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Sample records for elderly female athletes

  1. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  3. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  4. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  5. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  6. The Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

  7. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein, L A; Thein, J M

    1996-02-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete. PMID:8808516

  8. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  9. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  10. Professional Female Athletes. Financial Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie

    1987-01-01

    Female professional athletes are earning more than ever before and projections suggest opportunities will continue to increase. Salary differentials between male and female tennis and golf professionals are made. Product endorsement income is discussed. Steps coaches, parents, counselors, and colleges should take in guiding females toward…

  11. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... pediatricians and adolescent medicine specialists, sports medicine doctors, nutritionists and dietitians, and mental health specialists can all ... granola bars, and fruit. Visit a dietitian or nutritionist who works with teen athletes. He or she ...

  12. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  13. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A.; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. Images p229-a p229-b p229-c PMID:6797496

  14. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  15. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  16. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  17. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  18. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  19. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  20. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  1. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  2. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  3. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  4. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  5. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  6. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  7. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  8. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  9. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  10. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Petroczi, Andrea; Quested, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    Background The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively) and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively). 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad. PMID:17900347

  11. Update on the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Michelle T; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Gibbs, Jenna C

    2013-06-01

    Updated prevalence estimates of all 3 components of the Female Athlete Triad, a syndrome characterized by low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is low (0 %-16 %), however, estimates of 1 or 2 concurrent components approach 50 %-60 % among certain athlete groups. Recent research identifies components of the Triad among female adolescent athletes, particularly those participating in leanness sports, such as endurance running. This is alarming, as adolescents require adequate nutrition and normal hormone function to optimize bone mineral gains during this critical developmental period. Current literature highlights new assessments, such as measurements of bone microarchitecture and hormone levels to better evaluate bone strength and the hormonal and metabolic profile of athletes with and at risk for the Triad. Recent data also provides support for additional potential consequences of the Triad, such as endothelial dysfunction and related cardiovascular effects, stress fractures, and musculoskeletal injuries. Additional prospective research is needed to evaluate long-term indicators and consequences of the Triad and identify effective behavioral treatment strategies. PMID:23613226

  12. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  13. "It's Cheesy when They Smile:" What Girl Athletes Prefer in Images of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krane, Vikki; Ross, Sally R.; Miller, Montana; Ganoe, Kristy; Lucas-Carr, Cathryn; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research in which we provided an opportunity for female college athletes to construct their own photographic portrayals, this study explored young female athletes' perceptions of the college athlete photographs. Fifty-two girls participated in focus group interviews where they viewed and discussed the images. The young…

  14. Easily forgotten: elderly female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Women form a growing minority within the worldwide prison population and have special needs and distinct characteristics. Within this group exists a smaller sub-group: elderly female prisoners (EFPs) who require tailored social and health interventions that address their unique needs. Data collected from two prisons in Switzerland housing women prisoners were studied. Overall 26 medical records were analyzed, 13 from EFPs (50+ years) and for comparison 13 from young female prisoners (YFPs, 49 years and younger). Additionally, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with EFPs. Using the layer model of vulnerability, three layers of vulnerability were identified: the "prisoner" layer; followed by the layer of "woman"; both of which are encompassed by the layer of "old age." The analysis of these layers resulted in three main areas where EFPs are particularly vulnerable: their status of "double-minority," health and health-care access, and their social relations. Prison administration and policy-makers need to be more sensitive to gender and age related issues in order to remedy these vulnerabilities. PMID:25661851

  15. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  16. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  17. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Validation of the Athlete Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Kubas, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial…

  19. Too much of a good thing: female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The history and pathophysiology of the Female Athletic Triad is discussed along with the short-term and long-term complications. The work-up for hormonal abnormalities and specific treatment options are discussed. Also, nutrition and its affect on the Female Athletic Triad is mentioned within the realm of treatment. PMID:21736076

  20. The female athlete triad: a case series and narrative overview

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779

  1. QT dispersion in elderly athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; Santoro, G; Prattichizzo, F; Femia, F R; Pastine, F; Pentimone, F

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the QT dispersion in elderly endurance athletes with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Sixteen athletes (males, mean age 67.6 +/- 4.5 years) with mild to moderate LV hypertrophy, were compared with 16 age-matched hypertensive patients with similar degree of LV hypertrophy and 16 age-matched healthy sedentary controls. All the participants underwent echocardiogram and 12-lead electrocardiogram. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between maximum and minimum QT intervals in the different leads. QT dispersion was corrected (QTc) for heart rate according to Bazett's formula. The results showed in athletes and hypertensive patients comparable LV mass (258.2 +/- 14.2 vs. 262.4 +/- 16.8 g, ns), which was significantly higher than that of controls (p < 0.001). Trained subjects had QT dispersion (38.6 +/- 10.2 ms) and QTc dispersion (39.4 +/- 11.3 ms) significantly lower than hypertensive patients (QT dispersion: 68.4 +/- 11.4 ms; QTc dispersion: 72.2 +/- 8.4, p < 0.001) and comparable with controls (QT dispersion: 44.3 +/- 8.4 ms; QTc dispersion: 46.2 +/- 6.2 ms, ns). In conclusion, in elderly athletes training-induced myocardial hypertrophy was characterized by a QT dispersion significantly lower than hypertensive myocardial hypertrophy. This could provide a simple and inexpensive screening method for differentiating physiologic from pathologic myocardial hypertrophy in elderly subjects. PMID:12784163

  2. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  3. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. PMID:23856303

  4. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored. PMID:20840252

  5. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  6. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  7. Nutritional aspects of amenorrhea in the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Benson, J E; Engelbert-Fenton, K A; Eisenman, P A

    1996-06-01

    Female athletes experience a high incidence of menstrual abnormalities. This has critical health consequences because amenorrheic athletes are at greater risk of developing osteopenia and bone injury compared to normally menstruating athletes or nonathletic normally cycling females. Female performers and athletes are also at risk for developing disordered eating behaviors. There appears to be a connection between menstrual dysfunction, athletic training, and disordered eating, but how they relate is not fully understood. In this paper we explore how low calorie intakes, nutritional inadequacies, vegetarianism, low body fat stores, and specific training behaviors may contribute to the abnormal menstrual patterns seen in this population. Recommendations for the detection and prevention of eating and training problems and consequent menstrual abnormalities are included. PMID:8744786

  8. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  9. Long term consequences of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2013-06-01

    In the past 40 years, female sports participation, particularly at the high school level, has significantly increased. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Triad symptoms are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease; all of the components of the triad may not be affected simultaneously. The female athlete triad was first identified in 1992. Since that time, a vast amount of research related to the identification, management and prevention of this condition has been published. More recently, research related to the long term effects of triad components has come into light. Women who were diagnosed with female athlete triad syndrome as adolescents and young adults in the 1990s are now in their 30s and 40s; negative long term effects of the female athlete triad, such as low bone mineral density, are now starting to manifest. Women of all ages should be assessed for triad components during routine annual physical examinations; appropriate measures to treat any current triad components should be implemented. In addition, women in their 30s, 40s and early 50s should be screened for a history of the female athlete triad. Multidisciplinary management of these conditions is strongly recommended. PMID:23541905

  10. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  11. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  12. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  13. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Håvard; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16), both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1%) responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors) (77.6%), and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors) (20.3%), and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries), calf (12.2%), ankle/foot (10.8%), lower back (10.8%), and thigh (10.1%). The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. PMID:24379711

  14. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  15. The female athlete triad. A growing health concern.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michelle L Cameron

    2003-01-01

    The number of female athletes participating at the high school, collegiate, and elite levels has increased nearly 10-fold since the passage of Title IX. President Nixon signed title IX into law in 1972. It required that all schools receiving federal funding provide equal opportunities for men and women. With this large increase in high-level female athletes comes a special set of medical and orthopaedic issues. One of the most important is the female athlete triad. The triad consists of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and premature osteoporosis. Currently, this problem is largely unrecognized. The purpose of this article is to help to educate orthopaedic nurses about this important issue so that we can detect the triad early and help address this growing national health issue. PMID:14595991

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present epidemiologic studies on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched from 1978 to 1998 with the terms “anterior cruciate ligament” and “female athlete” among others. Additional sources were knowledge base and oral, didactic, and video presentations. Data Synthesis: Epidemiologic studies have focused on level of participation, specific sports, sex differences and contributing factors, injury mechanism, prevention programs, and outcomes studies. Female athletes have a significantly increased risk of noncontact ACL injuries over male athletes in soccer and basketball. Conclusions/Recommendations: I believe that appropriate intervention programs can reduce these alarming rates of ACL injuries. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558558

  17. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  18. 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth; De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon; Barrack, Michelle; Burke, Louise; Drinkwater, Barbara; Lebrun, Connie; Loucks, Anne B; Mountjoy, Margo; Nichols, Jeanne; Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot

    2014-01-01

    The female athlete triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three triad components, and early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious end points that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement presents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, CA) and second (Indianapolis, IN) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. This consensus statement was intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the female athlete triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. PMID:25014387

  19. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    WELLS, ELIZABETH K.; CHIN, ALEXANDRA D.; TACKE, JENNIFER A.; BUNN, JENNIFER A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and those with a low risk (non-lean sports). The lean sports included: cheerleading, cross country/track and field, swimming, and volleyball. The non-lean sports included: basketball, golf, soccer, and softball. The total mean score of the ATHLETE survey for the lean sports was 100.1 ± 17.4, compared to the non-lean sports scoring 90.1 ± 16.9, p = 0.011. The two constructs that showed significant difference between lean and non-lean sports were Social Pressure on Body Shape (lean: 12.2 ± 3.9, non-lean: 9.4 ± 4.6, p = 0.005) and Team Trust (lean: 7.4 ± 3.3, non-lean: 5.6 ± 2.2, p = 0.004). The results indicate that lean sports exhibited a higher risk for development of DE compared to athletes participating in non-lean sports. It appears that the primary influence of DE in these female athletes came from external social pressures that may therefore dictate their exercise and nutritional habits. PMID:27293502

  20. Appropriate and Inappropriate Practices for Coaching Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity; Sims, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This article is intended to provide coaches, parents/guardians and school administrators with specific guidelines that identify coaching practices that are in the best interests of the adolescent female athlete (appropriate) and those that are counterproductive or even harmful (inappropriate). These guidelines can be used as a self-assessment for…

  1. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  2. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors. PMID:27618372

  3. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis. PMID:19713179

  4. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; p<.05). Non-athletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (p<.01). A linear regression approach indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (0.63, CI95=0.18, 1.20) of athletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. PMID:25841217

  5. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  6. Treatment of Osteitis Pubis in Non-Athlete Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kavroudakis, E; Karampinas, P.K; Evangelopoulos, D.S; Vlamis, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Osteitis pubis represents a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis causing varying degrees of lower abdominal and pelvic pain. Although, the disease is believed to affect mainly young athletic patients, it is also encountered in other specific patient groups. Both conservative and surgical treatment options are available. While for elite athletes surgical treatment is indicated, leading to fast pain relief and mobilization, for non-athletic patients no clear indication can be established. Methods: Eight non-athletic women with osteitis pubis, referred to our Department for treatment, were evaluated. All were initially treated conservatively with bed rest, per os non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. Results: Seven patients improved significantly with conservative treatment while one displayed no improvement and was treated surgically with arthrodesis. Conclusion: We conclude that, for non-athletic female patients suffering from osteitis pubis, surgery is rarely required and that conservative treatment by means of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and physical modalities represents a fair option regarding pain and limitation of everyday activity. PMID:21966337

  7. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  8. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  9. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427

  10. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents. PMID:22741211

  11. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  12. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  13. High prevalence of arrhythmias in elderly male athletes with a lifelong history of regular strenuous exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Urstad, K; Bouvier, F; Saltin, B; Jensen-Urstad, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To characterise cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac autonomic function in 11 elderly men (mean (SD) age 73.2 (2.8) years) with a lifelong history of regular very strenuous exercise. A control group of 12 healthy sedentary or moderately physically active men (74.5 (2.7) years) was also studied.
Design—48 hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were recorded. Cardiac autonomic function was estimated from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise testing was 2.91 (0.52) l (41 (7) ml/kg).
Results—Nine of 11 athletes had complex ventricular arrhythmias compared with five of 12 controls. Seven athletes but none of the controls had episodes of heart rate below 40 beats/min and two athletes had RR intervals longer than two seconds. Heart rate variability in the athletes was higher than in the controls. 
Conclusions—Elderly athletes with a lifelong training history seem to have more complex arrhythmias and profound bradyarrhythmias than do healthy elderly controls, which may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. In contrast, the age related decrease in heart rate variability seems to be retarded, which has a positive prognostic value and may decrease the risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

 Keywords: arrhythmias;  heart rate variability;  athletes;  exercise;  elderly men PMID:9538309

  14. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance. PMID:7899544

  15. Use of the Preparticipation Physical Exam in Screening for the Female Athlete Triad among High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  16. Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorant, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in…

  17. Trends in the Selection of Coaches for Female Athletes: A Demographic Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmen, Milton G.; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.

