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  1. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  2. Wall conditioning in JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Akino, N.; Kodama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Niikura, S.; Takatsu, H.; Shimizu, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Ohta, M.; JT-60 Team

    1987-02-01

    The vacuum vessel of JT-60 has a volume of 160 m 3 and a vacuum side surface of 2750 m 2 containing the surfaces of the first wall and many types of ports. The first wall is made of 20 μm TiC coated molybdenum and Inconel 625, bolted to the inner surface of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel is evacuated with four identical pumping systems with a total pumping speed of 29 m 3/s for hydrogen. The wall conditioning procedure consisted of two wipes with special cloths wetted by freon after hot water and freon jet cleaning, and three bakeouts were carried out before the first plasma production. An ultimate pressure of 7.4 × 10 -7 Pa and an outgassing rate of 6.8 × 10 -10 Pa m 3/s m 2 were obtained. Low current pulse discharge cleaning (TDC) was carried out for two weeks at a vacuum vessel temperature of 200°C. The TDC is performed typically with a plasma current of 30 kA, a pulse duration of 40 ms, a repetition period in the range from 0.3 s to 1.2 s, a hydrogen pressure of 5.0 × 10 -3 Pa, and a toroidal field of 0.45 T. The TDC conditioning for 50 h removed a quantity of water vapor corresponding to approximately 0.3 g. The main residual gases consisting of hydrocarbons, were monitored in addition to hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  3. The JT8D and JT9D engine component improvement: Performance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Engine Component Improvement - Performance Improvement Program at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft advanced the state of the art of thermal barrier coatings and ceramic seal systems, demonstrated the practicality of an advanced turbine clearance control system and an advanced fan design in the JT9D engine, and demonstrated the advantages of modern cooling, sealing, and aerodynamic designs in the high pressure turbine and compressor of the JT8D engine. Several of these improvements are already in airline service in JT8D and JT9D engines, and others will enter service soon in advanced models of these engines. In addition, the technology advances are being transferred to completely new engine configurations, the PW2037 engine and the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient Engine.

  4. JT8D and JT9D jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.; Webb, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    JT8D and JT9D component performance improvement concepts which have a high probability of incorporation into production engines were identified and ranked. An evaluation method based on airline payback period was developed for the purpose of identifying the most promising concepts. The method used available test data and analytical models along with conceptual/preliminary designs to predict the performance improvements, weight, installation characteristics, cost for new production and retrofit, maintenance cost, and qualitative characteristics of candidate concepts. These results were used to arrive at the concept payback period, which is the time required for an airline to recover the investment cost of concept implementation.

  5. Data Processing and Analysis Systems for JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, T.; Totsuka, T.; Tsugita, T.; Oshima, T.; Sakata, S.; Sato, M.; Iwasaki, K.

    2002-09-15

    The JT-60U data processing system is a large computer complex gradually modernized by utilizing progressive computer and network technology. A main computer using state-of-the-art CMOS technology can handle {approx}550 MB of data per discharge. A gigabit ethernet switch with FDDI ports has been introduced to cope with the increase of handling data. Workstation systems with VMEbus serial highway drivers for CAMAC have been developed and used to replace many minicomputer systems. VMEbus-based fast data acquisition systems have also been developed to enlarge and replace a minicomputer system for mass data.The JT-60U data analysis system is composed of a JT-60U database server and a JT-60U analysis server, which are distributed UNIX servers. The experimental database is stored in the 1TB RAID disk of the JT-60U database server and is composed of ZENKEI and diagnostic databases. Various data analysis tools are available on the JT-60U analysis server. For the remote collaboration, technical features of the data analysis system have been applied to the computer system to access JT-60U data via the Internet. Remote participation in JT-60U experiments has been successfully conducted since 1996.

  6. JT8D-100 turbofan engine, phase 1. [noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The JT8D turbofan engine, widely used in short and medium range transport aircraft, contributes substantially to airport community noise. The jet noise is predominant in the JT8D engine and may be reduced in a modified engine, without loss of thrust, by increasing the airflow to reduce jet velocity. A configuration study evaluated the effects of fan airflow, fan pressure ratio, and bypass ratio on noise, thrust, and fuel comsumption. The cycle selected for the modified engine was based upon an increased diameter, single-stage fan and two additional core engine compressor stages, which replace the existing two-stage fan. Modifications were also made to the low pressure turbine to provide the increased torque required by the larger diameter fan. The resultant JT8D-100 engine models have the following characteristics at take-off thrust, compared to the current JT8D engine: Airflow and bypass ratio are increased, and fan pressure ratio and engine speed are reduced. The resultant engine is also longer, larger in diameter, and heavier than the JT8D base model, but these latter changes are compensated by the increased thrust and decreased fuel comsumption of the modified engine, thus providing the capability for maintaining the performance of the current JT8D-powered aircraft.

  7. JT15D simulated flight data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The noise characteristics of the JT15D turbofan engine was analyzed with the objectives of: (1) assessing the state-of-art ability to simulate flight acoustic data using test results acquired in wind tunnel and outdoor (turbulence controlled) environments; and (2) predicting the farfield noise directivity of the blade passage frequency (BPF) tonal components using results from rotor blade mounted dynamic pressure instrumentation. Engine rotor tip speeds at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions were evaluated. The ability to simulate flight results was generally within 2-3 dB for both outdoor and wind tunnel acoustic results. Some differences did occur in the broadband noise level and in the multiple-pure-tone harmonics at supersonic tip speeds. The prediction of blade passage frequency tone directivity from dynamic pressure measurements was accomplished for the three tip speed conditions. Predictions were made of the random and periodic components of the tone directivity. The technique for estimating the random tone component used hot wire data to establish a correlation between dynamic pressure and turbulence intensity. This prediction overestimated the tone level by typically 10 dB with the greatest overestimates occurring at supersonic conditions.

  8. The JT-60SA Cryoplant Current Design Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Reynaud, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Maréchal, J. L.; Balaguer, D.; Roux, C.; Matsukawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of the ITER Broader Approach, CEA is carrying out the procurement of the Cryogenic System to the JA-EU Satellite Tokamak JT-60SA, which should be operated in Japan at JAEA, Naka in 2014. According to the Conceptual Design Report, JT-60SA is to operate for periods of at least 6 months per year, with major shutdown periods in between for maintenance and further installation upgrades. For this operation scenario, the cryoplant and the cryodistribution have to cope with different heat loads which depend on the different JT-60SA operating states. The cryoplant consists of one 4.5 K refrigerator and one 80 K helium loop, each pre-cooled by LN2. These cryogenic subsystems have to operate simultaneously in order to remove the heat loads from the superconducting magnets, 80 K shields and the divertor cryopumps. The first part of this study is based on the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and presents the current design status of the JT-60SA cryogenic system. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of the cryoplant normal operation modes including the regeneration mode of the divertor cryopumps. Thanks to this analysis, the architecture of the present PFD is proposed in order to match the technical specifications of the cryoplant with the JT-60SA operation requirements.

  9. Eling-Oz formula for the holographic bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchel, Alex

    2011-05-01

    Recently Eling and Oz [1] proposed a simple formula for the bulk viscosity of holographic plasma. They argued that the formula is valid in the high temperature (near-conformal) regime, but is expected to break down at low temperatures. We point out that the formula is in perfect agreement with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of the cascading plasma [2, 3], as well as with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of {N} = {2^*} plasma [4, 5]. In the latter case it correctly reproduces the critical behaviour of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the critical point with the vanishing speed of sound.

  10. Performance of JT-60SA divertor Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hatae, Takaki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Hamano, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Kawashima, Hisato; Enokuchi, Akito

    2015-08-15

    For the satellite tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA), a divertor Thomson scattering measurement system is planning to be installed. In this study, we improved the design of the collection optics based on the previous one, in which it was found that the solid angle of the collection optics became very small, mainly because of poor accessibility to the measurement region. By improvement, the solid angle was increased by up to approximately five times. To accurately assess the measurement performance, background noise was assessed using the plasma parameters in two typical discharges in JT-60SA calculated from the SONIC code. Moreover, the influence of the reflection of bremsstrahlung radiation by the wall is simulated by using a ray tracing simulation. The errors in the temperature and the density are assessed based on the simulation results for three typical field of views.

  11. Performance verification tests of JT-60SA CS model coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Murakami, Haruyuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Kizu, Kaname; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    As a final check of the coil manufacturing method of the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) central solenoid (CS), we verified the performance of a CS model coil. The model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor. Measurements of the critical current, joint resistance, pressure drop, and magnetic field were conducted in the verification tests. In the critical-current measurement, the critical current of the model coil coincided with the estimation derived from a strain of -0.62% for the Nb3Sn strands. As a result, critical-current degradation caused by the coil manufacturing process was not observed. The results of the performance verification tests indicate that the model coil met the design requirements. Consequently, the manufacturing process of the JT-60SA CS was established.

  12. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts is desirable for long-term sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance.

  13. Performance of JT-60SA divertor Thomson scattering diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Shin; Hatae, Takaki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Enokuchi, Akito; Hamano, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Kawashima, Hisato

    2015-08-01

    For the satellite tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA), a divertor Thomson scattering measurement system is planning to be installed. In this study, we improved the design of the collection optics based on the previous one, in which it was found that the solid angle of the collection optics became very small, mainly because of poor accessibility to the measurement region. By improvement, the solid angle was increased by up to approximately five times. To accurately assess the measurement performance, background noise was assessed using the plasma parameters in two typical discharges in JT-60SA calculated from the SONIC code. Moreover, the influence of the reflection of bremsstrahlung radiation by the wall is simulated by using a ray tracing simulation. The errors in the temperature and the density are assessed based on the simulation results for three typical field of views. PMID:26329196

  14. Cryogenic requirements for the JT-60SA Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Frederic; Hitz, D.; Hoa, Christine; Lamaison, Valerie; Kamiya, Koji; Roussel, Pascal; Wanner, Manfred; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-01

    The superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is part of the Broader Approach Programmeagreed between Japan and Europe. CEA is in charge of the cryogenic system procurementincluding the Warm Compression Station, the gas storages, the Refrigerator Cold Box andthe Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) which has to be installed on the JAEA Naka site in 2016.This paper summarizes the updated cryogenic requirements for the tokamak JT-60SAcryogenic system. The cryogenic system has a refrigeration capacity of about 9 kW equivalent at 4.5K, to supply cryopump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and cold structures at 4.4 K, HTS current leads at 50 K, and thermal shields at 80 K. This paper presents the static and variable heat loads of the different cooling loops and the results of the rmohydraulic calculations to derive the transient heat loads at the interface between the magnet system cooling loops and the Auxiliary Cold Box.

  15. MIXING STUDY FOR JT-71/72 TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2013-11-26

    All modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in HBLine tanks, JT-71/72, were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tanks. The mixing study results for the JT-71/72 tanks show that, for the cases modeled, the mixing time required for blending of the tank contents is no more than 35 minutes, which is well below 2.5 hours of recirculation pump operation. Therefore, the results demonstrate the adequacy of 2.5 hours’ mixing time of the tank contents by one recirculation pump to get well mixed.

  16. JT9D ceramic outer air seal system refinement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The abradability and durability characteristics of the plasma sprayed system were improved by refinement and optimization of the plasma spray process and the metal substrate design. The acceptability of the final seal system for engine testing was demonstrated by an extensive rig test program which included thermal shock tolerance, thermal gradient, thermal cycle, erosion, and abradability tests. An interim seal system design was also subjected to 2500 endurance test cycles in a JT9D-7 engine.

  17. The 727/JT8D refan side nacelle airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. W.; Vadset, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Airloads on the 727/JT8D refan side engine nacelle are presented. These consist of surface static pressure distributions from two low speed wind tunnel tests. External nacelle surface pressures are from testing of a flow-through, body mounted nacelle model, and internal inlet surface pressures are from performance testing of a forced air inlet model. The method for obtaining critical airloads on nacelle components and a representative example are discussed.

  18. Results of acoustic testing of the JT8D-109 refan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Brochu, F. P.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    A JT8D engine was modified to reduce jet noise levels by 6-8 PNdB at takeoff power without increasing fan generated noise levels. Designated the JT8D-109, the modified engines featured a larger single stage fan, and acoustic treatment in the fan discharge ducts. Noise levels were measured on an outdoor test facility for eight engine/acoustic treatment configurations. Compared to the baseline JT8D, the fully treated JT8D-109 showed reductions of 6 PNdB at takeoff, and 11 PNdB at a typical approach power setting.

  19. Production of a novel monoclonal antibody, JT-95, which can detect antigen of thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, H; Hosoya, T; Sakurai, K; Mori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kisaki, H; Ohno, T

    1996-04-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) JT-95 was produced by immunization of mice with membrane fractions of a human thyroid carcinoma. Immuno-histochemical staining has demonstrated that the antigen recognized by JT-95 is strongly expressed in 95 (95%) of 100 cases of papillary carcinomas and in 3 (75%) of 4 cases of follicular carcinomas. In benign diseases of the thyroid gland, MAb JT-95 reacted with 0 (0%) of 39 adenomas, 1 (4%) of 21 adenomatous goiters, 0 (0%) of 8 hyperthyroidism specimens, and 3 (38%) of 8 chronic thyroiditis specimens. The antigen detected by MAb JT-95 has an apparent Mr 250,000 in thyroid carcinomas. Moreover, circulating antigen in thyroid carcinoma patients was detected by MAb JT-95 in an ELISA and in Western blotting. The circulating antigen has a Mr 105,000. MAb JT-95 conjugated with (131) I was administrated to nude mice bearing a human thyroid carcinoma. JT-95 131I accumulation at the transplanted tumor was visualized by autoradiography with 2.68-14.75-fold higher levels detected at the xenograft compared to that for normal organs. Based on these data, MAb JT-95 may be useful in the diagnosis detection and therapy of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:8620498

  20. Development of a J-T Micro Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, P.; Olson, J. R.; Nast, T.; Roth, E.; Collaco, A.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.

    2015-12-01

    Lockheed Martin has developed and tested a space-quality compressor capable of delivering closed-loop gas flow with a high pressure ratio, suitable for driving a Joule- Thomson cold head. The compressor is based on a traditional “Oxford style” dual-opposed piston compressor with linear drive motors and flexure-bearing clearance-seal technology for high reliability and long life. This J-T compressor retains the approximate size, weight, and cost of the ultra-compact, 200 gram Lockheed Martin Pulse Tube Micro Compressor, despite the addition of a flow-rectifying system to convert the AC pressure wave into a steady flow.

  1. Performance Study on ST/JT Hybrid Cryocoolers Working at Liquid Helium Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongli, Liu; Xuan, Tao; Xiao, Sun; Zhihua, Gan

    The ST/JT hybridcryocooler consists of a Stirling-typecryocooler and a J-T loop. The common process of steady-state operation is given. Pressure-Enthalpy map analysis and thermodynamic calculation showhow the precooling temperature, high pressure and recuperator effectiveness affect thecooling powerat liquid helium temperature. Applying the current performance level of the Stirling cooler,the overall COP of the hybrid cryocooleris roughly optimized. This performance study shows that the hybrid cryocooler can develop its performance potential with improved J-T compressors with larger pressure ratio and aprecooler working at lower temperature.

  2. JT8D high pressure compressor performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    An improved performance high pressure compressor with potential application to all models of the JT8D engine was designed. The concept consisted of a trenched abradable rubstrip which mates with the blade tips for each of the even rotor stages. This feature allows tip clearances to be set so blade tips run at or near the optimum radius relative to the flowpath wall, without the danger of damaging the blades during transients and maneuvers. The improved compressor demonstrated thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements of 1.0 percent and at least 10 C over the takeoff and climb power range at sea level static conditions, compared to a bill-of-material high pressure compressor. Surge margin also improved 4 percentage points over the high power operating range. A thrust specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.7 percent at typical cruise conditions was calculated based on the sea level test results.

  3. Miniature Joule Thomson (JT) CryoCoolers for Propellant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-concept project is proposed here that would attempt to demonstrate how miniature cryocoolers can be used to chill the vacuum jacket line of a propellant transfer line and thus to achieve transfer line pre-chill, zero boil off and possible propellant densification. The project would be performed both at UCF and KSC, with all of the cryogenic testing taking place in the KSC cryogenic test bed. A LN2 line available in that KSC test facility would serve to simulate a LOX transfer line. Under this project, miniature and highly efficient cold heads would be designed. Two identical cold heads will be fabricated and then integrated with a JT-type cryogenic system (consisting of a common compressor and a common external heat exchanger). The two cold heads will be integrated into the vacuum jacket of a LN2 line in the KSC cryo lab, where the testing will take place.

  4. Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Araki, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-10-01

    A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993.

  5. Combined Brayton-JT cycles with refrigerants for natural gas liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sanggyu; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic cycles for natural gas liquefaction with single-component refrigerants are investigated under a governmental project in Korea, aiming at new processes to meet the requirements on high efficiency, large capacity, and simple equipment. Based upon the optimization theory recently published by the present authors, it is proposed to replace the methane-JT cycle in conventional cascade process with a nitrogen-Brayton cycle. A variety of systems to combine nitrogen-Brayton, ethane-JT and propane-JT cycles are simulated with Aspen HYSYS and quantitatively compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, flow rate of refrigerants, and estimated size of heat exchangers. A specific Brayton-JT cycle is suggested with detailed thermodynamic data for further process development. The suggested cycle is expected to be more efficient and simpler than the existing cascade process, while still taking advantage of easy and robust operation with single-component refrigerants.

