. The normalized thickness-mode shapes were obtained for the normal mode expansion (NME) method to eventually predict the thickness-mode EMIS using the correlation between PMPWAS and the structural dynamic properties of the substrate. Proof-masses of different sizes and materials were used to tune the system resonance towards an optimal frequency point. The results were verified by coupled-field finite element analyses (CF-FEA) and experimental results. An application of the tuning effect of PM on the standing wave modes was discussed as the increase in PM thickness shifts the excitation frequency of the wave mode toward the surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode.
Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab
1998-02-16
The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.
Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system
Todorović, D. M.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.
2013-12-07
Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 μm.
Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todorović, D. M.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.
2013-12-01
Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 μm.
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.
2013-02-01
Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.
Development in the elastic analysis of laminated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, A. J. M.
1989-05-01
Some developments in three dimensional analyses of stress and deformation in laminated plates are described. They are based on work by Michell published in 1900. For isotropic and homogeneous plates, Michell obtained a number of classes of exact solutions of the three dimensional elasticity equations which satisfy zero traction conditions on the lateral surfaces of a moderately thick plate. Firstly, for laminates in which the laminae are different isotropic materials, generalizations of Michell's solutions are outlined. Then a more general problem of extending Michell's solutions to materials in which the elastic moduli vary through the plate thickness is considered. The results are then recovered in a direct and simple manner by specializing to the case in which the elastic moduli are piecewise constant through the thickness. For advanced composite materials applications, the main interest is in laminates whose laminae are anisotropic. Michell's solutions cannot be generalized, in closed form, to anisotropic elastic plates. However, the concept of using solutions of the two dimensional thin plate equations to generate relevant solutions of the three dimensional elasticity equations remains valid, although the three dimensional solutions can no longer be presented in closed form. Recent developments along these lines are outlined.
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gluck, Paul
2010-01-01
There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Warren B.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the elasticity of demand, and shows that geometrically, it may be interpreted as the ratio of two simple distances along the tangent line: the distance from the point on the curve to the x-intercept to the distance from the point on the curve to the y-intercept. It also shows that total revenue is maximized at the transition…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare
2010-01-01
Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…
Elastically tailored composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Elastically tailored composite structures using out-of-autoclave processes. Several unsymetric autoclave-cured and electron-beam-cured composite laminates are compared. Cantilevered beam (unbalanced/asymetric laminate) used to demonstrate bend-twist coupling effects. Photographed in building 1145, photographic studio.
Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.
Renormalization of curvature elastic constants for elastic and fluid membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ami, S.; Kleinert, H.
1987-02-01
We study the fluctuations of membranes with area and curvature elasticity and calculate the renormalization of the curvature elastic constants due to thermal fluctuations. For the mean curvature elastic constant the result is the same as obtained previously for “ideal membranes” which resist only to curvature deformations. The renormalization of the gaussian curvature, on the other hand, depends on the elastic contants. In an incompressible membrane, it is five times weaker than in an ideal membrane.
Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.
1995-01-01
A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.
Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.
1995-09-19
A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.
Education and "Thick" Epistemology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kotzee, Ben
2011-01-01
In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…
Elastomer modulus and dielectric strength scaling with sample thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Kent
2015-04-01
Material characteristics such as adhesion and dielectric strength have well recognized dependencies on material thickness. There is disagreement, however, on the scale: the long held dictum that dielectric strength is inversely proportional to the square root of sample thickness has been shown to not always hold true for all materials, nor for all possible thickness regions. In D-EAP applications some studies have postulated a "critical thickness" below which properties show significantly less thickness dependency. While a great deal of data is available for dielectric strength, other properties are not nearly as well documented as samples get thinner. In particular, elastic modulus has been found to increase and elongation to decrease as sample thickness is lowered. This trend can be observed experimentally, but has been rarely reported and certainly does not appear in typical suppliers' product data sheets. Both published and newly generated data were used to study properties such as elastic modulus and dielectric strength vs sample thickness in silicone elastomers. Several theories are examined to explain such behavior, such as the impact of defect size and of common (but not well reported) concentration gradients that occur during elastomer curing that create micron-sized layers at the upper and lower interfaces with divergent properties to the bulk material. As Dielectric Electro-Active Polymer applications strive to lower and lower material thickness, changing mechanical properties must be recognized and taken into consideration for accurate electro-mechanical predictions of performance.
Elastic turbulence in von Karman swirling flow between two disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burghelea, Teodor; Segre, Enrico; Steinberg, Victor
2007-05-01
We discuss the role of elastic stress in the statistical properties of elastic turbulence, realized by the flow of a polymer solution between two disks. The dynamics of the elastic stress are analogous to those of a small-scale fast dynamo in magnetohydrodynamics, and to those of the turbulent advection of a passive scalar in the Batchelor regime. Both systems are theoretically studied in the literature, and this analogy is exploited to explain the statistical properties, the flow structure, and the scaling observed experimentally. The following features of elastic turbulence are confirmed experimentally and presented in this paper: (i) The rms of the vorticity (and that of velocity gradients) saturates in the bulk of the elastic turbulent flow, leading to the saturation of the elastic stress. (ii) The rms of the velocity gradients (and thus the elastic stress) grows linearly with Wi in the boundary layer, near the driving disk. The rms of the velocity gradients in the boundary layer is one to two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. (iii) The PDFs of the injected power at either constant angular speed or torque show skewness and exponential tails, which both indicate intermittent statistical behavior. Also the PDFs of the normalized accelerations, which can be related to the statistics of velocity gradients via the Taylor hypothesis, exhibit well-pronounced exponential tails. (iv) A new length scale, i.e., the thickness of the boundary layer, as measured from the profile of the rms of the velocity gradient, is found to be relevant for the boundary layer of the elastic stresses. The velocity boundary layer just reflects some of the features of the boundary layer of the elastic stresses (rms of the velocity gradients). This measured length scale is much smaller than the vessel size. (v) The scaling of the structure functions of the vorticity, velocity gradients, and injected power is found to be the same as that of a passive scalar advected by an elastic
On contact problems of elasticity theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalandiya, A. I.
1986-01-01
Certain contact problems are reviewed in the two-dimensional theory of elasticity when round bodies touch without friction along most of the boundary and, therefore, Herz' hypothesis on the smallness of the contact area cannot be used. Fundamental equations were derived coinciding externally with the equation in the theory of a finite-span wing with unkown parameter. These equations are solved using Multhopp's well-known technique, and numerical calculations are performed in specific examples.
Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team
2014-03-01
Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.
Single-crystal Elasticity of Wadsleyite With 1.7 wt % H 2 O to 11 GPa by Brillouin Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, L.; Mao, Z.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Jiang, F.; Smyth, J. R.; Holl, C. M.; Duffy, T. S.
2008-12-01
Polymorphs of olivine have the greatest water storage capacity among all the nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (e.g. Bolfan-Casanova et al., 2000). Wadsleyite (β-Mg 2SiO 4) is able to contain up to 3.3 wt% H2O (Smyth et al., 1987). This phase is considered as the dominate mineral in the mantle from 410 km to 520 km depth. A previous study showed that water decreases the elasticity of wadsleyite strongly at ambient conditions (Mao et al., 2008), but has no detectable effect on the pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli of wadsleyite containing 0.84 wt% H2O (Mao et al., in press). The effect of H 2O content on high-pressure elasticity has not been investigated for samples with larger water contents. In this study, we performed high-pressure Brillouin measurements on a single crystal of wadsleyite with 1.7 wt% H2O to obtain the elastic tensor, hence the aggregate elastic moduli and their pressure derivatives. Two crystals were cut and polished into 30~40μm-thick platelets. Single- crystal x-ray diffraction was conducted at x17C of Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the orientations of the two platelets. The samples were measured at 7 pressures steps up to 11 GPa. For each platelet, 19 spectra were collected at 10° intervals at each pressure step in order to cover a range of 180° degrees. Preliminary result shows that the elastic constants, Cij, have the similar trends as anhydrous and 0.84 wt%-H2O wadsleyite while increasing pressure. Pressure derivatives of bulk and shear moduli are 4.1 (2) and 1.3 (1) for 1.7 wt%-H2O wadsleyite, which are not different within uncertainty from those of anhydrous and 0.84 wt%-H2O wadsleyite. (Zha et al., 1997; Mao et al., in press). This suggests that the pressure derivatives of elastic moduli do not change with water content at least up to 1.7 wt% H2O. It further confirms the previous inference that at least 1 wt% H2O in wadsleyite at 410 km is required for a pyrolite composition (60 vol% olivine) to match
Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, S. N.
1986-01-01
An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritake, Hiroshi; Seike, Tadaaki; Toda, Kohji
1999-05-01
An elastic wave delay line with a glass plate as a propagation medium is investigated in relations to acoustooptic effects of nematic liquid crystals. A nematic liquid crystal cell is mounted on the central region of a glass plate for elastic wave propagation. The elastic wave propagating in the glass plate interacts with the liquid crystal in a wide frequency range. Two types of periodical domain structures are observed in the nematic liquid crystal cell under the existence of the elastic wave. One exists in both homeotropically and homogeneously aligned cells, and depends not on the kind of liquid crystal but on the carrier frequency of the elastic wave. The other is recognized only in homogeneously aligned cells and depends on the layer thickness and the kind of liquid crystal, but not on the carrier frequency of the elastic wave. Both periodical domain structures are induced by the elastic wave propagating in the glass plate.
Wave propagation in polar elastic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, W. A.; Green, E. Rhian
1994-08-01
This paper examines the passband and stop band regions for time-periodic waves travelling normal to the layering through an infinite medium composed of alternating layers of two different elastic materials. The materials are such that the elastic energy density is a function of the strains and the strain gradients and, in consequence, a deformation gives rise to both the usual Cauchy stress and to a hyperstress or couple-stress. Such materials can exhibit a non-uniform wrinkling deformation at a free surface and similar non-uniform deformations can arise at interfaces between two different media. The presence of the strain derivatives in the elastic energy function introduces a natural length scale l into the material and the depth of the non-uniform deformation is of the order of this length scale. This model can give rise to enhanced elastic response when the layer depths are comparable with l and it is of interest as a possible mathematical model of nanolayered structures. The model also includes a non-standard set of continuity conditions at material interfaces. These arise from the elastic interaction energy of the two materials at the boundary and their effect is localized in a boundary layer whose depth is of order l. The periodic layering gives rise to displacements which are periodic with a frequency-dependent wave number, the Floquet wave number. Dispersion curves, relating circular frequency to the Floquet wave number, are obtained for different ratios of the layer depth to the natural length l and for different values of the elastic interface coupling parameters.
Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.
1989-01-01
A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.
Attenuation of Elastic Waves due to Scattering from Spherical Cavities and Elastic Inclusions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinders, Mark Karl
1990-01-01
The attenuation of elastic waves due to scattering from a spherical inclusion of arbitrary size in an infinitely extended medium is investigated. The spherical scatterer and the exterior medium are isotropic, homogeneous, and linearly elastic, but of arbitrarily differing material parameters, with compressional and shear waves supported in both media. Exact expressions for scattered and transmitted fields caused by an incident plane compressional or shear wave of unit amplitude are calculated analytically and general expressions for extinction and scattering cross -sections are derived for both lossy and lossless scattering. Application to ultrasonic determination of porosity in cast aluminum is investigated.
Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20
Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos
2003-01-01
Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.
Amputee socks: sock thickness changes with normal use
Cagle, John C; D’Silva, Krittika J; Hafner, Brian J; Harrison, Daniel S; Sanders, Joan E
2015-01-01
Background Prosthetic socks are expected to decrease in thickness and have reduced volume accommodation with normal use. It is unknown, however, to what degree they reduce in thickness over time. Objective The goal of this study was to determine a correlation between the age of a prosthetic sock (defined as the out-of-package time) and the resulting change in thickness under standardized weight bearing and non-weight bearing conditions. Study Design Experimental, mechanical assessment. Results Sock thickness changed non-linearly over time. On average, socks were 75 ± 17 percent of their initial thickness after one month while socks older than one month were 72 ± 18 percent of their initial thickness. The elasticity of socks did not change with age. Discussion Age was not a strong predictor of sock thickness. An alternative hypothesis may be that changes in sock thickness are correlated to the total number of load cycles (e.g. step count). Conclusions The volume accommodation provided by used socks cannot be reliably predicted by ply or age. Direct measurement of total sock thickness may provide meaningful insight to quantify prosthetic users’ socket fit and guide volume accommodation recommendations. Clinical Relevance The mean difference in thickness between 3-ply and 5-ply used socks was equal to the standard deviation of both populations. Therefore, it is possible that a 3-ply sock worn for as a little as one month could have a greater thickness than a 5-ply sock worn for one month. PMID:25733408
Elastohydrodynamics of elliptical contacts for materials of low elastic modulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
The influence of the ellipticity parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The ellipticity parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved elliptical, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, elliptical, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.
Elastic properties of hedenbergite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandelin, John; Weidner, Donald J.
1988-02-01
The single-crystal elastic moduli of hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) hare been measured at 20°C and 1 bar using Brillouin spectroscopy. The moduli are (in gigapascals): C11 = 222, C22 = 176, C23 = 249, C44 = 55, C55 = 63, C66 = 60, C12 = 69, C13 = 79, C33, = 86, C15 = 12, C25 = 13, C35 = 26, C46 = -10. The comparison of elastic properties among Mg-Fe-Ca bearing pyroxenes, known as quadrilateral pyroxenes, reveals only weak variations with changes in composition. Of the four quadrilateral pyroxenes, orthoferrosilite has elastic properties distinctive from the others. The principal differences among these pyroxenes are due to subtle structural differences. In particular, the mechanical linkage between the M2 polyhedral chains in clinopyroxenes enhances the importance of the cation in this site. In contrast to the orthopyroxenes, the aggregate shear modulus μ of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes (diopside and hedenbergite) exhibits no dependence on the amount of iron (Fe2+) present in the structure, while the ratio K/μ does. As a result, the compressional and shear acoustic velocities of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes show a smaller dependency on iron content than do the orthopyroxenes.
Checks of asymptotia in pp elastic scattering at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grau, Agnes; Pacetti, Simone; Pancheri, Giulia; Srivastava, Yogendra N.
2012-07-01
We parametrize TOTEM data for the elastic differential pp cross section at √{s}=7 TeV in terms of two exponentials with a relative phase. We employ two previously derived sum rules for pp elastic scattering amplitude in impact parameter space to check whether asymptotia has been reached at the LHC. A detailed study of the TOTEM data for the elastic differential cross section at √{s}=7 TeV is made and it is shown that, within errors, the asymptotic sum rules are satisfied at LHC. We propose to use this parametrization to study forthcoming higher energy data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong
2015-07-01
Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.
1980-01-01
Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.
Importance of Corneal Thickness
... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...
Electroelastic effect of thickness mode langasite resonators.
Zhang, Haifeng; Turner, Joseph A; Yang, Jiashi; Kosinski, John A
2007-10-01
Langasite is a very promising material for resonators due to its good temperature behavior and high piezoelectric coupling, low acoustic loss, and high Q factor. The biasing effect for langasite resonators is crucial for resonator design. In this article, the resonant frequency shift of a thickness-mode langasite resonator is analyzed with respect to a direct current (DC) electric field applied in the thickness direction. The vibration modes of a thin langasite plate fully coated with an electrode are analyzed. The analysis is based on the theory for small fields superposed on a bias in electroelastic bodies and the first-order perturbation integral theory. The electroelastic effect of the resonator is analyzed by both analytical and finite-element methods. The complete set of nonlinear elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric permeability, and electrostrictive constants of langasite is used in the theoretical and numerical analysis. The sensitivity of electroelastic effect to nonlinear material constants is analyzed. PMID:18019250
United States crustal thickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.
1983-01-01
The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.
Behaviour study of thick laminated composites: Experimentation and finite element analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchaine, Francois
In today's industries, it is common practice to utilize composite materials in very large and thick structures like bridge decks, high pressure vessels, wind turbine blades and aircraft parts to mention a few. Composite materials are highly favoured due to their physical characteristics: low weight, low cost, adaptable mechanical properties, high specific strength and stiffness. The use of composite materials for large structures has however raised several concerns in the prediction of the behaviour of thick laminated composite parts. A lack of knowledge and experience in the use of composite materials during the design, sizing and manufacturing of thick composite parts can lead to catastrophic events. In this thesis, it was supposed that the elastic material properties may vary with the laminate thickness. In order to measure the influence of the thickness on nine orthotropic elastic material properties (E1, E2, E3, nu12, nu 13, nu23, G12, G13 and G23), three categories of thickness have been defined using a comparison between the classical lamination theory (CLT), different beam theories and a numerical 3D solid finite element analysis (FEA) model. The defined categories are: thin laminates for thicknesses below 6 mm (0.236"), moderately thick laminates for thicknesses up to 16 mm (0.630") and thick laminates for thicknesses above 16 mm (0.630"). For three different thicknesses (thin -- 1.5 mm, moderately thick -- 10 mm and thick -- 20 mm), the influence of the thickness on the orthotropic elastic material properties of unidirectional (UD) fibreglass/epoxy laminates has been measured. A torsion test on rectangular bar is also proposed to measure the influence of the thickness on G13 and G23. The nine elastic material properties, in function of the thickness, have been used in CLT and 3D solid FEA model in order to predict the axial Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Experimental results have also been obtained for
Elastic properties of hollow colloidal particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zoldesi, C. I.; Ivanovska, I. L.; Quilliet, C.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Imhof, A.
2008-11-01
The elastic properties of micrometer-sized hollow colloidal particles obtained by emulsion templating are probed by nanoindentation measurements in which point forces are applied to solvent-filled particles supported on a flat substrate. We show that the shells respond linearly up to forces of 7-21nN , where the indentation becomes of the order of the shell thickness (20-40nm) . In the linear region, the particle deformation is reversible. The measured Young’s modulus (˜200MPa) is comparable to values for stiff rubbers or soft polymers. At larger applied force, we observe a crossover into a nonlinear regime, where the shells assume a buckled shape. Here, the force increases approximately as the square root of the indentation, in agreement with the theory of elasticity of thin shells. We also observe permanent deformation of the shells after probing them repetitively beyond the linear regime. Finally, the measured elastic properties of the shells nicely explain their spontaneous buckling in solution and due to drying.
Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky
2016-04-01
The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic
Elastic fibers and collagen distribution in human aorta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira-Damiani, G.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.
2011-03-01
Elastic and collagen fibers are essential components of the aorta, the remodeling of these structures is accompanied with aging in various diseases and life-threatening events. While the elastic fibers confer resilience to major blood vessels collagen confers resistance to the same. Elastic fibers are easily visualized in the fluorescent light when stained with hematoxylin eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this paper is to describe the distribution of collagen in the thickness of the thoracic aorta, and to demonstrate the distribution of between elastic fibers. The images were acquired in a multifoton microscopy and both signals, Two-phtoton excitaded fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser. We used a band pass filter to filter the SHG signal from the TPEF signal. The thickness of the aorta varies 2-3 mm, and the image was composed of the juxtaposition of images of 220 x 220 microns. We acquired images of a histological slide of the thoracic aorta stained with picrosirius red (specific for collagen) at a wavelength of 670nm SHG subsequently acquired images with the same region and observed that the images are overlapping. Therefore, the following images were acquired by confocal microscopy (fluorescence of eosin for visualization of elastic fibers) and for collagen SHG. After reconstruction of the images, we observed the distribution of collagen along the aorta.
Stress Formulation in Three-Dimensional Elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
2001-01-01
The theory of elasticity evolved over centuries through the contributions of eminent scientists like Cauchy, Navier, Hooke Saint Venant, and others. It was deemed complete when Saint Venant provided the strain formulation in 1860. However, unlike Cauchy, who addressed equilibrium in the field and on the boundary, the strain formulation was confined only to the field. Saint Venant overlooked the compatibility on the boundary. Because of this deficiency, a direct stress formulation could not be developed. Stress with traditional methods must be recovered by backcalculation: differentiating either the displacement or the stress function. We have addressed the compatibility on the boundary. Augmentation of these conditions has completed the stress formulation in elasticity, opening up a way for a direct determination of stress without the intermediate step of calculating the displacement or the stress function. This Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation (CBMF) can be specialized to derive the traditional methods, but the reverse is not possible. Elasticity solutions must be verified for the compliance of the new equation because the boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of displacement are not trivially satisfied. This paper presents the variational derivation of the stress formulation, illustrates the method, examines attributes and benefits, and outlines the future course of research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inagaki, Jun; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Ichiki, Masataka; Tezuka, Fumiaki
2005-06-01
Previously, we developed the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791] for measuring the minute change in thickness during one heartbeat and the elasticity of the arterial wall. By comparing pathological images with elasticity images measured with ultrasound, elasticity distributions for respective tissues in the arterial wall were determined. We have already measured the elasticity distributions for lipids and fibrous tissues (mixtures of smooth-muscle and collagen fiber) [H. Kanai et al.: Circulation 107 (2003) 3018]. In this study, elasticity distributions were measured for blood clots and calcified tissues. We discuss whether these elasticity distributions, which were measuerd in vitro, can be used as reference data for classifying cross-sectional elasticity images measured in vivo into respective tissues. In addition to the measurement of elasticity distributions, correlations between collagen content and elasticity were investigated with respect to fibrous tissue to estimate the collagen and smooth-muscle content based on elasticity. Collagen and smooth-muscle content may be important factors in determining the stability of the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, correlations between elasticity and elements of the tissue in the arterial wall may provide useful information for the noninvasive diagnosis of plaque vulnerability.
Film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication. [elliptical contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1983-01-01
Mathematical formulas are presented which express the dimensionless minimum film thickness for the four lubrication regimes found in elliptical contacts: isoviscous-rigid regime; piezoviscous-rigid regime; isoviscous-elastic regime; and piezoviscous-elastic regime. The relative importance of pressure on elastic distortion and lubricant viscosity is the factor that distinguishes these regimes for a given conjunction geometry. In addition, these equations were used to develop maps of the lubrication regimes by plotting film thickness contours on a log-log grid of the dimensionless viscosity and elasticity parameters for three values of the ellipticity parameter. These results present a complete theoretical film thickness parameter solution for elliptical constants in the four lubrication regimes. The results are particularly useful in initial investigations of many practical lubrication problems involving elliptical conjunctions.
D. Day
2007-03-01
The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisdom, Jack; Meyer, Jennifer
2016-04-01
This is an exploration of dynamic tides on elastic bodies. The body is thought of as a dynamical system described by its modes of oscillation. The dynamics of these modes are governed by differential equations that depend on the rheology. The modes are damped by dissipation. Tidal friction occurs as exterior bodies excite the modes and the modes act back on the tide raising body. The whole process is governed by a closed set of differential equations. Standard results from tidal theory are recovered in a two-timescale approximation to the solution of these differential equations.
Elastic response and wrinkling onset of curved elastic membranes subjected to indentation test.
Bernal, R; Tassius, Ch; Melo, F; Géminard, J-Ch
2011-02-01
Starting from a polymeric-fluid droplet, by vulcanization of the fluid free surface, curved elastic membranes, several nanometers thick and a few millimeters in diameter, which enclose a constant fluid volume, are produced. In an indentation-type test, carried out by pushing the membrane along its normal by means of a micro-needle, under some conditions, wrinkles are likely to appear around the contact region. Interestingly, we observe that the instability does not significantly alter the force-displacement relation: the relation between the force and the displacement remains linear and the associated stiffness is simply proportional to the tension of the membrane. In addition, we determine that the wrinkles develop when the stretching modulus of the membrane compares with its tension, which provides a useful method to estimate the elastic constant. PMID:21337016
Holographic measurements of fresh- and dry-bone elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Nygren, Kaarlo; Karna, Markku; Karna, Kari
1992-08-01
To compare the elasticity of bones covered with soft tissue and the elasticity of defleshed and dried bones we used sampling screws to make the surface movements of the bones visible through the soft tissue. We compared fresh and dry European moose skulls with antlers before and after skinning. External forces were focused on the skull bones through the antlers and on the metatarsal bones through the distal epiphysis. A high correlation in fringe orientation was observed in the case of thick skull bone structures with rigid interdigited sutures. We also compared compression dynamics of fresh and dry moose antler cubes.
Hypo-Elastic Model for Lung Parenchyma
Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.
2012-03-01
A simple elastic isotropic constitutive model for the spongy tissue in lung is derived from the theory of hypoelasticity. The model is shown to exhibit a pressure dependent behavior that has been interpreted by some as indicating extensional anisotropy. In contrast, we show that this behavior arises natural from an analysis of isotropic hypoelastic invariants, and is a likely result of non-linearity, not anisotropy. The response of the model is determined analytically for several boundary value problems used for material characterization. These responses give insight into both the material behavior as well as admissible bounds on parameters. The model is characterized against published experimental data for dog lung. Future work includes non-elastic model behavior.
Interface crack in a nonhomogeneous elastic medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.
1988-01-01
The linear elasticity problem for an interface crack between two bonded half planes is reconsidered. It is assumed that one of the half planes is homogeneous and the second is nonhomogeneous in such a way that the elastic properties are continuous throughout the plane and have discontinuous derivatives along the interface. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of integral equations and the asymptotic behavior of the stress state near the crack tip is determined. The results lead to the conclusion that the singular behavior of stresses in the nonhomogeneous medium is identical to that in a homogeneous material provided the spacial distribution of material properties is continuous near and at the crack tip. The problem is solved for various values of the nonhomogeneity parameter and for four different sets of crack surface tractions, and the corresponding stress intensity factors are tabulated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A method and apparatus are developed to measure the thickness of a liquid on a surface independent of liquid conductivity. Two pairs of round, corrosion resistant wires are mounted in an insulating material such that the cross-sectional area of each wire is flush with and normal to the surface. The resistance between each pair of wires is measured using two ac resistance measuring circuits, in which the ratio of the outputs of the two resistance measuring circuits is indicative of the thickness of the liquid on the surface.
Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.
2013-02-01
wavelength 132 km which is approximately equivalent to the reported safe degree and order 250 of GOCO02S at 34º N) combined airborne free-air anomalies. The rms difference between the two data sets was 12.4 mGal. The observed admittance in the western Afghanistan mountains appears to be best fit to a theoretical elastic plate compensation model (with an effective elastic thickness of 5 km and crustal thickness of 22 km) where the ratio between surface load and subsurface load is equal.
Squeeze elastic deformation and contact area of a rubber adhesive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tordjeman, P.; Papon, E.; Villenave, J.-J.
2000-12-01
New experimental results show that the tack energy of a nonstringing rubber adhesive is proportional to the square function of the contact area. However, this area seems only to be controlled by the contact force and the thickness of the adhesive. A study of how the contact area depends on physical parameters is of great interest for the modeling of the tack properties of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). With this objective, we give a mechanical analysis of the tack test in the framework of elasticity. This analysis leads to an analytical expression of force versus thickness of material that is in agreement with the experimental data. Based on this mechanical analysis, a model is proposed to take into account the dependence of the contact area with the contact force and the adhesive thickness. This model is based on the idea that, in confined geometry, the adhesive behaves like an elastic solid and the contact area is a function of the elastic squeeze deformation close to the probe surface. The confrontation with experimental results is good and shows the relevance of this approach. Finally, the model underlines the importance of the roughness, the thickness and the Young's modulus of the adhesive according to the experimental results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffman, Saul D.
2009-01-01
The third Marshall-Hicks-Allen rule of elasticity of derived demand purports to show that labor demand is less elastic when labor is a smaller share of total costs. As Hicks, Allen, and then Bronfenbrenner showed, this rule is not quite correct, and actually is complicated by an unexpected negative relationship involving labor's share of total…
Design guidance for elastic followup
Naugle, F.V.
1983-01-01
The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.
Avian eggshell thickness: Variability and sampling
Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Heath, R.G.
1974-01-01
Measurements of shell thickness of the eggs of five species were subjected to nested analyses of variance. The analyses separated variation into two or three levels for which variances and percentages of the total variation were derived. The results show that differences among measurements of the same egg contribute little to the sample variance whereas differences among eggs within clutches contribute nearly as much as differences among clutches. It is more efficient and less costly to collect entire clutches of eggs in most studies of shell thickness. Using entire clutches, sample sizes needed to detect differences of 10 percent in shell thickness (at given significance levels and power) were estimated to be eight to 11 clutches for the species studied. For differences of five percent, 26 to 38 clutches are required. Guidelines are presented which may assist other workers in evaluating the efficiency of their sampling designs, and in estimating sample sizes for detecting differences in eggshell thickness in wild birds.
The Propagation of a Liquid Bolus Through an Elastic Tube and Airway Reopening
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Peter D.; Grotberg, James B.
1996-01-01
We use lubrication theory and matched asymptotic expansions to model the quasi-steady propagation of a liquid bridge through an elastic tube. In the limit of small capillary number, asymptotic expressions are found for the pressure drop across the bridge and the thickness of the liquid film left behind, as functions of the capillary number, the thickness of the liquid lining ahead of the bridge and the elastic characteristics of the tube wall. For a given precursor thickness, we find a critical propagation speed, and hence a critical imposed pressure drop, above which the bridge will eventually burst, and hence the tube will reopen.
Singular path-independent energy integrals for elastic bodies with thin elastic inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbakov, V. V.
2016-06-01
An equilibrium problem for a two-dimensional homogeneous linear elastic body containing a thin elastic inclusion and an interfacial crack is considered. The thin inclusion is modeled within the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. An explicit formula for the first derivative of the energy functional with respect to the crack perturbation along the interface is presented. It is shown that the formulas for the derivative associated with translation and self-similar expansion of the crack are represented as path-independent integrals along smooth contour surrounding one or both crack tips. These path-independent integrals consist of regular and singular terms and are analogs of the well-known Eshelby-Cherepanov-Rice J-integral and Knowles-Sternberg M-integral.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trefil, James
1983-01-01
Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)
Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems
Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-01-01
Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439
Application of gradient elasticity to benchmark problems of beam vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kateb, K. M.; Almitani, K. H.; Alnefaie, K. A.; Abu-Hamdeh, N. H.; Papadopoulos, P.; Askes, H.; Aifantis, E. C.
2016-04-01
The gradient approach, specifically gradient elasticity theory, is adopted to revisit certain typical configurations on mechanical vibrations. New results on size effects and scale-dependent behavior not captured by classical elasticity are derived, aiming at illustrating the usefulness of this approach to applications in advanced technologies. In particular, elastic prismatic straight beams in bending are discussed using two different governing equations: the gradient elasticity bending moment equation (fourth order) and the gradient elasticity deflection equation (sixth order). Different boundary/support conditions are examined. One problem considers the free vibrations of a cantilever beam loaded by an end force. A second problem is concerned with a simply supported beam disturbed by a concentrated force in the middle of the beam. Both problems are solved analytically. Exact free vibration frequencies and mode shapes are derived and presented. The difference between the gradient elasticity solution and its classical counterpart is revealed. The size ratio c/L (c denotes internal length and L is the length of the beam) induces significant effects on vibration frequencies. For both beam configurations, it turns out that as the ratio c/L increases, the vibration frequencies decrease, a fact which implies lower beam stiffness. Numerical examples show this behavior explicitly and recover the classical vibration behavior for vanishing size ratio c/L.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brunelle, Eugene J.
1994-01-01
The first few viewgraphs describe the general solution properties of linear elasticity theory which are given by the following two statements: (1) for stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and zero displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the altered displacements u(sub i)(*) and the actual stresses tau(sub ij) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual displacements are given by u(sub i) = mu(exp -1)u(sub i)(*); and (2) for zero stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the actual displacements u(sub i) and the altered stresses tau(sub ij)(*) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual stresses are given by tau(sub ij) = E tau(sub ij)(*). The remaining viewgraphs describe the minimum parameter formulation of the general classical laminate theory plate problem as follows: The general CLT plate problem is expressed as a 3 x 3 system of differential equations in the displacements u, v, and w. The eighteen (six each) A(sub ij), B(sub ij), and D(sub ij) system coefficients are ply-weighted sums of the transformed reduced stiffnesses (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k); the (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) in turn depend on six reduced stiffnesses (Q(sub ij))(sub k) and the material and geometry properties of the k(sup th) layer. This paper develops a method for redefining the system coefficients, the displacement components (u,v,w), and the position components (x,y) such that a minimum parameter formulation is possible. The pivotal steps in this method are (1) the reduction of (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) dependencies to just two constants Q(*) = (Q(12) + 2Q(66))/(Q(11)Q(22))(exp 1/2) and F(*) - (Q(22)/Q(11))(exp 1/2) in terms of ply-independent reference values Q(sub ij); (2) the reduction of the remaining portions of the A, B, and D coefficients to nondimensional ply-weighted sums (with 0 to 1 ranges) that are independent of Q(*) and F(*); and (3) the introduction of simple coordinate stretchings for u, v, w and x,y such that the process is
Effects of Auger electron elastic scattering in quantitative AES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonski, Aleksander
1987-09-01
The Monte Carlo algorithm was developed for simulating the trajectories of electrons elastically scattered in the solid. The distribution of scattering angles was determined using the partial wave expansion method. This algorithm was used to establish the influence of Auger electron elastic collisions on the results of quantitative AES analysis. The calculations were performed for the most pronounced KLL, L 3 MM and M 5NN Auger transitions. It turned out that due to the elastic collisions the Auger electron signal is decreased by up to 10%. The corresponding decreased of the escape depth of Auger electrons reaches 30% as compared with the value derived from the inelastic mean free path. The values of the inelastic mean free path resulting from the overalyer method may be strongly affected by elastic scattering of Auger electrons.
Three-dimensional treatment of nonequilibrium dynamics and higher order elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lott, Martin; Payan, Cédric; Garnier, Vincent; Vu, Quang A.; Eiras, Jesús N.; Remillieux, Marcel C.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T. J.
2016-04-01
This letter presents a three-dimensional model to describe the complex behavior of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic materials such as rocks and concrete. Assuming isotropy and geometric contraction of principal stress axes under dynamic loading, the expression of elastic wave velocity is derived, based on the second-order elastic constants ( λ , μ ) , third-order elastic constants (l, m, n), and a parameter α of nonclassical nonlinear elasticity resulting from conditioning. We demonstrate that both softening and recovering of the elastic properties under dynamic loading is an isotropic effect related to the strain tensor. The measurement of the conditioning is achieved using three polarized waves. The model allows the evaluation of the third-order elastic constants uncoupled from conditioning and viscoelastic effects. The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature using quasi-static loading.
Two parabolic equations for propagation in layered poro-elastic media.
Metzler, Adam M; Siegmann, William L; Collins, Michael D; Collis, Jon M
2013-07-01
Parabolic equation methods for fluid and elastic media are extended to layered poro-elastic media, including some shallow-water sediments. A previous parabolic equation solution for one model of range-independent poro-elastic media [Collins et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1645-1656 (1995)] does not produce accurate solutions for environments with multiple poro-elastic layers. First, a dependent-variable formulation for parabolic equations used with elastic media is generalized to layered poro-elastic media. An improvement in accuracy is obtained using a second dependent-variable formulation that conserves dependent variables across interfaces between horizontally stratified layers. Furthermore, this formulation expresses conditions at interfaces using no depth derivatives higher than first order. This feature should aid in treating range dependence because convenient matching across interfaces is possible with discretized derivatives of first order in contrast to second order. PMID:23862802
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bik, W. M. A.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.
1993-07-01
In elastic recoil detection (ERD) one determines the yield and energy of particles ejected out of the surface region of samples under MeV ion bombardment. By application of this surface and thin film analysis technique one can obtain quantitative information concerning the depth distribution of light elements in a sample to be analysed. The quantitativity and the depth resolving power are based on knowledge of the recoil cross section and the stopping power of high-energy ions in matter. This paper reviews the fundamentals of this technique and the various experimental methods for recoil identification. Furthermore, important features for material analysis, such as detection limits, depth resolution and elemental range are discussed. Some emphasis is put on the conversion of the spectral contribution of the elements to atomic concentrations in the films for several representative cases. Throughout the review numerous examples are given to illustrate the features of ERD and to demonstrate empirically the accuracy of the quantification method.