    1981-01-01

    The demographic results of data collected from 335 collegiate female athletic directors revealed: (1) an increase in the number of coaches for female athletes; (2) a significant decline in the number of female head coaches; and (3) a large increase in the number of male head coaches. (JN)

  18. Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

    1999-03-01

    In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting, mental and physical issues. The results were analysed using (1) the metric scaling procedure of correspondence analysis, (2) cultural consensus analysis and (3) PROperty FITting analysis. A two-dimensional solution provided the best interpretation of the similarity judgements. The correspondence analysis configuration positioned the sport psychologist centrally between a sport-oriented pair and the cluster of mental health professionals. Participants reported adequate consensus on all three expertise variables, which is consistent with the assumptions of Cultural Consensus Theory. Consistent with earlier research, the three variables were salient in the participants' similarity judgements of sport and mental health professionals. Our results suggest the existence of a more favourable perception of the sport psychologist and a distancing from a direct association with mental health practitioners. However, the centrality of the term may indicate a more cloudy distinction as to where the sport psychologist exists in relation to other professionals. PMID:10362387

  19. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in…

  20. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  1. When Pleasure and Pain Take the Field: The Experience of the Body in Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghidinelli, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the subjective experiences of training and competition at the collegiate level in a small group of former Division I female collegiate athletes. A review of relevant research indicates there is a dearth of qualitative studies on the experiences of female collegiate athletes. The current study explored the experience of pushing…

  2. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  3. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  4. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  5. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

    2007-01-01

    Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates. PMID:17472323

  6. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Faber, J; Sidelmann, J J; Aziz, M; Sjödin, A

    2015-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad), links low energy availability (EA), with menstrual dysfunction (MD), and impaired bone health. The aims of this study were to examine associations between EA/MD and energy metabolism and the prevalence of Triad-associated conditions in endurance athletes. Forty women [26.2 ± 5.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.6 ± 2.0 kg/m(2), body fat 20.0 ± 3.0%], exercising 11.4 ± 4.5 h/week, were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocol included gynecological examination; assessment of bone health; indirect respiratory calorimetry; diet and exercise measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (< 45 kcal/kg FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.01], as did subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.05). 63% had low/reduced EA, 25% ED, 60% MD, 45% impaired bone health, and 23% had all three Triad conditions. 53% had low RMR, 25% hypercholesterolemia, and 38% hypoglycemia. Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency. PMID:24888644

  7. Are You Successfully Serving the Female Athletes on Your Campus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Kelly M.

    2009-01-01

    Girls today have never known a time of athletic inequality. That is why it is so important to build a strong collection for this particular patron base so the voices of the past can encourage the goals of present and future athletes. The young girls of today have grown up with a wide range of athletic opportunities and most do not know of the…

  8. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    PubMed

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. PMID:27031318

  9. Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.

    PubMed

    Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

    2013-09-01

    As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention

  10. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  11. Eating disorders and their putative risk factors among female German professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p < .01). All factors together accounted for 57.3% of variation in disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. PMID:25828261

  12. An Investigation of the Factors that Can Predict Philanthropic Support for Former Female Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that best describe the philanthropic motivations of female student-athletes when considering making financial contributions to their alma mater. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 2,351 alumnae student-athletes which had 347 respondents. The independent variables chosen were…

  13. The Female Athlete Triad. Managing an Acute Risk to Long-Term Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Lynch, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis form an interconnected, potentially fatal triad that is not widely understood. Physician vigilance when treating young female athletes can lead to early recognition and prevention of serious consequences. Physicians must help athletic young women participate in their sports in the healthiest, safest…

  14. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  15. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  16. Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zach, Karie N; Smith Machin, Ariane L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-07-01

    Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation. PMID:21658548

  17. rs6295 [C]-Allele Protects Against Depressive Mood in Elderly Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Haslacher, Helmuth; Michlmayr, Matthias; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Perkmann, Thomas; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scheichenberger, Vanessa; Scherzer, Thomas M; Nistler, Sonja; Pilger, Alexander; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Lehrner, Johann; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald F; Winker, Robert

    2015-12-01

    A single nucleotide variant within the promoter of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5HT1A) receptor, rs6295, is part of a binding site for the transcription factor. We aimed to ascertain whether the rs6295 mediates the effect of exercise on depressive mood in elderly endurance athletes. We prospectively enrolled 55 elderly athletes (marathon runners/bicyclists) and 58 controls. In a controlled, univariate model, an interaction between the [C]-allele and physical activity indicated that only among athletes, the variant resulting in an imperfect NUDR binding site was associated with a lower depression score. Hence, athletes presented with a significantly lower relative risk of achieving a suspicious depression score among carriers of at least one [C]-allele. Our results suggest that the positive effect of physical exercise on depressive mood might be mediated by the 5HT1A receptor and the extent of this protective effect seems to be enhanced by the [C]-allele of the rs6295 variant. PMID:26866771

  18. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  19. Athletic Involvement and its Relevance to Hazardous Alcohol Use and Drinking Game Participation in Female College Athletes: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Rodriguez, Liliana; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors designed this cross-sectional study to examine sports team differences in hazardous alcohol use and drinking game participation, as well as the social correlates of these behaviors among female college athletes (N=176; M age=19.9 years, SD=1.24, range=18-22). Methods: Respondents completed self-report…

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported;…

  1. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  2. Conditioning for Thinness. The Dilemma of Eating-Disordered Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overdorf, Virginia G.

    1987-01-01

    The preoccupation of some female sports enthusiasts with thinness is frequently symptomatic of underlaying emotional problems. This article examines the problem and makes suggestions to enable coaches to cope with these athletes. (MT)

  3. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  4. Lisfranc fracture-dislocation in a female soccer athlete.

    PubMed

    Haddix, Beth; Ellis, Karen; Saylor-Pavkovich, Estee

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with midfoot injuries may present to physical therapists in a variety of clinical settings. The ability of the physical therapy practitioner to optimally manage the care of such an individual may be dependent on understanding the diagnostic imaging that is indicated or has been been completed. Among the potentially most debilitating midfoot injuries are Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. This case outlines the use of conventional radiology, standard computerized tomography (CT), and three-dimensional CT for differential diagnosis of Lisfranc and associated midfoot injury in a 26 year-old female recreational athlete. Her subsequent surgical and post-surgical management is briefly discussed.Physical therapists evaluating patients with suspected midfoot injuries should be cognizant of the tendency for Lisfranc injuries to escape initial detection, possibly precipitating misdiagnosis or delay to diagnosis. Nonweight-bearing radiography may be insensitive to demonstrating the anatomical disruption of significant midfoot injuries. Weight-bearing radiographic views along with selective use of MRI and CT aid in proper identification of injury to the tarsometatarsal joints and optimal management of patients with these injuries. PMID:22530195

  5. LISFRANC FRACTURE-DISLOCATION IN A FEMALE SOCCER ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Karen; Saylor-Pavkovich, Estee

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with midfoot injuries may present to physical therapists in a variety of clinical settings. The ability of the physical therapy practitioner to optimally manage the care of such an individual may be dependent on understanding the diagnostic imaging that is indicated or has been been completed. Among the potentially most debilitating midfoot injuries are Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. This case outlines the use of conventional radiology, standard computerized tomography (CT), and three-dimensional CT for differential diagnosis of Lisfranc and associated midfoot injury in a 26 year-old female recreational athlete. Her subsequent surgical and post-surgical management is briefly discussed. Physical therapists evaluating patients with suspected midfoot injuries should be cognizant of the tendency for Lisfranc injuries to escape initial detection, possibly precipitating misdiagnosis or delay to diagnosis. Nonweight-bearing radiography may be insensitive to demonstrating the anatomical disruption of significant midfoot injuries. Weight-bearing radiographic views along with selective use of MRI and CT aid in proper identification of injury to the tarsometatarsal joints and optimal management of patients with these injuries. PMID:22530195

  6. Sex-Role Conflict in Female Athletes: A Possible Marker for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzig, Diane L.

    The impact of sex-role conflict among females has been an issue of concern in both the sports arena and the field of alcoholism. This study explored the similarities in sex-role conflict between female athletes and alcoholic women. Subjects were 30 female inpatients of a chemical dependency treatment center; 30 undergraduate students; and 30…

  7. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. PMID:22925166

  8. Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Temme, Kate E; Hoch, Anne Z

    2013-01-01

    While the benefits of physical activity are numerous, the female athlete triad poses a significant health risk to young athletes. Emerging research links the triad to endothelial dysfunction--a sentinel event in cardiovascular disease--suggesting that this complex interplay of metabolic and endocrine factors may be described more accurately as a tetrad. Effective treatment of the triad/tetrad requires a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis must be placed on prevention, recognition, and treatment of triad for the promotion of healthy nutritional and activity profiles in female athletes across their lifespans. PMID:23669090

  9. Physiologic Screening Test for Eating Disorders/Disordered Eating Among Female Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Laurie J.S.; Coster, Daniel C.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Abood, Doris A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a physiologic screening test specifically designed for collegiate female athletes engaged in athletic competition or highly athletic performances in order to detect eating disorders/disordered eating. No such physiologically based test currently exists. Methods: Subjects included 148 (84.5%) of 175 volunteer, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 92), club (n = 15), and dance team (n = 41) athletes 18 to 25 years old who attended a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed 4 tests: 2 normed for the general population (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Bulimia Test-Revised); a new physiologic test, developed and pilot tested by the investigators, called the Physiologic Screening Test; and the Eating Disorder Exam 12.0D, a structured, validated, diagnostic interview used for criterion validity. Results: The 18-item Physiologic Screening Test produced the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (78%) and was superior to the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (sensitivity = 62%, specificity = 74%) and Bulimia Test-Revised (sensitivity = 27%, specificity = 99%). A substantial number (n = 51, 35%) of athletes were classified as eating disordered/disordered eating. Conclusions: The Physiologic Screening Test should be considered for screening athletes for eating disorders/disordered eating. The Physiologic Screening Test seems to be a viable alternative to existing tests because it is specifically designed for female athletes, it is brief (4 measurements and 14 items), and validity is enhanced and response bias is lessened because the purpose is less obvious, especially when included as part of a mandatory preparticipation examination. PMID:14737209