  6. Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, S.; Takenaga, H.; Ida, K.; Isayama, A.; Tamura, N.; Takizuka, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Kamada, Y.; Kubo, S.; Miura, Y.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Ohkubo, K.; LHD Experimental Group; JT-60 Team

    2006-01-01

    Transient transport experiments are performed in plasmas with and without internal transport barriers (ITB) on LHD and JT-60U. The dependence of χe on the electron temperature, Te, and on the electron temperature gradient, ∇Te, is analysed with an empirical non-linear heat transport model. In plasmas without an ITB, two different types of non-linearity of the electron heat transport are observed from cold/heat pulse propagation: the χe depends on Te and ∇Te in JT-60U, while the ∇Te dependence is weak in LHD. Inside the ITB region, there is none or weak ∇Te dependence both in LHD and JT-60U. Growth of the cold pulse driven by the negative Te dependence of χe is observed inside the ITB region (LHD) and near the boundary of the ITB region (JT-60U).

  7. Program for refan JT8D engine design, fabrication and test, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. A.; Zimmerman, E. S.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the JT8D refan program was to design, fabricate, and test certifiable modifications of the JT8D engine which would reduce noise generated by JT8D powered aircraft. This was to be accomplished without affecting reliability and maintainability, at minimum retrofit cost, and with no performance penalty. The mechanical design, engine performance and stability characteristics at sea-level and altitude, and the engine noise characteristics of the test engines are documented. Results confirmed the structural integrity of the JT8D-109. Engine operation was stable throughout the airplane flight envelope. Fuel consumption of the test engines was higher than that required to meet the goal of no airplane performance penalty, but the causes were identified and corrected during a normal pre-certification engine development program. Compared to the baseline JT8D-109 engine, the acoustically treated JT8D-109 engine showed noise reductions of 6 PNdB at takeoff and 11 PNdB at a typical approach power setting.

  8. A 727/JT8D-100 series engine exhaust system propulsion performance model test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugan, W. J.; Kern, P. R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented from testing one-eighth scale models of the Pratt and Whitney aircraft reference and Boeing nozzles for the JT8D-100 series mixed flow engines. The objective of the test was to obtain the nozzle velocity and flow coefficients for the reference configurations and compare these with the Boeing configurations which incorporated a longer splitter between the fan and primary flows. A further comparison was made between the JT8D-100 series nozzles and the Boeing JT8D-9/727 production nozzle performance. A statistical analysis was used to compare configurations which showed the performance (velocity coefficient) of the reference and the Boeing configuration was the same for the JT8D-109. It also showed no difference between reference and the Boeing configuration for the JT8D-115 and no difference for the JT8D-117 nozzles. Bypass ratio (match) was shown to be equally dependent on splitter position as on nozzle area within the range investigated. The nozzles were very similar in flow coefficient within an engine family. Excellent profile data was recorded. The effects of swirl on the nozzle performance was examined and found to degrade the velocity and flow coefficients.

  9. Control of Current Profile and Instability by Radiofrequency Wave Injection in JT-60U and Its Applicability in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Isayama, A.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ide, S.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fujita, T.; Hosoyama, H.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Ozeki, T.; Sakata, S.; Seki, M.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Nagasaki, K.

    2007-09-28

    Recent results of control of current profile and instability using radiofrequency wave in JT-60U and prediction analysis in JT-60SA are descried. In JT-60U, control of current profile in high-beta regime was demonstrated by using a real-time system, where the motional Stark effect diagnostic and lower hybrid wave were used as a detector and actuator, respectively. The minimum value of the safety factor was raised from 1.3 to 1.7 so as to follow the commanded value. Complete stabilization of a neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) with the poloidal mode number m = 2 and the toroidal mode number n = 1 was demonstrated using electron cyclotron (EC) current drive. By scanning the location of EC current drive in detail, strong stabilization effect was found for misalignment less than about half of the full island width. In addition, destabilization of the 2/1 NTM was observed for misalignment comparable to the full island width. Simulation of NTM stabilization in JT-60SA was performed by using the TOPICS code combined with the modified Rutherford equation. The TOPICS simulation showed that complete stabilization can be achieved more effectively by optimizing the EC wave injection angle and modulating the EC wave.

  10. Transient simulation of a miniature Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, R. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a transient program for the simulation of a miniature Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler to predict its cool-down characteristics. A one dimensional transient model is formulated for the fluid streams and the solid elements of the recuperative heat exchanger. Variation of physical properties due to pressure and temperature is considered. In addition to the J-T expansion at the end of the finned tube, the distributed J-T effect along its length is also considered. It is observed that the distributed J-T effect leads to additional cooling of the gas in the finned tube and that it cannot be neglected when the pressure drop along the length of the finned tube is large. The mathematical model, method of resolution and the global transient algorithm, within a modular object-oriented framework, are detailed in this paper. As a part of verification and validation of the developed model, cases available in the literature are simulated and the results are compared with the corresponding numerical and experimental data.

  11. The JT9D Jet Engine Diagnostics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The various engine deterioration phenomena that affect JT9D performance retention were studied, and approaches to improve performance retention of engines were identified. The program included surveys of historical data, monitoring of in service engines, ground and flight testing of instrumented engines, analysis, and analytical modeling. Performance deterioration is made up of both short and long term modes, both of which are flight cycle related phenomena. Short term deterioration occurs primarily during airplane acceptance testing prior to delivery to the airline. This effect is caused by flight load and power induced clearance closures and engine deflections with resulting rubbing of airfoils and seals. Long term deterioration is caused by erosion of airfoils and gas path seals during ground operation and take off and by cyclic induced thermal distortion of the high pressure turbine airfoils. Studies of possible remedial approaches have shown that performance retention within 1 to 2 percent of initial revenue service performance can be achieved with a proper program of hot section and cold section maintenance.

  12. Oxygen chemisorption compressor study for cryogenic J-T refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Blue, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    Over twenty potentially reversible heat-powered oxide reactions have been studied and/or tested to determine their potential use as thermochemical oxygen compressors for cryogenic J-T LO2 refrigerators. One gas-solid compound family, Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x), proved to be completely reversible with fast kinetics for all pressure ranges tested below 650 C. With a heat-powered charcoal/methane physical adsorption upper stage and a Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x) chemisorption lower stage, temperatures should be attainable in the 55-80 K range for less power and over five times less weight than for charcoal/nitrogen sorption refrigeration systems. Total system power requirements with a hydride chemisorption lower stage (10 K to 7 K minimum) are about three times less than any mechanical refrigerator, and spacecraft refrigeration weights are about twenty times less. Due to the lack of wear-related moving parts in sorption refrigerators, life expectancy is at least ten years, and there essentially no vibration.

  13. Cryogenic thermometry for refrigerant distribution system of JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Murakami, H.; Kizu, K.; Yoshida, K.; Koide, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JT-60SA is a fully superconducting fusion experimental device involving Japan and Europe. The cryogenic system supplies supercritical or gaseous helium to superconducting coils through valve boxes or coil terminal boxes and in-cryostat pipes. There are 86 temperature measurement points at 4 K along the distribution line. Resistance temperature sensors will be installed on cooling pipes in vacuum. In this work, two sensor attachment methods, two types of sensor, two thermal anchoring methods, and two sensor fixation materials have been experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy and mass productivity. Finally, the verification test of thermometry has been conducted using the sample pipe fabricated in the same way to the production version, which has been decided by the comparison experiments. The TVO sensor is attached by the saddle method with Apiezon N grease and the measurement wires made of phosphor bronze are wound on the pipe with Stycast 2850FT as the thermal anchoring. A Cernox sensor is directly immersed in liquid helium as a reference thermometer during the experiment. The measured temperature difference between the attached one and reference one has been within ±15 mK in the range of 3.40-4.73 K. It has satisfies the accuracy requirement of 0.1 K.

  14. B747/JT9D flight loads and their effect on engine running clearances and performance deterioration; BCAC NAIL/P and WA JT9D engine diagnostics programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Flight loads on the 747 propulsion system and resulting JT9D blade to outer airseal running clearances during representative acceptance flight and revenue flight sequences were measured. The resulting rub induced clearance changes, and engine performance changes were then analyzed to validate and refine the JT9D-7A short term performance deterioration model.

  15. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  16. An efficient multi-stage Brayton-JT cycle for liquefaction of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Sanggyu; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2011-06-01

    Combined multi-stage Brayton-JT refrigeration cycles are investigated as a governmental effort in Korea to develop an original liquefaction process of natural gas in accordance with recent demand of higher efficiency and larger capacity. Based upon thermodynamic optimization theory, a combined refrigeration system is proposed with nitrogen (N2) Brayton cycle, ethylene (C2) JT cycle, and propane (C3) JT cycles, which are used for cooling the feed gas in a series of heat exchangers. Since no mixed refrigerants are used, this system is simple in operation and robust in reliability. A complete cycle design is presented to confirm its feasibility and estimate the liquefaction performance. It is expected that the proposed N2-C2-C3 cycle could have a reasonably high efficiency and the potential of great liquefaction capacity. Next steps are underway for patent application and practical process development.

  17. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  18. Development of the Hybrid Jt-Expander Cycle for NG Liquefaction Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S.; Hwang, G.; Jeong, S.

    2010-04-01

    Two liquefaction cycles for LNG (liquefied natural gas) production are compared in this paper. One is a well known MR (mixed refrigerant) JT cycle with two phase separators and four heat exchangers. Another one is the novel concept of hybrid cycle, which is to replace the last stage JT expansion with a turbine expander. The inlet flow to the turbine expander is deliberately warmed up by NG (natural gas) stream to guarantee superheated vapor phase and increase useful work. The turbine expander is to extract pressure exergy and reduce entropy generation by producing work and alleviating work requirement in the compressor. This paper describes the detailed processes of hybrid JT-expander cycle and the quantitative comparison results by HYSYS simulation under some realistic physical constraints.

  19. Minimization of Reactive Power Fluctuation in JT-60SA Magnet Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, K.; Terakado, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Matsukawa, M.; Baulaigue, O.; Coletti, R.; Coletti, A.; Novello, L.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes an asymmetric control method for the firing angle and a start/stop timing shift control of four thyristor converters called “Booster PS" to minimize the reactive power fluctuation during plasma initiation in JT-60SA. From the simulation using the “PSCAD/EMTDC" code, it is found that these control methods can drastically reduce the reactive power induced by the four units of the “Booster PS". In addition, the voltage fluctuation of the motor-generator connected to the “Booster PS" is expected to be suppressed. This can also contribute to achieve stable control of the JT-60SA magnet power supplies.

  20. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, analysis, fabrication, and ground and flight testing of DC-9 airframe/nacelle hardware with prototype JT8D-109 engines are discussed. The installation of the JT8D-109 engine on the DC-9 Refan airplane required new or modified hardware for the pylon, nacelle, and fuselage. The acoustic material used in the nose cowl was bonded aluminum honeycomb sandwich and the exhaust duct acoustic material was Inconel 625 Stresskin. The sea level static, standard day bare engine takeoff thrust, the cruise TSFC and the maximum available cruise thrust for the JT8D-109 engine were compared with those of the JT8D-9 engine. The range capabilities of the DC-9 Refan and the production DC-9 airplane were also compared. The Refan airplane demonstrated flight characteristics similar to the production DC-9-30 and satisfied airworthiness requirements. Flyover noise levels were determined for the DC-9 Refan and the DC-9 C-9A airplane for takeoff and landing conditions. Cost estimates were also made.

  1. Mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR JT) mini-cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, Nir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in our ongoing research on Mixed-Refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers. The research begun by exploring different MRs and testing various compressors: oil-lubricated and oil-free, reciprocating and linear, custom-made and commercial. Closed-cycle JT cryocoolers benefit from the fact that the compressor might be located far from the cold-end and thus there are no moving parts, no vibrations, and no heat emission near the cold-end. As a consequence, the compressor may be located where there are no severe size limitations, its heat can be conveniently removed, and it can be easily maintained. However, in some applications there is still a demand for a small compressor to drive a JT cryocooler although it is located far from the cooled device. Recently, we have developed a miniature oil-free compressor for MR JT cryocoolers that weighs about 700 g and its volume equals about 300 cc. The cryocooler operates with a MR that contains Ne, N2, and Hydrocarbons. This MR has been widely investigated with different compressors and varying operating conditions and proved to be stable. The current research investigates the performances of MR JT mini-cryocooler operating with the MR mentioned above, driven with our miniature compressor, and a cold-finger prototype. A Dewar with heat load of about 230 mW is cooled to about 80 K at ambient temperatures between 0°C and 40°C. The experimental results obtained are stable and demonstrate the ability to control the cooling temperature by changing the rotation speed of the compressor.

  2. ASASSN-16jt and pre-outburst transient AT 2016cvk resemble the unusual transient SN 2009ip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Shappee, B. J.; Dong, Subo; Morrell, N.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Bersier, D.; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.; Marples, P.

    2016-09-01

    In ATEL #9439 we reported the discovery of a new transient source, ASASSN-16jt, and note its proximity to a previously reported transient (AT 2016cvk). Based on the coordinates in the two reportings, the two sources appeared to be separated by ~1". However, based on archival LCOGT imaging of AT 2016cvk, we find that the position of the two sources may in fact be coincident, strongly indicating that AT 2016cvk was a prior outburst of ASASSN-16jt.

  3. Passive coolers for pre-cooling of JT loops for deep space infrared imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Burt; Larson, Melora; Rodriguez, Jose

    2010-09-01

    Infrared instruments (IR) for deep space imaging missions, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Planck, require cryogenic cooling for proper operation of their focal plane arrays (FPA) in far infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges. The FPA is sometimes located meters away from the spacecraft. To meet such remote cooling requirement, a Joule-Thomson (J-T) loop becomes a convenient choice for either direct cooling for the FPA or for serving as a heat sink for a cascade cooling system. The refrigerant lines of the JT loop inevitably suffer parasitic heat leak primarily due to IR backload as they traverse from the spacecraft to the FPA. An actively cooled JT loop using a mechanical pre-cooler located at the spacecraft will experience the highest parasitic heat leak since the lines are cold through the entire length whereas a passively cooled JT loop can utilize a number of radiators to cool the lines down gradually in stages and hence reduce the heat leak. In addition to savings in power and mass, a passive cooler offers consistent and predictable performance with practically no performance degradation in a thermally stable orbit, such as one around the Sun-Earth L2 point. Passive coolers are less popular in low temperature applications when their cooling capacity diminishes rapidly in proportion to T4 until the temperature reaches a point where either the parasitic heat leak becomes so significant or its size becomes so excessive that the passive cooling scheme becomes impractical. Despite the limited capacity, passive cooling may still prove to be a viable alternative to active cooling depending on the operating temperature and heat dissipation rate of the FPA. The current effort aims at evaluating the merit of using passive coolers as an alternative to using a mechanical cooler for pre-cooling of a JT loop for remote IR instrument cooling. A parametric study is conducted to explore the merits of passive cooling of a JT loop in a temperature range

  4. Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

  5. Finite element-integral acoustic simulation of JT15D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson (mr J-T Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walimbe, N. S.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.; Atrey, M. D.

    2008-03-01

    Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers have obvious advantages, such as low cost, high reliability, higher cooling effect at 80 K, low vibrations and simplicity in design layout. As a result of this, their use for different applications has become a major threat to conventional cryocoolers such as Stirling coolers. The performance of the MR J-T cryocooler, in terms of cooling power at low temperatures, depends significantly on the components of the gas mixture and their concentration. An experimental set up has been developed in our laboratory to analyse various gas mixtures. An efficient Hampson type counter flow heat exchanger has been fabricated and tested in the set up. The present paper gives experimental results for various gas mixtures so as to get maximum cooling effect for a given temperature. The paper also presents the effect of working pressure of the optimized gas mixture on the performance of the cooler.

  7. Plasma regimes and research goals of JT-60SA towards ITER and DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Y.; Barabaschi, P.; Ishida, S.; Ide, S.; Lackner, K.; Fujita, T.; Bolzonella, T.; Suzuki, T.; Matsunaga, G.; Yoshida, M.; Shinohara, K.; Urano, H.; Nakano, T.; Sakurai, S.; Kawashima, H.; JT-60SA Team

    2011-07-01

    The JT-60SA device has been designed as a highly shaped large superconducting tokamak with a variety of plasma actuators (heating, current drive, momentum input, stability control coils, resonant magnetic perturbation coils, W-shaped divertor, fuelling, pumping, etc) in order to satisfy the central research needs for ITER and DEMO. In the ITER- and DEMO-relevant plasma parameter regimes and with DEMO-equivalent plasma shapes, JT-60SA quantifies the operation limits, plasma responses and operational margins in terms of MHD stability, plasma transport and confinement, high-energy particle behaviour, pedestal structures, scrape-off layer and divertor characteristics. By integrating advanced studies in these research fields, the project proceeds 'simultaneous and steady-state sustainment of the key performances required for DEMO' with integrated control scenario development applicable to the highly self-regulating burning high-β high bootstrap current fraction plasmas.

  8. Progress of ITER and JT-60SA Magnet Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Barabaschi, P.

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA), has the responsibility to procure 9 ITER toroidal field (TF) coils, 19 TF coil (TFC) structures, 25% of the TF conductors and 100% of the central solenoid (CS) conductors in ITER and, in addition, CS and equilibrium field (EF) coils including their conductors in JT-60SA, which is being developed as a satellite facility for ITER. In ITER, more than 90% of TF conductor fabrication was completed and finalization of the manufacturing procedure of TF coils is in progress through full-scale trials, such as trial fabrication of dummy double pancakes (DPs). In JT-60SA, fabrication of the EF4 coil was completed and the EF5 and EF6 coils are being assembled.