2-D elasticity solution of layered composite beams with viscoelastic interlayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Peng; Zhou, Ding; Liu, Weiqing
2016-02-01
This paper focuses on the mechanical properties of layered composite beams with viscoelastic interlayers. The exact two-dimensional elasticity theory is used to represent the deformation of each beam layer. The viscoelastic interlayer is described by the Maxwell-Wiechert model through the quasi-elastic approximation, which greatly simplifies the analytical process. The stress function with a series of undetermined coefficients depending on the time variable is derived for each beam layer. No matter how many layers the beam includes, the total solution can be obtained rapidly and efficiently by using the recursive matrix technique. The present method can give the exact stress and deformation distributions in the beam, which cannot be predicted by the approximate theories such as the one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli theory. The convergence of the solution is numerically verified. A comparison study indicates that the present results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element method; however, they have obvious differences from the results based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory for thick beams. Finally, the variations of stresses and displacements with respect to time in a five-layer beam are discussed in detail.
Elastic instabilities in rubber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gent, Alan
2009-03-01
Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.
Determination of the elastic modulus of snow via acoustic measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerling, Bastian; van Herwijnen, Alec; Löwe, Henning
2016-04-01
The elastic modulus of snow is a key quantity from the viewpoint of avalanche research and forecasting, snow engineering or materials science in general. Since it is a fundamental property, many measurements have been reported in the literature. Due to differences in measurement methods, there is a lot of variation in the reported values. Especially values derived via computer tomography (CT) based numerical calculations using finite element methods are not corresponding to the results of other methods. The central issue is that CT based moduli are purely elastic whereas other methods may include viscoelastic deformation. In order to avoid this discrepancy we derived the elastic modulus of snow via wave propagation measurements and compared our results with CT based calculations. We measured the arrival times of acoustic pulses propagating through the snow samples to determine the P-wave velocity and in turn derive the elastic modulus along the direction of wave propagation. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to derive the P-wave modulus of snow in relation to density. The P-wave modulus ranged from 10 to 280 MPa for a snow density between 150 and 370 kg/m³. The moduli derived from the acoustic measurements correlated well with the CT-based values and both exhibited a power law trend over the entire density range. Encouraged by these results we used the acoustic method to investigate the temporal evolution of the elastic modulus. The rate of increase was very close to values mentioned in literature on the sintering rate of snow. Overall, our results are a first but important step towards a new measurement method to attain the elastic properties of snow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Rosny, Julien de; Toussaint, Renaud; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.
2016-02-01
Estimating the energy lost in elastic waves during an impact is an important problem in seismology and in industry. We propose three complementary methods to estimate the elastic energy radiated by bead impacts on thin plates and thick blocks from the generated vibration. The first two methods are based on the direct wave front and are shown to be equivalent. The third method makes use of the diffuse regime. These methods are tested for laboratory experiments of impacts and are shown to give the same results, with error bars of 40 percent and 300 percent for impacts on a smooth plate and on a rough block, respectively. We show that these methods are relevant to establish the energy budget of an impact. On plates of glass and PMMA, the radiated elastic energy increases from 2 percent to almost 100 percent of the total energy lost as the bead diameter approaches the plate thickness. The rest of the lost energy is dissipated by viscoelasticity. For beads larger than the plate thickness, plastic deformation occurs and reduces the amount of energy radiated in the form of elastic waves. On a concrete block, the energy dissipation during the impact is principally inelastic because only 0.2-2 percent of the energy lost by the bead is transported by elastic waves. The radiated elastic energy estimated with the presented methods is quantitatively validated by Hertz's model of elastic impact.
Capillary-induced giant elastic dipoles in thin nematic films
Jeridi, Haifa; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Othman, Tahar; Blanc, Christophe
2015-01-01
Directed and true self-assembly mechanisms in nematic liquid crystal colloids rely on specific interactions between microparticles and the topological defects of the matrix. Most ordered structures formed in thin nematic cells are thus based on elastic multipoles consisting of a particle and nearby defects. Here, we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the existence of giant elastic dipoles arising from particles dispersed in free nematic liquid crystal films. We discuss the role of capillarity and film thickness on the dimensions of the dipoles and explain their main features with a simple 2D model. Coupling of capillarity with nematic elasticity could offer ways to tune finely the spatial organization of complex colloidal systems. PMID:26554001
Capillary-induced giant elastic dipoles in thin nematic films.
Jeridi, Haifa; Gharbi, Mohamed A; Othman, Tahar; Blanc, Christophe
2015-12-01
Directed and true self-assembly mechanisms in nematic liquid crystal colloids rely on specific interactions between microparticles and the topological defects of the matrix. Most ordered structures formed in thin nematic cells are thus based on elastic multipoles consisting of a particle and nearby defects. Here, we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the existence of giant elastic dipoles arising from particles dispersed in free nematic liquid crystal films. We discuss the role of capillarity and film thickness on the dimensions of the dipoles and explain their main features with a simple 2D model. Coupling of capillarity with nematic elasticity could offer ways to tune finely the spatial organization of complex colloidal systems. PMID:26554001
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Girill, T. R.
1972-01-01
The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehman, R. W.
1982-03-01
Twenty-six thick film inks from two vendors were proved for hybrid microcircuit production use. A data base of chemical information was established for all the inks to aid in future diagnostic and failure analysis activities. Efforts included both organic chemical analysis of printing vehicles and binders and inorganic chemical analysis of glass frits and electrically active phases. Analytical methods included infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, gas chromatography, X-ray fluorescence, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and wet chemical techniques.
Support Of The Lunar Fossil Figure By The Elastic Lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuyama, Isamu
2010-10-01
The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.
Support of the lunar fossil figure by the elastic lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuyama, I.
2010-12-01
The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.
Optimization of multilayered composite pressure vessels using exact elasticity solution
Adali, S.; Verijenko, V.E.; Tabakov, P.Y.; Walker, M.
1995-11-01
An approach for the optimal design of thick laminated cylindrical pressure vessels is given. The maximum burst pressure is computed using an exact elasticity solution and subject to the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The design method is based on an accurate 3-D stress analysis. Exact elasticity solutions are obtained using the stress function approach where the radial, circumferential and shear stresses are determined taking the closed ends of the cylindrical shell into account. Design optimization of multilayered composite pressure vessels are based on the use of robust multidimensional methods which give fast convergence. Two methods are used to determine the optimum ply angles, namely, iterative and gradient methods. Numerical results are given for optimum fiber orientation of each layer for thick and thin-walled multilayered pressure vessels.
Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.
2005-01-01
A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the nonlinear elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils in a fascicle have a three-dimensional structure at the micron scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this wave form allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form: all integrals become analytic. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendinece.
Elastic Response of Crimped Collagen Fibrils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.
2005-01-01
A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils have a three-dimensional structure at the micrometer scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this waveform allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendineae
Elastic lattice in a random potential
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Dickman, R.
1998-02-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of an elastic triangular lattice subject to a random background potential. As the cooling rate is reduced, we observe a rather sudden crossover between two different glass phases, with exponential decay of translational correlations, the other with power-law decay. Contrary to predictions derived for continuum models, no evidence of a crossover in the mean-square displacement B(r) from the quadratic growth at small r to the logarithmic growth at large r is found. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nonlinear elasticity of semiflexible filament networks.
Meng, Fanlong; Terentjev, Eugene M
2016-08-10
We develop a continuum theory for equilibrium elasticity of a network of crosslinked semiflexible filaments, spanning the full range between flexible entropy-driven chains to stiff athermal rods. We choose the 3-chain constitutive model of network elasticity over several plausible candidates, and derive analytical expressions for the elastic energy at arbitrary strain, with the corresponding stress-strain relationship. The theory fits well to a wide range of experimental data on simple shear in different filament networks, quantitatively matching the differential shear modulus variation with stress, with only two adjustable parameters (which represent the filament stiffness and the pre-tension in the network, respectively). The general theory accurately describes the crossover between the positive and negative Poynting effect (normal stress on imposed shear) on increasing the stiffness of filaments forming the network. We discuss the network stability (the point of marginal rigidity) and the phenomenon of tensegrity, showing that filament pre-tension on crosslinking into the network determines the magnitude of linear modulus G0. PMID:27444846
Preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy in shales.
Lonardelli, I.; Wenk, H.-R.; Ren, Y.; Univ. of California at Berkeley
2007-03-01
Anisotropy in shales is becoming an important issue in exploration and reservoir geophysics. In this study, the crystallographic preferred orientation of clay platelets that contributes to elastic anisotropy was determined quantitatively by hard monochromatic X-ray synchrotron diffraction in two different shales from drillholes off the coast of Nigeria. To analyze complicated diffraction images with five different phases (illite/smectite, kaolinite, quartz, siderite, feldspar) and many overlapping peaks, we applied a methodology based on the crystallographic Rietveld method. The goal was to describe the intrinsic physical properties of the sample (phase composition, crystallographic preferred orientation, crystal structure, and microstructure) and compute macroscopic elastic properties by averaging single crystal properties over the orientation distribution for each phase. Our results show that elastic anisotropy resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of the clay particles can be determined quantitatively. This provides a possible way to compare measured seismic anisotropy and texture-derived anisotropy and to estimate the contribution of the low-aspect ratio pores aligned with bedding.
Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.
Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A
2016-04-01
Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane
Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D.; Klug, William S.; Haselwandter, Christoph A.
2016-04-01
Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane
Effect of geometry on hydrodynamic film thickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.; Taylor, C. M.
1978-01-01
The influence of geometry on the isothermal hydrodynamic film separating two rigid solids was investigated. Pressure-viscosity effects were not considered. The minimum film thickness is derived for fully flooded conjunctions by using the Reynolds conditions. It was found that the minimum film thickness had the same speed, viscosity, and load dependence as Kapitza's classical solution. However, the incorporation of Reynolds boundary conditions resulted in an additional geometry effect. Solutions using the parabolic film approximation are compared with those using the exact expression for the film in the analysis. Contour plots are shown that indicate in detail the pressure developed between the solids.
Aerosol optical thickness measurements during FIFE '89
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Markham, Brian L.
1990-01-01
The measurements used for correction and calibration are presented which permit the estimation of atmospheric effects on reflected and transmitted solar radiation. Four sun-photometers are calibrated and used to derive aerosol optical thicknesses that agree with expected uncertainties, and lower values and higher values are associated with cool dry northerly flows and warm humid southerly flows, respectively. The rapid increase in the vertical aerosol optical thickness after sunrise is related to the growth of the mixing layer which can be inferred from the 2D maps of the instantaneous aerosol number densities.
Enamel thickness trends in Plio-Pleistocene hominin mandibular molars.
Skinner, Matthew M; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Gaunitz, Charleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques
2015-08-01
Enamel thickness continues to be an important morphological character in hominin systematics and is frequently invoked in dietary reconstructions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa. However, to date, the majority of published data on molar enamel thickness of Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins derive from naturally fractured random surfaces of a small number of specimens. In this study we systematically analyze enamel thickness in a large sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins (n = 99), extant hominoids (n = 57), and modern humans (n = 30). Based on analysis of 2D mesial planes of section derived from microtomography, we examine both average and relative enamel thickness, and the distribution of enamel across buccal, occlusal, and lingual components of mandibular molars. Our results confirm the trend of increasing enamel thickness during the Pliocene that culminates in the thick enamel of the robust Australopithecus species, and then decreases from early Homo to recent modern humans. All hominin taxa share a regional average enamel thickness pattern of thick occlusal enamel and greater buccal than lingual enamel thickness. Pan is unique in exhibiting the thinnest average enamel thickness in the occlusal basin. Statistical analysis indicates that among Pliocene hominins enamel thickness is a weak taxonomic discriminator. The data underlying these results are included in a table in the Supplementary Online Material. PMID:26024565
Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca
2016-01-01
We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.
Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chujie; Lin, Jung-Fu
2016-04-01
Determination of the full elastic constants (cij) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases' compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.
Elasticity of interfacial rafts of hard particles with soft shells.
Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan
2015-05-19
We study an elasticity model for compressed protein monolayers or particle rafts at a liquid interface. Based on the microscopic view of hard-core particles with soft shells, a bead-spring model is formulated and analyzed in terms of continuum elasticity theory. The theory can be applied, for example, to hydrophobin-coated air-water interfaces or, more generally, to liquid interfaces coated with an adsorbed monolayer of interacting hard-core particles. We derive constitutive relations for such particle rafts and describe the buckling of compressed planar liquid interfaces as well as their apparent Poisson ratio. We also use the constitutive relations to obtain shape equations for pendant or buoyant capsules attached to a capillary, and to compute deflated shapes of such capsules. A comparison with capsules obeying the usual Hookean elasticity (without hard cores) reveals that the hard cores trigger capsule wrinkling. Furthermore, it is shown that a shape analysis of deflated capsules with hard-core/soft-shell elasticity gives apparent elastic moduli which can be much higher than the original values if Hookean elasticity is assumed. PMID:25901364
Elasticity Estimation of Thin Flap Using Optical PIV Velocity Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westerdale, John; Belohlavek, Marek; McMahon, Eileen; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Heys, Jeffery; Milano, Michele
2010-11-01
We estimate the elasticity of a thin, cellulose acetate flap using forcing data derived from optical particle imaging velocimetry (optical-PIV) velocity fields. The flap is fixed on one end to a stand submerged within a PIV tank and deformed using a water jet pulse. PIV is then performed at the interface between the thin sheet and water jet throughout the deformation cycle; the resulting velocity field allows the determination of instantaneous pressure measurements via Poisson's equation. An optimal estimation technique utilizing ensemble Kalman filtering is coupled with a finite element analysis program to determine the sheet's elasticity. Results show good agreement with actual elasticity measurements for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous elasticity sheets. In addition, we performed a quantitative study to determine the optimal vector density for a given element size to achieve an accurate elasticity estimation value. Considering the success of this technique using optical-PIV, it should also be possible for in-vitro elasticity estimates based on ultrasound-PIV measurements.
Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure.
Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chujie; Lin, Jung-Fu
2016-04-21
Determination of the full elastic constants (cij) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases' compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment. PMID:27389226
Fetal nuchal translucency thickness.
Witters, I; Fryns, J R
2007-01-01
In the early 1990s Nicolaides introduced screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency thickness measurement with ultrasound between 11-13(+6) weeks. Already in 1866 L. Down noted that common features of patients with trisomy 21 are a skin being too large for the body and a flat face with a small nose. While detection rates for trisomy 21, given an invasive testing rate of 5%, were only 30% for screening by maternal age and 65% for screening by maternal serum triple test, the detection rate for screening by nuchal translucency combined with maternal age was 75% and this could be increased to 90% in combination with maternal serum screening (serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) at 11-13(+6) weeks. The additional soft markers in the first trimester are the fetal nasal bone, the Doppler velocity waveform in the ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation and these markers can be used to further increase the detection rate of trisomy 21. In addition increased nuchal translucency thickness can also identify other chromosomal defects (mainly trisomy 13 and 18 and monosomy X) and major congenital malformations (mainly cardiac defects) and genetic syndromes. PMID:17515296
Theory of the Sea Ice Thickness Distribution.
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, J S
2015-10-01
We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution g(h) from Thorndike et al. into a Fokker-Planck-like conservation law. The steady solution is g(h)=N(q)h(q)e(-h/H), where q and H are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for h≪1, g(h) is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for h≫1 only mechanics controls g(h). Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness h, from which we predict the observed g(h). The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical-scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics. PMID:26551827
Theory of the Sea Ice Thickness Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, J. S.
2015-10-01
We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution g (h ) from Thorndike et al. into a Fokker-Planck-like conservation law. The steady solution is g (h )=N (q )hqe-h /H, where q and H are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for h ≪1 , g (h ) is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for h ≫1 only mechanics controls g (h ). Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness h , from which we predict the observed g (h ). The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical-scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics.
Coherency in neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerman, S.; Sharma, V.; Deniz, M.; Wong, H. T.; Chen, J.-W.; Li, H. B.; Lin, S. T.; Liu, C.-P.; Yue, Q.; Texono Collaboration
2016-06-01
Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering provides a unique laboratory to study the quantum mechanical coherency effects in electroweak interactions, towards which several experimental programs are being actively pursued. We report results of our quantitative studies on the transitions towards decoherency. A parameter (α ) is identified to describe the degree of coherency, and its variations with incoming neutrino energy, detector threshold, and target nucleus are studied. The ranges of α that can be probed with realistic neutrino experiments are derived, indicating complementarity between projects with different sources and targets. Uncertainties in nuclear physics and in α would constrain sensitivities in probing physics beyond the standard model. The maximum neutrino energies corresponding to α >0.95 are derived.
Elasticity of hcp cobalt at high pressure and temperature: a quasi-harmonic case
Antonangeli, D; Krisch, M; Farber, D L; Ruddle, D G; Fiquet, G
2007-11-30
We performed high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on a single crystal of hcp cobalt at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, deriving 4 of the 5 independent elements of the elastic tensor. Our experiments indicate that the elasticity of hcp-Co is well described within the frame of a quasi-harmonic approximation and that anharmonic high-temperature effects on the elastic moduli, sound velocities and elastic anisotropy are minimal at constant density. These results support the validity of the Birch's law and represent an important benchmark for ab initio thermal lattice dynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations.
Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsson, Agust
2014-05-01
The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed) elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.
Homogenization of Heterogeneous Elastic Materials with Applications to Seismic Anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vel, S. S.; Johnson, S. E.; Okaya, D. A.; Cook, A. C.