  10. Influence of Ghrelin and Adipocytokines on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Female Athletes with Amenorrhea and Eumenorrheic Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotrophin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:20956863

  11. Pneumomediastinum in a Female Track and Field Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Michael J.; Weesner, Carol L.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Albohm, Marjorie J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of an elite female track and field athlete who suffered a pneumomediastinum resulting from a Valsalva maneuver performed while throwing the javelin. Background: Episodes of chest pain and labored breathing in athletes may be alarming. Accurate, early diagnosis is enhanced by an awareness of those relatively rare conditions that may cause these symptoms. Differential Diagnosis: Bronchial injury/fracture, retropharyngeal abscess, acute pulmonary disease, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, cardiac disease, allergic reaction. Treatment: The athlete was given intravenous morphine for pain, prescribed oral pain medication, and restricted from strenuous activity for 6 weeks. Aerobic exercise was allowed after pain and air in the neck subsided, which was estimated at 1 week postinjury. Uniqueness: This is a rarely reported case of a pneumomediastinum in a female and a track and field athlete. Conclusions: Medical personnel must be aware of the possibility of pneumomediastinum in track and field athletes and in female athletes and must be knowledgeable in the followup care and the safe return of the athlete to activity. Imagesp169-a PMID:16558506

  12. Bone geometry according to menstrual function in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Peirce, N; Bailey, C A; Summers, G; Cameron, N; Brooke-Wavell, K

    2013-05-01

    Athletes have higher bone mineral density (BMD) relative to nonathletes. In amenorrheic athletes BMD may be compromised by estrogen deficiency, but it is unknown whether this is accompanied by structural differences. We compared femoral neck bone geometry and density of a-/oligomenorrheic athletes (AAs), eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), and eumenorrheic controls (ECs). We recruited 156 women: (68 endurance athletes and 88 controls). Femoral neck BMD, section modulus (Z), and width were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Menstrual function was assessed by questionnaire and classified as EA (≥10 periods/year) or AA (≤9 periods/year): 24 athletes were AA and 44 EA. Femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in EA than AA (8 %, difference) and EC (11 % difference): mean [SE] 1.118 [0.015], 1.023 [0.020] and 0.999 [0.014] g cm(-2), respectively; p < 0.001. Z was significantly higher in EA than EC (11 % difference): EA 667 [19], AA 625 [21], and EC 592 [10] cm(3); p < 0.001. Femoral neck width did not differ between groups. All differences persisted after adjustment for height, age, and body mass. The higher femoral neck Z and BMD in athletes, despite similar width, may indicate that exercise-related bone gains are endosteal rather than periosteal. Athletes with amenorrhea had smaller increments in bone mass rather than structural adaptation. The maintained femoral neck width in controls may be an adaptive mechanism to conserve bone strength in bending despite inactivity-related bone decrement. PMID:23361333

  13. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  14. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  15. Functional movement screen differences between male and female secondary school athletes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton E; Neumann, Matthew L; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2015-04-01

    The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to assess movement capacity and determine injury risk. Evidence suggests that athletes who score 14 points or less on the FMS are at increased risk for injury, but differences between males and females have been minimally studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in FMS scores of secondary school athletes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 60 healthy secondary school athletes performed the FMS, which is composed of 7 functional movement tasks (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability) and 3 clearance screens. Dependent variables were FMS total composite score and individual task scores; secondary analyses were performed using total research score and individual task research scores when indicated. Lower scores indicated functional movement deficits and increased injury risk. Healthy secondary school female athletes scored lower on the total composite (p = 0.004) than healthy secondary school male athletes. Females also scored lower on the following individual FMS tasks: inline lunge (p < 0.04) and trunk stability push-up (p = 0.001). Healthy secondary school female athletes scored 14 or less on the FMS total composite score and significantly lower in general compared with healthy secondary school male athletes, which suggests these female athletes may be at higher risk for injury. Factors that may contribute to increased injury risk include deficits in mobility, core stabilization, and coordinated movement patterns. Clinicians should be aware of possible sex differences when using the FMS and developing injury prevention programs. PMID:25330082

  16. Impact of intense training and rapid weight changes on salivary parameters in elite female Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-L; Ko, M-H; Chang, C-K; Chou, K-M; Fang, S-H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training with or without rapid weight changes (RWC) on salivary parameters of elite female Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. Ten elite female Taiwanese TKD athletes (ages: 21.3 ± 1.2 years of age, Ht 164.4 ± 5.6 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Resting saliva samples were collected at 28-, 14-, 7-, and 1 day before and 1-, 7-, 21 days after a national competition. The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. In analyzing the anthropometric data, we found that a significant proportion (50%) of elite female TKD athletes had RWC shortly before and after a national competition. The participants were allocated either to the RWC or to the non-RWC group according to their weight change profiles. Our results showed that levels of sIgA and cortisol of athletes with RWC were significantly modulated during the study period. However, athletes without RWC only showed reduced lactoferrin after competition. The results presented here demonstrate that intensive training in combination with RWC affects the mucosal immunity and disrupts the cortisol stress response of elite female TKD athletes. PMID:20456682

  17. Anatomic Factors that May Predispose Female Athletes to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Edward C; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Joshi, Nirav B; Wang, Dean; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 10 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) than male athletes. There has been greater recognition of this gender discrepancy because female participation in competitive athletics has increased. Previous investigators have divided risk factors into hormonal, neuromuscular response, and anatomic subgroups. Gender variation within these groups may help explain the higher incidence of ACL injury in women. The purpose of this article is to review research examining female-specific anatomy that may predispose women to ACL injury. Specifically, we discuss how women may have increased tibial and meniscal slopes, narrower femoral notches, and smaller ACL, which may place the ACL at risk from injury. These anatomic factors, combined with other female-specific risk factors, may help physicians and researchers better understand why women appear to be more prone to ACL injury. PMID:26359837

  18. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  19. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  20. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  1. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  2. The Level of Competition as a Factor for the Development of Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Christy L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)

  3. Influence of ghrelin and adipocytokines on bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes with amenorrhea and eumenorrheic athletes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight-bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotropin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:20956863

  4. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Its Association With Emotion Regulation in Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Wollenberg, Gena; Gates, Gale E

    2016-06-01

    The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted. PMID:26568582

  5. The New Policy on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes is not about “Sex Testing”

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Vilain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) updated their regulations regarding female elite athletes with hyperandrogenism: Females whose testosterone levels crossed into the male range could not compete with other females unless it is shown that they are resistant to the effects of testosterone. Although the new rule is a marked improvement over past attempts to ensure that males were not trying to compete as women in elite competition, there have been several criticisms leveled against the new regulations. Here we offer our reactions to claims that the new regulation promotes a sex-verification test, claims that intersex athletes will automatically be disqualified from competition, and proposals to either divide athletes based on variables beyond sex or completely eliminate sex groupings. Although elite sports can never achieve a perfect, level playing-field, there should be parameters within which athletes must adhere for a given sport. Yet, elite athletes themselves should play a decisive role in what is best for their sport. PMID:23320653

  6. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, JL; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, TG

    2016-01-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779

  7. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J

    2016-09-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779

  8. Muscular effects of statins in the elderly female: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shilpa; Selvarajah, Shalini; Schneider, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Statins have demonstrated substantial benefits in supporting cardiovascular health. Older individuals are more likely to experience the well-known muscle-related side effects of statins compared with younger individuals. Elderly females may be especially vulnerable to statin-related muscle disorder. This review will collate and discuss statin-related muscular effects, examine their molecular and genetic basis, and how these apply specifically to elderly women. Developing strategies to reduce the incidence of statin-induced myopathy in older adult women could contribute to a significant reduction in the overall incidence of statin-induced muscle disorder in this vulnerable group of patients. Reducing statin-related muscle disorder would likely improve overall patient compliance, thereby leading to an increase in improved short- and long-term outcomes associated with appropriate use of statins. PMID:23355775

  9. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients’ knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Conclusions: Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury. PMID:27218040

  10. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  11. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p < 0.01) measured by SEBT. Athletes, however, showed no significant changes after the fatigue protocol. Our results indicates the importance of evaluation and monitoring of dynamic postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance. PMID:27328275

  12. Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1994-04-01

    This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach. PMID:8201895

  13. Study of the elderly females' voice by phonetography.

    PubMed

    Teles-Magalhães, L C; Pegoraro-Krook, M I; Pegoraro, R

    2000-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the voice characteristics of 40 healthy females with no voice disorders, ranging in age from 60 to 84 years (X = 68.2+/-5.74 years). Measurements over all the entire phonational range were obtained by phonetography. The subjects were asked to sustain the vowel /a/ in modal register for a minimum of 5 seconds in the highest and lowest intensities after hearing the semitones C, E, G, and A, over all phonational ranges. The results indicated expansion of the low and reduction of high ends of the pitch range, decrease of the pitch numbers of the vocal range, restriction of the lowest and highest limits of the intensity, and reduction of either the maximum phonational range and the phonetogram area. The phonetography technique has shown efficacy to investigate the voice characteristics of elderly females. PMID:11021499

  14. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

  15. Moderators and Predictors of Response to Eating Disorder Risk Factor Reduction Programs in Collegiate Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, T.M.; Plasencia, M.; Han, H.; Jackson, H.; Becker, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this paper was to investigate moderators and predictors of response to two programs designed to reduce eating disorder risk factors in collegiate female athletes. This study served as an ancillary study to a parent trial that investigated the feasibility of an athlete modified cognitive dissonance-based program (AM-DBP) and an athlete modified healthy weight intervention program (AM-HWI). Design 157 female collegiate athletes were randomized to either the AM-DBP or the AM-HWI program. Participants completed surveys at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks, and 1 year. Methods After classifying sports as either lean or non-lean, we investigated if sport type acted as a moderator of program response to AM-DBP and AM-HWI using ANOVAs. Next, we examined whether baseline thin-ideal internalization, weight concern, shape concern, bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, and negative affect acted as predictors of changes in bulimic pathology using linear regression models. Results Athletes in non-lean sports who received AM-DBP showed more improvement in negative affect versus non-lean sport athletes in AM-HWI. Higher baseline scores of bulimic pathology predicted greater response in bulimic pathology to both programs at 6-weeks. In contrast, athletes with higher dietary restraint and negative affect baseline scores showed decreased response to both interventions at 6-weeks. Finally, athletes with higher baseline shape concern showed a decreased response to the AM-HWI intervention at the post intervention time point. Conclusion Results from the present study indicate that lean/non-lean sport may not play a strong role in determining response to efficacious programs. Further, factors such as pre-existing bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, negative affect, and shape concern may affect general response to intervention versus specific responses to specific interventions. PMID:25400505

  16. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; p<0.001 vs. 128.81±20.84 resp. 147.52±27.72; p<0.001). An increase in endostatin levels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groups<0.001). The extent of endostatin increase was comparable in both groups and sexes and varied between 23-27%. Significance was obscured when the performance was entered as covariate. Acutely induced physical strain leads to an increase in endostatin levels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25009962

  17. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, CA, May 2012, and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, IN, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves 3 components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with 1 or more of the 3 Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, California) and second (Indianapolis, Indianna) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad Expert Panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by The Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24569429

  18. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24463911

  19. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  20. Role Conflict and the High School Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthrop, Joseph; Allison, Maria T.