  9. Current clamp at zero level in JT-60U current hole plasmas.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Suzuki, T; Oikawa, T; Isayama, A; Hatae, T; Naito, O; Sakamoto, Y; Hayashi, N; Hamamatsu, K; Ide, S; Takenaga, H

    2005-08-12

    It is found that no current is driven in a central region of a tokamak plasma once the central current density becomes nearly zero ("current hole"), in spite of high electric conductivity, at the current drive by a toroidal electric field and a radio-frequency wave in experiments on the JT-60U tokamak. This is a new, stiff, self-organized structure of a magnetic field in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. PMID:16196788

  10. Simulation of the Effect of Plasma Flows in DIII-D, JET, and JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Loarte, A; Asakura, N; Takenaga, H; Mathews, G

    2002-05-17

    The results of 2D fluid plasma simulations of the ion flow in the boundary plasma of DIII-D, JET, and JT-60U are reported. The model includes the effects of drifts and of impurity radiation using a multi-species model of intrinsic carbon impurities. Drift effects are important in determining the primary and impurity ion fluxes in the SOL and the private region, with ExB drifts dominant. Simulated parallel velocities are consistent with experimental measurement on the high field side of JT-60U, where the parallel flow is determined by ion sources. Simulated parallel velocities are significantly less than seen in experiment at the outer midplane of JT-60U, and at the top of JET where the flow is sensitive to poloidal variations of the turbulence driven transport, suggesting the velocity in these regions is determined by transport. Parallel flows are reversed by changing the direction of the ion VB drift relative to the X-point.

  11. Effect of time dependent flight loads on JT9D-7 performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, A.; Lewis, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a modal transient analysis of the engine/aircraft system are presented. The response of the JT9D to analytically simulated vertical gusts and landings was predicted using a NASTRAN finite element mathematical model of the JT9D/747 propulsion system. The NASTRAN finite element model of the propulsion system included engine structural models of the fan, low/high pressure compressors, diffuser/turbine cases, and high/low pressure rotors, as well as nacelle models of the inlet cowl, tailcone, and wing pylon. The analysis conducted predicts that an insignificant level of JT9D-7 performance deterioration would occur due to a typical vertical gust encounter or a typical revenue service landing. Analysis of a high sink rate landing with a heavy fuel load indicates the possibility of local wear, however, the lack of an accurate dynamic rotor/seal interference model precludes an accurate quantitative evaluation of performance change for this once-per-airframe-life event.

  12. Charge-exchange neutral particle measurement in MeV energy range on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusama, Y.; Nemoto, M.; Satoh, M.; Tsukahara, Y.; Tobita, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Petrov, S.; Afanassiev, V.; Kozlovskij, S.; Kislyakov, A.; Petrov, M.

    1995-01-01

    A charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer for the measurement of the MeV energy range ions produced by nuclear fusion or radio frequency heating has been developed and installed in JT-60U. Neutral particles entering the analyzer are ionized with a carbon foil of thickness 400 Å. The energy and mass of the stripped ions are resolved by magnetic and electrostatic fields (E∥B type). The analyzer has eight CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors. The energy range is 0.5-4 MeV for 4He0, the dynamic range is 4.08 and the energy resolution is 6%-11%. The detection efficiency for 4He0 with energy above 1 MeV is 30%-40%. A pulse height analysis (PHA) with 16 channels was adopted to distinguish particle signals from noise arising from neutrons, γ rays and optical lights emitted by JT-60U plasmas. The validity of the PHA was confirmed in a calibration experiment using a neutron source and in a high power heating experiment in JT-60U.

  13. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1–6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1–6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1–6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1–6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  14. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1-6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1-6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1-6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1-6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  15. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  16. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed an... number (P- 11392) in the docket number field to access the document. For assistance, call toll-free...

  17. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 3: Ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Refan Program included full-scale performance and noise ground tests of both a current production (JT8D-15) and a refanned (JT8D-115) engine. A description of the two ground tests including detailed propulsion, noise, and structural test results is presented. The primary objectives of the total test program were comparison of JT8D-15 and JT8D-115 overall propulsion system performance and noise characteristics and determination of incremental component noise levels. Other objectives of the test program included: (1) determination of acoustic treatment effectiveness; (2) measurement of internal sound pressure levels; (3) measurement of inlet and exhaust hardware performance; (4) determination of center-engine surge margin; and (5) evaluation of certain structural characteristics associated with the 727 refan center-engine inlet duct and JT8D refan engine exhaust system. The JT8D-15 and -115 tests were conducted during September 1974 and January to March 1975, respectively. Analyses of the test data indicated that the JT8D-115, as compared to the JT8D-15, demonstrates a 12.5 percent to 13.2 percent reduction in static specific fuel consumption, and a reduction of 6 to 7 PNdB in a weighted average value of static tone corrected perceived noise level. Separated into noise components, a significant reduction was shown for the inlet fan, aft fan, exhaust duct flow, turbine, and jet noises. However, core noise was increased. Photographs of test stands and test equipment are shown.

  18. Assessment of QT and JT Intervals in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Peyman; Keikhavani, Ala; Haghjoo, Majid; Fazelifar, Amirfarjam; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Zeighami, Mahbobeh; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Alizadeh, Abolfath

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolongation of the QT interval is considered a risk factor for cardiac adverse events and mortality. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) lengthens the QT interval. The corrected QT interval (QTc) is most likely overestimated because its prolongation is caused by increases in depolarization duration and not in repolarization. Objectives In this study, we aimed to apply corrected JT interval (JTc) as an appropriate measure of ventricular repolarization for predicting QTc in a formula. Patients and Methods The study population consisted of 101 patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and narrow QRS complexes (< 120 milliseconds). All patients underwent electrophysiology studies or ablation. A diagnostic catheter was positioned in the right ventricular apex (RVA) to induce LBBB at two different cycle lengths (CLs; 600 and 700 mv). The intrinsic QRS complex, QT time, and JT time were measured during SR and subsequent RVA pacing. The JTc was derived simply by subtracting the QRS duration from the QTc. Results Stimulation from the RVA increased the QTc from 456.20 ± 38.63 ms to 530.67 ± 47.73 ms at a CL of 600 (P < 0.0001) and to 502.32 ± 47.26 ms at 700 CL (P < 0.0001). JTc showed no significant changes with stimulation from the RVA (102.97 ± 11.35 ms vs. 103.59 ± 10.67 ms, P = 0.24). There was no significant correlation between JTc and QRS complex duration. A significant correlation was seen between QRS and QTc at both CLs. The ROC curve indicated that sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 67% were obtained with JTc duration of 92.6 ms. Conclusions Right ventricular pacing increases the QT interval without increasing the JT interval. Our results confirm that JTc, as an index of repolarization, is independent of ventricular depolarization. Therefore, it can be applied for predicting QTc in patients with LBBB. PMID:26949694

  19. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  20. Characteristics of a large multijunction launcher for high-power LHCD experiments on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Ushigusa, K.; Naito, O.; Kondoh, T.; Wolfe, S.W.; Imai, T. )

    1994-10-15

    This paper presents overview of a large multijunction launcher for JT-60U. The launcher is featured by the multijunction module with the oversized taper waveguide, in order to simplify structure of the launcher. This launcher allows high performances of current drive and current profile control by using very sharp and highly directive spectrum. Initial result of coupling property is also described. A good coupling was observed at a power level of [similar to]0.8 MW with plasma-launcher distance of [lt]14 cm.

  1. JT8D-15/17 High Pressure Turbine Root Discharged Blade Performance Improvement. [engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine blade and seal were modified, using a more efficient blade cooling system, improved airfoil aerodynamics, more effective control of secondary flows, and improved blade tip sealing. Engine testing was conducted to determine the effect of these improvements on performance. The modified turbine package demonstrated significant thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements in sea level and altitude engine tests. Inspection of the improved blade and seal hardware after testing revealed no unusual wear or degradation.

  2. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Platania, P. Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Micheletti, D.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Moriyama, S.

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  3. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  4. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platania, P.; Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Micheletti, D.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  5. ASASSN-16jt: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in ESO 344-G 021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Krannich, G.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2016-08-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy ESO 344-G 021. ASASSN-16jt was discovered in images obtained on UT 2016-08-31.09 at V~16.2 mag. We do not detect (V > 17.8) the object in images taken on UT 2016-08-26.24 and before.

  6. Versatile millimeter-wave interferometer with two frequencies in the divertor region of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaga, H.; Fukuda, T.; Sakurai, S.; Hosogane, N.; Kodama, K.; Masaki, K.

    1998-09-01

    A millimeter-wave interferometer having a capability of concomitant electron temperature measurement, based on the electron cyclotron absorption (ECA) technique, has been developed for divertor diagnostics in JT-60U. Three lines of sight, which pass through the X point horizontally, the inboard divertor and the outboard divertor, are chosen. Two transmitter/receiver units with frequencies of 217 and 183 GHz are employed in order to eliminate the spurious vibration effect using a two color scheme. The two independent units are also arranged to enable two sight line measurements without the vibration compensation. Furthermore, these units allow us to apply the simultaneous ECA diagnostic. Due to the complexity of the transmission line inside the tokamak, the insertion loss is as large as 65 dB. However, the interferometer system can be operated with the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of about 20 dB due to the low equivalent input noise of -90 dB m. The measurements performed for several types of the JT-60U discharges indicate the feasibility of the system and the rapid reduction of the electron density near the X point at the high confinement mode transition is first demonstrated.

  7. JT90 Ceramic Outer Air Seal System Refinement Program, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiembob, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    The sprayed ceramic gas turbine outer air seal system was tested in two JT9D engines to substantiate the abradability and durability of the seals. Of particular significance was that one of the tests, a 150 hour 1000 cycle endurance program at nominal JT9D operating conditions, was completed with minimal effect on the seals and received Federal Aviation Administration cognizance with respect to potential field service use by the airlines. The other engine test completed 1825 endurance cycles at severe operating conditions and no burn through or other serious defects in the structural integrity of a seal segment was observed. These test results combined with other Pratt and Whitney Aircraft engine tests substantiate the potential of the ceramic outer air seal system to attain the durability goal of 50000 hour engine operating capability. Both engine tests subjected the seals to intentional blade rubs and demonstrated good abradability with volume wear ratios greater than 100, far exceeding the design goal of 10. The improved volume wear ratio will allow the turbine tip clearance to be reduced, thereby resulting in an estimated thrust specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.3 percent.

  8. An optical design and accuracy estimation for a JT-60SA edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a collection optics used for the Thomson scattering diagnostic in JT-60SA. Good spatial resolution ( ~ 10mm) is necessary for the optics to measure detailed profiles of electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the plasma edge region. Six lenses forming a Petzval-like lens are employed in this design. The use of an anomalous dispersion glass material for two lenses suppresses severe chromatic aberration; two flat mirrors prevent interference with the port plug in which the collection optics is to be installed. The resultant spot radius (resolution) at the image for the peripheral region is approximately 0.2 mm. When another collection optics previously designed for core measurements is used simultaneously, the angle of laser polarization must be considered because the two collection optics are to be installed in different port-plugs accessing the vacuum vessel from the cryostat. Otherwise, the measured signal would be degraded, and the scattered spectra would be different from the expected ones. This paper evaluates the scattered spectra with relativistic effects without any approximations. This paper also provides a means to optimize the polarization angle by considering a simulated profile in JT-60SA and contributes to future devices that have limited space for collection optics.

  9. Applying the CO2 laser collective Thomson scattering results from JT-60U to other machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.; Bennett, C. A.; Kondoh, T.; Miura, Y.; Lee, S.

    2003-03-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system based on a pulsed CO2 laser is being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of alpha-particle diagnostics. Tests on this system are being conducted on the JT-60U tokamak. The system consists of a pulsed laser (15 J in 1:s at 10.6:m) and a wide band (˜8 GHz) heterodyne receiver with a quantum-well infrared photodetector [Liu et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253 (1995)]. Stray light is reduced by a notch filter containing hot CO2 gas. The heterodyne receiver is absolutely calibrated using a large area blackbody radiation source [Bennett et al., Appl. Opt. 27, 3324 (1988)]. Results from the tests on JT-60U indicate a larger than expected noise background, especially for the lower velocity measurements determined by the smaller frequency shifts from the laser line. These results are used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio that would be expected for a CTS diagnostic installed on other devices; ITER ("the way" in Latin), Joint European Torus-Enhanced Performance JET-EP, and axially symmetric divertor experiment (ASDEX). Calculations and possible system improvements are presented.

  10. Analyses of core heat transport in plasmas with different toroidal rotation profiles in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Emi; Honda, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Urano, Hajime; Ide, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that in H-mode plasmas, toroidal rotation in the co direction with respect to the plasma current is more favorable for energy confinement than that in the counter direction. Effects of toroidal rotation on core temperature profiles have been pointed out, whereas the improved confinement has been found to be due to an increase in the pedestal temperature with co-toroidal rotation and profile resilience. In JT-60U, roles of toroidal rotation have been studied using neutral beam injection changes. In this study, core heat transport of these plasmas with different toroidal rotation profiles is investigated with several transport models implemented in the transport code TOPICS. These transport models give the anomalous heat diffusivity and are tested against conventional H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. The calculations are performed with the E × B shear effect. The relationship between heat transport and toroidal rotation is examined with a flux-tube gyrokinetic code, which we will present in the paper. Work supported by JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  11. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  12. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  13. DC-9 Flight Demonstration Program with Refanned JT8D Engines. Volume 3; Performance and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The JT8D-109 engine has a sea level static, standard day bare engine takeoff thrust of 73,840 N. At sea level standard day conditions the additional thrust of the JT8D-109 results in 2,040 kg additional takeoff gross weight capability for a given field length. Range loss of the DC-9 Refan airplane for long range cruise was determined. The Refan airplane demonstrated stall, static longitudinal stability, longitudinal control, longitudinal trim, minimum control speeds, and directional control characteristics similar to the DC-9-30 production airplane and complied with airworthiness requirements. Cruise, climb, and thrust reverser performance were evaluated. Structural and dynamic ground test, flight test and analytical results substantiate Refan Program requirements that the nacelle, thrust reverser hardware, and the airplane structural modifications are flightworthy and certifiable and that the airplane meets flutter speed margins. Estimated unit cost of a DC-9 Refan retrofit program is 1.338 million in mid-1975 dollars with about an equal split in cost between airframe and engine.

  14. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 4: Flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flyover noise tests were conducted to determine the noise reductions achievable by modifying the engines and nacelles of DC-9-30 airplanes. The two stage fan of the JT8D-9 engine was replaced with a larger diameter, single stage fan and sound absorbing materials were incorporated in the engines and nacelles. The noise levels were determined to be 95.3 EPNdB at the sideline, 96.2 EPNdB for a full thrust takeoff, 87.5 EPNdB for takeoff with thrust cutback, and 97.4 EPNdB for landing approach. The noise reductions relative to the hardwall JT8D-9 were 8.2 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 8.7 EPNdB for landing. The 90 EPNdB noise contour areas were reduced by 40% for missions requiring maximum design takeoff and landing weights. For typical mission weights, the reductions were 19% for full thrust takeoff and 34% for takeoff with cutback. The 95 EPNdB contour areas were reduced by 50% for takeoff and 30% for takeoff with cutback for both missions.

  15. Overview of JT-60U results towards the resolution of key physics and engineering issues in ITER and JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isayama, A.; JT-60 Team

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent results from JT-60U. Topics we particularly focus on are (1) the mechanism determining the rotation profile and the effect of rotation on/from transport and stability, (2) the edge localized mode (ELM) physics and active ELM control and (3) plasma-wall interactions. An analysis of the momentum transport showed that rotation with a high pressure gradient can be reproduced by introducing a residual stress term proportional to the momentum diffusivity and the pressure gradient. Also, the momentum diffusivity in an internal transport barrier (ITB) region was reduced to an order similar to that of the ion thermal diffusivity. A comparison of the edge pedestal characteristics between JT-60U and JET with matched shape and operational parameters showed that the edge pressure did not change with increasing toroidal field (TF) ripple up to 1%, whereas a linear shift of the rotation velocity to the counter-direction was observed with increasing TF ripple. The absolute evaluation of tungsten accumulation in the core plasma by a spectroscopic method clarified that tungsten accumulation increased with increasing toroidal rotation in the counter-direction while an H-mode was sustained even at a tungsten density of 10-3 times the electron density. Active control of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) islands by the electron cyclotron current drive showed that the growth of NTM islands decelerated the plasma rotation. A transition to a low-rotation frequency state occurred for larger NTM islands. A statistical analysis of the precursor of type I ELM showed a small growth rate of γ/ωA ~ 10-3 (where γ and ωA are the growth rate and Alfvén angular frequency, respectively). The measurement of the precursor at different toroidal locations showed that the toroidal mode number was 8-10 or 14-16. Energetic-particle-driven wall modes (EWMs) were found to trigger ELMs and decrease the ELM amplitude to half of that without EWMs. Enhancement of the

  16. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  17. The 727 airplane target thrust reverser static performance model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. T. P.; Atkey, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a scale model static performance test of target thrust reverser configurations for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 series engine are presented. The objective of the test was to select a series of suitable candidate reverser configurations for the subsequent airplane model wind tunnel ingestion and flight controls tests. Test results indicate that adequate reverse thrust performance with compatible engine airflow match is achievable for the selected configurations. Tapering of the lips results in loss of performance and only minimal flow directivity. Door pressure surveys were conducted on a selected number of lip and fence configurations to obtain data to support the design of the thrust reverser system.

  18. Radial Patterns of Instability and Transport in JT-60U Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt; K.W. Hill; R. Nazikian; W.M. Tang; H Shirai; Y. Sakamoto; Y. Kishimoto; S.Ide; and T. Fujita

    2001-02-27

    One class of internal transport barrier discharges in the JT-60U tokamak is characterized by two relatively flatter regions of the pressure separated by a region with very large pressure gradient. Linear growth rates for toroidal drift-type modes are calculated for discharges in this class, without and with sheared E x B rotation effects. For cases with fully-developed barriers, the results with rotation are consistent with a picture in which the radial electric field generated in part by the steep pressure gradient causes local stabilization, and thus reduction of the local anomalous transport, which allows the steep pressure gradient to persist. If rotation is omitted from the calculation for these cases, or if rotation is included for cases without barriers or with partially developed barriers, the unstable region spreads into the steep pressure gradient region.