2014-12-01
The velocities of seismic waves passing through a complex Earth volume can be influenced by heterogeneities at length scales shorter than the seismic wavelength. As such, seismic wave propagation analyses can be performed by replacing the actual Earth volume by a homogeneous i.e., "effective", elastic medium. Homogenization refers to the process by which the elastic stiffness tensor of the effective medium is "averaged" from the elastic properties, orientations, modal proportions and spatial distributions of the finer heterogeneities. When computing the homogenized properties of a heterogeneous material, the goal is to compute an effective or bulk elastic stiffness tensor that relates the average stresses to the average strains in the material. Tensor averaging schemes such as the Voigt and Reuss methods are based on certain simplifying assumptions. The Voigt method assumes spatially uniform strains while the Reuss method assumes spatially uniform stresses within the heterogeneous material. Although they are both physically unrealistic, they provide upper and lower bounds for the actual homogenized elastic stiffness tensor. In order to more precisely determine the homogenized stiffness tensor, the stress and strain distributions must be computed by solving the three-dimensional equations of elasticity over the heterogeneous region. Asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) is one such structure-based approach for the comprehensive micromechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials. Unlike modal volume methods, the AEH method takes into account how geometrical orientation and alignment can increase elastic stiffness in certain directions. We use the AEH method in conjunction with finite element analysis to calculate the bulk elastic stiffnesses of heterogeneous materials. In our presentation, wave speeds computed using the AEH method are compared with those generated using stiffness tensors derived from commonly-used analytical estimates. The method is illustrated
Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.
1997-01-01
Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)
Fingering in Confined Elastic Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biggins, John; Mahadevan, L.; Wei, Z.; Saintyves, Baudouin; Bouchaud, Elizabeth
2015-03-01
Fingering has recently been observed in soft highly elastic layers that are confined between and bonded to two rigid bodies. In one case an injected fluid invades the layer in finger-like protrusions at the layer's perimeter, a solid analogue of Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering. In a second case, separation of the rigid bodies (with maintained adhesion to the layer) leads air to the formation of similar fingers at the layer's perimeter. In both cases the finger formation is reversible: if the fluid is removed or the separation reduced, the fingers vanish. In this talk I will discuss a theoretical model for such elastic fingers that shows that the origin of the fingers is large-strain geometric non-linearity in the elasticity of soft solids. Our simplified elastic model unifies the two types of fingering and accurately estimates the thresholds and wavelengths of the fingers.
Elastic protectors for ultrasound injection
Barkhatov, V.A.; Nesterova, L.A.
1995-07-01
A new material has been developed for elastic protectors on ultrasonic probes: sonar rubber. This combines low ultrasonic absorption, high strength, and wear resistance, and so the rubber can be used in sensor designs.
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.
Flame resistant elastic elastomeric fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howarth, J. T.; Massucco, A. A.
1972-01-01
Development of materials to improve flame resistance of elastic elastomeric fibers is discussed. Two approaches, synthesis of polyether based urethanes and modification of synthesized urethanes with flame ratardant additives, are described. Specific applications of both techniques are presented.
Yang, Jiashi; Shen, Xuechun
2008-03-01
We show that in a plate thickness-shear mode resonator of rotated Y-cut quartz coupling to extension occurs when the shear deformation is no longer infinitesimal. A set of coupled equations is derived with which the effect of coupling to extension on the thickness-shear operating mode is examined. PMID:18407862
Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.
1993-01-01
Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.
Levesque, Daniel; Moreau, Andre; Dubois, Marc; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Bussiere, Jean; Lord, Martin; Padioleau, Christian
2000-01-01
Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.
Cosserat elasticity of negative Poisson’s ratio foam: experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rueger, Zach; Lakes, Roderic S.
2016-05-01
Negative Poisson’s ratio polymer foams derived from reticulated open cell foams exhibit large size effects in torsion and bending. Effective moduli increase as diameter decreases in contrast to the prediction of classical elasticity. Size effects of this sort are predicted by Cosserat (micropolar) elasticity in which points can rotate as well as translate and distributed moments are incorporated. The Cosserat coupling number N was about twice as large as that of as-received foam, leading to strong effects. The torsion characteristic length {{\\ell }}{{t}} was similar. Cosserat effects are known to enhance toughness and immunity from stress concentration.
Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Composites Based on Nonlocal Elasticity Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavinasab, Ali; Jha, Ratneshwar; Ahmadi, G.
2014-01-01
Nonlocal continuum theory is studied for modeling stress distributions in nanocomposites. The second-order approximation in nonlocal theory is considered since the first-order approximation leads to an unacceptable solution. A representative volume element (RVE) of CNT composite is utilized to derive unknown constants in the nonlocal theory model. Stress distributions in RVE using nonlocal theory, classical elasticity, and finite element method are obtained. All three approaches yield the same force, but classical elasticity gives an incorrect value of first moment. Wave propagation studies show that the dispersion curve obtained by nonlocal theory is quite close to the atomic Born-von Karman model.
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ortega, A.; Lombardini, M.; Hill, D. J.
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=es(I1)+eh(ρ,ς), where es accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and eh represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., eh=eh(ρ), with a power-law dependence eh∝ρα, shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M∝[log(1/R)]α, independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M∝R-(s-1) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part eh is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M∝R-(s-1)/n(γ) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the hydrostatic part of the energy essentially commands the strong-shock behavior, the shear
Bauer-Gogonea, S.; Camacho-Gonzalez, F.; Schwoediauer, R.; Ploss, B.; Bauer, S.
2007-09-17
Nonlinearities in ferroelectret polymer foam capacitors arise from voltage-dependent thickness changes. Such thickness changes are caused by the converse piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects in these soft materials. The authors show that the higher harmonics of the current response during application of a sinusoidal voltage to ferroelectret capacitors provide information on the elastic and electromechanical properties of the foam. The authors demonstrate the potential of this versatile measurement technique by investigating the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric response and by monitoring the changes in the elastic and electromechanical properties during inflation of cellular polypropylene.
Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells
Qatu, M.S.
1995-11-01
This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.
Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short
Elastic-plastic analysis of crack in ductile adhesive joint
Ikeda, Toru; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Akira; Munakata, Tsuyoshi
1995-11-01
The fracture of a crack in adhesive is important to the structural integrity of adhesive structures and composite materials. Though the fracture toughness of a material should be constant according to fracture mechanics, it is said that the fracture toughness of a crack in an adhesive joint depends on the bond thickness. In the present study, the elastic-plastic stress analyses of a crack in a thin adhesive layer are performed by the combination of the boundary element method and the finite element method. The effect of adhesive thickness on the J-integral, the Q`-factor which is a modified version of the Q-factor, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) are investigated. It is found from the analyses that the CTOD begins to decrease at very thin bond thickness, the Q`-factor being almost constant. The decrease of the fracture toughness at very thin adhesive layer is expected by the present analysis.
Third-order elastic constants of diamond determined from experimental data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winey, J. M.; Hmiel, A.; Gupta, Y. M.
2016-06-01
The pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) of diamond were determined by analyzing previous sound velocity measurements under hydrostatic stress [McSkimin and Andreatch, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, 1972, pp. 2944] [4]. Our analysis corrects an error in the previously reported results. Using the corrected pressure derivatives, together with published data for the nonlinear elastic response of shock-compressed diamond [Lang and Gupta, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 106, 2011, pp. 125502] [3], a complete and corrected set of third-order elastic constants (TOECs) is presented that differs significantly from TOECs published previously.
Effective medium theory for elastic metamaterials in thin elastic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrent, Daniel; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2014-09-01
An effective medium theory for resonant and nonresonant metamaterials for flexural waves in thin plates is presented. The theory provides closed-form expressions for the effective mass density, rigidity, and Poisson's ratio of arrangements of isotropic scatterers in thin plates, valid for low frequencies and moderate filling fractions. It is found that the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are induced by a combination of the monopolar and quadrupolar scattering coefficient, as it happens for bulk elastic waves, while the effective mass density is induced by the monopolar coefficient, contrarily as it happens for bulk elastic waves, where the effective mass density is induced by the dipolar coefficient. It is shown that resonant positive or negative effective elastic parameters are possible, being therefore the monopolar resonance responsible for creating an effective medium with negative mass density. Several examples are given for both nonresonant and resonant effective parameters and the results are numerically verified by multiple scattering theory and finite element analysis.
Elastic scattering by finitely many point-like obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Guanghui; Sini, Mourad
2013-04-01
This paper is concerned with the time-harmonic elastic scattering by a finite number N of point-like obstacles in {{R}}^n (n = 2, 3). We analyze the N-point interactions model in elasticity and derive the associated Green's tensor (integral kernel) in terms of the point positions and the scattering coefficients attached to them, following the approach in quantum mechanics for modeling N-particle interactions. In particular, explicit expressions are given for the scattered near and far fields corresponding to elastic plane waves or point-source incidences. As a result, we rigorously justify the Foldy method for modeling the multiple scattering by finitely many point-like obstacles for the Lamé model. The arguments are based on the Fourier analysis and the Weinstein-Aronszajn inversion formula of the resolvent for the finite rank perturbations of closed operators in Hilbert spaces.
Hydrodynamic repulsion of elastic dumbbells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L.; Bukowicki, Marek; Gruca, Marta
2015-11-01
Dynamics of two identical elastic dumbbells, settling under gravity in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number are analyzed within the point-particle model. Initially, the dumbbells are vertical, their centers are aligned horizontally, and the springs which connect the dumbbell's beads are at the equilibrium. The motion of the beads is determined numerically with the use of the Runge-Kutta method. After an initial relaxation phase, the system converges to a universal time-dependent solution. The elastic dumbbells tumble while falling, but their relative motion is not periodic (as in case of rigid dumbbells or pairs of separated beads). The elastic constraints break the time-reversal symmetry of the motion. As the result, the horizontal distance between the dumbbells slowly increases - they are hydrodynamically repelled from each other. This effect can be very large even though the elastic forces are always much smaller than gravity. The dynamics described above are equivalent to the motion of a single elastic dumbbell under a constant external force which is parallel to a flat free surface. The dumbbell migrates away from the interface and its tumbling time increases.
Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.
1996-08-01
The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.
Weak Elastic Anisotropy in a Cracked Rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Wong, T.
2006-12-01
Crack and textural fabrics have significant control over the development of mechanical anisotropy in a rock. Bedding in sedimentary rocks, cleavage in slates, preferred orientation of anisotropic minerals and anisotropic distribution of microcracks can all contribute to elastic anisotropy. Using Kachanov's (1992, 1993) formulation we analyzed the effects of an axisymmetric system of microcracks on seismic anisotropy. The elastic behavior of such a cracked rock is transversely isotropic, and its seismic properties can be characterized by the three Thomsen parameters. In this study we calculated the parameters ɛ, δ and γ under dry and saturated conditions. We derived analytic expressions for the model proposed by Sayers & Kachanov (1995), which assumes that the contribution from the fourth rank crack density tensor is negligible. This model predicts that the elliptic anisotropy condition ɛ=δ is obeyed in a dry rock. Guided by microstructural observations we adopted a two-parameter axisymmetric distribution to characterize the crack density, which predicts that δ and γ in a fluid saturated rock are related to ɛ in a nonlinear manner. All three Thomsen parameters are sensitively dependent on the crack density difference. While our model shows basic agreement with some of the laboratory data on seismic anisotropy in saturated shale, there are discrepancies which suggest that the petrofabric associated with preferred orientation of clay minerals and elastic anisotropy of the rock matrix may have considerable influence which should not be neglected in model. Preliminary comparison with borehole log data suggests rock physics tests which may be useful for interpreting the shear wave anisotropy observations.
Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.
2013-12-01
Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica
Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh
2012-02-01
Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.
Selby, Alastair; Maldonado-Codina, Carole; Derby, Brian
2014-07-01
Nanoindentation offers a convenient method for the testing of thin hydrogel specimens, such as contact lenses, to directly assess their mechanical properties. Here we investigate the mechanical properties of poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) specimens of a range of uniform thickness values and demonstrate that, with 50 and 100μm radius spherical indenters, a significant increase in apparent elastic modulus is seen when the specimen thickness is smaller than 500μm at indentation depths <1μm. This is a manifestation of the well known indentation thickness effect but occurring at larger critical thicknesses than seen with other materials. A simple empirical relation is determined for the variation in apparent elastic modulus with normalised thickness. The empirical thickness correction function obtained from pHEMA specimens was subsequently used to correct for the thickness variation within a range of contact lenses supplied by a number of different manufacturers fabricated from both pHEMA and silicone polymers, with a range of optical strengths and hence thickness profiles. The correction function is seen to compensate for the variation in apparent elastic modulus with lens thickness for all four contact lens types, irrespective of lens material. The measured Young's modulus of the contact lens material, corrected for thickness, was compared with that quoted by the manufacturers of the contact lenses, obtained by conventional bulk mechanical testing, to find good agreement. PMID:24378734
Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan
2016-01-01
In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).
Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William
2006-03-01
In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscope’s probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)
Wave-induced response of poro-elastic offshore foundations
Toha, F.X.
1983-01-01
A plane strain analysis based on Biot's theory of consolidation is utilized to investigate the pore-water pressures and displacements induced by steady-state linear planar waves beneath offshore gravity structures placed on poro-elastic seabed of finite thickness. The response is characterized by three controlling parameters, i.e., poroelasticity factor, fluid compressibility factor, and Poisson's Ratio. A parametric study, using a range of the controlling parameters encountered in practice, indicates that the response is governed primarily by the poro-elasticity factor and to a lesser extent by Poisson's Ratio (fluid compressibility factor has negligible influence for saturated soils). For offshore gravity structures, the wave-induced moment and horizontal force exerted by the structure on the foundation contribute most to the overall response while the influence of sea water pressure penetration through the sea bottom is, in general, negligible. For smaller structures, however, the latter influence dominates the response for soils as fine as silty sand. The maximum shear strain amplitudes evaluated imply that the soil response remains primarily in the linear elastic range, even for severe storm loadings. An experimental procedure was developed for the measurement of a composite poro-elastic property which combines all the pertinent soil properties. Two test configurations were found to be suitable depending on the hydraulic conductivity of the soil considered. The results of test on nine specimens reconstituted from three soil samples conform with the theoretical estimates and indicate that the developed procedure is viable.
Elastic repulsion from polymer brush layers exhibiting high protein repellency.
Inoue, Yuuki; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko
2013-08-27
Hydrophilic poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brush layers with different thicknesses and graft densities were prepared to construct a model surface to elucidate protein-surface interactions. In particular, we focused on the steric repulsion of hydrophilic polymer layers as one of the surface properties that strongly influence protein adsorption and employed force-versus-distance (f-d) curve measurements obtained via atomic force microscopy to quantitatively evaluate the steric repulsion force, which is also referred to as the "elastic repulsion energy." We also analyzed direct interactions between the surface and proteins via the f-d curve, because these interactions trigger the protein-adsorption phenomenon. Protein-surface interactions were extremely suppressed at surfaces with high elastic repulsion energies and highly dense polymer brush structures, which is in contrast to those at surfaces with low elastic repulsion energies and low density of the grafted polymer layers. These results indicate that the elastic repulsion from the grafted polymer layer at the surface is an important parameter for controlling protein-surface interactions and protein adsorption phenomenon. PMID:23898820
Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions.
Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Tohka, Jussi; Evans, Alan C
2015-05-01
Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a large longitudinal dataset of normally growing children and adolescents (n=308), were used to build a highly accurate predictive model for estimating chronological age (cross-validated correlation up to R=0.84). Unlike previous studies which used kernelized approach in building prediction models, we used an elastic net penalized linear regression model capable of producing a spatially sparse, yet accurate predictive model of chronological age. Upon investigating different scales of cortical parcellation from 78 to 10,240 brain parcels, we observed that the accuracy in estimated age improved with increased spatial scale of brain parcellation, with the best estimations obtained for spatial resolutions consisting of 2560 and 10,240 brain parcels. The top predictors of brain maturity were found in highly localized sensorimotor and association areas. The results of our study demonstrate that cortical thickness can be used to estimate individuals' brain maturity with high accuracy, and the estimated ages relate to functional and behavioural measures, underscoring the relevance and scope of the study in the understanding of biological maturity. PMID:25731999
Fluid displacement under elastic membranes: Dynamics and interfacial instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Housseiny, Talal; Christov, Ivan; Juel, Anne; Stone, Howard
2012-11-01
The spreading of fluids under a flexible membrane is a feature of many systems such as the lateral intrusion of magma under a terrestrial crust, or when blood spreads underneath the skin giving the signature color of bruises. In this work, we investigate the displacement of a viscous fluid by a gas underneath an elastic membrane. We consider a radial Hele-Shaw cell where the upper plate is an elastic sheet. The dynamics of the interface between the injected gas and the displaced fluid are fundamentally modified by the presence of an elastic boundary, which leads to the suppression of viscous fingering below a critical flow rate. We demonstrate theoretically the mechanism of suppression and find the corresponding critical flow rate. In addition, we study the dynamics of a stable (circular) interface propagating underneath an elastic membrane and derive the scaling laws for both the position of the interface and the shape of the elastic membrane. Our theoretical findings agree very well with the experimental results of D. Pihler-Puzovic et al. (PRL 2012). T. T. Al-Housseiny is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0646086.
Transversely isotropic elastic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Lianxi; Li, Jackie
2005-01-01
Five independent effective elastic moduli of a transversely isotropic multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are studied by analyzing its deformations under four loading conditions, i.e., axial tension, torsional moment, in-plane biaxial tension, and in-plane tension-compression stress. Two distributions of the tension loading on the outermost tube and on all tubes are considered, which correspond to the tensile and compressive Young’s moduli. The general relations between the interwall stresses and strains are linearized due to the small strain condition, where the interwall stresses correspond to the variation of the interwall van der Waals forces. Three interwall elastic constants are used to characterize the linear relations associated with three basic interwall deformation modes, i.e., normal deformation in radial direction and two shear deformations in axial and circumferential directions. By taking each tube as a single-walled carbon nanotube, the analytical expressions for the interwall shear stress under the tensile loading on the outermost tube and five elastic moduli of a double-walled carbon nanotube are first obtained. Then, a replacement method is proposed to derive the corresponding expressions for the cases of more walls than two. These analytical expressions are plotted for the case of MWNT’s composed of armchair tubes, where the interwall elastic constants are approximated as the corresponding ones of the graphite. The effect of the wall number, diameter, chirality, and length of the MWNT on the shear stress and five elastic moduli are displayed and discussed.