    1983-01-01

    A study of female high school students sought to measure role conflict among females participating in traditionally approved sports--swimming, golf, gymnastics, and tennis--and those involved in sports such as basketball and track. The females gave little evidence of internal role conflict but had experienced external sources of conflict.…

  1. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls)

    PubMed Central

    Nistler, Sonja; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Scherzer, Thomas M.; Kundi, Michael; Endler, Georg; Ratzinger, Franz; Pilger, Alexander; Wagner, Oswald F.; Winker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OH)D), whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes. Methods 47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-)diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OH)D levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry. Results When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OH)D was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI), but not in athletes. Conclusion Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels. PMID:27304888

  2. ABCs of Evidence-based Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major concern in physically active females. Although ACL reconstruction techniques have seen significant advances in recent years, risk associated with re-injury and future osteoarthritis remains a major concern. Thus, prevention of ACL injury is a logical step to protect and preserve healthy knee joints in young athletes. The current report aims to summarize a list of evidence-based prevention strategies to reduce ACL injury in female athletes. A list of six critical principles, which come from documented, large scale clinical trial studies and further analyses, were presented with ABC format including age, biomechanics, compliance, dosage, exercise, and feedback. Also, a grade for evidence and implications of future research is noted. Finally, in the conclusion section, importance of collaborative efforts from healthcare practitioners, researchers, and personnel associated with athletics is addressed. PMID:26042191

  3. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  4. Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

  5. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  6. Participation in Athletics and Female Sexual Risk Behavior: The Evaluation of Four Causal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James

    2002-01-01

    Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…

  7. Title IX: Parity of Coaches' Salaries for Male and Female Athletic Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A study by the National Education Association (NEA) of the existing literature, teacher opinion polls, federal legislation and regulations, state salary schedules, and collective bargaining agreements revealed important information concerning the differences in salaries in the late 1970s for coaches of male and female athletic teams in the public…

  8. An Examination of Psychosocial Correlates of Eating Disorders among Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J.; Carter, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and…

  9. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

  10. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  11. Academic and Nonacademic Predictors of Female Student-Athletes' Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Stoever, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of academic and nonacademic variables on female intercollegiate student-athletes' (N=152) academic performances over two consecutive semesters. Results indicate that Scholastic Aptitude Test scores consistently related to fall and spring semester grades for both freshmen and upper-division students, whereas social support…

  12. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  13. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    PubMed Central

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  14. Female college athletes: a special population for health promotion in primary care.

    PubMed

    Langford, T L

    1995-03-01

    Female college athletes constitute a population with potential health problems beyond those of their age-mates. The expectations of the elite college athlete for academic and athletic accomplishment and for exemplary personal behavior, in combination with the typical developmental crises of late adolescence, create health risks. This presents the opportunity for effective health promotion as a part of primary care for these young women. The HealthCoRE Program at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing is an example of how a program approach using a community health perspective, in contrast to an episodic or an "array-of-available-services-cafeteria" approach, can affect the health of female college athletes. Program elements include identification of group and individual health risks and health information interests, individual physical examination including a gynecologic examination, individual client contracts for group and individual activities, and crisis intervention. Three years of experience with the program shows value both from the athletes' perspectives and from their coaches' perspectives. Nurse practitioners are the ideal providers for this type of service because of their knowledge of the community health approach, their skills in health promotion and disease prevention, and their use of health teaching as a therapeutic tool. PMID:7767128

  15. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  16. Force-production asymmetry in male and female athletes of differing strength levels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher A; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus; Stone, Michael H

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the existence of bilateral strength and force-production asymmetry and evaluate possible differences based on sex, as well as strength level. Asymmetry was assessed during weight-distribution (WtD) testing, unloaded and lightly loaded static- (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) testing, and isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) strength testing. Subjects included 63 athletes (31 male, 32 female) for WtD, SJ, and CMJ tests, while 129 athletes (64 male, 65 female) participated in IMTP testing. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine possible differences in asymmetry magnitude between males and females, as well as between strong and weak athletes. Cohen d effect-size (ES) estimates were also used to estimate difference magnitudes. Statistically different asymmetry levels with moderate to strong ESs were seen between males and females in WtD, 0-kg SJ (peak force [PF]), 20-kg SJ (peak power [PP]), 0-kg CMJ (PF, PP, net impulse), and 20-kg CMJ (PF), but no statistical differences were observed in IMTP variables. Dividing the sample into strong and weak groups produced statistically significant differences with strong ES estimates in IMTP PF and rate of force development, and many ESs in jump symmetry variables increased. The results of this investigation indicate that females may be more prone to producing forces asymmetrically than males during WtD and jumping tasks. Similarly, weaker athletes displayed more asymmetry than stronger athletes. This may indicate that absolute strength may play a larger role in influencing asymmetry magnitude than sex. PMID:25394294

  17. The Professional Socialization of Collegiate Female Athletic Trainers: Navigating Experiences of Gender Bias

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Borland, John F.; Burton, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic. Objective To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. Design Exploratory study using semistructured interviews. Setting Division I clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball- sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Data Collection and Analysis Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review. Results Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace. Conclusions The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second

  18. Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Turner, Anne I; Kukuljan, Sonja; Pantano, Kathleen J; Carlson, Jennifer L; Williams, Nancy I; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2011-07-01

    Maintaining low body weight for the sake of performance and aesthetic purposes is a common feature among young girls and women who exercise on a regular basis, including elite, college and high-school athletes, members of fitness centres, and recreational exercisers. High energy expenditure without adequate compensation in energy intake leads to an energy deficiency, which may ultimately affect reproductive function and bone health. The combination of low energy availability, menstrual disturbances and low bone mineral density is referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. Not all athletes seek medical assistance in response to the absence of menstruation for 3 or more months as some believe that long-term amenorrhoea is not harmful. Indeed, many women may not seek medical attention until they sustain a stress fracture. This review investigates current issues, controversies and strategies in the clinical management of bone health concerns related to the female athlete triad. Current recommendations focus on either increasing energy intake or decreasing energy expenditure, as this approach remains the most efficient strategy to prevent further bone health complications. However, convincing the athlete to increase energy availability can be extremely challenging. Oral contraceptive therapy seems to be a common strategy chosen by many physicians to address bone health issues in young women with amenorrhoea, although there is little evidence that this strategy improves bone mineral density in this population. Assessment of bone health itself is difficult due to the limitations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to estimate bone strength. Understanding how bone strength is affected by low energy availability, weight gain and resumption of menses requires further investigations using 3-dimensional bone imaging techniques in order to improve the clinical management of the female athlete triad. PMID:21688870

  19. A Wearable Neuromuscular Device Reduces ACL Injury Risk in Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael John; Shaw, Matthew; Maddan, Casey; Campbell, Julie; Davidson, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Female soccer athletes have a three-fold greater risk of sustaining an ACL injury compared with their male counterparts yet only 1 in 5 teams engage in ACL risk reduction programs due to several participation barriers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a wearable neuromuscular (WNM) device on postural control, performance and ACL injury risk in female soccer athletes. Methods: Seventy-nine elite youth and collegiate female soccer athletes (age range: 12-25 y) trained with a WNM device that applied bi-lateral, topical pressure to the medial quadriceps and hamstrings muscles (Topical Gear, Austin, TX). The athletes performed 7-9 weeks of pre-season training with the WNM device consisting of strength and conditioning exercises and on-field team practices (46-64 total hours of exposure). Postural control was measured in 15 athletes with and without the WNM device before and after the training program; and performance was measured in 25 athletes without the WNM device before and after the training program. Postural control was determined from a single-leg landing on a force plate from a horizontal distance normalized to leg length. The athletes were instructed to gain their balance as fast as possible upon landing and remain balanced for 5 seconds. The peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and net center of pressure (COP) velocities and displacement ranges were calculated during 2 seconds of single-leg stance. Performance measures including speed, power and endurance were measured from the 40 yard dash, vertical jump for height and the Beep test, respectively. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to compare the postural variables; and t-tests were used to compare the performance tests (p=.05). ACL injury rates, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one ACL injury were calculated between the WNM intervention group and 11

  20. Long-Term Abnormalities in the Corpus Callosum of Female Concussed Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chamard, Emilie; Lefebvre, Genevieve; Lassonde, Maryse; Theoret, Hugo

    2016-07-01

    Concussion is an injury affecting millions of individuals annually that can be associated with long-term sequelae. Recent studies have reported long-term abnormalities in the white matter (WM) tracts of male athletes. The corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST) have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to concussion, which may be related to abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity and motor impairments. These anatomical pathways, however, have not been investigated in female athletes despite the functional significance of the CC and CST to adequate sports performance. In the present study, 8 healthy, unconcussed female athletes (soccer, hockey) were compared with 10 female athletes (soccer, hockey, water polo) 6 months post-concussion. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the CC and CST was conducted in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. DTI analysis showed no significant differences between groups within the CST but revealed differences between groups in the CC. The concussed group had lower mean diffusivity (t = 2.14; p = 0.048) and lower radial diffusivity (t = 2.91; p = 0.010) in the region of the CC projecting to the prefrontal cortex. A lower volume of WM fibers was found in the region projecting to the premotor and supplementary motor areas (t = 2.14; p = 0.048). Finally, lower axial diffusivity (AD) was observed in the CC area projecting mainly to the parietal and temporal area (t = 2.23; p = 0.041). Long-term alterations in the CC of female athletes appear to affect mostly the anterior part of the CC projecting to the prefrontal and premotor areas. Further studies are needed to determine whether these alterations are associated with a higher risk of sustaining a subsequent concussive injury. PMID:26414496

  1. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  2. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  3. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOWER EXTREMITY CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN STRENGTH & SAGITTAL PLANE LANDING KINEMATICS IN FEMALE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Kivlan, Ben; Scibek, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Female athletes continue to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments at a greater rate than males in comparable sports. During landing activities, females exhibit several different kinematic and kinetic traits when compared to their male counterparts including decreased knee flexion angles as well as decreased lower extremity (LE) strength. While open kinetic chain strength measures have not been related to landing kinematics, given the closer replication of movement patterns that occur during closed kinetic chain (CKC) activity, it is possible that lower extremity strength if measured in this fashion will be related to landing kinematics. Purpose: To determine if unilateral isometric CKC lower extremity (LE) strength was related to sagittal plane tibiofemoral kinematics during a single leg landing task in competitive female athletes. We hypothesized females who demonstrated lesser CKC LE strength would exhibit decreased sagittal plane angles during landing. Methods: 20 competitive female athletes (age = 16.0 ± 1.8 yrs; height = 166.5 ± 8.3 cm; weight = 59.7 ± 10.2 kg) completed CKC LE strength testing followed by 5 unilateral drop landings on the dominant LE during one test session at an outpatient physical therapy clinic. Closed kinetic chain LE strength was measured on a computerized leg press with an integrated load cell while sagittal plane tibiofemoral kinematics were quantified with an electrogoniometer. Results: No significant relationships between absolute or normalized isometric CKC strength and sagittal plane landing kinematics were identified. Conclusions: Closed kinetic chain lower extremity isometric strength tested at 25 degrees of knee flexion is not related to sagittal plane landing kinematics in adolescent competitive female athletes. Levels of Evidence: Analytic, Observational PMID:21655453