  19. Observation of a fast beta collapse during high poloidal-beta discharges in JT-60

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, S.; Koide, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Tsuji, S.; Shirai, H.; Naito, O.; Azumi, M. )

    1992-03-09

    A nondisruptive {beta}-limiting phenomenon in a large tokamak under a large bootstrap current fraction, up to {similar to}80% of the plasma current, is described; {beta}=(plasma pressure)/(magnetic pressure). During long-pulse neutral-beam-heated discharges in the JT-60 tokamak, it occurs at {beta}{sub {ital p}}{similar to}3, leading to a limit of the normalized {beta} lower than the Troyon limit. The MHD feature is characterized by a large-amplitude partial relaxation with a fast growth time. A hollow current profile evolution in the high-{beta}{sub {ital p}} regime plays an essential role in the MHD stability, analysis of which shows that the ideal {ital n}=1 kink-ballooning modes can be unstable just before the collapse.

  20. Development of a Real-time Modulation Control System on the JT-60U ECRF System

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Isayama, A.; Terakado, M.; Sato, F.; Suzuki, S.; Hiranai, S.; Shibayama, M.; Moriyama, S.

    2009-11-26

    A real-time modulation control system was developed for studying the effectiveness of modulated Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) on the stabilization of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). The phase and duty cycle tracking was enabled with high accuracy even if the NTM frequency varied during ECCD. A characteristic of an anode voltage modulation for modulating the gyrotron oscillation that caused the time variation of the phase and duty cycle was also taking into account. It was shown that the phase and duty cycle could be kept the target values within 50 ms even if the frequency varied by 1 kHz/s or higher at a frequency of around 5 kHz. Then, NTM stabilization experiments with modulated ECCD for m/n = 2/1 NTM was successfully performed in JT-60U.

  1. Fast neutron-gamma discrimination on neutron emission profile measurement on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Shinohara, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Baba, M.; Isobe, M.

    2010-10-15

    A digital signal processing (DSP) system is applied to stilbene scintillation detectors of the multichannel neutron emission profile monitor in JT-60U. Automatic analysis of the neutron-{gamma} pulse shape discrimination is a key issue to diminish the processing time in the DSP system, and it has been applied using the two-dimensional (2D) map. Linear discriminant function is used to determine the dividing line between neutron events and {gamma}-ray events on a 2D map. In order to verify the validity of the dividing line determination, the pulse shape discrimination quality is evaluated. As a result, the {gamma}-ray contamination in most of the beam heating phase was negligible compared with the statistical error with 10 ms time resolution.

  2. Dependence of pedestal structure on collisionality at fixed beta in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, H.; Aiba, N.; Kamiya, K.; Kamada, Y.; the JT-60 Team

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of pedestal structure on collisionality at fixed beta has been investigated in JT-60U. In the ITER-relevant low collisionality regime, the pedestal width does not change with edge collisionality. In the high collisionality regime, the pedestal width broadens with increased edge collisionality. The pedestal pressure gradient and width are not significantly changed when the pedestal is close to an intermediate n peeling-ballooning mode boundary at low collisionality. The experimental result indicates that conventional pedestal models where the pedestal width is independent of collisionality and is determined by {β\\text{p}} at the pedestal is not a bad assumption in the ITER-relevant low collisionality regime. On the other hand, the pressure gradient decreases and the pedestal width increases at high collisionality. The pedestal broadening becomes significant when the pedestal is marginal to be unstable at the high n ballooning mode in the high collisionality regime.

  3. High performance reversed shear plasmas with a large radius transport barrier in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Hatae, T.; Oikawa, T.; Takeji, S.; Shirai, H.; Koide, Y.; Ishida, S.; Ide, S.; Ishii, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Higashijima, S.; Yoshino, R.; Kamada, Y.; Neyatani, Y.

    1998-02-01

    The operation of reversed shear plasmas in JT-60U has been extended to the low-q, high-Ip region keeping a large radius transport barrier, and a high fusion performance has been achieved. Record values of deuterium-tritium (DT)-equivalent power gain in JT-60U have been obtained: QDTeq = 1.05, τE = 0.97 s, nD(0) = 4.9 × 1019 m-3 and Ti(0) = 16.5 keV. A large improvement in confinement resulted from the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a large radius, which was characterized by steep gradients in electron density, electron temperature and ion temperature just inside the position of qmin. Large negative shear regions, up to 80% of the plasma minor radius in the low-qmin regime (qmin~2), were obtained by plasma current ramp-up after the formation of the ITB with the pressure and current profiles being controlled by adjustment of plasma volume and beam power. The ITB was established by on-axis beam heating into a low density target plasma with reversed shear that was formed by current ramp-up without beam heating. The confinement time increased with the radius of the ITB and the decrease of qmin at a fixed toroidal field. High H factors, up to 3.3, were achieved with an L mode edge. The effective one fluid thermal diffusivity χeff had its minimum in the ITB. The values of H/q95 and βt increased with the decrease of q95, and the highest performance was achieved at q95 ~3.1 (2.8 MA). The performance was limited by disruptive beta collapses with βN~2 at qmin~2.

  4. Design optimization for plasma performance and assessment of operation regimes in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Kurita, G.; Bialek, J.; Aiba, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sakurai, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hayashi, N.; Oyama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Navratil, G. A.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takase, Y.; Campbell, D.; Pamela, J.; Romanelli, F.; Kikuchi, M.

    2007-11-01

    The design of the modification of JT-60U, JT-60SA has been optimized from the viewpoint of plasma performance, and operation regimes have been evaluated with the latest design. Upper and lower divertors with different geometries will be prepared for flexibility of the plasma shape, which will enable both low aspect ratio (A ~ 2.65) and ITER shape (A = 3.1) configurations. The beam lines of negative-ion neutral beam injection will be shifted downwards by ~0.6 m for the off-axis current drive (CD), in order to obtain a weak/reversed shear plasma, as well as having the capability of heating the central region. The feedback control coils along the openings in the stabilizing plate are found effective in suppressing the resistive wall mode and sustaining high βN close to the ideal wall limit. Sustainment of plasma current of 3-3.5 MA for 100 s will be possible in ELMy H-mode plasmas with moderate heating power, βN, and density within an available flux swing. It is also expected that higher βN, high-density ELMy H-mode plasmas will be maintained for 100 s with higher heating power. The expected regime of full CD operation has been extended with upgraded heating and CD power. Full CD operation for 100 s with reactor-relevant high values of normalized beta and bootstrap current fraction (Ip = 2.4 MA, βN = 4.3, fBS = 0.69, \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW = 0.86 , HH98y2 = 1.3) is expected in a highly-shaped low-aspect-ratio configuration (A = 2.65).

  5. Simulation of plasma current ramp-up with reduced magnetic flux consumption in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Ide, S.; Takase, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Current ramp-up with reduced central solenoid (CS) flux consumption in JT-60SA has been investigated using an integrated modeling code suite (TOPICS) with a turbulent model (CDBM). The plasma current can be ramped-up from 0.6 MA to 2.1 MA with no additional CS flux consumption if the plasma current is overdriven by neutral-beam-driven and bootstrap current. A time duration required for the current ramp-up without CS flux consumption becomes as long as 150 s in the scenario we have examined. In order to achieve a current overdrive condition from 0.6 MA, the current drive by a lower energy neutral beam (85 keV) is effective. A higher energy neutral beam (500 keV) cannot be used in this early phase with a low central electron density (~2 × 1019 m-3) due to large shine through loss, while it can be effectively used in the later phase. Therefore, the main current driver should be switched from the lower energy neutral beam to the higher energy neutral beam during the current ramp-up phase. As a result of an intensive auxiliary heating, plasma beta (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) becomes high. Ideal MHD instabilities of such high beta plasmas have been investigated using a linear ideal MHD stability analysis code (MARG2D). External kink modes which might affect the core plasma can be stabilized during the current ramp-up if there is a perfectly conducting wall at the location of the stabilizing plate and the vacuum vessel of JT-60SA and the plasma has a broader pressure profile with the H-mode pedestal and the internal transport barrier.

  6. Finite element-integral simulation of static and flight fan noise radiation from the JT15D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.

  7. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  8. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications. PMID:26932050

  9. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Y; Suzuki, T; Takechi, M; Urano, H; Ide, S

    2015-07-01

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA. PMID:26233387

  10. Development of Fast Measurement System of Neutron Emission Profile Using a Digital Signal Processing Technique in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, M.; Shinohara, K.; Itoga, T.; Okuji, T.; Nakhostin, M.; Baba, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-12

    Neutron emission profiles are routinely measured in JT-60U Tokamak. Stinbene neuron detectors (SNDs), which combine a Stilbene organic crystal scintillation detector (Stilbene detector) with an analog neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) circuit, have been used to measure neutron flux efficiently. Although the SND has many advantages as a neutron detector, the maximum count rate is limited up to {approx}1x 10{sup 5} counts/s due to the dead time of the analog PSD circuit. To overcome this issue, a digital signal processing (DSP) system using a Flash-ADC has been developed. In this system, anode signals from the photomultiplier of the Stilbene detector are fed to the Flash ADC and digitized. Then, the PSD between neutrons and gamma-rays are performed using software. The photomultiplier tube is also modified to suppress and correct gain fluctuation of the photomultiplier. The DSP system has been installed in the center channel of the vertical neutron collimator system in JT-60U and applied to measurements of neutron flux in JT-60U experiments. Neutron flux are successfully measured with count rate up to {approx}1x 10{sup 6} counts/s without the effect of pile up of detected pulses. The performance of the DSP system as a neutron detector is demonstrated.

  11. A 727 airplane center duct inlet low speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaldschmidt, G.; Syltebo, B. E.; Ting, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The results from testing of a 0.3 scale model center duct inlet (S duct) for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objective of this test was to demonstrate that the required airflow of the JT8D-100 engine (480 lb/sec as compared to 334 lb/sec for JT8D-15) can be achieved with minimum modifications to the existing 727 airplane structure at acceptable levels of total pressure recovery and distortion. Steady-state pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure measurements were taken at the engine face station. Surface static pressure measurements were taken along the duct. Test results indicated that the required airflow was achieved with acceptable pressure recovery (comparable to the current 727-200 S duct). Inlet inflow angle variation within the 727 airplane operating regime (minus 5 to 5 degrees) had no effect on the inlet performance. Pressure distortion at static and forward speed at takeoff airflow conditions are within P and WA limits for the Phase II duct when equipped with vortex generators. Static crosswind operation between 10 knots and 25 knots appears feasible at full takeoff power.

  12. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Ide, S.

    2015-07-15

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA.

  13. Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.

    2006-10-15

    The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1 MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q=2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2 km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67{+-}35 {mu}s and 70 mm, respectively.

  14. Performance deterioration based on existing (historical) data; JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the collection and analysis of historical data pertaining to the deterioration of JT9D engine performance are presented. The results of analyses of prerepair and postrepair engine test stand performance data from a number of airlines to establish the individual as well as average losses in engine performance with respect to service use are included. Analysis of the changes in mechanical condition of parts, obtained by inspection of used gas-path parts of varying age, allowed preliminary assessments of component performance deterioration levels and identification of the causitive factors. These component performance estimates, refined by data from special engine back-to-back testing related to module performance restoration, permitted the development of preliminary models of engine component/module performance deterioration with respect to usage. The preliminary assessment of the causes of module performance deterioration and the trends with usage are explained, along with the role each module plays in overall engine performance deterioration. Preliminary recommendations with respect to operating and maintenance practices which could be adopted to control the level of performance deterioration are presented. The needs for additional component sensitivity testing as well as outstanding issues are discussed.

  15. Pressure transfer function of a JT15D nozzle due to acoustic and convected entropy fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic transmission matrix analysis of sound propagation in a variable area duct with and without flow is extended to include convected entropy fluctuations. The boundary conditions used in the analysis are a transfer function relating entropy and pressure at the nozzle inlet and the nozzle exit impedance. The nozzle pressure transfer function calculated is compared with JT15D turbofan engine nozzle data. The one dimensional theory for sound propagation in a variable area nozzle with flow but without convected entropy is good at the low engine speeds where the nozzle exit Mach number is low (M=0.2) and the duct exit impedance model is good. The effect of convected entropy appears to be so negligible that it is obscured by the inaccuracy of the nozzle exit impedance model, the lack of information on the magnitude of the convected entropy and its phase relationship with the pressure, and the scatter in the data. An improved duct exit impedance model is required at the higher engine speeds where the nozzle exit Mach number is high (M=0.56) and at low frequencies (below 120 Hz).

  16. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  17. Performance deterioration based on in-service engine data: JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses of engine performance deterioration trends and levels with respect to service usage are presented. Thirty-two JT9D-7A engines were selected for this purpose. The selection of this engine fleet provided the opportunity of obtaining engine performance data starting before the first flight through initial service such that the trend and levels of engine deterioration related to both short and long term deterioration could be more carefully defined. The performance data collected and analyzed included in-flight, on wing (ground), and test stand prerepair and postrepair performance calibrations with expanded instrumentation where feasible. The results of the analyses of these data were used to: (1) close gaps in previously obtained historical data as well as augment the historical data with more carefully obtained data; (2) refine preliminary models of performance deterioration with respect to usage; (3) establish an understanding of the relationships between ground and altitude performance deterioration trends; (4) refine preliminary recommendations concerning means to reduce and control deterioration; and (5) identify areas where additional effort is required to develop an understanding of complex deterioration issues.

  18. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  19. Investigation of carbon dust accumulation in the JT-60U tokamak vacuum vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, N.; Hayashi, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Fukumoto, M.

    2013-07-01

    Dust generated by plasma-wall interaction is a potential source of tritium retention in a fusion reactor. Evaluation of the dust accumulation in the entire vacuum vessel is required to estimate the total amount of tritium retention, but it was particularly difficult to measure for plasma-unexposed areas behind the PFC structures, i.e. "shadow areas". Dust samples were collected at 3, 5 and 2-4 different toroidal locations on the first wall, divertor surface and the exhaust route under the divertor in JT-60U, respectively. On the tile surface, large mass area density was found at the inner divertor and baffle, in particular, upper tiles compared to the lower target tile where the thick deposition layers were produced. Mass area density was significantly increased at the shadow areas, i.e. under the divertor structure such as the divertor and baffle tiles and the divertor dome. It was found that the poloidal distribution is relatively symmetrical in the toroidal direction within a factor of three. In comparison with the previous collection just before major change of the plasma operations, dust accumulation was increased both at the exposed and shadow areas due to change in the operating conditions.

  20. Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.

    2006-10-01

    The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q =2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67±35μs and 70mm, respectively.

  1. Behaviour of tritium in the vacuum vessel of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Miya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Torikai, Y.; Saito, M.; Alimov, V.

    2015-03-15

    The disassembly of the JT-60U torus started in 2010 after 18 years of deuterium plasma operations. The vessel is made of Inconel 625. Therefore, it was very important to study the hydrogen isotope (particularly tritium) behavior in Inconel 625 from the viewpoint of the clearance procedure. Inconel 625 specimen was exposed to the D{sub 2} (92.8 %) - T{sub 2} (7.2 %) gas mixture at 573 K for 5 hours. The tritium release from the specimen at 298 K was controlled for about 1 year. After that a part of tritium remaining in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K. Other part of tritium trapped in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, the amount of desorbed tritium was about 99% during 1 year. It was considered that the tritium in Inconel 625 was released easily.

  2. An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mine, Toshiki; Katayama, Sakurako; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Tsunashima, Masako; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    We cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119. The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The sialyltransferase activity of the N-terminal truncated form of the recombinant enzyme was 1477 U/L of Escherichia coli culture. The truncated recombinant enzyme was purified as a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis through 3 column chromatography steps. The enzyme had distinct activity compared with known marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases. Although alpha2,6-sialyltransferases cloned from marine bacteria, such as Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-145, and Photobacterium sp. strain JT-ISH-224, show only alpha2,6-sialyltransferase activity, the recombinant enzyme cloned from P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 showed both alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha2,6-linkage-specific neuraminidase activity. Our results provide important information toward a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to the group 80 glycosyltransferase family in the CAZy database. PMID:19797322

  3. Molecular and biochemical analysis of RET/PTC4, a novel oncogenic rearrangement between RET and ELE1 genes, in a post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fugazzola, L; Pierotti, M A; Vigano, E; Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T V; Bongarzone, I

    1996-09-01

    A post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer, displaying a novel ELE1/RET oncogenic rearrangement with an anomalous fusion transcript, was molecularly characterized. In spite of the presence of a normal breakpoint in exon 5 of the activating ELE1 gene, the sequence of the rearranged genomic DNA showed a previously unreported intra-exonic breakpoint in the RET protooncogene. As a consequence, a cDNA sequence 93 nucleotides larger than the regular one, and with the exon 5 of ELE1 joined to exon 11 instead of exon 12 of RET, is formed. To characterize the product of this new oncogenic ELE1/RET rearrangement, here designated as RET/PTC4, we performed an immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis on cell extracts from NIH3T3 transfectants. The results showed the presence of two isoforms of the chimeric protein, displaying a constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation. As expected, the molecular weight of this protein was higher than that of RET/ PTC3 protein (p80 and p85, instead of p76 and p81). Previous reports, from our and other laboratories, showed that post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized by a high frequency (about 60%) of RET oncogenic rearrangements (Fugazzola et al., 1995; Klugbauer et al., 1995; Ito et al., 1994). These events predominantly involve ELE1 activating sequence, thus producing RET/PTC3 oncogene (Fugazzola et al., 1995; Klugbauer et al., 1995). Hence, this elevated frequency of RET rearrangements could increase the probability of selecting unusual events as that here described. Alternatively, targeted radiation effects could be responsible for the atypical RET rearrangement producing RET/PTC4 oncogene. PMID:8806699

  4. Development and Operation of the Lower Hybrid Range of Frequency System on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Maebara, S.; Moriyama, S.; Naito, O.; Anno, K.; Hiranai, S.; Shimono, M.; Shinozaki, S.; Terakado, M.; Yokokura, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.