Crumpling of an Elastic Ring in Two Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanhuss, Carter; Cheng, Shengfeng
We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the crumpling of an elastic ring (i.e., a circular elastic line) in two dimensions. The crumpling is triggered by reducing the radius of a circular repulsive wall that is used to confine the ring. The ring is modeled as a bead-spring chain. A harmonic potential describing the bonds between neighboring beads is parameterized to reproduce the Young's modulus of the elastic line in the continuum limit. A modified harmonic angle interaction is used to capture the bending of the elastic line including situations where the line is locally stretched or compressed. We have confirmed that the bead-spring model has the correct continuum limit by comparing results on rings made of different numbers of beads but with parameters derived from the same elastic line. With the computational model, we study the morphological transition of the ring and the local distribution of the bond and bending energies as the ring is compressed at various rates, forced to crumple, and finally confined into a dense-packed structure. We find that the crumpling transition signals a sharp energy transfer from the compression to the bending mode. We further explore the possibility of defining an effective temperature for such crumpled systems.
Intelligent processing for thick composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok
2000-10-01
Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was
Folding and faulting of an elastic continuum
Gourgiotis, Panos A.
2016-01-01
Folding is a process in which bending is localized at sharp edges separated by almost undeformed elements. This process is rarely encountered in Nature, although some exceptions can be found in unusual layered rock formations (called ‘chevrons’) and seashell patterns (for instance Lopha cristagalli). In mechanics, the bending of a three-dimensional elastic solid is common (for example, in bulk wave propagation), but folding is usually not achieved. In this article, the route leading to folding is shown for an elastic solid obeying the couple-stress theory with an extreme anisotropy. This result is obtained with a perturbation technique, which involves the derivation of new two-dimensional Green's functions for applied concentrated force and moment. While the former perturbation reveals folding, the latter shows that a material in an extreme anisotropic state is also prone to a faulting instability, in which a displacement step of finite size emerges. Another failure mechanism, namely the formation of dilation/compaction bands, is also highlighted. Finally, a geophysical application to the mechanics of chevron formation shows how the proposed approach may explain the formation of natural structures. PMID:27118925
Design of controlled elastic and inelastic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhorn, A. M.; Lavan, O.; Cimellaro, G. P.
2009-12-01
One of the founders of structural control theory and its application in civil engineering, Professor Emeritus Tsu T. Soong, envisioned the development of the integral design of structures protected by active control devices. Most of his disciples and colleagues continuously attempted to develop procedures to achieve such integral control. In his recent papers published jointly with some of the authors of this paper, Professor Soong developed design procedures for the entire structure using a design — redesign procedure applied to elastic systems. Such a procedure was developed as an extension of other work by his disciples. This paper summarizes some recent techniques that use traditional active control algorithms to derive the most suitable (optimal, stable) control force, which could then be implemented with a combination of active, passive and semi-active devices through a simple match or more sophisticated optimal procedures. Alternative design can address the behavior of structures using Liapunov stability criteria. This paper shows a unified procedure which can be applied to both elastic and inelastic structures. Although the implementation does not always preserve the optimal criteria, it is shown that the solutions are effective and practical for design of supplemental damping, stiffness enhancement or softening, and strengthening or weakening.
Hard elastic scattering in QCD: Leading behavior
Botts, J.F.
1989-01-01
The author derives the asymptotic behavior of elastic meson-meson and baryon-baryon scattering at high energy and large angle t/s {approximately} O(1). The results organize both Sudakov and nonleading logarithmic corrections to independent (Landshoff) scatterings of valence quarks. He shows how to separate these contributions systematically from single scattering contributions, in a manner which suggests that the complete amplitudes should be computable perturbatively down to the dimensional counting power, in terms of hadronic wave functions. In the final chapter, the perturbative asymptotic amplitude and differential cross section for elastic pion-pion scattering is calculated numerically. For various choices of pion wave function and running coupling, the onset of power law behavior, d{sigma}/dt {approximately} s{sup {minus}5.8}, was observed. The dependence in d{sigma}/dt on the cutoff in gluon momentum, chosen to be O({Lambda}{sub QCD}/Q), was observed to be sharp for ln(s/1GeV{sup 2}) less than 1. Very small oscillations in d{sigma}/dt appear in physically realizable energies, but these are cutoff dependent, and their interpretation unclear. Higher twist effects were estimated to be roughly {approximately}15% for 2 < ln(s/1GeV{sup 2}) < 10.
Duration of an elastic collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Izarra, Charles
2012-07-01
With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.
Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh
This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.
On geoid heights derived from GEOS 3 altimeter data along the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, A. B.
1979-01-01
The geoid heights derived from preliminary GEOS 3 satellite radar altimeter data over the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain are examined. Two objectives are pursued: (1) to evaluate the contribution of the topography of the seamount chain and its compensation to the marine geoid; and (2) to determine whether geoid heights derived from GEOS 3 altimeter data can be used to provide information on isostasy at geological features such as the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain which formed as relatively young loads on the oceanic lithosphere. Short-wavelength geoid highs of 5-12 m over the crest of the seamount chain and geoid lows over flanking regions are observed. The geological undulations can be explained by a simple model in which the seamount-chain load is supported by a strong rigid lithospheric plate. The elastic thickness estimates agree with values based on surface ship gravity and bathymetry observations, and provide further support to the hypothesis that the elastic thickness acquired at a surface load depends on the temperature gradient of the lithosphere at the time of loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Koiwa, Yoshiro; Butler, James P.
2003-05-01
To characterize tissues in atherosclerotic plaques, we have developed a method, the phased tracking method, for measuring the strain (change in wall thickness) and elasticity of the arterial wall. However, some types of tissue, such as lipids and blood clots, cannot be discriminated from each other based only on elasticity because of the small difference in their elasticity. For more precise tissue characterization, we are attempting to measure the regional viscoelasticity. To determine viscoelastic properties, elastic moduli at multiple frequencies were obtained by generating the change in internal pressure due to remote cyclic actuation. From basic experiments using a silicone rubber tube, it was found that the change in internal pressure at the ultrasonic beam position (for measurement of the elastic modulus) can be generated by remotely applied actuation. Furthermore, from the resultant minute changes in wall thickness of less than 10 μm measured by the phased tracking method, elastic moduli were obtained at multiple actuation frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Shahabodini, A.; Faghih Shojaei, M.
2016-02-01
In the present work, a three-dimensional (3D) elastic plate model capturing the small scale effects is developed for the free vibration of functionally graded (FG) nanoplates resting on elastic foundations. The theoretical model is formulated employing the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen in conjunction with the 3D equations of motion of elasticity.The material properties are assumed to vary continuously along the thickness of the nanoplate in accordance with the power law formulation. Through extending the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method to the three-dimensional case, the governing equations are simultaneously discretized in every three coordinate directions and are then recast to the standard form of an eigen value problem. Solving the acquired problem, the natural frequencies of the nanoplates with different boundary conditions are calculated. The convergence behavior of the numerical results is checked out and comparison studies are conducted to make sure of the accuracy and reliability of the present model. Finally, the dependence of the vibration behavior of the nanoplate on edge conditions, elastic coefficients of the foundation, scale coefficient, mode number, material and geometric parameters are discussed.
Elastic modeling and migration in Earth models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filhocunha, Carlos Alves
Migration and inversion of marine seismic data using the elastic wave equation requires the transformation of the recorded pressure data into a vector particle-displacement field. This can be done easily when the recording geometry samples the wavefield both horizontally and vertically. However, only experimental surveys have cables located at different depths. Using a few assumptions, I derive a method for performing this transformation, which is applicable to standard surveys. The assumptions are: smooth water surface, cable nearly parallel to water surface, and perfect seismic-reflection at the water surface. Results in a realistic example, where these assumptions are only partially fulfilled, demonstrate that the method is robust. Elastic, reverse-time migration/inversion schemes in the space-time domain are usually implemented by finite-difference or finite-element methods. When imaging beyond structures, a dynamically accurate scheme must be used. For models characterized by layers with sharp boundaries, traditional finite-difference methods fail to correctly describe the dynamics of the propagation process. Failure comes from the lack of distinction between model and field variables; the same difference operator is applied to discontinuous (model) and continuous (wavefield) components. The problem is solved with a modified finite-difference scheme (dual-operator), which uses long operators for wave-fields, short operators for elastic parameters, Shoenberg-Muir (1989) equivalence relations, and a modified Virieux (1984) staggered grid scheme. Tests show that the dual-operator is dynamically more accurate than traditional finite-difference schemes and comparable to Haskell-Thomson schemes. In structurally complex media, accurate recovery of angle-dependent reflectivities requires elastic prestack migration. Mode separation can be done before or after depth extrapolation. Though more complex, the latter is more complete because it images mode-converted waves
Elastic Modeling and Migration in Earth Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunha, Carlos Alves, Filho
Migration and inversion of marine seismic data using the elastic wave equation requires the transformation of the recorded pressure data into a vector particle-displacement field. This can be done easily when the recording geometry samples the wavefield both horizontally and vertically. However, only experimental surveys have cables located at different depths. Using a few assumptions, I derive a method for performing this transformation, which is applicable to standard surveys. The assumptions are: smooth water surface, cable nearly parallel to water surface, and perfect seismic -reflection at the water surface. Results in a realistic example, where these assumptions are only partially fulfilled, demonstrate that the method is robust. Elastic, reverse-time migration/inversion schemes in the space-time domain are usually implemented by finite -difference or finite-element methods. When imaging beyond structures, a dynamically accurate scheme must be used. For models characterized by layers with sharp boundaries traditional finite-difference methods fail to correctly describe the dynamics of the propagation process. Failure comes from the lack of distinction between model and field variables; the same difference operator is applied to discontinuous (model) and continuous (wavefield) components. The problem is solved with a modified finite-difference scheme (dual -operator), which uses long operators for wavefields, short operators for elastic parameters, Shoenberg-Muir (1989) equivalence relations and a modified Virieux (1984) staggered grid scheme. Tests show that the the dual-operator is dynamically more accurate than traditional finite-difference schemes and comparable to Haskell-Thomson schemes. In structurally complex media, accurate recovery of angle-dependent reflectivities requires elastic prestack migration. Mode separation can be done before or after depth extrapolation. Though more complex, the latter is more complete because it images mode
Sol-gel-derived thick-film amperometric immunosensors.
Wang, J; Pamidi, P V; Rogers, K R
1998-03-15
Sol-gel processing is used for the first time for the preparation of electrochemical immunosensors. One-step sensor fabrication, based on the coupling of sol-gel and screen-printing technologies, is employed. A low-temperature cured ink is prepared by dispersion of rabbit immunoglobulin G (RIgG), graphite powder, and a binder in the sol-gel solution. The enzyme-labeled antibody can readily diffuse toward the encapsulated antigen, which retains its binding properties, and the association reaction is easily detected at the dispersed graphite surface. Use of anti-RIgG labeled with alkaline phosphatase, naphthyl phosphate as the substrate, and amperometric detection at +400 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) results in a low detection limit of 5 ng/mL (32 pM) for the solution antigen. Tailoring the porosity of the ceramic-carbon matrix can be used for tuning the assay performance. The high sensitivity, low cost, durability, and simplicity of the new single-use immunosensors make them well suited for various on-site applications. PMID:9530007
Third-order elastic constants of the alloy Fe 72Pt 28
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinu, T. P.; Menon, C. S.
2004-09-01
The complete sets of second- and third-order elastic constants of the cubic Fe72Pt28 have been obtained using the strain energy density derived from interactions up to three nearest neighbours of each atom in the unit cell. The finite strain elasticity theory has been used to get the strain energy density of Fe72Pt28. The strain energy density is compared with the strain-dependent lattice energy density obtained from the continuum model approximation and the expressions for the second- and third-order elastic constants of Fe72Pt28 are given. The second-order potential parameter is deduced from the measured second-order elastic constants of Fe72Pt28 and the third-order potential parameter is estimated from the Lennard-Jones inter-atomic potential for Fe72Pt28. The inter-lattice displacements; the three independent second-order elastic constants and the six independent third-order elastic constants of Fe72Pt28 are also determined. The second-order elastic constants are compared with the experimental elastic constants of Fe72Pt28. We also study the effect of pressure on the second-order elastic constants of Fe72Pt28.
Following the equilibria of slender elastic rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarus, Arnaud; Miller, James; Reis, Pedro
2012-02-01
We present a novel continuation method to characterize and quantify the equilibria of elastic rods under large geometrically nonlinear displacements and rotations. To describe the kinematics we exploit the synthetic power and computational efficiency of quaternions. The energetics of bending, stretching and torsion are all taken into account to derive the equilibrium equations which we solve using an asymptotic numerical continuation method. This provides access to the full set of analytical equilibrium branches (stable and unstable), a.k.a bifurcation diagrams. This is in contrast with the individual solution points attained by classic energy minimization or predictor-corrector techniques. We challenge our numerics for the specific problem of an extremely twisted naturally curved rod and perform a detailed comparison against a precision desktop-scale experiments. The quantification of the underlying 3D buckling instabilities and the characterization of the resulting complex configurations are in excellent agreement between numerics and experiments.
Nonlinear Elasticity in a Deforming Ambient Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavari, Arash; Ozakin, Arkadas; Sadik, Souhayl
2016-07-01
In this paper, we formulate a nonlinear elasticity theory in which the ambient space is evolving. For a continuum moving in an evolving ambient space, we model time dependency of the metric by a time-dependent embedding of the ambient space in a larger manifold with a fixed background metric. We derive both the tangential and the normal governing equations. We then reduce the standard energy balance written in the larger ambient space to that in the evolving ambient space. We consider quasi-static deformations of the ambient space and show that a quasi-static deformation of the ambient space results in stresses, in general. We linearize the nonlinear theory about a reference motion and show that variation of the spatial metric corresponds to an effective field of body forces.
Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempner, Evan A.
The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure
Three-dimensional analysis of pore effect on composite elasticity by means of finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoneda, A.
2015-12-01
A three-dimensional buffer-layer finite element method (FEM) model was developed to investigate the porosity effect on macroscopic elasticity. Using the three-dimensional model, the effect of pores on bulk effective elastic properties were systematically analyzed by changing the degree of porosity, the aspect ratio of the ellipsoidal pore, and the elasticity of the material. The present results in 3D space was compared with the previous ones in 2D space. Derivatives of normalized elastic stiffness constants with respect to needle-type porosity are integers, if the Poisson ratio of a matrix material is zero; those derivatives of normalized stiffness elastic constants for C33, C44, C11, and C66 converge to -1, -2, -3, and -4, respectively, at the corresponding condition. We proposed a criterion of R <~1/3, where the mutual interaction between pores becomes negligible for macroscopic composite elasticity. These derivatives are nearly constant below 5% porosity in the case of spherical pore, suggesting that the interaction between neighboring pores is insignificant if the representative size of the pore is less than one-third of the mean distance between neighboring pores. The relations we obtained in this work were successfully applied to invert bulk modulus and rigidity of Cmcm-CaIrO3 as a case study; the performance of the inverting scheme was confirmed through this assessment. Thus the present scheme is applicable to predict macroscopic elasticity of porous object as well.
Computation of elastic properties of 3D digital cores from the Longmaxi shale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Wei-Jun
2016-06-01
The dependence of elastic moduli of shales on the mineralogy and microstructure of shales is important for the prediction of sweet spots and shale gas production. Based on 3D digital images of the microstructure of Longmaxi black shale samples using X-ray CT, we built detailed 3D digital images of cores with porosity properties and mineral contents. Next, we used finite-element (FE) methods to derive the elastic properties of the samples. The FE method can accurately model the shale mineralogy. Particular attention is paid to the derived elastic properties and their dependence on porosity and kerogen. The elastic moduli generally decrease with increasing porosity and kerogen, and there is a critical porosity (0.75) and kerogen content (ca. ≤3%) over which the elastic moduli decrease rapidly and slowly, respectively. The derived elastic moduli of gas- and oil-saturated digital cores differ little probably because of the low porosity (4.5%) of the Longmaxi black shale. Clearly, the numerical experiments demonstrated the feasibility of combining microstructure images of shale samples with elastic moduli calculations to predict shale properties.
Analysis of transverse shear strains in pre-twisted thick beams using variational asymptotic method
Ameen, Maqsood M.; Harursampath, Dineshkumar E-mail: dinesh@aero.iisc.ernet.in
2015-03-10
The cross-sectional stiffness matrix is derived for a pre-twisted, moderately thick beam made of transversely isotropic materials and having rectangular cross sections. An asymptotically-exact methodology is used to model the anisotropic beam from 3-D elasticity, without any further assumptions. The beam is allowed to have large displacements and rotations, but small strain is assumed. The strain energy is computed making use of the beam constitutive law and kinematical relations derived with the inclusion of geometrical nonlinearities and an initial twist. The energy functional is minimized making use of the Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM), thereby reducing the cross section to a point on the beam reference line with appropriate properties, forming a 1-D constitutive law. VAM is a mathematical technique employed in the current problem to rigorously split the 3-D analysis of beams into two: a 2-D analysis over the beam cross-sectional domain, which provides a compact semi-analytical form of the properties of the cross sections, and a nonlinear 1-D analysis of the beam ref-erence curve. In this method, as applied herein, the cross-sectional analysis is performed asymptotically by taking advantage of a material small parameter and two geometric small parameters. 3-D strain components are derived using kinematics and arranged in orders of the small parameters. Closed-form expressions are derived for the 3-D non-linear warping and stress fields. Warping functions are obtained by the minimization of strain energy subject to certain set of constraints that render the 1-D strain measures well-defined. The zeroth-order 3-D warping field thus yielded is then used to integrate the 3-D strain energy density over the cross section, resulting in the 1-D strain energy density, which in turn helps identify the corresponding cross-sectional stiffness matrix. The model is capable of predicting interlaminar and transverse shear stresses accurately up to first order.