  5. Pre-participation gynecological evaluation of female athletes: a new proposal

    PubMed Central

    Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Zucchi, Eliana Viana Monteiro; de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Guindalini, Camila Santa Cruz; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin de Jármy Di; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Cohen, Moisés; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose the inclusion of a gynecological investigation during the evaluation of athletes before competitions, using a specific instrument called the Pre-participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE). Methods The study assessed 148 athletes, mean age of 15.4±2.0 years, who engaged in eight different sports modalities, and who responded to a questionnaire named Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE), to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (for urinary loss), and to the Eating Attitudes Test (for eating disorders). Results Fifty percent of the participants reported irregular menstrual intervals, 23.0% did not know about sexually transmitted diseases, and 72.4% denied having, at least, an annual gynecological appointment. The study identified 18.2% who had urinary loss, and 15% presented with an increased risk of eating disorders. Moreover, 89.9% were not familiar with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in athletes and did not know that they were susceptible to the female athlete triad. A total of 87.1% of them stated that would not mention these issues to their coaches even if this would improve their health or performance. Conclusion The Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination can be considered an easy-to-apply instrument that allowed the diagnosis of alterations often underestimated by the athletes themselves. After its application, the alterations were identified, and determined the athletes’ referral to appropriate evaluation and treatment. PMID:25628197

  6. Comparison of Static and Dynamic Balance in Female Collegiate Soccer, Basketball, and Gymnastics Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Eadric; Yonker, Joshua C; Kras, John; Heath, Edward M

    2007-01-01

    Context: How athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: To compare static and dynamic balance among collegiate athletes competing or training in soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. Design: A quasi-experimental, between-groups design. Independent variables included limb (dominant and nondominant) and sport played. Setting: A university athletic training facility. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female volunteers who competed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer (n = 11), basketball (n = 11), or gymnastics (n = 12). Intervention(s): To assess static balance, participants performed 3 stance variations (double leg, single leg, and tandem leg) on 2 surfaces (stiff and compliant). For assessment of dynamic balance, participants performed multidirectional maximal single-leg reaches from a unilateral base of support. Main Outcome Measure(s): Errors from the Balance Error Scoring System and normalized leg reach distances from the Star Excursion Balance Test were used to assess static and dynamic balance, respectively. Results: Balance Error Scoring System error scores for the gymnastics group were 55% lower than for the basketball group (P = .01), and Star Excursion Balance Test scores were 7% higher in the soccer group than the basketball group (P = .04). Conclusions: Gymnasts and soccer players did not differ in terms of static and dynamic balance. In contrast, basketball players displayed inferior static balance compared with gymnasts and inferior dynamic balance compared with soccer players. PMID:17597942

  7. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  8. Will Female Kicker's Legal Victory Reshape Gender Roles in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes implications of a $2-million judgment awarded to a female football player by a federal jury who found that Duke University (North Carolina) engaged in illegal discrimination by keeping her off its football team. Considers the tradition of football as a decidedly male activity, Title IX requirements, and the large degree of variance in…

  9. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  10. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-06-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group. PMID:25951882

  11. The Effect of Coach Expectations on Female Athletes' Motivation to Play: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Megan Matthews

    2013-01-01

    This concurrent, embedded mixed methods study used predominantly quantitative analyses to examine coach expectations and behaviors on female athletes' intrinsic motivation to play softball. Qualitative methods in the form of structured, open-ended questions were used to enhance the data by examining athletes' perceptions of coaching…

  12. Motherhood and Work–Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: Mentors and the Female Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Context: One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Objective: To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Results: Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work–life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Conclusions: Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work–life balance and are available to serve as role models, the

  13. The management of sport-related concussion: considerations for male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Crutcher, Bryan; Burkhart, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Sport-related concussion continues to be a centerpiece of attention in the field of sports medicine. The benefit to using neurocognitive testing when managing concussion will be documented in this review. In addition to providing critical objective information on the neurocognitive status of the concussed athlete, research data will be provided on the pre- and post-concussion neurocognitive profiles of concussed male and female athletes. Specifically, an overview of research will be presented on the epidemiology of male and female concussion rates, as well as concussion outcomes including symptoms and cognitive function post-injury. Finally, a clinician's perspective on managing sports-related concussion will be presented focusing on three factors regarding sex differences: risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. PMID:24323339

  14. Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF's treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya's case and the scientific and historical complexity of "gender verification" in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn. PMID:22694023

  15. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  16. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J; Hannafin, Jo A

    2016-03-21

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  17. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  18. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  19. Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Are female athletes at increased risk for disordered eating and its complications?

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to make a systematic review and describe and confront recent studies that compare the presence of disordered eating and its complications in young female athletes and controls subjects - PubMed, Scielo, Medline, ScienceDirect, WILEY InterScience, Lilacs and Cochrane were the databases used for this review. Out of 169 studies 22 were selected and 11,000 women from 68 sports were studied. The short version of the EAT was the most common instrument used to track disordered eating. Results showed that 55% found no significant difference in the percentage of disordered eating between athletes and controls. Also a higher percentage of studies reported higher frequency of menstrual dysfunction in athletes than controls and finally 50% of the studies found incidence of low bone mass in controls. Not all the studies that investigated all the conditions in the triad, but the authors concluded that it seemed that athletes were in more severe stage of this disorder. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a definitive conclusion about the groups and at highest risk for disordered eating and its complications remains to be elucidated. PMID:20709126

  1. Feeding strategies of a female athlete during an ultraendurance running event.

    PubMed

    Moran, Siobhan T; Dziedzic, Christine E; Cox, Gregory R

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this case study was to describe the race nutrition practices of a female runner who completed her first 100-km off-road ultraendurance running event in 12 hr 48 min 55 s. Food and fluid intake during the race provided 10,890 kJ (736 kJ/hr) and 6,150 ml (415 ml/hr) of fluid. Hourly reported carbohydrate intake was 44 g, with 34% provided by sports drink. Hourly carbohydrate intake increased in the second half (53 g/hr) compared with the first half (34 g/h) of the race, as the athlete did not have access to individualized food and fluid choices at the early checkpoints and felt satiated in the early stages of the race after consuming a prerace breakfast. Mean sodium intake was 500 mg/hr (52 mmol/L), with a homemade savory broth and sports drink (Gatorade Endurance) being the major contributors. The athlete consumed a variety of foods of varying textures and tastes with no complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Despite thinking she would consume sweet foods exclusively, as she had done in training, the athlete preferred savory foods and fluids at checkpoints during the latter stages of the race. This case study highlights the importance of the sports nutrition team in educating athletes about race-day nutrition strategies and devising a simple yet effective system to allow them to manipulate their race-day food and fluid intake to meet their nutritional goals. PMID:21813918

  2. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  3. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college. PMID:22990572

  4. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition and Physical Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R.; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Methods Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. Results There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). Conclusions This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan. PMID:22375235

  5. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake. PMID:22645172

  6. Anemia and iron status in young fertile non-professional female athletes.

    PubMed

    Di Santolo, Manuela; Stel, Giuliana; Banfi, Giuseppe; Gonano, Fabio; Cauci, Sabina

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of regular physical exercise on anemia and iron status in young non-professional female athletes. A total of 191 healthy white Italian women (23.5 +/- 4.68 years) were analyzed; 70 were non-professional athletes performing 11.1 +/- 2.63 h week(-1) exercise and 121 were sedentary controls. Blood markers of anemia and iron status-hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), serum ferritin, iron, transferrin (Tf), transferrin saturation (TfS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR/log ferritin ratio (sTfR-F index)-were evaluated. Anemia threshold was Hb < 120 g l(-1). Ferritin concentrations < 12 microg l(-1) were considered as iron deficiency (ID). Frequency of anemia (15.7 versus 10.7%, P = 0.32), ID (27.1 versus 29.8%, P = 0.70), and ID anemia (8.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.46) was not different in athletes and controls. However, athletes were threefold more likely than controls (17.1 versus 5.8%) to have serum iron < 50 microg dl(-1) [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, P = 0.012]. Low-TfS (<15%) was found in 25.7% of athletes and in 13.2% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.030. Elevated-sTfR (>1.76 mg l(-1)) was found in 24.3% of athletes and in 12.4% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.034. Regular non-professional sport activity does not cause an increased rate of anemia or of iron deficiency in fertile women. However, physical exercise has an impact on iron status as it reduces serum iron and transferrin saturation, and elevates sTfR. Nearly one fifth of recreational athletes have anemia and a third have iron deficit, these conditions can decrease their physical performance. PMID:18092176

  7. Stress fracture injury in female endurance athletes in the United Kingdom: A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Brooke-Wavell, K; Summers, G D; Cameron, N; Peirce, N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stress fracture (SF) incidence are limited in number and geographical location; this study determined the incidence of SF injury in female endurance athletes based in the United Kingdom. A total of 70 athletes aged between 18 and 45 years were recruited and prospectively monitored for 12 months. Questionnaires at baseline and 12 months assessed SF, menstrual and training history, eating psychopathology, and compulsive exercise. Peak lower leg muscle strength was assessed in both legs using an isometric muscle rig. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, hip, and radius was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the 61 athletes who completed the 12-month monitoring, two sustained a SF diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, giving an incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) of 3.3 (0.8, 13.1) % of the study population sustaining a SF over 12 months. The SF cases were 800 m runners aged 19 and 22 years, training on average 14.2 h a week, eumenorrheic with no history of menstrual dysfunction. Case 1 had a higher than average energy intake and low eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise scores, while the reverse was true in case 2. BMD in both cases was similar to mean values in the non-SF group. The incidence of SF in our female endurance athlete population based in the United Kingdom was 3.3%, which is lower than previously reported. Further work is needed to confirm the current incidence of SF and evaluate the associated risk factors. PMID:25892560

  8. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully. PMID:27030632

  9. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted. PMID:23075559

  10. Effects of dietary intervention in young female athletes with menstrual disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three months of dietary intervention on menstrual cycle in young female athletes with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Methods From forty-five female professional athletes with menstrual irregularity that were recruited thirty-one, aged 18.1 ± 2.6 years, completed the study and were analyzed. Hyperprolactinemia, thyroid dysfunction, primary ovarian failure and hyperandrogenism were excluded in the study participants. The subjects started intense training at the age of 11.2 ± 3.5 years and continued during next 6.8 ± 3.3 years. Energy and nutrients intake, total energy expenditure, energy availability and body composition as well as serum concentrations of LH, FSH, 17 – beta estradiol and progesterone were measured at the beginning of the study and after three months of individualized dietary intervention. Results Following three months of dietary intervention significant increase in energy intake (2354 ± 539 vs. 258 8 ± 557 kcal, P = 0.004) and energy availability (28.3 ± 9.2 vs. 35.8 ± 12.3 kcal/kg FFM/d, P = 0.011) was observed as well as improved energy balance (−288 ± 477 vs. -51 ± 224 kcal/d, P = 0.002). Though no changes in BMI and body composition were noted but significant rise in LH concentrations (3.04 ± 1.63 vs. 4.59 ± 2.53 mIU/ml, P = 0.009) and LH to FSH ratio (0.84 ± 0.56 vs. 0.96 ± 0.52, P = 0.001) was achieved, but no restoration of menstrual cyclicity. Conclusions This report provides further support for the role of energy deficiency in menstrual disorders among young female athletes and the benefits of an adequate energy intake and energy availability on hormones concentration. Continuation controlled dietary intervention is needed to assess the extent to which long-term improvement in the nutritional status results in improvements in the hormonal status of female athletes, to an extent that

  11. Health Risk Behaviors of Female Student-Athletes and the Relationship to Social Support and Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvigson, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Although many student-athletes find participation in college sports rewarding, there are many who experience difficulties. Student-athletes face the same concerns that nonathletes do which include becoming independent, coping with uncertainty, finding a clear purpose, and clarifying values (Astin, 1977; Chickering, 1969; Farnsworth, 1966;…

  12. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity during hypo- and hypercapnia in sedentary elderly and Masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Tarumi, Takashi; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Palmer, Dean M; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity may influence cerebrovascular function. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of life-long aerobic exercise training on cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) in older adults. Eleven sedentary young (SY, 27±5 years), 10 sedentary elderly (SE, 72±4 years), and 11 Masters athletes (MA, 72±6 years) underwent the measurements of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), arterial blood pressure, and EtCO2 during hypocapnic hyperventilation and hypercapnic rebreathing. Baseline CBFV was lower in SE and MA than in SY while no difference was observed between SE and MA. During hypocapnia, CVMR was lower in SE and MA compared with SY (1.87±0.42 and 1.47±0.21 vs. 2.18±0.28 CBFV%/mm Hg, P<0.05) while being lowest in MA among all groups (P<0.05). In response to hypercapnia, SE and MA exhibited greater CVMR than SY (6.00±0.94 and 6.67±1.09 vs. 3.70±1.08 CBFV1%/mm Hg, P<0.05) while no difference was observed between SE and MA. A negative linear correlation between hypo- and hypercapnic CVMR (R(2)=0.37, P<0.001) was observed across all groups. Advanced age was associated with lower resting CBFV and lower hypocapnic but greater hypercapnic CVMR. However, life-long aerobic exercise training appears to have minimal effects on these age-related differences in cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:23591649

  13. Evaluation of Postural Asymmetry and Gross Joint Mobility in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited “typical” frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the “LLL pattern” preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test

  14. Different Exercise Training Interventions and Drop-Landing Biomechanics in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be

  15. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi

  16. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies. PMID:27131197

  17. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  18. Body composition changes among female NCAA division 1 athletes across the competitive season and over a multiyear time frame.