    2002-09-15

    Development and operation of a lower hybrid range of frequency (LHRF) system for JT-60U are presented. The LHRF system was constructed in 1986 to study current drive and plasma heating at high injection power. Its main specifications are the total output power 24 MW with 24 high power klystrons, the frequency 1.74 to 2.23 GHz, and the injection power {approx}10 MW with three conventional antennas. To improve the antenna capabilities such as the current drive efficiency, N{sub //peak} controllability and the power injection properties, a 3-divided multi-junction type (CD1' launcher) and a 12-divided multi-junction type (CD2 launcher) are developed. The CD2 launcher can also reduce the number of the transmission lines to one fourth of the original system. The injection power {approx}7 MW is attained, and then the highest current drive efficiency 3.5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -2}AW{sup -1} and the highest non-inductive driven current 3.6 MA are achieved. The high power klystron capable of the cathode-heater operation times more than 3000 hours is improved. The outgassing rate is estimated with the CD2 launcher as 1-10 x 10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2}, which is sufficiently small not to need the vacuum pumping system for the launcher. Heat load onto the launcher due to the ripple enhanced banana drift loss is first observed in NBI or ICRF heating. From investigation on antenna-plasma coupling, the gas puffing improves distant coupling.

  5. Stiff Temperature Profiles in JT-60U ELMy H-mode Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Mikkelsen; H. Urano; H. Shirai; T. Takizuka; Y. Kamada; T. Hatae; Y. Koide; N. Asakura; T. Fujita; T. Fukuda; S. Ide; A. Isayama; Y. Kawano; O. Naito; Y. Sakamoto

    2001-10-16

    The 'stiffness' of thermal transport in ELMy H-modes [edge localized high-confinement modes] is examined in a series of carefully chosen JT-60U plasmas, and measured temperatures are compared with the predictions of several transport models. A heating power scan with constant T(subscript ''ped''), a scan of pedestal temperature, T(subscript ''ped''), with constant heating power, and an on-axis/off-axis heating comparison are presented. In the power scan a 45% increase in heating (and a 12% density rise) produces an approximately fixed core temperature profile in a group of five plasmas with the same pedestal temperature. With fixed heating power, we find that a 30-40% increase in T(subscript ''ped'') is associated with similar increases in core temperature. Heating in the deep core is varied by employing different groups of neutral beams that deposit their power near the magnetic axis and farther from the axis. In these plasmas, on-axis heating produces slightly more peaked temperature profiles, although they have 60% more heating power inside r = a/2. Transport models are tested by solving the power balance equations to predict temperatures, which are then compared to the measurements. Predictions of the RLWB and IFS/PPPL models generally agree with the measured temperatures outside r approximately 0.3a, but the multimode model uniformly predicts temperatures that are too high except in the central region. Tests based on these discharges are not able to discriminate between the transport models of varying stiffness, so we conclude that larger changes are needed in the P(subscript ''heat'') and T(subscript ''ped'') scans.

  6. The 110-GHz Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequency System on JT-60U: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y.; Kasugai, A.; Moriyama, S.; Kajiwara, K.; Seki, M.; Tsuneoka, M.; Takahashi, K.; Anno, K.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hiranai, S.; Ikeda, Yu.; Imai, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Shimono, M.; Shinozaki, S.; Terakado, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokokura, K.; Fujii, T.

    2002-09-15

    The electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) system was designed and operated on the JT-60U to locally heat and control plasmas. The frequency of 110 GHz was adopted to inject the fundamental O-mode from the low field side with an oblique injection angle. The system is composed of four 1 MW-level gyrotrons, four transmission lines, and two antennae. The gyrotron is featured by a collector potential depression (CPD) and a gaussian beam output through a diamond window. The CPD enables JAERI to drive the gyrotron under the condition of the main DC voltage of 60 kV without a thyristor regulation. The gaussian mode from the gyrotron is effectively transformed to HE{sub 11} mode in the 31.75 mm diameter corrugated waveguide. About 75% of the output power of the gyrotrons can be injected into plasmas through the waveguides about 60 m in length. There are two antennae to control the deposition position of the EC wave during a plasma discharge. One is connected with three RF lines to steer the EC beams in the poloidal direction. The other is to control the EC beam in the toroidal and poloidal directions by two steerable mirrors.On the operation in 2000, the power of 1.5 to 1.6 MW for 3 s was successfully injected into plasmas using three gyrotrons. Local profile control was demonstrated by using the antennae. This capability was devoted to improve the plasma performance such as high T{sub e} production more than 15 keV and suppression of the MHD activities. In 2001, the fourth gyrotron, whose structure was improved for long pulse operation, has been installed for a total injection power of {approx}3 MW.

  7. Module-type flat-field grazing-incidence spectrographs for large Tokamak (JT-60) plasma diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Kihara, Naoto; Yamashita, Takaji; Sugie, Tatsuo; Kubo, Hirotaka; Shiho, Makoto

    1990-09-01

    Module-type flat-field grazing-incidence spectrographs with holographic gratings and multichannel detectors for large TOKAMAK (JT-60) plasma diagnosis are developed. The spectrographs cover the different wavelength regions from 0.5-122 nm, and are set to measure impurity lines in the plasma every 20 ms with space resolution of 7 cm. The flat-field imaging properties with designed wavelength resolution were confirmed, and results of tokamak plasma measurements proved the value of these spectrographs for plasma diagnosis.

  8. Preliminary core-engine noise abatement experimental results of a fluid injection nozzle on a JT-15D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Wang, P.

    1975-01-01

    Jet noise, as induced by shear stress, in an jet exhaust is investigated. Experiments were performed on a JT-15D fan jet to verify the inward momentum stress reduction concept. The experiments involved making fan air flow convergently around the high velocity core jet with a small angle. Ring airfoils were used as flow separators for the minimization of the thrust loss. Jet exhaust noise reduction of ll db at 30 deg from the jet axis was recorded and 8 db integrated overall noise reduction over a hemisphere was measured with only 4.6% thrust loss, or 152 db/percent thrust loss.

  9. Expanded study of feasibility of measuring in-flight 747/JT9D loads, performance, clearance, and thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Martin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The JT9D jet engine exhibits a TSFC loss of about 1 percent in the initial 50 flight cycles of a new engine. These early losses are caused by seal-wear induced opening of running clearances in the engine gas path. The causes of this seal wear have been identified as flight induced loads which deflect the engine cases and rotors, causing the rotating blades to rub against the seal surfaces, producing permanent clearance changes. The real level of flight loads encountered during airplane acceptance testing and revenue service and the engine's response in the dynamic flight environment were investigated. The feasibility of direct measurement of these flight loads and their effects by concurrent measurement of 747/JT9D propulsion system aerodynamic and inertia loads and the critical engine clearance and performance changes during 747 flight and ground operations was evaluated. A number of technical options were examined in relation to the total estimated program cost to facilitate selection of the most cost effective option. It is concluded that a flight test program meeting the overall objective of determining the levels of aerodynamic and inertia load levels to which the engine is exposed during the initial flight acceptance test and normal flight maneuvers is feasible and desirable. A specific recommended flight test program, based on the evaluation of cost effectiveness, is defined.

  10. Advanced Real-Time Feedback Control in JT-60U High Performance Discharges for Application to Fusion Reactor Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, T.; Oikawa, T.; Takeji, S.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y.; Neyatani, Y.; Nagashima, A.; Nishitani, T.; Konoshima, S.; Tamai, H.; Fujita, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Ide, S.; Koide, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Kurihara, K.; Sakata, S.; Ozeki, T.; Kawamata, Y.; Miura, Y. M.

    2002-09-15

    The significance of real-time feedback control is emphasized in this paper as an indispensable method to improve and sustain the improved plasma characteristics in JT-60U high fusion performance discharges as well as to operate the fusion reactor under the optimal divertor conditions with respect to the heat load and exhaust pumping. In accordance, substantial improvement in the equivalent fusion amplification gain of over unity has been reproducibly achieved at the JT-60U tokamak in the reversed shear mode of operation with the robust feedback controls, where the value of target density was deliberately optimized for the reliable internal transport barrier formation, and the magneto-hydrodynamic stability control was performed with the stored energy feedback. The feedback control techniques also demonstrated the effectiveness to produce quasi-steady-state high-performance plasmas. In addition, three major parameters associated with the fusion reactor instrumentations, namely the neutron production rate, operating density, and divertor radiation power, were simultaneously feedback controlled in the ELMy H-mode plasmas. Here, the matrix response function was evaluated to identify the limitations involved with the linear combination of independent controls. Other advanced feedback schemes, such as the feedback suppression of the neoclassical tearing mode required to sustain high plasma pressure in a steady-state, are also described. Finally, the controversial issues for the future intelligent plasma control necessary for the advanced steady-stated tokamak reactor are addressed.

  11. Compact antenna for two-dimensional beam scan in the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating/current drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, S.; Kajiwara, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kasugai, A.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.

    2005-11-15

    A compact antenna system was designed and fabricated to enable millimeter-wave beam scanning in the toroidal and poloidal directions of the JT-60U tokamak for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments. The antenna consists of a fast movable flat mirror mounted on the tokamak vacuum vessel and a rotary focusing mirror attached at the end of the waveguide that is supported from outside the vacuum vessel. This separate support concept enables a compact structure inside a shallow port (0.68x0.54x0.2 m) that is shared with a subport for an independent diagnostic system. During a plasma shot, the flat mirror is driven by a servomotor with a 3-m-long drive shaft to reduce the influence of the high magnetic field on the motor. The focusing mirror is rotated by a simple mechanism utilizing a push rod and an air cylinder. The antenna has been operated reliably for 3 years after a small improvement to the rotary drive mechanism. It has made significant contributions to ECH and ECCD experiments, especially the current profile control in JT-60U.

  12. EleFantastic Bingo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    This game allows students to learn new science vocabulary and relevant facts about elephants. This bingo game is a valuable curriculum resource for any teacher who is teaching about elephants or other endangered animals. Directions for play, calling cards (six to a page), and play cards (four to a page), are included. (ASK)

  13. Active Control of Inlet Noise on the JT15D Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the year from November 1997 to December 1998 on the Active Noise Control of Turbofan Engines research project funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The concept of implementing active noise control techniques with fuselage-mounted error sensors is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The analytical part of the project involves the continued development of an advanced modeling technique to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of active noise control techniques to large, realistic high bypass engines of the type on which active control methods are expected to be applied. Results from the advanced analytical model are presented that show the effectiveness of the control strategies, and the analytical results presented for fuselage error sensors show good agreement with the experimentally observed results and provide additional insight into the control phenomena. Additional analytical results are presented for active noise control used in conjunction with a wavenumber sensing technique. The experimental work is carried out on a running JT15D turbofan jet engine in a test stand at Virginia Tech. The control strategy used in these tests was the feedforward Filtered-X LMS algorithm. The control inputs were supplied by single and multiple circumferential arrays of acoustic sources equipped with neodymium iron cobalt magnets mounted upstream of the fan. The reference signal was obtained from an inlet mounted eddy current probe. The error signals were obtained from a number of pressure transducers flush-mounted in a simulated fuselage section mounted in the engine test cell. The active control methods are investigated when implemented with the control sources embedded within the acoustically absorptive material on a passively-lined inlet. The experimental results show that the combination of active control techniques with fuselage

  14. Overview of JT-60U results towards the establishment of advanced tokamak operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, N.; JT-60 Team

    2009-10-01

    Recent JT-60U experimental results towards the establishment of advanced tokamak (AT) operation are reviewed. We focused on the further expansion of the operational regime of AT plasmas towards higher βN regime with wall stabilization. After the installation of ferritic steel tiles in 2005, the high power heating in a large plasma cross-section in which the wall stabilization is expected has been possible. In 2007, the modification of power supply of NBIs improved the flexibility of the heating profile in long-pulse plasmas. The investigation of key physics issues for the establishment of steady-state AT operation is also in progress using new diagnostics and improved heating systems. In weak magnetic shear plasma, high βN ~ 3 exceeding the ideal MHD limit without a conducting wall ( \\beta_N^{{\\scriptsize{\\mbox{no-wall}}}} ) is sustained for ~5 s (~3τR) with RWM stabilization by a toroidal rotation at the q = 2 surface. External current drivers of negative-ion based NB and lower-hybrid waves together with a large bootstrap current fraction (fBS) of 0.5 can sustain the whole plasma current of 0.8 MA for 2 s (1.5τR). In reversed magnetic shear plasma, high βN ~ 2.7 (βp ~ 2.3) exceeding \\beta_N^{{\\scriptsize{\\mbox{no-wall}}}} with qmin ~ 2.4 (q95 ~ 5.3), HH98(y,2) ~ 1.7 and fBS ~ 0.9 is obtained with wall stabilization. These plasma parameters almost satisfy the requirement of ITER steady-state scenario. In long-pulse plasmas with positive magnetic shear, a high βNHH98(y,2) of 2.6 with βN ~ 2.6 and HH98(y,2) ~ 1 is sustained for 25 s, significantly longer than the current diffusion time (~14τR) without neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). A high G-factor, \\beta_NH_{89P}/q_{95}^{2} (a major of fusion gain), of 0.54 and a large fBS > 0.43 are suitable for ITER hybrid operation scenario. Based on the plasma for ITER hybrid operation scenario, the high βN of 2.1 with good thermal plasma confinement of HH98(y,2) > 0.85 is sustained for longer than 12 s at

  15. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  16. Investigation of performance deterioration of the CF6/JT9D, high-bypass ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, J. A.; Mehalic, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The aircraft energy efficiency program within NASA is developing technology required to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial subsonic transport aricraft. One segment of this program includes engine diagnostics which is directed toward determining the sources and causes of performance deterioration in the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT9D and General Electric CF6 high-bypass ratio turbofan engines and developing technology for minimizing the performance losses. Results of engine performance deterioration investigations based on historical data, special engine tests, and specific tests to define the influence of flight loads and component clearances on performance are presented. The results of analysis of several damage mechanisms that contribute to performance deterioration such as blade tip rubs, airfoil surface roughness and erosion, and thermal distortion are also included. The significance of these damage mechanisms on component and overall engine performance is discussed.

  17. Anisotropic electron temperature measurements without knowing the spectral transmissivity for a JT-60SA Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Yatsuka, E.; Itami, K.

    2012-10-15

    This paper focuses on a method for measuring the electron temperature (T{sub e}) without knowing the transmissivity using Thomson scattering diagnostic with a double-pass scattering system. Application of this method for measuring the anisotropic T{sub e}, i.e., the T{sub e} in the directions parallel (T{sub e Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }) and perpendicular (T{sub e Up-Tack }) to the magnetic field, is proposed. Simulations based on the designed parameters for a JT-60SA indicate the feasibility of the measurements except in certain T{sub e} ranges, e.g., T{sub e Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }{approx} 3.5T{sub e Up-Tack} at 120 Degree-Sign of the scattering angle.

  18. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  19. JT9D-70/59 Improved High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control System. [for specific fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT9D-70/59 high pressure turbine active clearance control system was modified to provide reduction of blade tip clearance when the system is activated during cruise operation. The modification increased the flow capacity and air impingement effectiveness of the cooling air manifold to augment turbine case shrinkage capability, and increased responsiveness of the airseal clearance to case shrinkage. The simulated altitude engine testing indicated a significant improvement in specific fuel consumption with the modified system. A 1000 cycle engine endurance test showed no unusual wear or performance deterioration effects on the engine or the clearance control system. Rig tests indicated that the air impingement and seal support configurations used in the engine tests are near optimum.

  20. Beamlet deflection due to beamlet-beamlet interaction in a large-area multiaperture negative ion source for JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, M.; Hanada, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Grisham, L. R.; Jiang, W.

    2008-02-15

    The JT-60U negative ion source has been designed to produce high current beams of 22 A through grids of 1080 apertures (five segments with nine rows of 24 apertures). One of the key issues is to steer such a high current beam through the multiaperture grids in order to focus the overall beam envelope because the beamlet-beamlet interaction may deflect the outer beamlets outward due to unbalanced space charge repulsion. To clarify the beam deflection in the JT-60U negative ion source, the beamlet trajectory in a multiaperture ion source was calculated by a three-dimensional simulation code. The measured angles of the outmost beamlets were in agreement with the calculated results where space charge of the beamlets was taken into account. It is noticed that the deflection of the outermost beamlet due to the beamlet-beamlet interaction is saturated at 5.2 mrad outward for beamlets more than ten.

  1. Some comparisons of the flyover noise characteristics of DC-9 aircraft having refanned and hardwalled JT8D engines, with special reference to measurement and analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Flyover noise measurements were made (using Federal Aviation Regulations, part 36 procedures) of two DC-9 aircraft, one equipped with refanned JT8D-109 engines and the other equipped with hardwalled JT8D-9 engines. NASA analyses show a refan centerline noise reduction of about 9.1 EPNdB and 10.0 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 50 deg. flap landing approach, respectively. A comparison of refan and hardwall PNLTM spectra shows that the refan noise reduction may be attributed to lower jet noise levels on takeoff and reduced high-frequency tonal content on landing approach. A general description of the test procedures and results are included along with detailed descriptions of the measurement and analysis systems.

  2. Development of a dual frequency (110/138 GHz) gyrotron for JT-60SA and its extension to an oscillation at 82 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashia, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Isayama, Akihiko; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Yokokura, Kenji; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    A dual-frequency gyrotron, which can generate 110 GHz and 138 GHz waves independently, is being developed in JAEA to enable electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in a wider range of plasma discharge conditions of JT-60SA. Conditioning operation of the gyrotron toward 1 MW for 100 s, which is the target output power and pulse length for JT-60SA, is in progress without significant problems. Oscillations of 1 MW for 10 s and 0.5 MW for 198 s were obtained, so far, at both frequencies. Cooling water temperatures in the gyrotron and matching optics unit were saturated in the 198 s oscillation, and the observed maximum water temperature is sufficiently low. In addition to the above activity on the dual-frequency gyrotron development, an oscillation (0.3 MW for 20 ms) at 82 GHz was demonstrated as an additional frequency of the dual-frequency gyrotron. A possibility of the use of fundamental harmonic wave at 82 GHz in JT-60SA has been shown.