Cross-Sectional Elastic Imaging of Arterial Wall Using Intravascular Ultrasonography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mita, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hiroshi; Koiwa, Yoshiro; Ichiki, Masataka; Tezuka, Fumiaki
2001-07-01
There have been several studies on the imaging of the distribution of the elasticity of the arterial wall using intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). In those studies, the elasticity is estimated only during ventricular diastole. However, the viscous characteristics of the smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall are also included in the strain measured during diastole. Alternatively, during systole, the smooth muscle has an almost purely elastic characteristic. However, the IVUS probe moves greatly due to the arrival of the pulsatile wave at the beginning of the ejection period. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to compensate for the movement of the IVUS probe in order to precisely measure the regional change in thickness of the arterial wall during one cardiac cycle. Basic experiments using a silicone rubber tube, in which pulsatile flow is generated by an artificial heart, determined the two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of the regional change in thickness and the elasticity. The obtained incremental elastic modulus coincides with that determined by the static pressure-strain test. Furthermore, in an in vitro experiment performed on an extracted human iliac artery, the 2-D distribution of elasticity is obtained and compared with pathological results.
On a compressed elastic-plastic column optimized for post-buckling behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bielski, Jan; Bochenek, Bogdan
2008-12-01
A model of a column is proposed in order to analyse the post-buckling behaviour of a structural element in the elastic-plastic deformation range. The ideal two point I-section applied here simplifies the deformation analysis, that is, the problem of development of plastic zones in a section is eliminated, but still gives the possibility for qualitative analysis and optimization of the post-critical equilibrium paths. The coefficients of linear or parabolic variability of thickness of the flanges and their distance (web width) are accepted as model parameters and hence could be used for design variables in the optimization procedure. Moreover, the stiffness of an additional elastic support of the free end of the beam is also included as a parameter or design variable. A material model is employed with non-linear asymptotic isotropic hardening without the Bauschinger effect. Change of the tangent modulus is continuous and smooth during the transition from the elastic to plastic deformation range. The main goal of the analysis is to determine the values of the design variables for which the post-critical equilibrium paths are stable at least in the specified range of a generalized displacement. The constraints for the constant volume of the flanges and web material are applied. The inequality constraints are imposed on the flange thickness and web width. Various formulations of the optimization problem are proposed for all types of non-linear behaviour, including elastic or plastic buckling and elastic or elastic-plastic post-buckling deformation.
Robustness Elasticity in Complex Networks
Matisziw, Timothy C.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Guo, Junyu
2012-01-01
Network robustness refers to a network’s resilience to stress or damage. Given that most networks are inherently dynamic, with changing topology, loads, and operational states, their robustness is also likely subject to change. However, in most analyses of network structure, it is assumed that interaction among nodes has no effect on robustness. To investigate the hypothesis that network robustness is not sensitive or elastic to the level of interaction (or flow) among network nodes, this paper explores the impacts of network disruption, namely arc deletion, over a temporal sequence of observed nodal interactions for a large Internet backbone system. In particular, a mathematical programming approach is used to identify exact bounds on robustness to arc deletion for each epoch of nodal interaction. Elasticity of the identified bounds relative to the magnitude of arc deletion is assessed. Results indicate that system robustness can be highly elastic to spatial and temporal variations in nodal interactions within complex systems. Further, the presence of this elasticity provides evidence that a failure to account for nodal interaction can confound characterizations of complex networked systems. PMID:22808060
Kinematic support using elastic elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.
1988-01-01
The design of kinematic supports using elastic elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold strain attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base strains due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.
A problem in micropolar elasticity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivas, S.
1973-01-01
In this paper a three-dimensional analysis for statics and dynamics of a class of simply supported rectangular plates made up of micropolar elastic material is presented. The solution is in the form of series, in which each term is explicitly determined. For free vibrations, the frequencies are obtained by the solution of a closed form characteristic equation.
Pilot Study of Debt Elasticity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Tony
2006-01-01
This report examines the relationship between student loan debt and the manner in which that debt is described. It focuses on three forms of description: (1) monthly payments, (2) total debt, and (3) income after graduation. The authors used the term elasticity to describe the relationship between consumers' college choices and the retention…
Duration of an Elastic Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Izarra, Charles
2012-01-01
With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…
Tectonic determinations of lithospheric thickness on Ganymede and Callisto
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croft, S. K.
1985-01-01
The concept of the Maxwell time of a viscoelastic material (4.5) is used in conjunction with calculated thermal profiles to evaluate the significance of tectonic estimates of lithospheric thickness. Thermal lithospheric thicknesses provide fundamental constraints on planetary thermal histories that complement the constraints provided by dateable surface deposits of endogenic origin. Lithospheric constraints are of particular value on the icy satellites where our understanding of both rheology and surface ages is considerably poorer than it is for the terrestrial planets. Certain extensional tectonic features can and have been used to estimate lithospheric thicknesses on Ganymede and Callisto. These estimates, however, refer to the depth of the elastic lithosphere defined by the zone of brittle failure. The relation between the elastic lithosphere and the thermal lithosphere (generally defined by the zone of conductive heat transport) is not straightforward, because the depth of brittle failure depends not only on the thermal profile, but also on rheology and strain rate (or the characteristic time over which stresses build towards failure). Characteristic time considerations are not trivial in this context because stresses generating brittle failure on the icy satellites may be produced by impacts, with characteristic times of seconds to days, or by geologic processes with time scales of hundreds of millions of years.
A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld
Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel; Rocha, Roldão da E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx
2013-02-01
Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.
Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.
1987-01-01
Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.
Fabry-Perot Laser Ultrasonic Elastic Anisotropy Measurements on a Moving Paper Web
Walter, John Bradley; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Gerhardstein, J. P.; Pufahl, B. M.; Habeger, C. C; Lafond, E. M.; Brodeur, P. H.
1999-07-01
On-line measurement of material properties is a goal of many manufacturers to improve production and quality. The elastic stiffness of paper is important for the paper industry. Currently, the elastic constants of paper are measured offline with contact ultrasonic methods [1-4]. Piezoelectric transducers are placed in contact with the paper surface to generate and detect plate wave modes, known as Lamb wave modes [5-7]. At low frequencies, where the wavelength of the elastic wave is larger than the paper thickness, two wave modes dominate in the paper, an anti-symmetric or flexural mode and a symmetric or thickness mode. Measurements of the phase velocities of these modes along both the machine direction (MD) and the perpendicular cross direction (CD) of the paper web provide an important parameter revealing the increased stiffness in the paper along the MD direction.
Mercury's lithospheric thickness and crustal density, as inferred from MESSENGER observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, P. B.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Solomon, S. C.
2015-12-01
The gravity field and topography of Mercury measured by the MESSENGER spacecraft have provided insights into the thickness of the planet's elastic lithosphere, Te. We localized the HgM006 free-air gravity anomaly and gtmes_125v03 shape datasets to search for theoretical elastic thickness solutions that best fit a variety of localized coherence spectra between Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. We adopted a crustal density of ρcrust =2700 kg m-3 for the Bouguer gravity correction, but density uncertainty did not markedly affect the elastic thickness estimates. A best-fit solution in the northern smooth plains (NSP) gives an elastic thickness of Te =30-60 km at the time of formation of topography for a range of ratios of top to bottom loading from 1 to 5. For a mechanical lithosphere with a thickness of ~2Te and a temperature of 1600 °C at the base, this solution is consistent with a geothermal gradient of 9-18 K km-1. A similar coherence analysis exterior to the NSP produces an elastic thickness estimate of Te =20-50 km, albeit with a poorer fit. Coherence in the northern hemisphere as a whole does not approach zero at any wavelength, because of the presence of variations in crustal thickness that are unassociated with elastic loading. The ratios and correlations of gravity and topography at intermediate wavelengths (harmonic degree l between 30 and 50) also constrain regional crustal densities. We localized gravity and topography with a moving Slepian taper and calculated regionally averaged crustal densities with the approximation ρcrust=Zl/(2πG), where Zl is the localized admittance and G is the gravitational constant. The only regional density estimates greater than 2000 kg m-3 for l=30 correspond to the NSP. Density estimates outside of the NSP were unreasonably low, even for highly porous crust. We attribute these low densities to the confounding effects of crustal thickness variations and Kaula filtering of the gravity dataset at the highest harmonic
Elastic And Plastic Deformations In Butt Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1992-01-01
Report presents study of mathematical modeling of stresses and strains, reaching beyond limits of elasticity, in bars and plates. Study oriented toward development of capability to predict stresses and resulting elastic and plastic strains in butt welds.
Tissue thickness calculation in ocular optical coherence tomography
Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Vincent, Stephen J.; Collins, Michael J.; Wojtkowski, Maciej
2016-01-01
Thickness measurements derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the eye are a fundamental clinical and research metric, since they provide valuable information regarding the eye’s anatomical and physiological characteristics, and can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of numerous ocular conditions. Despite the importance of these measurements, limited attention has been given to the methods used to estimate thickness in OCT images of the eye. Most current studies employing OCT use an axial thickness metric, but there is evidence that axial thickness measures may be biased by tilt and curvature of the image. In this paper, standard axial thickness calculations are compared with a variety of alternative metrics for estimating tissue thickness. These methods were tested on a data set of wide-field chorio-retinal OCT scans (field of view (FOV) 60° x 25°) to examine their performance across a wide region of interest and to demonstrate the potential effect of curvature of the posterior segment of the eye on the thickness estimates. Similarly, the effect of image tilt was systematically examined with the same range of proposed metrics. The results demonstrate that image tilt and curvature of the posterior segment can affect axial tissue thickness calculations, while alternative metrics, which are not biased by these effects, should be considered. This study demonstrates the need to consider alternative methods to calculate tissue thickness in order to avoid measurement error due to image tilt and curvature. PMID:26977367
Soft elasticity in solids composed of ellipse-shaped particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhonta, Simiso K.; Vernon, Daniel; Elder, K. R.; Grant, Martin
2013-03-01
We present a method for studying the influence of internal rotational degrees of freedom on the elastic properties of crystals composed of ellipsoidal particles. We derive the conditions under which a stretched-triangular lattice of ellipsoidal particles can exhibit a vanishing shear modulus. Analytical predictions are confirmed with numerical calculations. Numerical results also show that internal rotational modes can delay the proliferation of dislocations in the plastic regime.
Durand, Letícia Brandão; Guimarães, Jackeline Coutinho; Monteiro Junior, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cavity depth, ceramic thickness, and resin bases with different elastic modulus on von Mises stress patterns of ceramic inlays. Tridimensional geometric models were developed with SolidWorks image software. The differences between the models were: depth of pulpal wall, ceramic thickness, and presence of composite bases with different thickness and elastic modulus. The geometric models were constrained at the proximal surfaces and base of maxillary bone. A load of 100 N was applied. The stress distribution pattern was analyzed with von Mises stress diagrams. The maximum von Mises stress values ranged from 176 MPa to 263 MPa and varied among the 3D-models. The highest von Mises stress value was found on models with 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay. Intermediate values (249-250 MPa) occurred on models with 2-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay and 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 2-mm-thick ceramic inlay. The lowest values were observed on models restored exclusively with ceramic inlay (176 MPa to 182 MPa). It was found that thicker inlays distribute stress more favorably and bases with low elastic modulus increase stress concentrations on the internal surface of the ceramic inlay. The increase of ceramic thickness tends to present more favorable stress distribution, especially when bonded directly onto the cavity without the use of supporting materials. When the use of a composite base is required, composite resin with high elastic modulus and reduced thickness should be preferred. PMID:25831105
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji
2012-07-01
Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.
The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.
Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E
1994-06-01
Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780
The transient responses of magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Peng-Fei; Leung, Andrew Y. T.
2004-08-01
By virtue of the separation of variables and orthogonal expansion technique, the plane strain dynamic problem of a magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinder is reduced to two integral equations of two time functions. Then, by means of the interpolation method, the integral equations are solved successfully. As a result, all the transient responses of displacements, stresses, electric potentials, electric displacements, magnetic potentials and magnetic inductions are completely obtained. The present method is suitable for the analysis of hollow cylinders with arbitrary thickness and subjected to arbitrary mechanical and electromagnetic loads. Numerical results are also presented.
Elastic torsional buckling of thin-walled composite cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marlowe, D. E.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Dexter, H. B.
1974-01-01
The elastic torsional buckling strength has been determined experimentally for thin-walled cylinders fabricated with glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite materials and composite-reinforced aluminum and titanium. Cylinders have been tested with several unidirectional-ply orientations and several cross-ply layups. Specimens were designed with diameter-to-thickness ratios of approximately 150 and 300 and in two lengths of 10 in. and 20 in. The results of these tests were compared with the buckling strengths predicted by the torsional buckling analysis of Chao.
A simple formula to determine the bolus thickness on an oblique surface
Vossler, Matthew
2014-07-01
For certain clinical situations such as breast treatments, a bolus is used and must be accounted for in monitor unit calculations. Because of the oblique incidence involved, the thickness of bolus traversed by the radiation beam, as opposed to its nominal thickness, must be used. Using principles of geometry, a simple method is derived to calculate the thickness of bolus for these calculations.
The vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuzzi, J. N.; Durisen, R. H.; Burns, J. A.; Hamill, P.
1979-01-01
The steady state thickness and vertical structure of Saturn's rings are discussed with regard to whether a collapse to a monolayer due to particle collisions may be prevented by various mechanisms. The differences between thick rings and wavy monolayers are outlined and used to show that such coherent perturbations to the rings as satellite and solar gravitational effects would produce a wavy monolayer while such dispersive mechanisms as meteoroid impact, radiation pressure, Kepler shear and radial spreading, which would produce the random particle motions necessary to maintain a thick layer, are probably insignificant. Given a typical power law distribution of particle sizes, it is found that gravitational scattering of small particles by large ones would maintain a ring thickness of several times the radius of the largest particles. A steady state ring thickness of 20 to 50 meters, derived from energy considerations, would imply a maximum particle size of a few meters.
Thick-walled composite tubes under mechanical and hygrothermal loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuetrich, C.
1992-11-01
The stresses in long thick-walled composite tubes were determined analytically for loading by internal and external pressure, longitudinal forces and twisting moments. Effects of thermal and hygrothermal expansion were also treated. The solution is restricted to tubes built up from one or more layers with macroscopically orthotropic properties. Such layers may be produced, for example, by filament winding or winding of textile reinforcements. It was shown how the elastic and hygrothermal parameters of the macroscopically orthotropic materials may be calculated by homogenization of the properties of uniaxially reinforced materials.
Defect Dependent Elasticity: Nanoindentation as a Probe of Stress-State
JARAUSCH,K.F.; KIELY,J.D.; HOUSTON,JACK E.; RUSSELL,P.E.
2000-01-18
Nanoindentation studies reveal that the measured elastic properties of materials can be strongly dependent upon their stress-state and defect structure. Using an interfacial force microscope (IFM), the measured elastic response of 100 nm thick Au films was found to be strongly correlated with the films' stress state and thermal history. Indentation elasticity was also found to vary in close proximity to grain boundaries in thin films and near surface steps on single crystal surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these results cannot be explained by elasticity due only to bond stretching. Instead, the measured elastic properties appear to be a combination of bond and defect compliance representing a composite modulus. We propose that stress concentration arising from the structure of grains, voids and grain boundaries is the source of an additional compliance which is sensitive to the stress state and thermal history of a material. The elastic properties of thin metallic films appear to reflect the collective elastic response of the grains, voids and grain boundaries. These results demonstrate that nanoindentation can be useful as a highly localized probe of stress-state and defect structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namani, Ravi
Mechanical properties are essential for understanding diseases that afflict various soft tissues, such as osteoarthritic cartilage and hypertension which alters cardiovascular arteries. Although the linear elastic modulus is routinely measured for hard materials, standard methods are not available for extracting the nonlinear elastic, linear elastic and time-dependent properties of soft tissues. Consequently, the focus of this work is to develop indentation methods for soft biological tissues; since analytical solutions are not available for the general context, finite element simulations are used. First, parametric studies of finite indentation of hyperelastic layers are performed to examine if indentation has the potential to identify nonlinear elastic behavior. To answer this, spherical, flat-ended conical and cylindrical tips are examined and the influence of thickness is exploited. Also the influence of the specimen/substrate boundary condition (slip or non-slip) is clarified. Second, a new inverse method---the hyperelastic extraction algorithm (HPE)---was developed to extract two nonlinear elastic parameters from the indentation force-depth data, which is the basic measurement in an indentation test. The accuracy of the extracted parameters and the influence of noise in measurements on this accuracy were obtained. This showed that the standard Berkovitch tip could only extract one parameter with sufficient accuracy, since the indentation force-depth curve has limited sensitivity to both nonlinear elastic parameters. Third, indentation methods for testing tissues from small animals were explored. New methods for flat-ended conical tips are derived. These account for practical test issues like the difficulty in locating the surface or soft specimens. Also, finite element simulations are explored to elucidate the influence of specimen curvature on the indentation force-depth curve. Fourth, the influence of inhomogeneity and material anisotropy on the extracted
Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.
Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar
2014-07-01
Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported. PMID:24793408
Reservoir characterization combining elastic velocities and electrical resistivity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Carmen Teresa
2009-12-01
for seismic inversion, we found that appropriate elastic and resistivity models must be chosen in order to have a good prediction of acoustic impedance, given resistivity. These expressions can be calibrated using well data with particular emphasis to the overburden. If no well log data are available in the shallow section, using the CSEM-derived resistivity data and an adequate cross-property relation (for example, one based on soft-sand model and Archie's equation) can be a good approach to predict the initial low frequency shallow acoustic impedance model. Validation tests showed that using the background trend from CSEM data as a constraint in impedance inversion can give a better fit to the acoustic impedance. As part of our analysis of gas hydrate bearing sandstones, we found that normalized resistivity versus P-wave impedance templates can also be useful to predict reservoir properties, such as porosity and saturation for a gas-hydrate reservoir at well log scale. Porosity and saturation prediction of the hydrate-bearing layer from seismic data alone is highly dependent on its thickness and the properties of the overburden, and requires well-control data that can point to appropriate models and properties to use for the overburden. However, it would be interesting to test, using a resistivity model obtained from seismic data as the initial input, a CSEM inversion on a gas-hydrate-bearing sandstone.