    PubMed

    Stanforth, Philip R; Crim, Brittany N; Stanforth, Dixie; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    Body composition can affect athletic performance. Numerous studies have documented changes in body composition in female collegiate athletes from pre- to postseason; however, longitudinal studies examining changes across years are scarce. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to assess longitudinal body composition changes among female collegiate athletes across 3 years. Two hundred twelve female athletes from basketball (BB; n = 38), soccer (SOC; n = 47), swimming (SW; n = 52), track (sprinters and jumpers; TR; n = 49), and volleyball (VB; n = 26) with an initial mean age of 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height of 172.4 ± 8.9 cm, and total mass of 66.9 ± 9.0 kg had body composition assessments using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry pre- and postseason over 3 years. A restricted maximum-likelihood linear mixed model regression analysis examined body composition differences by sport and year. Changes (p < 0.05) over 3 years included the following: Lean mass increased in VB from year 1 to 2 (0.7 kg), year 2 to 3 (1.1 kg), and year 1 to 3 (1.8 kg) and in SW from year 1 to 3 (0.6 kg); and percent body fat (%BF) increased in BB from year 1 to 3 (1.7%). There were no changes in SOC or TR. These results indicate that during their college careers, female collegiate athletes can be expected to maintain their %BF and athletes in sports like SW and VB can anticipate an increase in lean mass, but the increases may be less than many athletes, coaches, and trainers envision. PMID:23860290

  19. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which p<0,05 were considered significant. When compared to resting values, urinary excretion of copper and selenium decreased in exercise (p<0,05), but increased with zinc supplementation (p<0,05). Pre- and post-supplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (p<0,05). Zinc supplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (p<0,05), and reduced selenium levels (p<0,05). When zinc is supplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support. PMID:26826808

  20. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

  1. Protective role of 17-β-estradiol towards IL-6 leukocyte expression induced by intense training in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Cristina; Scala, Loredana; Silvestri, Ilaria; Vitale, Jacopo; Scurati, Raffaele; Michielon, Giovanni; Alberti, Giampietro; Venerando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Exercise performed at a competitive level could deeply modify the immune system and the cytokine response of athletes. In this report, we demonstrated that young elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 16; age: 9-15 years) showed an increase of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison to girls performing the same sport at a recreational level (n = 16; age: 10-15 years). The increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNAs appeared to be directly linked to the intensity and duration of the training. Moreover, in elite athletes engaged in artistic gymnastics or in synchronised swimming (n =34; age: 9-15 years), IL-6 gene expression appeared to be modulated by the levels of circulating oestrogens: pre-pubertal athletes (n = 20; age: 11 ± 1 years) revealed a higher increase in IL-6 than pubertal athletes (n = 14; age: 14 ± 1.6 years). In pre-pubertal athletes, body mass index (BMI) percentile was inversely correlated with the increase of both IL-6 and TNF-α. The consequence of these events was the shift of the cytokine profile towards a pro-inflammatory status. These modifications, induced by training performed at an elite level, might negatively affect the growth of female children athletes. PMID:24016202

  2. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  3. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  4. Effect of iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance of iron-depleted female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Blee, Tanya; Goodman, Carmel; Dawson, Brian; Claydon, Gary; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2007-06-01

    This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or to a placebo group (PG). Twenty days after the first injection, exercise and blood testing were repeated. A final blood test occurred on Day 28. Post supplementation, no differences were found between the groups' submaximal or maximal VO2, heart rate, or blood lactate (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was increased in the IG (P < 0.05) but was not greater than that of the PG (P > 0.05). The IG's serum ferritin (SF) was significantly increased on Days 20 and 28 (mean +/- standard error: 19 +/- 3 to 65 +/- 11 to 57 +/- 12 microg/L; P < 0.01), with a percentage change from baseline significantly greater than in the PG (P < 0.01). It was concluded that intramuscular iron injections can effectively increase SF without enhancing submaximal or maximal aerobic-exercise performance in iron-depleted female athletes. PMID:17693684

  5. Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Haapasalo, H; Mänttäri, A; Vuori, I

    1995-09-01

    To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measured anatomic sites were at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, calcaneus, and distal radius. The athlete group consisted of aerobic dancers (N = 27), squash players (N = 18), and speed skaters (N = 14). The squash players had the highest values for weight-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (13.8% p < 0.001 as compared with the sedentary reference group), femoral neck (16.8%, p < 0.001), proximal tibia (12.6%, p < 0.001) and calcaneus (18.5%, p < 0.001). Aerobic dancers and speed skaters also had significantly higher BMD values at the loaded sites than the sedentary reference group, the difference ranging from 5.3% to 13.5%. The physically active referents' BMD values did not differ from those of the sedentary referents at any site. The results support the concept that training, including high strain rates in versatile movements and high peak forces, is more effective in bone formation than training with a large number of low-force repetitions. PMID:8541131

  6. [Three Elderly Female Patients Who Experienced Self-Recovery during End-of-Life Care at Home].

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiro; Sato, Mutsuko

    2015-12-01

    Recently, after completing hospital treatment, 3 elderly female patients were introduced to our home care department for end-of-life care at home. However, these patients recovered almost by themselves and now spend quiet days. From now on, women became the era they live alone in the statistics on the elderly. On the basis of these 3 cases, it is suggested that elderly female patients have the capacity to overcome conditions such as infectious diseases and digestive system disorders. PMID:26809415

  7. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  8. A composite malignant tumour of the elderly female breast

    PubMed Central

    Wayte, D. M.; Stewart, J. B.; McKenzie, C. G.

    1970-01-01

    A composite malignant tumour arising in the breast of an elderly woman is described. The cystic tumour containing areas of squamous metaplasia, bone formation, adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma was surrounded by the typical changes of mammary dysplasia (fibroadenosis). The classification and acceptance of such tumours is highly debatable. There is no one acceptable classification of breast sarcomas and hence the prognosis of such neoplasms, particularly those containing heterologous tissues, is poorly defined. Evidence is presented in support of such composite tumours as being definite entities which arise from the closely associated epithelial and mesenchymal components of the breast simultaneously. Images PMID:4320045

  9. Do Old Ladies Make World History?: Student Perceptions of Elder Female Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbum, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the views of his undergraduate students regarding elder female agency and their answers to the question: "Do old ladies make world history?" Because his undergraduate students mostly view the past in terms of the Great Man theory of history, which holds that those who make history are necessarily great, and…

  10. Salivary IgA is not a reliable indicator of upper respiratory infection in collegiate female soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Vardiman, John P; Riggs, Charles E; Galloway, Doug L; Waxman, Mickey B; Touchberry, Chad D; Gallagher, Phillip M

    2011-07-01

    It has been shown that mucosal immunity measures such as salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) can be affected by sport activities and has resulted in an increased susceptibility to infection. However, there is limited research that has evaluated the change in s-IgA throughout a full sport training season. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the change in s-IgA levels and incidence of upper respiratory infection in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level female soccer athletes compared to age matched controls over an entire sport training season. Saliva samples were collected from 12 randomly selected female collegiate soccer athletes and 8 age-matched controls. Samples were collected bimonthly from the athletes' pre-and post-sport training sessions and pre- and post-90-minute sedentary period for the controls. Analysis showed there was a significant (p < 0.05) group × time interaction in total protein (TP) for collections 1 and 4 and a significant (p < 0.05) group × time interaction in s-IgA/TP for collections 2 and 3. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between athletes and controls for s-IgA or total symptom days (TSDs). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between absolute s-IgA and TSDs or s-IgA/TP and TSDs throughout the sport training season. The large range of measurable levels for s-IgA at the different time points for athletes and controls and the lack of relationship between s-IgA levels and TSDs indicate that s-IgA is not an appropriate measure to determine an athlete's susceptibility to during a training season. PMID:21519285

  11. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. Objective To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Design Qualitative study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Data Collection and Analysis Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Results Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Conclusions Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity. PMID:26067427

  12. Exercise immunology: future directions for research related to athletes, nutrition, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C

    2000-05-01

    This article examines three questions related to exercise immunology: 1) Can exercise attenuate changes in the immune system related to aging? The few research papers available suggest that the answer may be "yes", but exercise training may have to be long-term and of sufficient volume to induce changes in body weight and fitness before any change in immunity can be expected in old age. 2) Is the athlete an immunocompromised host? For most athletes, probably not, although the answer may be 'yes' during certain periods when the athlete exceeds normal training limits or competes in endurance events. Most studies have reported that the immune systems of athletes and nonathletes in the resting state are more similar than disparate with the exception of natural killer cell activity which tends to be elevated in athletes. Infection risk may be more related to the acute changes in immunity that occur following heavy exercise, but this hypothesis has not been sufficiently studied. 3) Are nutrition supplements effective countermeasures to exercise-induced inflammation and immunosuppression? Except for carbohydrate, the answer at this time for all other nutrients studied is 'no'. While data from the vitamin and mineral studies have been negative, and those involving glutamine conflicting, several investigations indicate that carbohydrate compared to placebo ingestion is associated with attenuated hormonal and immune responses. PMID:10893026

  13. Retention and Attrition Factors for Female Certified Athletic Trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Setting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M.; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E.; Mitchell, Murray F.; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. Objective: To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n  =  12) or former full-time ATs (n  =  11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. Conclusions: A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered

  14. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  15. Functional dimorphism and characteristics of maximal hand grip force in top level female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine functional dimorphism (F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso)) and model characteristics at maximal isometric hand grip force (F(max)HG(iso)) in top level female athletes. 275 top level female athletes were tested from Taekwondo, Synchronised Swimming, Track and field, Table tennis, Volleyball, Karate, Skiing, Handball, well-trained students (students of the Academy for Criminalistic and Police studies - ACPS) and Control group. In order to assess the F(max)HG(iso), we used standardised equipment, i.e., a sliding device that measures isometric finger flexor force, with a tensiometric probe fixed inside the device. The average values of F(max)HG(iso) and relative force measured by allometric and classic method for dominant and non-dominant hand grip for the total sample were 381.87 +/- 60.28, 344.63 +/- 55.60 N; 24.06 +/- 3.50, 21.72 +/- 3.28 N/BM0.667; 0.62 +/- 0.10, 0.56 +/- 0.09 N/BM. The average value of F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso) was 0.9030 +/- 0.0797. General Significant difference was established between subsamples for the measurement characteristics at the level of Wilks' Lambda 0.476, F = 3.276, p = 0.000. Maximal average value F(max)HG(iso) for non-dominant and dominant hand is found in Karate (372.04 +/- 46.71, 407.04 +/- 71.31 N) and minimal in Table tennis (282.00 +/- 56.00, 304.00 +/- 58.51 N). The minimal index value of F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso) was found in Control group 0.8771 +/- 0.0877. Considering defined classification of F(max)Nd/ DoHG(iso), we classified the examinees from different sports in 4 groups: dominant symmetry of functional hand grip relations (Skiing > 0.9595); symmetry (Table tennis and Taekwondo 0.9288 to 0.9594); average (Karate, Volleyball, ACPS, Track and field 0.8980 to 0.9287); asymmetry (Control, Synchronised swimming and Handball 0.8674 to 0.8979). The results obtained can be used to determine criteria decisions from the aspect of diagnostic procedures, metric aspect, medical aspect. PMID:23390816

  16. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; Grogan, Claire; Perry, Mark; Pedlar, Charles; Cooke, Karl; Morrissey, Dylan; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2010-10-01

    Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p=.026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors' practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes. PMID:20975110

  17. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  18. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  19. Salivary hormone and immune responses to three resistance exercise schemes in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João A; Crewther, Blair T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Viveiros, Luís; de Rose, Dante; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the salivary hormone and immune responses of elite female athletes to 3 different resistance exercise schemes. Fourteen female basketball players each performed an endurance scheme (ES-4 sets of 12 reps, 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, 1-minute rest periods), a strength-hypertrophy scheme (SHS-1 set of 5RM, 1 set of 4RM, 1 set of 3RM, 1 set of 2RM, and 1set of 1RM with 3-minute rest periods, followed by 3 sets of 10RM with 2-minute rest periods) and a power scheme (PS-3 sets of 10 reps, 50% 1RM load, 3-minute rest periods) using the same exercises (bench press, squat, and biceps curl). Saliva samples were collected at 07:30 hours, pre-exercise (Pre) at 09:30 hours, postexercise (Post), and at 17:30 hours. Matching samples were also taken on a nonexercising control day. The samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol (C), and immunoglobulin A concentrations. The total volume of load lifted differed among the 3 schemes (SHS > ES > PS, p < 0.05). Postexercise C concentrations increased after all schemes, compared to control values (p < 0.05). In the SHS, the postexercise C response was also greater than pre-exercise data (p < 0.05). The current findings confirm that high-volume resistance exercise schemes can stimulate greater C secretion because of higher metabolic demand. In terms of practical applications, acute changes in C may be used to evaluate the metabolic demands of different resistance exercise schemes, or as a tool for monitoring training strain. PMID:21572351

  20. Sexy versus Strong: What Girls and Women Think of Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has investigated girls' and college women's reactions to non-objectified media images of women, including those that depict women in instrumental activities like playing a sport. This study examined open-ended responses to images of performance athletes, sexualized athletes, and sexualized models. Participants were 258 adolescent…

  1. Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

  2. Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Markesha McWilliams

    2013-01-01

    Transitions are defined as "any event or non-event that results in changed relationships, routines, assumptions, and roles" (Goodman, Schlossberg, & Anderson, 2006, p. 33). A particular transition unique to student-athletes in comparison to other college students is the end of their collegiate athletic eligibility. The purpose of…

  3. Physical Activity, Disordered Eating Risk, and Anthropometric Measurement: A Comparison of College Female Athletes and Non Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinauskas, Brenda M.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Aeby, Victor G.; Bruening, Christi C.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for women in sport have expanded, whereas the media-driven ideal female continues to have a slender body. To attain the body that society has promoted, college-age females are vulnerable to psychological disordered eating risk. This study examines relationships among physical activity, body composition, and psychological eating…

  4. BodySense: an evaluation of a positive body image intervention on sport climate for female athletes.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annick; Mack, Heidi; McVey, Gail; Feder, Stephen; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of the seven clubs were randomized to receive the 3-month intervention program (IG) aimed at increasing awareness and positive climate change of body image pressures for athletes in their clubs. Three clubs were randomized to the control group (CG). A total of 62 female gymnasts (IG n = 31; CG n = 31) completed self-report questionnaires examining perceptions of pressure to be thin within their sports clubs, self-efficacy over dieting pressures, awareness and internalization of societal pressure to be thin, body esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviours before and following the intervention. A total of 32 mothers (IG n = 24; CG n = 8) completed measures examining their perceptions of their daughter's pressure to be thin, awareness and internalization of societal pressures to be thin, daughter's self-efficacy over dieting pressures, in addition to mothers' beliefs regarding thinness and success for women in society, before and following the intervention. The findings revealed that participation in the BodySense program resulted in athletes perceiving a reduction in pressure from their sports clubs to be thin, though no changes were found in body esteem, the EAT, or the SATAQ. No significant change was observed over time on mothers' measures. The role of climate change for prevention of eating disorders in athletes is discussed. PMID:18568921

  5. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  6. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements. PMID:27329516

  7. Kinematic, Dynamic and EMG Analysis of Drop Jumps in Female Elite Triple Jump Athletes.

    PubMed

    Čoh, Milan; Matjačić, Zlatko; Peharec, Stanislav; Bačić, Petar; Rausavjević, Nikola; Maćkala, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was a biodynamic analysis of the kinematic, dynamic and EMG parameters of two types of drop jumps (heights of 25 cm and 45 cm). The sample of measured subjects included four female elite triple jump athletes, with their best results varying from 13.33 to 15.06 meters. The kinematic and dynamic parameters were calculated with the use of a bipedal tensiometric force plate, which was synchronized with nine CCD cameras. A 16-channel electromyography (BTS Pocket, Myolab) was used to analyze the EMG activation of the following muscles: m. erector spinae, m. gluteus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius medialis. In the drop jump from a 25 cm height, the measured subjects achieved the following results: height of jump 43.37 ± 5.39 cm and ground reaction force 2770 ± 411 N. In comparison, results for the drop jump from a 45 cm height were: height of jump 45.22 ± 4.65 cm and ground reaction force 2947 ± 366 N. Vertical velocity of the take-off in the 25 cm drop jump was 2.77 ± 0.19 ms(-1) and in the 45 cm drop jump it was 2.86 ± 0.15 ms(-1). Observation of the EMG activation revealed the proximal to distal principle of muscle activation at work in both types of drop jumps. In the first phase of the concentric phase the most active muscles were m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris. The greatest activity of m. gastrocnemius medialis and m. soleus was noticed in the last third of the take-off action. Significantly high EMG activation of m. vastus medialis and m. vastus lateralis was already shown in the flight phase prior to the feet making contact with the ground. PMID:26434025

  8. The 2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society Ethics Symposium: Controversies Regarding 'Gender Verification' of Elite Female Athletes - Sex Testing to Hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Jill L; Genel, Myron

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Pediatric Endocrine Society's Ethics Symposium held in April 2015 at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies is provided by the panel moderators with a summary of efforts by international athletic governing bodies over several decades to 'verify' the eligibility of athletes to compete in female only events, culminating in the hyperandrogenism policies that were the focus of the panel debate. This history was extensively reviewed in the symposium's opening presentation by Alan Rogol, in collaboration with Lindsay Pieper. Two sharply divergent views were then conveyed. David Allen's, in support, is provided in his article which follows. The opposing case, provided by Katrina Karkazis, is extensively summarized herein and reflected in her Science essay with Rebecca Jordan-Young which appeared shortly after the meeting. The subsequent ruling by the international Court of Arbitration for Sport to suspend the hyperandrogenism rule is noted with some speculation regarding the implications if it is upheld. PMID:26918844

  9. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of bone turnover in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Creighton, D L; Morgan, A L; Boardley, D; Brolinson, P G

    2001-02-01

    Weight-bearing activity provides an osteogenic stimulus, while effects of swimming on bone are unclear. We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in female athletes (n = 41, age 20.7 yr) comparing three impact groups, high impact (High, basketball and volleyball, n = 14), medium impact (Med, soccer and track, n = 13), and nonimpact (Non, swimming, n = 7), with sedentary age-matched controls (Con, n = 7). BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), Ward's triangle, and trochanter (TR); bone resorption estimated from urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx); and bone formation determined from serum osteocalcin. Adjusted BMD (g/cm; covariates: body mass index, weight, and calcium and calorie intake) was greater at the FN and TR in the High group (1.27 +/- 0.03 and 1.05 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (1.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (1.03 +/- 0.05 and 0.85 +/- 0.05) groups and greater at the TR in the Med group (1.01 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (0.85 +/- 0.05) groups. Total body BMD was higher in the High group (4.9 +/- 0.12) than in the Med (4.5 +/- 0.12), Non (4.2 +/- 0.14), and Con (4.1 +/- 0.17) groups and greater in the Med group than in the Non and Con groups. Bone formation was lower in the Non group (19.8 +/- 2.6) than in the High (30.6 +/- 3.0) and Med (32.9 +/- 1.9, P < or = 0.05) groups. No differences in a marker of bone resorption (NTx) were noted. This indicates that women who participate in impact sports such as volleyball and basketball had higher BMDs and bone formation values than female swimmers. PMID:11160054

  10. The Influence of Age on the M Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Sugimoto, Dai; Thomas, Staci; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In female athletes, sports-related injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) increase during adolescence and peak in incidence during the mid- to late teens. Although biomechanical investigations indicate that a potential window of opportunity exists for optimal timing for the initiation of integrative neuromuscular training (NMT) in young female athletes, the influence of the timing of initiation of these programs on the efficacy of ACL injury reduction has yet to be evaluated. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the current report was to systematically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding the influence of age of NMT implementation on the effectiveness for reduction of ACL injury incidence. The hypothesis tested was that NMT would show a greater effect in younger populations. Study Design Meta-analysis; Level of evidence 1a. Methods Data were pooled from 14 clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria of (1) number of ACL injuries reported; (2) NMT program used; (3) female participants were included; (4) investigations used prospective, controlled trials; and (5) age of participants was documented or was obtainable upon contact with the authors. A meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR) was used to compare the ratios of ACL injuries between intervention and control groups among differing age categorizations. Results A meta-analysis of the 14 included studies demonstrated significantly greater knee injury reduction in female athletes who were categorized in the preventive NMT group compared with those who were in the control group (OR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35, 0.83). Lower ACL injuries in mid-teens (OR 0.28; CI: 0.18, 0.42) compared with late teens (OR 0.48; CI: 0.21, 1.07) and early adults (OR 1.01; CI: 0.62, 1.64) were found in participants undergoing NMT. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed an age-related association between NMT implementation and reduction of ACL incidence. Both

  11. Hyperandrogenism in female athletes with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a distinct phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Asma; Kashyap, Rahul; Lteif, Aida N

    2015-01-01

    positively associated with serum glucose (adjusted r2=0.102; P=0.01) as well as with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry spine score (adjusted r2=0.191; P=0.04) in the entire cohort. Conclusion In a small cohort of female athletes with hyperandrogenism, a distinct reproductive hormone profile consisting of higher LH to FHS ratio may be associated with adverse metabolic health markers but improved skeletal health. PMID:25610004