  3. Titanium honeycomb acoustic lining structural and thermal test report. [for acoustic tailpipe for JT8D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joynes, D.; Balut, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of static, fatigue and thermal testing of titanium honeycomb acoustic panels representing the acoustic tailpipe for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D Refan engine which is being studied for use on the Boeing 727-200 airplane. Test specimens represented the engine and tailpipe flange joints, the rail to which the thrust reverser is attached and shear specimens of the tailpipe honeycomb. Specimens were made in four different batches with variations in configuration, materials and processes in each. Static strength of all test specimens exceeded the design ultimate load requirements. Fatigue test results confirmed that aluminum brazed titanium, as used in the Refan tailpipe design, meets the fatigue durability objectives. Quality of welding was found to be critical to life, with substandard welding failing prematurely, whereas welding within the process specification exceeded the panel skin life. Initial fatigue testing used short grip length bolts which failed prematurely. These were replaced with longer bolts and subsequent testing demonstrated the required life. Thermal tests indicate that perforated skin acoustic honeycomb has approximately twice the heat transfer of solid skin honeycomb.

  4. Detailed in situ laser calibration of the infrared imaging video bolometer for the JT-60U tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Parchamy, H.; Peterson, B. J.; Konoshima, S.; Hayashi, H.; Seo, D. C.; Ashikawa, N

    2006-10-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) in JT-60U includes a single graphite-coated gold foil with an effective area of 9x7 cm{sup 2} and a thickness of 2.5 {mu}m. The thermal images of the foil resulting from the plasma radiation are provided by an IR camera. The calibration technique of the IRVB gives confidence in the absolute levels of the measured values of the plasma radiation. The in situ calibration is carried out in order to obtain local foil properties such as the thermal diffusivity {kappa} and the product of the thermal conductivity k and the thickness t{sub f} of the foil. These quantities are necessary for solving the two-dimensional heat diffusion equation of the foil which is used in the experiments. These parameters are determined by comparing the measured temperature profiles (for kt{sub f}) and their decays (for {kappa}) with the corresponding results of a finite element model using the measured HeNe laser power profile as a known radiation power source. The infrared camera (Indigo/Omega) is calibrated by fitting the temperature rise of a heated plate to the resulting camera data using the Stefan-Boltzmann law.

  5. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Tojo, H; Hatae, T; Hamano, T; Sakuma, T; Itami, K

    2013-09-01

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ~0.3 mm and ~0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system. PMID:24089827

  6. Aerodynamic performance of 0.4066-scale model of JT8D refan stage with S-duct inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the JT8D refan stage was tested with a scale model of the S-duct inlet design for the refanned Boeing 727 center engine. Detailed survey data of pressures, temperatures, and flow angles were obtained over a range of flows at speeds from 70 to 97 percent of design speed. Two S-duct configurations were tested; one with a bellmouth inlet and the other with a flight lip inlet. The results indicated that the overall performance was essentially unaffected by the distortion generated by the S-duct inlet. The stall weight flow increased by less than 0.5 kg/sec (approximately 1.5% of design flow) with the S-duct inlet compared with that obtained with uniform flow. The detailed measurements indicated that the inlet guide vane (IGV) significantly reduced circumferential variations. For example, the flow angles ahead of the IGV were positive in the right half of the inlet and negative in the left half. Behind the IGV, the flow angles tended to be more uniform circumferentially.

  7. Validation studies of gyrokinetic ITG and TEM turbulence simulations in a JT-60U tokamak using multiple flux matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Motoki; Honda, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Maiko; Urano, Hajime; Nunami, Masanori; Maeyama, Shinya; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative validation studies of flux-tube gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations on ion and electron heat transport are carried out for the JT-60U tokamak experiment. The ion temperature gradient (ITG) and/or trapped electron modes (TEM) driven turbulent transport and zonal flow generations are investigated for an L-mode plasma in the local turbulence limit with a sufficiently small normalized ion thermal gyroradius and weak mean radial electric fields. Nonlinear turbulence simulations by the GKV code successfully reproduce radial profiles of the ion and electron energy fluxes in the core region. The numerical results show that the TEM-driven zonal flow generation in the outer region is more significant than that in the core region with ITG- and ITG–TEM-dominated turbulence, leading to moderate transport shortfall of the ion energy flux. Error levels in the prediction of the ion and electron temperature gradient profiles in the core region are estimated as less than +/- 30% , based on a multiple flux matching technique, where the simulated ion and electron energy fluxes are simultaneously matched to the experimental values.

  8. Phlogopite compositions as an indicator of both the geodynamic context of granitoids and the metallogeny aspect in Memve'ele Archean area, northwestern Congo craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntomba, Sylvestre M.; Bidzang, François Ndong; Ottou, José Eric Messi; Goussi Ngalamo, François Jeannot; Bisso, Dieudonné; Magnekou Takamte, Christelle Rufine; Ondoa, Joseph Mvondo

    2016-06-01

    A barium bearing phlogopite (celsian) has been found for the first time within the charnockitic and tonalitic suites that compose Archean mineral belt in Cameroon. Electron microprobe analyses of these phlogopites are reported and contain moderate contents of BaO (0.42-1.26 wt. %) and up to 5.95 wt. % TiO2. Micas are Mg-rich and their compositions indicate phlogopites rich-meroxenes. Phlogopites from Memve'ele are characterized by a nearly horizontal trend of increasing total aluminium (2.494-2.931 a.p.f.u.) and relatively constant Fe/(Fe + Mg) suggesting contributions of aluminous supracrustal material to the magmas by anatexis or assimilation. Compositions of the barium titanium bearing phlogopite vary systematically according to rock types. It seems that the substitution scheme include Ba + Al + VI (Mg, Fe)2+ + 2 IVSi = K + Si + VITi + 2IVAl was dominant in the Memve'ele area thus, this scheme has made easy incorporation of Ba into phlogopite structure. The binary diagram of aluminium vs. titanium shows that phlogopites from the Memve'ele area have been formed by the same metasomatic mechanism as phlogopites from Canary Island xenoliths and Mezitler andesites but Ba enrichment of phlogopites from the Memve'ele area implies an early Ba-metasomatism contrary to those from Mezitler. The estimated temperature of the studied phlogopites indicated mainly two groups: (1) temperature range from 662 to 688 °C (average 676 °C) for phlogopite grains with High Mg# in the trondhjemite sample and (2) temperatures with interval limits from 757 to 800 °C (average 777.07 °C) for remnant phlogopites; reflecting primary and late crystallization respectively from slightly to highly oxidized magma (-17.30 to -13.87 Kbars). The geothermal gradient with average temperatures are 35.57-53.360 °C/Km and 30.95-46.42 °C/Km corresponding to 14.56-21.84 Km and 14.56-30.58 Km depth of below crust respectively. The crystallizing melt is enriched in Ba emanated from sea water at medium

  9. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  10. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The propulsion performance, acoustic, structural, and systems changes to a 727-200 airplane retrofitted with a refan modification of the JT8D turbofan engine are evaluated. Model tests, design of certifiable airplane retrofit kit hardware, manufacture of test hardware, ground test of a current production JT8D engine, followed by test of the same engine modified to the refan configuration, detailed analyses of the retrofit impact on airplane airworthiness, performance, and noise, and a preliminary analysis of retrofit costs are included. Results indicate that the refan retrofit of the 727-200 would be certifiable and would result in a 6-to 8 EPNdb reduction in effective perceived noise level (EPNL) at the FAR 36 measuring points and an annoyance-weighted footprint area reduction of 68% to 83%. The installed refan engine is estimated to provide 14% greater takeoff thrust at zero velocity and 10% greater thrust at 100 kn (51.4 m/s). There would be an approximate 0.6% increase in cruise specific fuel consumption (SFC). The refan engine performance in conjunction with the increase in stalled weight results in a range reduction of approximately 15% over the unmodified airplane at the same brake release gross weight (BRGW), with a block fuel increase of 1.5% to 3%. With the particular model 727 that was studied, however, it is possible to operate the airplane (with minor structural modifications) at a higher BRGW and increase the range up to approximately 15% relative to the nonrefanned airplane (with equal or slightly increased noise levels). The JT8D refan engine also improves the limited-field range of the airplane.

  11. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-01

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  12. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-09-15

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ∼0.3 mm and ∼0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system.

  13. Cruise Drag Results from High Speed Wind Tunnel Tests of NASA Refan JT8D Engine Nacelles on the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, W. G.; Carlson, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    High speed wind tunnel test results are presented showing the cruise drag effect of installing JT8D-109 Refan engines on a Boeing 727-200. Incremental drags of a refan center inlet and side nacelles are presented for several configuration variations. Static pressure distributions were obtained on the side nacelle strut and on the fuselage (above and below the strut). Oil flow photographs of selected configurations are also presented. In general the drag level of the refan installation is slightly better than predicted prior to the test and the drag rise is favorable.

  14. Penicillopepsin-JT2, a recombinant enzyme from Penicillium janthinellum and the contribution of a hydrogen bond in subsite S3 to k(cat).

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Q. N.; Stubbs, M.; Ngo, K. Q.; Ward, M.; Cunningham, A.; Pai, E. F.; Tu, G. C.; Hofmann, T.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene (pepA) of a zymogen of an aspartic proteinase from Penicillium janthinellum with a 71% identity in the deduced amino acid sequence to penicillopepsin (which we propose to call penicillopepsin-JT1) has been determined. The gene consists of 60 codons for a putative leader sequence of 20 amino acid residues, a sequence of about 150 nucleotides that probably codes for an activation peptide and a sequence with two introns that codes for the active aspartic proteinase. This gene, inserted into the expression vector pGPT-pyrG1, was expressed in an aspartic proteinase-free strain of Aspergillus niger var. awamori in high yield as a glycosylated form of the active enzyme that we call penicillopepsin-JT2. After removal of the carbohydrate component with endoglycosidase H, its relative molecular mass is between 33,700 and 34,000. Its kinetic properties, especially the rate-enhancing effects of the presence of alanine residues in positions P3 and P2' of substrates, are similar to those of penicillopepsin-JT1, endothiapepsin, rhizopuspepsin, and pig pepsin. Earlier findings suggested that this rate-enhancing effect was due to a hydrogen bond between the -NH- of P3 and the hydrogen bond accepting oxygen of the side chain of the fourth amino acid residue C-terminal to Asp215. Thr219 of penicillopepsin-JT2 was mutated to Ser, Val, Gly, and Ala. Thr219Ser showed an increase in k(cat) when a P3 residue was present in the substrate, which was similar to that of the wild-type, whereas the mutants Thr219Val, Thr219Gly, and Thr219Ala showed no significant increase when a P3 residue was added. The results show that the putative hydrogen bond alone is responsible for the increase. We propose that by locking the -NH- of P3 to the enzyme, the scissile peptide bond between P1 and P1' becomes distorted toward a tetrahedral conformation and becomes more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by the catalytic apparatus without the need of a conformational change

  15. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  16. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  17. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  18. Integrated modelling of toroidal rotation with the 3D non-local drift-kinetic code and boundary models for JT-60U analyses and predictive simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashi, N.; Kamiya, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Nakata, M.; Ide, S.; Urano, H.

    2015-07-01

    The integrated simulation framework for toroidal momentum transport is developed, which self-consistently calculates the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), the radial electric field {{E}r} and the resultant toroidal rotation {{V}φ} together with the scrape-off-layer (SOL) physics-based boundary model. The coupling of three codes, the 1.5D transport code TOPICS, the three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium code VMEC and the 3D δ f drift-kinetic equation solver FORTEC-3D, makes it possible to calculate the NTV due to the non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic field caused by toroidal field coils. Analyses reveal that the NTV significantly influences {{V}φ} in JT-60U and {{E}r} holds the key to determine the NTV profile. The sensitivity of the {{V}φ} profile to the boundary rotation necessitates a boundary condition modelling for toroidal momentum. Owing to the high-resolution measurement system in JT-60U, the {{E}r} gradient is found to be virtually zero at the separatrix regardless of toroidal rotation velocities. Focusing on {{E}r} , the boundary model of toroidal momentum is developed in conjunction with the SOL/divertor plasma code D5PM. This modelling realizes self-consistent predictive simulations for operation scenario development in ITER.

  19. Purification and characterization of two high molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, from the venom of Protobothrops elegans (Sakishima-habu).

    PubMed

    Oyama, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hidenobu

    2015-09-01

    We herein identified two high molecular mass metalloproteinases, named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, in the venom of Protobothrops elegans. HR-Ele-1 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) regard under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and the molecular mass of this protease was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular masses of SV-PAD-2 on SDS-PAGE were 110 kDa under the non-reducing condition and 52 kDa under the reducing condition. These SVMPs exhibited fibrinogenolytic and enzymatic activities against synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the insulin B-chain, and were both inhibited by EDTA. SV-PAD-2 inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values of 240 nM and 185 nM, respectively. HR-Ele-1 exhibited hemorrhagic activity, and its minimum hemorrhagic dose (MHD) was 0.05 μg in the guinea pig. PMID:26100665

  20. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, S.; Shibata, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohno, N.; Isayama, A.; Takizuka, T.; Kawano, Y.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-01

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  1. Dynamics of energetic particle driven modes and MHD modes in wall-stabilized high-β plasmas on JT-60U and DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, G.; Okabayashi, M.; Aiba, N.; Boedo, J. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Hanson, J. M.; Hao, G. Z.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Holcomb, C. T.; In, Y.; Jackson, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Luce, T. C.; McKee, G. R.; Osborne, T. H.; Pace, D. C.; Shinohara, K.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Zeng, L.; the DIII-D Team; the JT-60 Team

    2013-12-01

    In the wall-stabilized high-β plasmas in JT-60U and DIII-D, interactions between energetic particle (EP) driven modes (EPdMs) and edge localized modes (ELMs) have been observed. The interaction between the EPdM and ELM are reproducibly observed. Many EP diagnostics indicate a strong correlation between the distorted waveform of the EPdM and the EP transport to the edge. The waveform distortion is composed of higher harmonics (n ⩾ 2) and looks like a density snake near the plasma edge. According to statistical analyses, ELM triggering by the EPdMs requires a finite level of waveform distortion and pedestal recovery. ELM pacing by the EPdMs occurs when the repetition frequency of the EPdMs is higher than the natural ELM frequency. EPs transported by EPdMs are thought to contribute to change the edge stability.

  2. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N.; Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Takizuka, T.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  3. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Masafumi Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-15

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ∼10% without a reduction of the negative ion production.

  4. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  5. Flight effects on noise by the JT8D engine with inverted primary/fan flow as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    A JT8D-17R engine with inverted primary and fan flows was tested under static conditions as well as in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine static and flight noise characteristics, and flow profile of a large scale engine. Test and analysis techniques developed by a previous model and JT8D engine test program were used to determine the in-flight noise. The engine with inverted flow was tested with a conical nozzle and with a plug nozzle, 20 lobe nozzle, and an acoustic shield. Wind tunnel results show that forward velocity causes significant reduction in peak PNL suppression relative to uninverted flow. The loss of EPNL suppression is relatively modest. The in-flight peak PNL suppression of the inverter with conical nozzle was 2.5 PNdb relative to a static value of 5.5 PNdb. The corresponding EPNL suppression was 4.0 EPNdb for flight and 5.0 EPNdb for static operation. The highest in-flight EPNL suppression was 7.5 EPNdb obtained by the inverter with 20 lobe nozzle and acoustic shield. When compared with the JT8D engine with internal mixer, the inverted flow configuration provides more EPNL suppression under both static and flight conditions.

  6. Gyrotron development for high-power, long-pulse electron cyclotron heating and current drive at two frequencies in JT-60SA and its extension toward operation at three frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yokokura, S. Moriyama K.; Sawahata, M.; Terakado, M.; Hiranai, S.; Wada, K.; Sato, Y.; Hinata, J.; Hoshino, K.; Isamaya, A.; Oda, Y.; Ikeda, R.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2015-06-01

    A gyrotron enabling high-power, long-pulse oscillations at both 110 and 138 GHz has been developed for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (CD) in JT-60SA. Oscillations of 1 MW for 100 s have been demonstrated at both frequencies, for the first time in the world as a gyrotron operating at two frequencies. The optimization of the anode voltage, or the electron pitch factor, using a triode gun was a key to obtain high power and high efficiency at two frequencies. It was also confirmed that the internal losses in the gyrotron were sufficiently low for expected long pulse operation at the higher power level of ∼1.5 MW. Another important result is that an oscillation at 82 GHz, which enables use of fundamental harmonic waves in JT-60SA while the other two frequencies are used as second harmonics waves, was demonstrated up to 0.4 MW for 2 s. These results of the gyrotron development significantly contribute to enhancing the operation regime of the ECH/CD system in JT-60SA.