Optimization of ceramic strength using elastic gradients.
Zhang, Yu; Ma, Li
2009-05-01
We present a new concept for strengthening ceamics by utilizing a graded structure with a low elastic modulus at both top and bottom surfaces sandwiching a high-modulus interior. Closed-form equations have been developed for stress analysis of simply supported graded sandwich beams subject to transverse center loads. Theory predicts that suitable modulus gradients at the ceramic surface can effectively reduce and spread the maximum bending stress from the surface into the interior. The magnitude of such stress dissipation is governed by the thickness ratio of the beam to the graded layers. We test our concept by infiltrating both top and bottom surfaces of a strong class of zirconia ceramic with an in-house prepared glass of similar coefficient of thermal expansion and Poisson's ratio to zirconia, producing a controlled modulus gradient at the surface without significant long-range residual stresses. The resultant graded glass/zirconia/glass composite exhibits significantly higher load-bearing capacity than homogeneous zirconia. PMID:20161019
Optimization of ceramic strength using elastic gradients
Zhang, Yu; Ma, Li
2009-01-01
We present a new concept for strengthening ceamics by utilizing a graded structure with a low elastic modulus at both top and bottom surfaces sandwiching a high-modulus interior. Closed-form equations have been developed for stress analysis of simply supported graded sandwich beams subject to transverse center loads. Theory predicts that suitable modulus gradients at the ceramic surface can effectively reduce and spread the maximum bending stress from the surface into the interior. The magnitude of such stress dissipation is governed by the thickness ratio of the beam to the graded layers. We test our concept by infiltrating both top and bottom surfaces of a strong class of zirconia ceramic with an in-house prepared glass of similar coefficient of thermal expansion and Poisson’s ratio to zirconia, producing a controlled modulus gradient at the surface without significant long-range residual stresses. The resultant graded glass/zirconia/glass composite exhibits significantly higher load-bearing capacity than homogeneous zirconia. PMID:20161019
Laser detection of material thickness
Early, James W.
2002-01-01
There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.
Elastic cone for Chinese calligraphy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Fenglei; Li, Haisheng
2014-01-01
The brush plays an important role in creating Chinese calligraphy. We regard a single bristle of a writing brush as an elastic rod and the brush tuft absorbing ink as an elastic cone, which naturally deforms according to the force exerted on it when painting on a paper, and the brush footprint is formed by the intersection region between the deformed tuft and the paper plane. To efficiently generate brush strokes, this paper introduces interpolation and texture mapping approach between two adjacent footprints, and automatically applies bristle-splitting texture to the stroke after long-time painting. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective and reliable. Users can create realistic calligraphy in real time.
Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Christopher D.
1992-07-01
This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.
Elastic Flows Of Ellipsoidal Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Charles S.
2009-06-01
Granular flow rheology can be divided into two global regimes, the Elastic, which is dominated by force chains and the inertial which are nearly free of force chains. The propensity of a material to form force chains is strongly influenced by particle shape. This paper is an attempt to assess the effect of particle shape on flow regime transitions, through computer simulations of shear flow of ellipsoidal particles. On one hand, the results show that at a given concentration, ellipsoidal particles generate smaller quasistatic stress than spheres, likely a result of their ability to form denser static packings. But at the same time, large aspect ratio ellipsoids more readily form force chains and demonstrate Elastic behavior at smaller concentrations than spheres.
Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Christopher D.
1992-01-01
This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heyden, S.; Li, B.; Weinberg, K.; Conti, S.; Ortiz, M.
2015-01-01
We formulate a simple one-parameter macroscopic model of distributed damage and fracture of polymers that is amenable to a straightforward and efficient numerical implementation. We show that the macroscopic model can be rigorously derived, in the sense of optimal scaling, from a micromechanical model of chain elasticity and failure regularized by means of fractional strain-gradient elasticity. In particular, we derive optimal scaling laws that supply a link between the single parameter of the macroscopic model, namely, the critical energy-release rate of the material, and micromechanical parameters pertaining to the elasticity and strength of the polymer chains and to the strain-gradient elasticity regularization. We show how the critical energy-release rate of specific materials can be determined from test data. Finally, we demonstrate the scope and fidelity of the model by means of an example of application, namely, Taylor-impact experiments of polyurea 1000 rods.
Stability of elastically supported columns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niles, Alfred S; Viscovich, Steven J
1942-01-01
A criterion is developed for the stiffness required of elastic lateral supports at the ends of a compression member to provide stability. A method based on this criterion is then developed for checking the stability of a continuous beam-column. A related method is also developed for checking the stability of a member of a pin-jointed truss against rotation in the plane of the truss.
Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.
2015-10-01
A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the
Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range
Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.
2007-09-15
Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical
Modeling of thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Xuehua
2015-02-01
The performance and reliability of multilayer coating systems are strongly influenced by thermal stresses. The present study develops an alternative analytical model to predict the thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems. An exact closed-form solution is obtained which is independent of the number of coating layers. In addition, with the definition of the coordinate system, the closed-form solution is concisely formulated. Specific results are calculated for thermal stresses in HfO2/SiO2 multilayer optical coatings, and a finite element analysis is performed to confirm the analytical results. The two results agree fairly well with each other. Also, when the thicknesses of the coating layers are much less than the substrate thickness, the approximate solution is obtained based on the exact closed-form solution, and its accuracy is examined.
Improved Indentation Test for Measuring Nonlinear Elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.
2004-01-01
A cylindrical-punch indentation technique has been developed as a means of measuring the nonlinear elastic responses of materials -- more specifically, for measuring the moduli of elasticity of materials in cases in which these moduli vary with applied loads. This technique offers no advantage for characterizing materials that exhibit purely linear elastic responses (constant moduli of elasticity, independent of applied loads). However, the technique offers a significant advantage for characterizing such important materials as plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings, which, in cyclic loading, exhibit nonlinear elasticity with hysteresis related to compaction and sliding within their microstructures.
Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, T. A.
1984-01-01
Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.
Metal thickness measurements using radiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achrekar, P. M.
1986-04-01
The present invention relates broadly to a radiographic inspection technique, and in particular to a metal thickness measurement method using radiography. The localized areas wherein the effective metal thickness is less than the minimum that is required for radiation shielding and which can render a shielding enclosure functionless, is readily determined. The invention comprises a process for assuring metal thickness in small regions. The actual metal thickness of small regions can be verified by comparing the optical densities of sections of the metal i.e., stepwedge. A comparator microphotometer, which compares optical densities of spectrum lines from spectrophotometers, compares the optical density of spectrum lines on an exposed spectrum plate (metal under test) with a standard plate (stepwedge).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.
2016-06-01
Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difﬁculties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.
Shi, P; Chen, C Q; Zou, W N
2015-01-01
Coupled shear (SH) elastic and electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating oblique to a one dimensional periodic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic composite are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Closed-form expression of the dispersion relations is derived. We find that the band structures of the periodic composite show simultaneously the features of phononic and photonic crystals. Strong interaction between the elastic and EM waves near the center of the Brillouin zone (i.e., phonon-polariton) is revealed. It is shown the elastic branch of the band structures is more sensitive to the piezoelectric effect while the phonon-polariton is more sensitive to the piezomagnetic effect of the composite. PMID:25200701
Resistance and elasticity of the suture threads employed in cardiac bioprostheses.
García Paez, J M; Carrera San Martin, A; García Sestafe, J V; Jorge-Herrero, E; Millán, I; Navidad, R; Cordón, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L
1994-10-01
The mechanoelastic features of five types of sutures were studied. The breaking stress for each was determined by means of tensile tests in which a constant strain rate was applied, and a tensile test with graduated stress and relaxation defined the elastic limit, i.e. the point beyond which deformation becomes irreversible. The study of the stress-strain curve during this elastic period enabled us to obtain the mathematical function that governs these reversible deformations, which shows excellence of fit (R2 > 0.98). The prime derivative at each point of the resulting functions is the elastic modulus, the best parameter for comparing the elasticities of the suture threads. Since breaking stress alone does not suitably define the mechanical quality of a suture, we propose the use of other parameters during the elastic period, such as percentage of elongation at a point 10 times lower than the elastic limit (safety coefficient of 10), and tensile stress and elastic modulus at the said point, which are more reliable in the assessment of the resistance and elasticity of these threads. PMID:7841295
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Ashrafi, M. A.; Pourashraf, T.; Sahmani, S.
2015-04-01
The buckling and vibration responses of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to thermal loading are studied in prebuckling domain with considering the effect of surface stress. To accomplish this purpose, Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is incorporated into the classical plate theory to develop a non-classical plate model including the surface effects. The material properties of FGM nanoplate are considered to be graded in the thickness direction on the basis of the power law function. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive size-dependent governing differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the importance of surface stress effect. It is revealed that in the presence of surface stress effect, the influence of material property gradient index on the critical thermal buckling load is more prominent for FGM nanoplates with lower length-to-thickness ratios. Also, by increasing the natural frequency of FGM nanoplate, the role of surface stress effect in the value of critical thermal buckling load is more prominent.
Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn
Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.
2010-04-15
The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.
Ab-initio study of electronic structure and elastic properties of ZrC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.
2016-05-01
The electronic and elastic properties of ZrC have been investigated using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of density functional theory. Different exchange-correlation functionals are taken into account within generalized gradient approximation. We have computed energy bands, density of states, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, lattice parameters and pressure derivative of the bulk modulus by calculating ground state energy of the rock salt structure type ZrC.
Multidimensional smooth loops with universal elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhukashev, K. R.; Shelekhov, A. M.
2015-05-01
Let \\widetilde E be a universal (isotopically invariant) identity that is derived from the elasticity identity E\\colon (xy)x=x(yx). One of the authors has previously shown that a) each local loop of dimension r with identity \\widetilde E (briefly, a loop \\widetilde E) is a smooth middle Bol loop of dimension r; b) smooth two-dimensional loops \\widetilde E are Lie groups; c) up to isotopy, there exist only two three-dimensional loops \\widetilde E: the loops E_1 and E_2. In this paper, the loops E_1 and E_2 are extended to the multidimensional case. The fact that each smooth loop \\widetilde E of dimension r corresponds to a unique multidimensional three-web on a manifold of dimension 2r is key to our work. In addition, the class of loops under investigation is characterized by the fact that the torsion tensor of the corresponding web has rank 1 (that is, the algebra generated by this tensor has a one-dimensional derived algebra). This enables us to express the differential equations of the problem in an invariant form. The system of equations thus obtained was found to be amenable to integration in the most general case, and the equations of the required loops have been obtained in local coordinates. Bibliography: 17 titles.
Shape Selection in the non-Euclidean Model of Elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gemmer, John
In this dissertation we investigate the behavior of radially symmetric non-Euclidean plates of thickness t with constant negative Gaussian curvature. We present a complete study of these plates using the Foppl-von Karman and Kirchhoff reduced theories of elasticity. Motivated by experimental results, we focus on deformations with a periodic profile. For the Foppl-von Karman model, we prove rigorously that minimizers of the elastic energy converge to saddle shaped isometric immersions. In studying this convergence, we prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the energy that scale like the thickness t squared. Furthermore, for deformation with n-waves we prove that the lower bound scales like nt2 while the upper bound scales like n2t2. We also investigate the scaling with thickness of boundary layers where the stretching energy is concentrated with decreasing thickness. For the Kichhoff model, we investigate isometric immersions of disks with constant negative curvature into R2, and the minimizers for the bending energy, i.e. the L2 norm of the principal curvatures over the class of W2,2 isometric immersions. We show the existence of smooth immersions of arbitrarily large geodesic balls in the hyperbolic plane into Euclidean space. In elucidating the connection between these immersions and the non-existence/singularity results of Hilbert and Amsler, we obtain a lower bound for the L infinity norm of the principal curvatures for such smooth isometric immersions. We also construct piecewise smooth isometric immersions that have a periodic profile, are globally W2,2, and numerically have lower bending energy than their smooth counterparts. The number of periods in these configurations is set by the condition that the principal curvatures of the surface remain finite and grow approximately exponentially with the radius of the disc.
Supersonic flow past oscillating airfoils including nonlinear thickness effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dyke, Milton D
1954-01-01
A solution to second order in thickness is derived for harmonically oscillating two-dimensional airfoils in supersonic flow. For slow oscillations of an arbitrary profile, the result is found as a series including the third power of frequency. For arbitrary frequencies, the method of solution for any specific profile is indicated, and the explicit solution derived for a single wedge. Nonlinear thickness effects are found generally to reduce the torsional damping, and so enlarge the range of Mach numbers within which torsional instability is possible.
Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.
Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2013-08-01
Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension d
Dynamic Models of Robots with Elastic Hinges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krakhmalev, O. N.
2016-04-01
Two dynamic models of robots with elastic hinges are considered. Dynamic models are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Dynamic models make it possible to determine the elastic deviations from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. One model is the exact implementation of the Lagrange method and makes it possible to determine the total elastic deviation of the robot from the programmed motion trajectory. Another dynamic model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by two models are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered models can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the robots.
Comparison of elasticities of components of a cardiac bioprosthesis leaflet.
Páez, J M; San Martin, A C; Sestafe, J V; Jorge-Herrero, E; Navidad, R; Cordón, A; Candela, I; Castillo-Olivares, J L
1996-01-01
The mechanoelastic behavior of calf pericardium employed in cardiac bioprostheses was compared with that of three types of thread (Nylon, Prolene, and silk) used to suture this biological tissue. The elastic limit (EL) of each material was determined by means of tensile tests and the mathematical functions that govern the stress/strain curves within the EL have been described. The first derivative of these functions for each point to the curves allowed the immediate calculation of the elastic modulus (EM), which was considered the best parameter for comparing the elasticities of the materials being assessed. It was observed that the deformation of the pericardium produced by the working stress of a pericardial leaflet was approximately 1000 times greater than that produced in the surgical threads. When the elasticities were compared on the basis of the EM, that of pericardium was 749.06, 626.95, and 1253.17 times greater than that of the Nylon, Prolene, and silk suture threads, respectively. These results demonstrate that the interaction between these materials (pericardium and the threads) could be generating detrimental forces that can diminish the durability of the leaflets of the bioprostheses constructed of calf pericardium. PMID:8788105
Dynamic elastic moduli during isotropic densification of initially granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.
2016-03-01
The elastic properties of homogeneous, isotropic materials are well constrained. However, in heterogeneous and evolving materials, these essential properties are less well-explored. During sintering of volcanic ash particles by viscous processes as well as during compaction and cementation of sediments, microstructure and porosity undergo changes that affect bulk dynamic elastic properties. Here using a model system of glass particles as an analogue for initially granular rock-forming materials, we have determined porosity and P-wave velocity during densification. Using these results, we test models for the kinetics of densification and the resultant evolution of the elastic properties to derive a quantitative description of the coupling between the kinetics of isotropic densification and the evolving dynamic elastic moduli. We demonstrate the power of the resultant model on a wide range of data for non-coherent sediments as well as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. We propose that such constraints be viewed as an essential ingredient of time-dependent models for the deformation of evolving materials in volcanoes and sedimentary basins.
Kernelized Elastic Net Regularization: Generalization Bounds, and Sparse Recovery.
Feng, Yunlong; Lv, Shao-Gao; Hang, Hanyuan; Suykens, Johan A K
2016-03-01
Kernelized elastic net regularization (KENReg) is a kernelization of the well-known elastic net regularization (Zou & Hastie, 2005 ). The kernel in KENReg is not required to be a Mercer kernel since it learns from a kernelized dictionary in the coefficient space. Feng, Yang, Zhao, Lv, and Suykens ( 2014 ) showed that KENReg has some nice properties including stability, sparseness, and generalization. In this letter, we continue our study on KENReg by conducting a refined learning theory analysis. This letter makes the following three main contributions. First, we present refined error analysis on the generalization performance of KENReg. The main difficulty of analyzing the generalization error of KENReg lies in characterizing the population version of its empirical target function. We overcome this by introducing a weighted Banach space associated with the elastic net regularization. We are then able to conduct elaborated learning theory analysis and obtain fast convergence rates under proper complexity and regularity assumptions. Second, we study the sparse recovery problem in KENReg with fixed design and show that the kernelization may improve the sparse recovery ability compared to the classical elastic net regularization. Finally, we discuss the interplay among different properties of KENReg that include sparseness, stability, and generalization. We show that the stability of KENReg leads to generalization, and its sparseness confidence can be derived from generalization. Moreover, KENReg is stable and can be simultaneously sparse, which makes it attractive theoretically and practically. PMID:26735744
Implementation of a Combined Elastic-Viscous-Plastic and Collisional Sea Ice Rheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rynders, Stefanie; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Feltham, Daniel
2015-04-01
The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) is a transitional area between the open ocean and pack ice. The MIZ is present in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and measures up to several hundred kilometers across. It is characterized by high surface ocean waves and consists of severely fragmented sea ice with ice floes less than 100m in diameter. With declining summer Arctic sea ice cover and increased wave heights in the Arctic Ocean, in the Arctic the MIZ widened by about 40 percent during the last three decades. The changes in sea ice and growing economic activity in the Polar Oceans necessitate new climate and forecasting models that can simulate the MIZ. Current models are not fit for the purpose since they do not model the surface ocean waves, which determine the MIZ width, or the sea ice rheology that represents MIZ ice dynamics. This study presents an implementation of collisional ice rheology that takes into account jostling of ice floes and also includes the effects of the ice floe distribution on internal ice stresses. The collisional contribution is derived from the magnitude of velocity fluctuations of ice floes. These are calculated from a kinetic energy evolution equation for the ice floes. Properties taken from a coupled wave-in-ice module determine the maximum floe size. This information is taken form a coupled wave-in-ice module. The rheology is derived in the framework of the Elastic-Viscous-Plastic rheology. This allows combination with the Elastic-Viscous-Plastic rheology and thus formulation of a unified sea ice rheology suitable for both the central pack ice and MIZ. The combined ice rheology is implemented in the Los Alamos CICE model and tested in the 2-degree resolution global NEMO Ocean General Circulation model. The 10-year run is forced by CORE2 climatological forcing. Prelimary results show that in the Arctic the new rheology decreases ice thicknesses near the coasts where ice is stationary. Overall, the change in the basin-scale Arctic ice thickness is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi
2004-05-01
To characterize tissues in atherosclerotic plaques, we have developed a method, the phased tracking method, for measuring the strain (change in wall thickness) and elasticity of the arterial wall. However, some types of tissue, such as lipids and blood clots, cannot be discriminated from each other based only on elasticity due to the small difference in their elasticity. For more precise tissue characterization, we have measured the regional viscoelasticity. To obtain the viscoelasticity, in this study, elastic moduli at multiple frequencies were measured with ultrasound by generating the change in internal pressure due to remote cyclic actuation. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall was estimated from the measured elastic moduli at multiple actuation frequencies.