  12. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not collect physical activity data on the swimmers outside of their swimming activities. These activities may have some influence on the BMD of swimmers and therefore, future studies need to examine additional physical activity history data as well as swim training. This additional information may help to explain why swimmers' BMD tends to be lower than the BMD of control individuals in many studies. Moreover, dietary supplementation such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D also affect bone health in swimmers, and it is extremely important to evaluate BMD in the context of dietary supplementation. [Conclusion] A review of the literature suggests that exercise intervention studies, including longitudinal and randomized control trials, need to attempt to introduce various exercise programs to female swimmers in order to determine the optimal exercise prescription for bone health. PMID:27274459

  13. Airway inflammation, cough and athlete quality of life in elite female cross-country skiers: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M D; Davidson, W J; Wong, L E; Traves, S L; Leigh, R; Eves, N D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a season of cross-country training and racing on airway inflammation, cough symptoms, and athlete quality of life in female skiers. Eighteen elite female skiers performed sputum induction and completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) at three time points (T1 - May/Jun, T2 - Oct/Nov, T3 - Jan-Mar) during the year. No changes were observed between T1 and T2. However, an increase in sputum eosinophils and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a significant change in all three domains of the LCQ were observed between T1 and T3 (P < 0.05). A significant association was found between the total yearly hours of training and the change in the total cell count (r(2)  = 0.74; P = 0.006), and a number of other sputum cell counts between T1 and T3. No changes were observed for any domain of the REST-Q. The results of this study demonstrate that airway inflammation and cough symptoms are significantly increased in elite female cross-country skiers across a year of training and racing. The increase in airway inflammation is related to the total amount of training and is worse during the winter months when athletes are training and racing in cold, dry air. PMID:26283581

  14. Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, T E; Torg, J S; Boden, B P

    2014-01-01

    Background The combined positioning of the trunk and knee in the coronal and sagittal planes during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury has not been previously reported. Hypothesis During ACL injury female athletes demonstrate greater lateral trunk and knee abduction angles than ACL-injured male athletes and uninjured female athletes. Design Cross-section control-cohort design. Methods Analyses of still captures from 23 coronal (10 female and 7 male ACL-injured players and 6 female controls) or 28 sagittal plane videos performing similar landing and cutting tasks. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Lateral trunk and knee abduction angles were higher in female compared to male athletes during ACL injury (p ≤ 0.05) and trended toward being greater than female controls (p = 0.16, 0.13, respectively). Female ACL-injured athletes showed less forward trunk lean than female controls (mean (SD) initial contact (IC): 1.6 (9.3)° vs 14.0 (7.3)°, p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Female athletes landed with greater lateral trunk motion and knee abduction during ACL injury than did male athletes or control females during similar landing and cutting tasks. Clinical relevance Lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are important components of the ACL injury mechanism in female athletes as observed from video evidence of ACL injury. PMID:19372088

  15. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  16. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor dysfunctions in female athletes in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M B A; Barra, A A; Saltiel, F; Silva-Filho, A L; Fonseca, A M R M; Figueiredo, E M

    2016-09-01

    The pelvic floor (PF) provides support to all pelvic organs, as well as appropriately closure/opening mechanism of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Therefore, it is likely that female athletes involved in high-impact and in strong-effort activities are at risk for the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of UI and other PF dysfunctions (PFD) [anal incontinence (AI), symptoms of constipation, dyspareunia, vaginal laxity, and pelvic organ prolapse] in 67 amateur athletes (AT) compared with a group 96 of nonathletes (NAT). An ad hoc survey based on questions from reliable and valid instruments was developed to investigate the occurrence of PFD symptoms. The risk of UI was higher in AT group (odds ratio: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.50-5.61), mostly among artistic gymnastics and trampoline, followed by swimming and judo athletes. Whereas, AT group reported less straining to evacuate (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96), manual assistance to defecate (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and a higher stool frequency (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.64) than NAT group. The occurrence of loss of gas and sexual symptoms was high for both groups when compared with literature, although with no statistical difference between them. Pelvic organ prolapse was only reported by nonathletes. Athletes are at higher risk to develop UI, loss of gas, and sexual dysfunctions, either practicing high-impact or strong-effort activities. Thus, pelvic floor must be considered as an entity and addressed as well. Also, women involved in long-term high-impact and strengthening sports should be advised of the impact of such activities on pelvic floor function and offered preventive PFD strategies as well. PMID:26369504

  17. Integrity in the care of elderly people, as narrated by female physicians.

    PubMed

    Nordam, Ann; Sørlie, Venke; Förde, R

    2003-07-01

    Three female physicians were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of female and male physicians and nurses, concerning their experience of being in ethically difficult care situations in the care of elderly people. The interviewees expressed great concern for the low status of care for elderly people, and the need fight for the specialty and for the care and rights of their patients. All the interviewees' narratives concerned problems relating to perspectives of both action ethics and relational ethics. The main focus was on problems concerning the latter perspective, expressed profound concern and respect for the individual patient. Secondary emphasis was placed on relationships with relatives and other professionals. The most common themes in action ethics perspective were too little treatment and the lack of health services for older patients, together with overtreatment and death with dignity. These results were discussed in the light of Løgstrup's ethics, which emphasize that human life means expressing oneself, in the expectation of being met by others. Both Ricoeur's concept of an ethics of memory and Aristotle's virtue ethics are presented in the discussion of too little and too much treatment. PMID:12875536

  18. Changes in Body Composition and Strength of Female Athletes on Two Different Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyster, Nancy

    Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCE DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single‐limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task‐ Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.927). Jump‐landing task‐ No significant differences were found in peak vGRF (p=.192) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver. PMID:23439490

  20. Cold-induced vasodilatation of finger and maximal oxygen consumption of young female athletes born in Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Koya

    1990-03-01

    To determine whether there is a direct correlation between endurance capacity and cold tolerance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), we measured these factors in 14 young female athletes born in Hokkaido, Japan's northernmost island. We determined the VO2max by a standard incremental test on a cycle ergometer and measured the oxygen consumption (VO2) by means of the Douglas-bag method. We determined the CIVD reaction by measuring the skin temperature of the left middle finger during immersion in cold water at 0°C for 20 min. The athletes showed significant positive correlations between VO2max, expressed as l/min, and CIVD as well as other peripheral cold tolerance indexes (resistance index against frostbite and CIVD index). The body weight VO2max (VO2max/kg body weight) failed to correlate significantly with either the CIVD or with other cold tolerance indexes. These results suggest that CIVD in females may depend on factors other than those determined in this study, in addition to the functional spread of the vascular beds in peripheral tissues, including striated muscle; it is known that the size and the vascular bed in this tissue are affected by exercise training and that this results in the elevation of VO2max and VO2max/kg body weight.

  1. The effects of whole-body vibration in isolation or combined with strength training in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Colombo, Alessandro; Verga, Monica; Galvani, Christel; Faina, Marcello; Rodano, Renato; Preatoni, Ennio; Cardinale, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the behavior of a vibrating platform under different conditions and to compare the effects of an 8-week periodized training program with whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with conventional strength training (ST). Vibrating frequencies, displacements, and peak accelerations were tested through a piezoelectric accelerometer under different conditions of load and subjects' position. Eighteen national-level female athletes were assigned to 1 of 3 different groups performing WBV, conventional ST, or a combination of the 2 (WBV + ST). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, dynamic maximal concentric force, and vertical jump tests were performed before and after the conditioning program. Vibrating displacements and maximum accelerations measured on the device were not always consistent with their expected values calculated from the display and manufacturers' information (sinusoidal waveforms). The WBV alone or in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise did not seem to induce significant enhancements in force and power when compared with ST. It appears that WBV cannot substitute parts of ST loading in a cohort of young female athletes. However, vibration effects might be limited by the behavior of the commercial platforms as the one used in the study. More studies are needed to analyze the performances of devices and the effectiveness of protocols. PMID:22067255

  2. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  3. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes. PMID:26690037

  4. Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for VO2max Relative to Fat Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    MAGEEAN, AMANDA L.; ALEXANDER, RYAN P.; MIER, CONSTANCE M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM−1·min−1; men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg−1 FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM−1·min−1) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration. PMID:27182366

  5. Comparison of Blue-Yellow Opponent Color Contrast Sensitivity Function between Female Badminton Players and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Hatami, Maryam; Musavian, Razieh; Abbasi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the chromatic contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the blue-yellow opponent channel (BYOC) between female badminton players and non-athlete controls. Methods We recruited 40 young females (18-25 years old) who played badminton for at least 5 consecutive years as the test group, and 30 age-matched female controls who had no history of regular physical activity. The Pattern Generator™ system was used to test the CSF for the BYOC which was performed at three spatial frequencies (SFs) of 2 cycles per degree (cpd), 5 cpd, and 25 cpd. Results Comparison of BYOC thresholds showed significantly better results in the test group for all three SFs (P<0.001). Band pass shift (better CSF in the middle SF) was seen in the test group. The control group had low pass (better CSF in the low SF). Ocular motility (heterophoria, fusional convergence and divergence at far and near distances, and near point of convergence) was better in the test group, but the inter-group difference was not significant. Conclusions The BYOC threshold results for badminton players indicated a better visual performance which may be a result of enhanced performance of the parallel processing of the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. This may be inherent and/or acquired in badminton players. In addition, badminton players appear to have developed sensory-motor programmed activities. Testing the CSF for BYOC may be useful for athlete selection in different levels and/or used as a criterion for screening players in the field of badminton. PMID:23802052

  6. Acute exercise performed close to the anaerobic threshold improves cognitive performance in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Córdova, C; Silva, V C; Moraes, C F; Simões, H G; Nóbrega, O T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of acute exercise performed at different intensities in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT) on abilities requiring control of executive functions or alertness in physically active elderly females. Forty-eight physically active elderly females (63.8 +/- 4.6 years old) were assigned to one of four groups by drawing lots: control group without exercise or trial groups with exercise performed at 60, 90, or 110% of AT (watts) and submitted to 5 cognitive tests before and after exercise. Following cognitive pretesting, an incremental cycle ergometer test was conducted to determine AT using a fixed blood lactate concentration of 3.5 mmol/L as cutoff. Acute exercise executed at 90% of AT resulted in significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA) improvement in the performance of executive functions when compared to control in 3 of 5 tests (verbal fluency, Tower of Hanoi test (number of movements), and Trail Making test B). Exercising at 60% of AT did not improve results of any tests for executive functions, whereas exercise executed at 110% of AT only improved the performance in one of these tests (verbal fluency) compared to control. Women from all trial groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in the Simple Response Time (alertness) test (P = 0.001). Thus, physical exercise performed close to AT is more effective to improve cognitive processing of older women even if conducted acutely, and using a customized exercise prescription based on the anaerobic threshold should optimize the beneficial effects. PMID:19377796

  7. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence. PMID:27477700

  8. Effect of chronic knee osteoarthritis on flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly women with chronic knee osteoarthritis and determined whether the flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in such cases. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis and 13 healthy young females voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three postural positions in 15 s: trunk flexion, complete trunk flexion, and trunk extension, each for 5 s. While these positions were held, muscle activation of the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. The flexion-relaxation rate was determined by dividing the values for trunk extension by those of complete trunk flexion and by dividing the values for trunk flexion by those of complete trunk flexion. [Results] According to our results, the flexion-relaxation phenomenon was different between healthy young and elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. Specifically, there was a difference in the left thoracic erector spinae muscle, but not in the left and right lumbar erector spinae or right thoracic spinae muscle. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the erector spinae muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27512244

  9. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  10. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition. PMID:26694503