  7. Development of a high-brightness and low-divergence lithium neutral beam for a Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Atshushi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujita, Takaaki; Kakiuchi, Hideto; Kamada, Yutaka

    2008-09-01

    A high-brightness and low-divergence neutral beam is obtained for a Zeeman polarimetry of edge plasmas on JT-60U. The electron density and the pitch angle of the magnetic field line, thus the plasma current density distribution, can be measured by the Zeeman polarimetry using the lithium beam. A thermionic ion source heated by an electron beam is developed in order to obtain the ion beam current extraction over 10 mA. The beam optics is designed after detailed numerical simulation taking the space charge effects into account because a low-divergence angle of the neutral lithium beam leads to a narrow spectrum of the beam emission. It is also necessary to keep the beam radius small for good spatial resolution due to a long beam line of 6.5 m. The newly developed ion gun is operated on a test stand which simulates the diagnostic arrangement on JT-60U. The ion beam current of 10 mA at a beam energy of 10 keV is successfully extracted from the ion source operated at the temperature over 1300 degrees C and focused by Einzel lens. The full width at half maximum radius of the ion beam at the neutralizer is about 9 mm. A sodium vapor neutralizer neutralizes the collimated ion beam fully at the temperature of 300 degrees C. The neutral beam profiles are measured at two locations of the beam line at Z=2.3 m (beam monitor position) and Z=6.5 m (plasma region). The half-width at half maximum radius of the neutral beam of 26 mm and the equivalent beam current of 3 mA with the beam divergence angle of 0.2 deg which is the half-angle divergence are obtained. Those parameters satisfy the requirements of the Zeeman polarimetry. Furthermore, a long pulse extraction with a current of 10 mA and duration of 50 s is attained. PMID:19044408

  8. Development of a high-brightness and low-divergence lithium neutral beam for a Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Atshushi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujita, Takaaki; Kakiuchi, Hideto; Kamada, Yutaka

    2008-09-01

    A high-brightness and low-divergence neutral beam is obtained for a Zeeman polarimetry of edge plasmas on JT-60U. The electron density and the pitch angle of the magnetic field line, thus the plasma current density distribution, can be measured by the Zeeman polarimetry using the lithium beam. A thermionic ion source heated by an electron beam is developed in order to obtain the ion beam current extraction over 10mA. The beam optics is designed after detailed numerical simulation taking the space charge effects into account because a low-divergence angle of the neutral lithium beam leads to a narrow spectrum of the beam emission. It is also necessary to keep the beam radius small for good spatial resolution due to a long beam line of 6.5m. The newly developed ion gun is operated on a test stand which simulates the diagnostic arrangement on JT-60U. The ion beam current of 10mA at a beam energy of 10keV is successfully extracted from the ion source operated at the temperature over 1300°C and focused by Einzel lens. The full width at half maximum radius of the ion beam at the neutralizer is about 9mm. A sodium vapor neutralizer neutralizes the collimated ion beam fully at the temperature of 300°C. The neutral beam profiles are measured at two locations of the beam line at Z =2.3m (beam monitor position) and Z =6.5m (plasma region). The half-width at half maximum radius of the neutral beam of 26mm and the equivalent beam current of 3mA with the beam divergence angle of 0.2deg which is the half-angle divergence are obtained. Those parameters satisfy the requirements of the Zeeman polarimetry. Furthermore, a long pulse extraction with a current of 10mA and duration of 50s is attained.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients in the HELIOS loop including a CICC section representative of the JT-60SA Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, S.; Bonifetto, R.; Hoa, C.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2015-12-01

    The HELIOS facility at CEA Grenoble is a supercritical helium (SHe) loop which is being used to investigate the effects on the cryogenic cooling system of the pulsed heat loads which are typical of superconducting tokamak operation. In the standard configuration, the magnet heat load is simulated by electrical heaters wrapped around a section of cryoline. In the present work, the resistively heated section is substituted in the HELIOS model of the 4C code, already validated for the standard configuration of HELIOS, by a sub-size winding structure made of JT-60SA Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICCs). The new model is then used to highlight the differences in the circuit behaviour when the heated pipe is substituted by an actual magnet wound with CICCs, checking the representativeness of the control strategies developed for the present HELIOS configuration. The use of CICCs will be shown to produce an intrinsic smoothing of the temperature profiles which is not affecting the capability of the control strategies to smooth the heat loads to the cryoplant.

  10. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 4: Airplane evaluation and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The retrofit of JT8D-109 (refan) engines are evaluated on a 727-200 airplane in terms of airworthiness, performance, and noise. Design of certifiable hardware, manufacture, and ground testing of the essential nacelle components is included along with analysis of the certifiable airplane design to ensure airworthiness compliance and to predict the in-flight performance and noise characteristics of the modified airplane. The analyses confirm that the 727 refan airplane is certifiable. The refan airplane range would be 15% less that of the baseline airplane and block fuel would be increased by 1.5% to 3%. However, with this particular 727-200 model, with a brake release gross weight of 172,500 lb (78,245 kg), it is possible to operate the airplane (with minor structural modifications) at higher gross weights and increase the range up to 15% over the 727-200 (baseline) airplane. The refan airplane FAR Part 36 noise levels would be 6 to 8 EPNdB (effective perceived noise in decibels) below the baseline. Noise footprint studies showed that approach noise contour areas are small compared to takeoff areas. The 727 refan realizes a 68% to 83% reduction in annoyance-weighted area when compared to the 727-200 over a range of gross weights and operational procedures.

  11. Fast plasma shutdown by killer pellet injection in JT-60U with reduced heat flux on the divertor plate and avoiding runaway electron generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, R.; Kondoh, T.; Neyatani, Y.; Itami, K.; Kawano, Y.; Isei, N.

    1997-02-01

    A killer pellet is an impurity pellet that is injected into a tokamak plasma in order to terminate a discharge without causing serious damage to the tokamak machine. In JT-60U neon ice pellets have been injected into OH and NB heated plasmas and fast plasma shutdowns have been demonstrated without large vertical displacement. The heat pulse on the divertor plate has been greatly reduced by killer pellet injection (KPI), but a low-power heat flux tail with a long time duration is observed. The total energy on the divertor plate increases with longer heat flux tail, so it has been reduced by shortening the tail. Runaway electron (RE) generation has been observed just after KPI and/or in the later phase of the plasma current quench. However, RE generation has been avoided when large magnetic perturbations are excited. These experimental results clearly show that KPI is a credible fast shutdown method avoiding large vertical displacement, reducing heat flux on the divertor plate, and avoiding (or minimizing) RE generation.

  12. High heat flux experiment on B4C-converted carbon based materials for plasma facing materials of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, Toshiro; Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Dairakum, Masayuki; Araki, Masanori; Akiba, Masato

    1994-03-01

    High heat flux experiments have been previously carried out on three kinds, namely low pressure plasma spray (LPPS), chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and conversion (CVR) methods, of B4C-overlaid CFC's using the JAERI electron beam irradiation system (JEBIS). As a result, it turned out that CVR method has the best adhesion property between B4C layer and bulk carbon. However, thicker B4C layer is necessary to use in long period as the divertor tiles of JT-60U. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the thermal property of B4C-converted carbon based materials which have thicker B4C layer than the previous experiments. Irradiations were performed under two different heating conditions, namely in the normal condition (5-20 MW/m(exp 2), 5 s) and in the disruption conditions (1100-1600 MW/m(exp 2), 2-3 ms). The dimensions of the samples were 25 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, and B4C-converted layers were made on the three kinds of CFC's and fifth kinds of isotropic graphites. The thickness of B4C layer was 150-1300 (mu)m. Measurements were made with respect to the weight loss, changes of the surface morphology and the surface temperature. In the normal condition, the damages such as surface melting and exfoliation were not observed on the samples which have B4C layer below 600 (mu)m in thickness. In the disruption condition, melting and exfoliation were observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PD-330S, PD-600S and HCB-5S, and melting was observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PCC-2S, MFC-1, MCI-felt, ETP-10 and STP-60. It is considered that the porous layer in the B4C layer caused the severe exfoliation from the measurement of the surface composition.

  13. Recent RF Experiments and Application of RF Waves to Real-Time Control of Safety Factor Profile in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Sakata, S.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Seki, M.

    2005-09-26

    Two topics of applications of RF waves to current profile control in JT-60U are presented; application of lower-hybrid (LH) waves to safety factor profile control and electron cyclotron (EC) waves to neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) control. A real-time control system of safety factor (q) profile was developed. This system, for the first time, enables 1) real time evaluation of q profile using local magnetic pitch angle measurement by motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic and 2) control of current drive (CD) location ({rho}CD) by controlling the parallel refractive index N parallel of LH waves through control of phase difference ({delta}{phi}) of LH waves between multi-junction launcher modules. The method for real-time q profile evaluation was newly developed, without time-consuming reconstruction of equilibrium, so that the method requires less computational time. Safety factor profile by the real-time calculation agrees well with that by equilibrium reconstruction with MSE. The control system controls {rho}CD through {delta}{phi} in such a way to decrease the largest residual between the real-time evaluated q profile q(r) and its reference profile qref(r). The real-time control system was applied to a positive shear plasma (q(0){approx}1). The reference q profile was set to monotonic positive shear profile having qref(0)=1.3. The real-time q profile approached to the qref(r) during application of real-time control, and was sustained for 3s, which was limited by the duration of the injected LH power. Temporal evolution of current profile was consistent with relaxation of inductive electric field induced by theoretical LH driven current. An m/n=3/2 NTM that appeared at {beta}N{approx}3 was completely stabilized by ECCD applied to a fully-developed NTM. Precise ECCD at NTM island was essential for the stabilization. ECCD that was applied to resonant rational surface (q=3/2) before an NTM onset suppressed appearance of NTM. In order to keep NTM intensity below a

  14. Environment. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Dorland Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Billie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit, which focuses on environment and ecology, is designed for upper grade elementary school pupils. Since the five lessons were designed specifically for substitute teachers, each is completely self-contained. Each lesson is developed in…

  15. JT90 thermal barrier coated vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Graziani, R. A.; Sinko, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vane platforms in modern high temperature commercial engines was advanced to the point of demonstrated feasibility for application to commercial aircraft engines. The three thermal barrier coatings refined under this program are zirconia stabilized with twenty-one percent magnesia (21% MSZ), six percent yttria (6% YSZ), and twenty percent yttria (20% YSZ). Improvement in thermal cyclic endurance by a factor of 40 times was demonstrated in rig tests. A cooling system evolved during the program which featured air impingement cooling for the vane platforms rather than film cooling. The impingement cooling system, in combination with the thermal barrier coatings, reduced platform cooling air requirements by 44% relative to the current film cooling system. Improved durability and reduced cooling air requirements were demonstrated in rig and engine endurance tests. Two engine tests were conducted, one of 1000 cycles and the other of 1500 cycles. All three coatings applied to vanes fabricated with the final cooling system configuration completed the final 1500 cycle engine endurance test. Results of this test clearly demonstrated the durability of the 6% YSZ coating which was in very good condition after the test. The 21% MSZ and 20% YSZ coatings had numerous occurrences of significant spalling in the test.

  16. Your Nose Knows. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for kindergarten pupils, but could be used effectively with primary pupils. The six lessons use the sense of smell to investigate various aspects of the earth, seasons, animals, and commercial use of fragrances. Each lesson…

  17. The Drip Impact. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jack Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudacher, Jack

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for senior high science classes. The primary emphasis of the material is on water, water analysis, and possible methods of watershed management; while the materials were designed for use in and around the Highline Public…

  18. Energy Futures... [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Parr Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Donald

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on energy is designed for junior high school science students. The 11 concepts of the unit have been developed into 11 lessons that should take from two to three weeks to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson,…

  19. [Peabody's Time Machine. Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Hirschel Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschel, John

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for use by a substitute teacher for instruction of intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The kit provides three days of lesson plans. There is closure at the end of each lesson and each day. Much emphasis is placed on…

  20. Archaeology/Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Muccilli Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccilli, Kathie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was written for seventh-grade students in anthropology. The six lessons and suggested activities will take from 15 to 30 days to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher,…

  1. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, McGrath Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Jo Ellen

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for primary grades. Included are ten lessons. Each lesson includes the concepts of the lesson, materials needed, time for the activity, procedure, evaluative activities, and follow-up activities. Included are…

  2. Earth Art. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Dye Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Dick

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit for elementary school children is designed to help bring more art into the classroom and to help students become more aware of their environment. Included are six lessons and a bibliography of suggested student references. Each lesson…

  3. Thoughts from You. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Northrop Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Liz

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed to assist sixth-grade students to increase their awareness and appreciation of their environment, and to develop their thinking and feelings concerning it by using creative writing. It is recommended that the seven lessons…

  4. The Games Cities Play. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth

    This is a simulation game and a part of the environmental education program developed by the Highline Public Schools. The game emphasizes why a city is formed, how it grows, where it develops, and some problems with which it must cope. It is designed to be used with elementary students in the intermediate grades. The materials were tried and…

  5. Home Sweet Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The emphasis of the 10 lessons in this unit is on energy, the earth's resources, and the use of earth resources, by man and other living things. The materials are designed for use at grade 1, but could be used in higher grades. Each lesson…

  6. Acting for Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Ausen Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausen, Wayne

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grades to learn about ecology with the use of creative drama. The six lessons can be interchanged in any way that fits the needs of the class. Use of all six lessons should take about two…

  7. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Toulouse & Edgar Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toulouse, Dick; Edgar, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for seventh-grade science classes. Included are 13 lessons. Each lesson usually includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher, procedure, and evaluation activities. In addition, there…

  8. Biotic Communities. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe-Thorson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth; Thorson, Michael

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit provides a number of activities to introduce students to ways of studying biotic communities, help them become good observers, and provide them with opportunities to use their skills. The materials include suggested activities, and…

  9. Your World My World. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Peace Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, Shirley

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit for kindergarten introduces the pupil to the concept of environment. Various aspects of the environment are explored through 14 lessons using our five senses. Each activity includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed,…

  10. Anthropology - Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit may be used as an introduction to the study of anthropology, the influence of ecology on the study of anthropology, and an introduction to the physical school environment. For best results, it should be used at the beginning of the…

  11. Exponential Explosions! Today.... Tomorrow.... ? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jensen Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for junior high school mathematics classes and emphasizes applications of exponents to problems of population growth and pollution. The nine lessons are designed for about eleven school days. Each lesson includes the concept…

  12. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  13. From Rocks to Pots. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Grim Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Dale

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by art classes at the secondary school level; it illustrates the availability of natural clay and provides the student with experiences such as digging the clay, locating desirable clays, preparing it for production,…

  14. And Then - Recycling. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lewis Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dave

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. There are seven concepts in this unit on recycling which is designed for grade five and six students. Each concept has one lesson that is comprised of several activities. Several suggested extra activities have been added to further the students'…

  15. Miniature J-T refrigators using adsorption compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. K.; Tward, E.; Elleman, D. D.

    More sophisticated cooling systems for the employed detectors will be needed to satisfy the demand for higher resolution and sensitivity of various detectors used in space missions. The design of the cooling system must take into consideration the unique environment of space vehicles. It is pointed out that a deep space vehicle usually has an ample supply of waste heat from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and has a heat sink near zero Kelvin. Passive radiative coolers have been used for cooling temperatures above 90 K. Cooling below 90 K is currently handled by phase changes of solid or liquid cryogens or mechanical refrigeration. However, the weight of the cryogen may be a problem in a long duration space mission. Refrigerators of small cooling capacity are required in many spacecraft applications. For some future NASA missions, a multistage Joule-Thomson refrigerator using adsorption compressors appears particularly attractive. A study is discussed of four different refrigeration stages which use charcoal as the adsorbent. The adsorbed gases are nitrogen, helium, hydrogen, and neon.

  16. Sorption J-T refrigeration utilizing manganese nitride chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Lund, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures and compositions have been measured for a system of finely powdered manganese nitride and nitrogen gas at 650, 700, 800, and 850 C for various nitrogen loadings. Pressures ranged from less than 0.02 MPa at 650 C to 6.38 MPa at 850 C. Analysis of the test results has shown that under certain conditions Mn(x)N(y) could potentially be used in a triple regenerative sorption compressor refrigeration system, but the potential power savings are small compared to the increased complexity and reliability problems associated with very high temperature (above 950 C) pressurized systems.

  17. Miniature J-T refrigators using adsorption compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.; Tward, E.; Elleman, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    More sophisticated cooling systems for the employed detectors will be needed to satisfy the demand for higher resolution and sensitivity of various detectors used in space missions. The design of the cooling system must take into consideration the unique environment of space vehicles. It is pointed out that a deep space vehicle usually has an ample supply of waste heat from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and has a heat sink near zero Kelvin. Passive radiative coolers have been used for cooling temperatures above 90 K. Cooling below 90 K is currently handled by phase changes of solid or liquid cryogens or mechanical refrigeration. However, the weight of the cryogen may be a problem in a long duration space mission. Refrigerators of small cooling capacity are required in many spacecraft applications. For some future NASA missions, a multistage Joule-Thomson refrigerator using adsorption compressors appears particularly attractive. A study is discussed of four different refrigeration stages which use charcoal as the adsorbent. The adsorbed gases are nitrogen, helium, hydrogen, and neon.

  18. Central magnetohydrodynamic activity in pellet-fueled JT-60 plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Azumi, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The central magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities are strongly affected by hydrogen pellet injection. The change in the sawtooth characteristics (viz., crash time, crash mechanisms, and sawtooth period) seem to be dependent on the density (and pressure) peakedness. With deepening pellet penetration, the sawtooth frequency becomes longer. At the sawtooth emerging after the deep pellet penetration into high-{ital I}{sub {ital p}} limiter discharges, only a small amount of the central kinetic energy is released and the crash does not follow the fully reconnecting style. The sawtooth crash after the pellet injection tends to have more ideal-like characteristics for higher density and pressure peaking factors. At each sawtooth, the {ital m}=1 rotation frequency changes suddenly to the ion-diamagnetic direction or the codirection (parallel to the plasma current).