Radar Interferometric Possibilities for Determining Sea Ice Thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hensley, S.; Holt, B.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Steward, J.; Oveisgharan, S.; Moller, D.; Mahoney, A. R.; Reis, J.
2014-12-01
Sea ice thickness is a primary indicator of climate change in the polar oceans, as the thickness is a time-integrated result of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The large-scale ocean and atmospheric forcing acts on the fine-scale (a few to 10s of meters) opening and closing of the sea ice cover along fractures. The mean thickness and variance of sea thickness at km scales (50 cm uncertainty) are derived from recent spaceborne observations from the ICESat lidar and in the Arctic from sporadic upward looking sonar measurements. However, accurate measurements of sea ice thickness at the fine-scales at which the forcing is occurring are virtually non-existent. In this paper we explore two potential radar interferometric means of obtaining sea ice thickness. One method uses high frequency Ka-band (8.5 mm wavelength) to infer sea ice thickness by measuring elevations to the surface of the ice and to the ocean surface in nearby open leads. Data from the NASA Glistin radar is used to illustrate this methodology. Alternatively, we consider the use of dual frequency X-band and P-band (3 cm and 85 cm wavelengths) to exploit the differential penetration of longer versus shorter wavelength to estimate sea ice thickness. This technique is illustrated with data collected by the Furgo Earthdata GeoSAR system. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Lu, DongQiang
2013-11-01
An analytic approximation method known as the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to study the nonlinear hydroelastic progressive waves traveling in an infinite elastic plate such as an ice sheet or a very large floating structure (VLFS) on the surface of deep water. A convergent analytical series solution for the plate deflection is derived by choosing the optimal convergencecontrol parameter. Based on the analytical solution the effects of different parameters are considered. We find that the plate deflection becomes lower with an increasing Young's modulus of the plate. The displacement tends to be flattened at the crest and be sharpened at the trough as the thickness of the plate increases, and the larger density of the plate also causes analogous results. Furthermore, it is shown that the hydroelastic response of the plate is greatly affected by the high-amplitude incident wave. The results obtained can help enrich our understanding of the nonlinear hydroelastic response of an ice sheet or a VLFS on the water surface.
The estimated elastic constants for a single bone osteonal lamella.
Yoon, Young June; Cowin, Stephen C
2008-02-01
Micromechanical estimates of the elastic constants for a single bone osteonal lamella and its substructures are reported. These estimates of elastic constants are accomplished at three distinct and organized hierarchical levels, that of a mineralized collagen fibril, a collagen fiber, and a single lamella. The smallest collagen structure is the collagen fibril whose diameter is the order of 20 nm. The next structural level is the collagen fiber with a diameter of the order of 80 nm. A lamella is a laminate structure, composed of multiple collagen fibers with embedded minerals and consists of several laminates. The thickness of one laminate in the lamella is approximately 130 nm. All collagen fibers in a laminate in the lamella are oriented in one direction. However, the laminates rotate relative to the adjacent laminates. In this work, all collagen fibers in a lamella are assumed to be aligned in the longitudinal direction. This kind of bone with all collagen fibers aligned in one direction is called a parallel fibered bone. The effective elastic constants for a parallel fibered bone are estimated by assuming periodic substructures. These results provide a database for estimating the anisotropic poroelastic constants of an osteon and also provide a database for building mathematical or computational models in bone micromechanics, such as bone damage mechanics and bone poroelasticity. PMID:17297631
Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manson, S S
1947-01-01
A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.
Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores.
Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf
2013-10-16
We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β(Ar,ads) of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β(Ar,surf) increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β(Ar,liquid) only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid-solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research. PMID:24057946
Stress-dependent finite growth in soft elastic tissues.
Rodriguez, E K; Hoger, A; McCulloch, A D
1994-04-01
Growth and remodeling in tissues may be modulated by mechanical factors such as stress. For example, in cardiac hypertrophy, alterations in wall stress arising from changes in mechanical loading lead to cardiac growth and remodeling. A general continuum formulation for finite volumetric growth in soft elastic tissues is therefore proposed. The shape change of an unloaded tissue during growth is described by a mapping analogous to the deformation gradient tensor. This mapping is decomposed into a transformation of the local zero-stress reference state and an accompanying elastic deformation that ensures the compatibility of the total growth deformation. Residual stress arises from this elastic deformation. Hence, a complete kinematic formulation for growth in general requires a knowledge of the constitutive law for stress in the tissue. Since growth may in turn be affected by stress in the tissue, a general form for the stress-dependent growth law is proposed as a relation between the symmetric growth-rate tensor and the stress tensor. With a thick-walled hollow cylinder of incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic material as an example, the mechanics of left ventricular hypertrophy are investigated. The results show that transmurally uniform pure circumferential growth, which may be similar to eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, changes the state of residual stress in the heart wall. A model of axially loaded bone is used to test a simple stress-dependent growth law in which growth rate depends on the difference between the stress due to loading and a predetermined growth equilibrium stress. PMID:8188726
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Azab, A.; Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S.
1996-01-01
Electroactive thin-film polymers are candidate sensors and actuators materials [1,2]. They are also finding a significant potential for applications in muscle mechanisms and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hmiel, A.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.; Desjarlais, M. P.
2016-05-01
Accurate theoretical calculations of the nonlinear elastic response of strong solids (e.g., diamond) constitute a fundamental and important scientific need for understanding the response of such materials and for exploring the potential synthesis and design of novel solids. However, without corresponding experimental data, it is difficult to select between predictions from different theoretical methods. Recently the complete set of third-order elastic constants (TOECs) for diamond was determined experimentally, and the validity of various theoretical approaches to calculate the same may now be assessed. We report on the use of density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate the six third-order elastic constants of diamond. Two different approaches based on homogeneous deformations were used: (1) an energy-strain fitting approach using a prescribed set of deformations, and (2) a longitudinal stress-strain fitting approach using uniaxial compressive strains along the [100], [110], and [111] directions, together with calculated pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants. The latter approach provides a direct comparison to the experimental results. The TOECs calculated using the energy-strain approach differ significantly from the measured TOECs. In contrast, calculations using the longitudinal stress-uniaxial strain approach show good agreement with the measured TOECs and match the experimental values significantly better than the TOECs reported in previous theoretical studies. Our results on diamond have demonstrated that, with proper analysis procedures, first-principles calculations can indeed be used to accurately calculate the TOECs of strong solids.
Yu, Senjiang; Sun, Yadong; Ni, Yong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hong
2016-03-01
Controlled surface patterns are useful in a wide range of applications including flexible electronics, elastomeric optics, fluidic channels, surface engineering, measurement technique, biological templates, stamps, and sensors. In this work, we report on the controlled formation of surface patterns in metal films deposited on elasticity-gradient polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. Because of the temperature gradient during the curing process, the PDMS substrate in each sample successively changes from a purely liquid state at one side to a purely elastic state at the opposite side. It is found that surface folds appear in the liquid or viscous PDMS region while wrinkles form in the elastic region. In the transition region from the liquid to elastic PDMS, a nested pattern (i.e., the coexisting of folds and wrinkles) can be observed. The folding wave is triggered by the intrinsic stress during the film deposition and its wavelength is independent of the film thickness. The wrinkling wave is induced by the thermal compression after deposition and its wavelength is proportional to the film thickness. The report in this work could promote better understanding of the effect of substrate elasticity on the surface patterns and fabrication of such patterns (folds and wrinkles) by tuning the substrate property. PMID:26859513
Wang, Qian; Ashley, Dennis W.; Dechow, Paul C.
2010-01-01
Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels. PMID:19927280
Composite elastic magnet films with hard magnetic feature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Weisong; Yao, Zhongmei; Chen, Jackie C.; Fang, Ji
2004-10-01
Hard magnetic materials with high remnant magnetic moment, Mr, have unique advantages that can achieve bi-directional (push-pull) movement in an external magnetic field. This paper presents the results on the fabrication and testing of novel composite elastic permanent magnet films. The microsize hard barium ferrite powder, NdFeB powder, and different silicone elastomers have been used to fabricate various large elongation hard magnetic films. Three different fabrication methods, screen-coating processing, moulding processing and squeegee-coating processing, have been investigated, and the squeegee-coating process was proven to be the most successful method. The uniform composite elastic permanent magnet films range from 40 µm to 216 µm in thickness have been successfully fabricated. These films were then magnetized in the thickness direction after fabrication. They exhibited permanent magnet behaviour; for instance, the film (0.640 mm3 in volume) made of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and hard barium ferrite powders is measured to give a coercive force, Hc, of 3.24 × 105 A m-1 and Mr of 1.023 × 10-5 A m2, and the film (0.504 mm3 in volume) made of PDMS and NdFeB powders gives 1.55 × 105 A m-1 Hc and 8.081 × 10-5 A m2 Mr. These composite elastic permanent magnet films' mechanical properties, like Young's modulus and deflection force, have been evaluated. To validate the films' Young's modulus, a finite-element computer simulation (ANSYS®) is used and one film is chosen whose Young's modulus (16.60 MPa) is confirmed by the simulation results with ANSYS®. The large elongation composite elastic permanent magnet film provides an excellent diaphragm material, which plays an important role in the micropump or valve. The movement of the 126 µm thick film with 4.5 mm diameter made of PDMS and NdFeB powders has been tested in a 0.21 Tesla external magnetic field. It was proven to have large deflection of 125 µm.
Factors influencing elastic stresses in double cantilever beam specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.
1986-01-01
An elastic stress analysis was conducted for a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen using finite-element methods. The purpose of this study was to identify the important parameters that influence stresses ahead of the delamination front. The study focused on an aluminum DCB specimen, typical of adhesively-bonded joints, and on a graphite/epoxy specimen representing a cocured composite. Opening mode sigma sub y stresses ahead of the crack tip were calculated and compared with those for a monolithic reference specimen. Beyond the singularity-dominated region very near the crack tip, the sigma sub y distribution was elevated compared to the monolithic case. Both the adhesive thickness and the adherend transverse (thickness-direction) stiffness were found to influence the elevation of sigma sub y. In contrast, adherend thickness and longitudinal stiffness has very little effect on this stress distribution. Estimates for adhesive yielding beyond the aluminum DCB crack tip showed that both the area and height of the plastic zone increased to a peak value for increasing adhesive thicknesses. Results from this study would provide insight for comparing data from different DCB specimens and for designing new DCB specimens.
Factors influencing elastic stresses in double cantilever beam specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.
1988-01-01
An elastic stress analysis was conducted for a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen using finite-element methods. The purpose of this study was to identify the important parameters that influence stresses ahead of the delamination front. The study focused on an aluminum DCB specimen, typical of adhesively-bonded joints, and on a graphite/epoxy specimen representing a cocured composite. Opening mode sigma sub y stresses ahead of the crack tip were calculated and compared with those for a monolithic reference specimen. Beyond the singularity-dominated region very near the crack tip, the sigma sub y distribution was elevated compared to the monolithic case. Both the adhesive thickness and the adherend transverse (thickness-direction) stiffness were found to influence the elevation of sigma sub y. In contrast, adherend thickness and longitudinal stiffness has very little effect on this stress distribution. Estimates for adhesive yielding beyond the aluminum DCB crack tip showed that both the area and height of the plastic zone increased to a peak value for increasing adhesive thicknesses. Results from this study would provide insight for comparing data from different DCB specimens and for designing new DCB specimens.
Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemieva, Irina
2014-05-01
This presentation reports a 1 deg ×1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The model is digitally available from the author's web-site: www.lithosphere.info. Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliable data on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publications for data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented by cratonic geotherms based on xenolith data. Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% of the continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by borehole data. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospheric temperatures in continental regions with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge of lithosphere age globally. A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg × 1 deg grid forms the basis for the statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends on tectono-thermal age t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of the continental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holds for the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more than 250 km) lithosphere is restricted solely to young Archean terranes (3.0-2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6-3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots do not extend deeper than 200-220 km. The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continental upper mantle. The strongest lateral temperature variations (as large as 800 deg C) are typical of the shallow mantle (depth less than 100 km). A map of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Masaru; Kanai, Hiroshi
2001-05-01
We have previously developed a method for measurement of a small change in thickness of the arterial wall during a single cardiac cycle [H. Kanai, M. Sato, Y. Koiwa and N. Chubachi: IEEE Trans. UFFC 43 (1996) 791]. The resultant change in thickness is shown to be useful for the in vivo assessment of the regional elasticity of the arterial wall. Although the accuracy of the measurement of the change in thickness is found to be within 1 μm, it is affected by the interference of ultrasonic pulses. In this study, we simulate the propagation of ultrasonic pulses transmitted and received by a linear probe. In the simulation experiments, the ultrasonic pulses generated by a computer are reflected by a tube, which has a small change in wall thickness of 10 μm. The optimum focal position of the ultrasonic beam is determined by evaluating the root-mean-square (rms) error in the measured change in thickness.
Influence of thickness and undercut of thermoplastic resin clasps on retentive force.
Osada, Hidekazu; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Hayakawa, Tohru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro
2013-01-01
Thermoplastic resin clasps have been used for esthetic denture rehabilitation. However, details of the design of the clasps have never been thoroughly clarified. This study investigated the retentive forces of thermoplastic resin clasps for non-metal clasp dentures. The retentive forces of all thermoplastic resin clasps depended on the elastic modulus of each resin, undercuts, thickness, and widths of the tested. A clasp with more than 0.5 mm undercut and 1.0 mm thickness is needed for Valplast. Similarly, more than 0.25 mm undercut and 1.0 mm thickness and 0.5 mm undercut and 0.5 mm thickness are required for Estheshot and Reigning, respectively; thus, the recommended clasp arm thickness is 1.0 mm to 1.5 mm for Valplast and Estheshot and 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm for Reigning when the width of the retentive arm is 5.0 mm. PMID:23718997
Variation of crack-opening stresses in three-dimensions - Finite thickness plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, A. F.
1991-01-01
A 3D elastic-plastic finite-element analysis is conducted to study crack-growth behavior of thin and thick center-cracked specimens under constant-amplitude loading conditions. The numerical analysis and the specimen configuration and loading are described for both the thin and thick conditions. Stabilized crack-opening stresses of interior and exterior regions are given as are the closure and opening profiles of the crack-surface plane after the tenth cycle. The effect of thickness is discussed with respect to the crack-opening stress levels and the plastic zones of the interior and exterior regions. A load-reduced-displacement technique allows the calculation of the crack-opening stresses at three locations on the crack surface plane. The constraint effect related to thickness gives a lower stabilized crack-opening stress level for the thick specimens.
Thickness-varying flexible plunging fins swim more efficiently
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuanda; Yeh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander
2015-11-01
We use three dimensional computer simulations to probe the hydrodynamics of oscillating flexible fins with varying thickness. The fin is modeled as an elastic rectangular plate with the thickest section at the leading edge, decreasing linearly until the trailing edge. The plate is modeled as infinitely thin, and we assume that the thickest part of the fin is much smaller compared to its other length scales. Therefore, we simulate the swimmer as two dimensional plate and introduce the effect of the thickness gradient by including an appropriate mass gradient and stiffness gradient along the length of the plate. The flexible fin is actuated by a plunging motion at its leading edge. We evaluate the performance of the swimmer by measuring the steady state thrust, free swimming velocity, input power, and swimming economy as a function of driving frequency and the magnitude of the thickness gradient. We find a wideband frequency range in which the swimming economy is increased as compared to a uniformly thick swimmer. These findings may shed insight into some of the physical mechanisms that allow fish to have high swimming efficiency.
Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus
Lagasse, Paul R.
1987-01-01
An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.
Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus
Lagasse, P.R.
1985-06-21
An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.
System for measuring film thickness
Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.
1990-01-01
A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.
Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.
2016-02-01
We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.
Shear elastic modulus estimation from indentation and SDUV on gelatin phantoms
Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W.; Chen, Shigao; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Greenleaf, James F.
2011-01-01
Tissue mechanical properties such as elasticity are linked to tissue pathology state. Several groups have proposed shear wave propagation speed to quantify tissue mechanical properties. It is well known that biological tissues are viscoelastic materials; therefore velocity dispersion resulting from material viscoelasticity is expected. A method called Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) can be used to quantify tissue viscoelasticity by measuring dispersion of shear wave propagation speed. However, there is not a gold standard method for validation. In this study we present an independent validation method of shear elastic modulus estimation by SDUV in 3 gelatin phantoms of differing stiffness. In addition, the indentation measurements are compared to estimates of elasticity derived from shear wave group velocities. The shear elastic moduli from indentation were 1.16, 3.40 and 5.6 kPa for a 7, 10 and 15% gelatin phantom respectively. SDUV measurements were 1.61, 3.57 and 5.37 kPa for the gelatin phantoms respectively. Shear elastic moduli derived from shear wave group velocities were 1.78, 5.2 and 7.18 kPa for the gelatin phantoms respectively. The shear elastic modulus estimated from the SDUV, matched the elastic modulus measured by indentation. On the other hand, shear elastic modulus estimated by group velocity did not agree with indentation test estimations. These results suggest that shear elastic modulus estimation by group velocity will be bias when the medium being investigated is dispersive. Therefore a rheological model should be used in order to estimate mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials. PMID:21317078