  19. ...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used…

  20. Food: The Challenge to Manage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roush Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for students at the senior high level who have a basic knowledge of nutrition, some experience in menu planning, and who are ready to put this knowledge of nutrition to work in selecting foods to attain maximum nutrition with…

  1. Eco-Kids Fly Off to the Forests. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for use with fourth-grade students; it focuses on three forest biomes. Each of the biomes has characteristics of its own. The unit includes eight lessons, as well as additional activities. The unit, which incorporates…

  2. Mind-Full of Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Horton Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Sue

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This ecology unit has been designed to be used as an individualized reading program, the duration of which is about three weeks. The purpose is to help intermediate grade elementary school pupils become more aware of their natural world and their…

  3. The Sky Is Falling: A Study Of Particulates... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. Designed for secondary school science classes, the unit is concerned with particulate matter of air pollution. Five lessons are included. The lessons include construction of equipment and collecting data. (RH)

  4. Ecological Smorgasbord: A Balanced Reading Diet. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lorain & Backman Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorain, Sue; Backman, Judi

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This material was basically designed to be used as an individualized reading kit for the intermediate grade student. The books in this kit readily lend themselves to a supplementary reading program as part of a science unit. Depending on a…

  5. Overpopulation Produces.... What Are We Going To Do About It? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Edgar Pak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Linda

    This unit is one of a series produced for environmental education programs by the Highline Public Schools. These materials are designed for use with junior high school students studying the concept of population, population trends, and problems created by changes in populations. The seven concepts in the unit take about three weeks to complete.…

  6. Living Today with an Eye Toward Tomorrow. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wilder Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lou

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for a ninth-grade Home Economics class. Included are five lessons. Most activities relate to energy use. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher, and procedure. (RH)

  7. This Land Is Your Land. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Weber Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Lee

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit has been constructed for use by intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The seven lessons are designed to inform students about the land to develop a land ethic. The unit should be able to be completed in two to three weeks. The…

  8. It's All in the Air. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for intermediate grade elementary school students. Emphasized in the units are air, the use of air, and air pollution. The seven lessons can be used consecutively or spaced throughout the year. Each lesson includes the…

  9. Air Pollution: What You Can & Can't See. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak.].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit on air pollution is designed for secondary school students in grades 7 through 12. There are five lessons in the unit; since some of the activities can take as long as 90 days, use of the materials needs to be carefully planned. Each…

  10. Round and Round It Goes: A Study of Ecological Cycles. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roaa Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit, designed for third- and fourth-grade students, emphasizes cycles and focuses on the water, oxygen, and nutrient cycles. The eleven lessons in this unit are designed to take one-half to one hour each. Use of the extra activities would…

  11. Practice What You Preach! [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Backman & Lorain Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Judi; Lorain, Sue

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed to be used with intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The intent of the 10 lessons is to provide activities that create a positive inner environment for each child so that effectiveness in the immediate and global…

  12. You Are What You Eat. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Campbell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Marsha

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit for elementary students in intermediate grades is concerned with nutrition, basic food groups, food production careers, future trends in food production and population growth, and ecology. The unit of 18 lessons is to be used over a six…

  13. Conducting Environmental Assessment Of Your Local Community. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Files Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Files, Tom

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by junior high school social studies students. Emphasis of the unit is on planning and conducting an environmental assessment of your local community. The unit contains ten lessons as well as supplementary printed…

  14. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  15. Who Has a Better Idea? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Hearst Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Gordon

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on technology, the environment, natural resources, and human values, is designed for upper grade elementary school pupils. Each of the 10 lessons is designed for a 1-2 hour period of time. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson,…

  16. Exploration with Garbage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lund and Wolff Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Cherie; Wolff, Chanelle

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is concerned with the topic of garbage. The eleven lessons explore what garbage is, problems of littering, ways to reduce garbage, and ways to use garbage. The materials were designed to be used with kindergarten pupils, but could be…

  17. Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

  18. Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

  19. Cities Then and Now, and Where Do We Go from Here? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore, Muccilli Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret; Muccilli, Kathie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on cities and urban life is designed for use with ninth-grade students, but could be used with other students. A variety of activities and materials for the activities are included. While some of the activities apply directly to…

  20. Please Touch ... Touching Is Living - And Living Is O.K.! [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thorsen-Amoe Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Michael; Amoe, Ruth

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed to direct intermediate grade pupils to positive attitudes and actions in the preservation of their environment. The culminating activity is the construction and placement of positive ecology signs. The goals of this unit are…

  1. JT9D-7A (SP) jet engine performance deterioration trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. P.; Olsson, W. J.; Andersen, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The levels, trends, and causes of engine performance deterioration were investigated. A series of installed engine calibrations (both on-the-ground and in-flight) were performed on two new Pan American World Airways 747 SP aircraft. The performance data gathered covered from before the first flight through approximately 1000 flight cycles and 6900 flight hours. To accomplish the calibrations a special instrumentation system for ground testing of installed engines over a broad power range was used along with performing concurrent in-flight engine calibrations under revenue service conditions. Results of the analysis of the data, which provide a better understanding of short and long term performance deterioration of both engines and modules are presented.

  2. An analytical study of thermal barrier coated first stage blades in a JT9D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevcik, W. R.; Stoner, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    Steady state and transient heat transfer and structural calculations were completed to determine the coating and base alloy temperatures and strains. Results indicate potential for increased turbine life using thin durable thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils due to a significant reduction in blade average and maximum temperatures, and alloy strain range. An intepretation of the analytical results is compared to the experimental engine test data.

  3. Performance characterization of a 6-K multiple JT helium adsorption cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, S.; Johnson, D. L.; Lindersmith, C. A.; Sirbi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present the work done at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a Helium Adsorption Cooler to produce continuous cooling power at a temperature around 6 K. The goal of this development is to be able to propose for future space mission a long lifetime, vibration free cooler, which can cover the temperature range 18 K to 5 K.

  4. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.

    2015-08-01

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  5. Performance evaluation of heat exchanger for mixed refrigerant J-T cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    In mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler, a multi-component mixture of nitrogen-hydrocarbons undergoes evaporation and condensation process in a helical coiled heat exchanger simultaneously at different pressures. Experimental data and empirical correlations for predicting heat transfer coefficients of evaporating and condensing streams of multi-component mixtures at cryogenic temperatures are unavailable. As a result, design of these heat exchangers is a challenging task. The present work aims to address this challenge. It assesses the existing condensation correlations against the calculated data obtained during experimentation. Experiments are conducted to determine overall heat transfer coefficients along the length of the heat exchanger for various mixtures. The paper studies the applicability of these correlations to the multi-component mixtures at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Noncircular Triangularity and Ellipticity-Induced Alfvén Eigenmodes Observed in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Saigusa, M.; Ozeki, T.; Kusama, Y.; Kimura, H.; Oikawa, T.; Tobita, K.; Fu, G. Y.; Cheng, C. Z.

    1998-03-01

    For the first time noncircular triangularity induced Alfvén eigenmodes (NAE) were observed in combined ion cyclotron resonance frequency and neutral beam injection heated plasmas. Ellipticity induced Alfvén eigenmodes (EAE) and toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) were also observed in those plasmas. The threshold beta of the energetic ions for exciting the NAE modes was found to be similar to that for exciting TAE modes.

  7. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 2: Design and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The nacelle configuration selected for the DC-9 had a 1595.6 mm Refan length inlet and an 1811.8 mm exhaust duct. The inlet had 1234.4 mm of acoustic treatment and the tailpipe had 1305.5 mm of equivalent length acoustic treatment. The pylon was reduced in width from 425.5 mm to 204.5 mm. Fuselage frames and titanium skin panels in the area of the pylon were reinforced or replaced to support the higher loads and engine thrust. Experimental type tooling, fabrication and assembly were used on all hardware. The design is considered certifiable and representative of the hardware that would be built as retrofit kits.

  8. Development of a low-noise 10K J-T refrigeration system. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, W.A.; Edman, H.; Stewart, M.; DuBois, M.; Nasg, A.

    1986-08-15

    This report summarizes the work done to date, in the first 30 days on the development of a low-noise, Joule-Thomson, microminiature refrigeration system designed for 10K operation. The plan of attack for the present contract has three major parts to it: first, the development of the three-stage refrigerator; second, the development of a suitable compressor to provide the gases, and thirdly, the development of an effective gas-cleansing system.

  9. Development of a low-noise 10 K J-T refrigeration system. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Paugh, R.L.

    1989-09-15

    The purpose of this contract extension is the continuation of the development of a compact, microminiature, low-noise, closed-cycle, Joule-Thomson refrigeration system for 10K operation for use in infrared sensing, low noise microwave signal detection and high speed superconducting electronic data processing. Work is continuing in the following areas: (a) Ongoing refrigerator design and development; (b) Compressor assembly and test, (c) Implementation of gas cleansing techniques, and (d) System integration.

  10. Effect of steady flight loads on JT9D-7 performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    Short term engine deterioration occurs in less than 250 flights on a new engine and in the first flights following engine repair; while long term deterioration involves primarily hot section distress and compression system losses which occur at a somewhat slower rate. The causes for short-term deterioration are associated with clearance changes which occur in the flight environment. Analytical techniques utilized to examine the effects of flight loads and engine operating conditions on performance deterioration are presented. The role of gyroscopic, gravitational, and aerodynamic loads are discussed along with the effect of variations in engine build clearances. These analytical results are compared to engine test data along with the correlation between analytically predicted and measured clearances and rub patterns. Conclusions are drawn and important issues are discussed.

  11. Performance deterioration based on simulated aerodynamic loads test, JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An engine was specially prepared with extensive instrumentation to monitor performance, case temperatures, and clearance changes. A special loading device was used to apply known loads on the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. These loads simulated the estimated aerodynamic pressure distributions that occur on the inlet in various segments of a typical airplane flight. Test results indicate that the engine lost 1.3 percent in take-off thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) during the course of the test effort. Permanent clearance changes due to the loads accounted for 1.1 percent; increase in low pressure compressor airfoil roughness and thermal distortion in the high pressure turbine accounted for 0.2 percent. Pretest predicted performance loss due to clearance changes was 0.9 percent in TSFC. Therefore, the agreement between measurement and prediction is considered to be excellent.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW HEAT LEAK CFRP STAND FOR MIRI COOLER JT HEAT EXCHANGER STAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, K. P.; Hayashil, B.; Larson, M. E.; Loc, A. S.; Zhang, B. X.; Leland, R. S.

    2010-04-09

    A low heat leak stand is being developed for the Heat exchanger Stage Assembly (HSA) of the cryocooler subsystem for the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The HSA stand is a hexapod structure supporting the 18 K HSA in a nominal 40 K background environment. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been selected for this application to meet the stringent design requirements of a low parasitic heat leak (less than 3.8 mW including both conductive and radiative heat loads for the thermal environment defined above) and a resonance frequency above 120 Hz. A directional lay-up of T300/polycyanate has been chosen for the construction of the hexapod struts. End fittings made of Invar 36 are bonded to the struts to provide structural interfaces. The development effort includes fabricating and testing (including cryogenic thermal cycling) six types of coupons for material characterization, determination of structural degradation due to thermal cycling, and selection of the joint bonding epoxy. Consequently, strut samples are used for final material characterization, performance assessment, and bond joint design evaluation. This paper describes the development process and addresses the challenges in meeting the design requirements. Results of finite element analysis (FEA) for the composite structure and experimental data collected through structural and thermal testing are also presented.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of hermetic JT/LJT/R P connector socket contact design

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents a precursory examination of a number of issues pertaining to socket contacts in hermetic connectors. The principal issues addressed are high-contact resistance and contact chatter (circuit discontinuities). Efforts examining the characteristics of the existing socket contact design, the possibility of connector/contact rework, quick-fix solutions, and contact redesigns are summarized.

  14. Development of a hermetically sealed brushless DC motor for a J-T cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joscelyn, Edwin; Hochler, Irwin; Ferri, Andrew; Rott, Heinz; Soukaris, Ted

    1996-01-01

    This development was sponsored by Ball Aerospace for the Cryogenic On-Orbit LongLife Active Refrigerator (COOLLAR) program. The cryocooler is designed to cool objects to 65 K and operate in space for at least 7 years. The system also imports minimal impact to the spacecraft in terms of vibration and heat. The basic Joule-Thompson cycle involves compressing a working fluid, nitrogen in this case, at near-constant temperature from 17.2 KPa to 6.89 MPa. The nitrogen is then expanded through a Joule-Thompson valve. The pure nitrogen gas must be kept clean; therefore, any contamination from motor organic materials must be eliminated. This requirement drove the design towards sealing of the motor within a titanium housing without sacrificing motor performance. It is estimated that an unsealed motor would have contributed 1.65 g of contaminants, due to the organic insulation and potting materials, over the 7-year life. This paper describes the motor electrical and mechanical design, as well as the sealing difficulties encountered, along with their solutions.

  15. Short-term performance deterioration in JT9D-7A(SP) engine 695743

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, R. J.; Beyerly, W. R.; Sallee, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The level of performance deterioration that occurred during early service was studied and also the contribution of each engine module to the overall level of engine performance deterioration. To assist in the distribution of the performance losses to the module level, testing with expanded experimental instrumentation was accomplished to permit direct measurement of module performance. An analytical teardown of the engine was accomplished to permit assignment of module performance losses to individual mechanical damage mechanisms including blade and seal wear, roughness, and thermal distortion of turbine parts. The results of the testing show that the engine deteriorated 1.5 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption from its performance when new. Initial testing, which included water washing, showed that 0.2 percent in performance deterioration was due to surface contamination (dirt) and 0.1 percent was due to drift of the engine vane control system, leaving 1.2 percent in basic TSFC deterioration. This 1.2 percent TSFC loss was distributed among the engine modules with 0.6 percent caused by clearance changes, 0.4 percent loss due to thermal distortion, and 0.2 percent loss due to increased roughness of the fan and low-pressure compressor airfoils.

  16. 76 FR 72130 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT9D Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    .... Discussion On March 1, 2007, we issued AD 2007-05-17, Amendment 39-14978 (72 FR 10350, March 8, 2007), for... result in an uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane. Actions Since Existing AD (72 FR... requirements of AD 2007- 05-17 (72 FR 10350, March 8, 2007). This proposed AD would supersede AD 2007-05-17...

  17. Program on ground test of modified quiet, clean, JT3D and JT8D turbofan engines in their respective nacelles. [modification of Boeing 707, 727, and 737 aircraft for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A program to reduce the community noise levels of commercial jet aircraft is summarized. The program objective is the development of three acoustically treated nacelle configurations for the 707, 727, and 737 series aircraft to provide maximum noise reduction with minimum performance loss, modification requirements, and economic impact. The preliminary design, model testing, data analyses, and economic studies of proposed nacelle configurations are discussed.

  18. 76 FR 8620 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...-14242 (70 FR 71610, November 29, 2005). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010 (75 FR 50945). That NPRM proposed to modify the TLS of the... Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  19. 76 FR 41144 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Corp. (PW) JT9D-7R4H1 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...@faa.gov . Issued in Burlington, Massachusetts, on July 7, 2011. Peter A. White, Acting Manager, Engine... the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed above, I certify this proposed...

  20. Low speed wind tunnel flow field results for JT8D refan engines on the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, W. G.; Roberts, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Low speed flow angularity results are presented showing flow direction at the nacelle locations on the Boeing 727-200. Flow angle probes (yawheads) were used for measurements at side and center inlet positions on the aft fuselage. A range of flap settings were tested with flap angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 40 deg selected for investigation.

  1. Evaluation of two inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan noise using a JT15D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.; Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The program was developed to accurately simulate flight fan noise on ground static test stands. The results generally indicated that both the induct and external ICD's were effective in reducing the inflow turbulence and the fan blade passing frequency tone generated by the turbulence. The external ICD was essentially transparent to the propagating fan tone but the induct ICD caused attenuation under most conditions.

  2. 75 FR 12968 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217C, and -219 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... (62 FR 4902). ADDRESSES: You can get the service information identified in this AD from Pratt... proposed AD in the Federal Register on December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67831). That action proposed to require...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have...

  3. 75 FR 50945 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78...-02, Amendment 39-14242 (70 FR 52004, September 1, 2005), to require revisions to the TLS of the... turbofan engines installed on airplanes of U.S. registry. We also estimate that it would take about 10...

  4. 76 FR 77107 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Corp. (PW) JT9D-7R4H1 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... effective date of this AD, remove the HPC shaft from service before exceeding 5,000 CSN. (h) Engines With an..., 2012. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Pratt & Whitney, 400 Main St... Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays....

  5. 76 FR 16526 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Series Turbofan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... perform the 3rd and 4th stage LPT blade inspection, and 1.5 work-hours per engine to replace the LPT-to.... Less than 5 LB-IN (0.565 N.m)........ One or more Remove engine from service within 20 hours TIS since... than 10 LB-IN (1.130 N.m) but Seven or more Remove engine from service greater than or equal to 5...

  6. 75 FR 38052 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Series Turbofan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... about 1 work-hour per engine to perform the proposed blade inspection, and 1.5 work-hours per engine to...) Four or more..... Remove engine from but greater than or equal to service within 20 5 LB-IN (0.565 N.m). hours TIS since last inspection. Less than 5 LB-IN (0.565 N.m). One or more...... Remove engine...

  7. Experimental validation of non-uniformity effect of the radial electric field on the edge transport barrier formation in JT-60U H-mode plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, K; Itoh, K; Itoh, S-I

    2016-01-01

    The turbulent structure formation, where strongly-inhomogeneous turbulence and global electromagnetic fields are self-organized, is a fundamental mechanism that governs the evolution of high-temperature plasmas in the universe and laboratory (e.g., the generation of edge transport barrier (ETB) of the H-mode in the toroidal plasmas). The roles of inhomogeneities of radial electric field (Er) are known inevitable. In this mechanism, whether the first derivative of Er (shear) or the second derivative of Er (curvature) works most is decisive in determining the class of nontrivial solutions (which describe the barrier structure). Here we report the experimental identification of the essential role of the Er-curvature on the ETB formation, for the first time, based on the high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We found the decisive importance of Er-curvature on ETB formation during ELM-free phase, but there is only a low correlation with the Er-shear value at the peak of normalized ion temperature gradient. Furthermore, in the ELMing phase, the effect of curvature is also quantified in terms of the relationship between pedestal width and thickness of the layer of inhomogeneous Er. This is the fundamental basis to understand the structure of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. PMID:27480931

  8. Experimental validation of non-uniformity effect of the radial electric field on the edge transport barrier formation in JT-60U H-mode plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    The turbulent structure formation, where strongly-inhomogeneous turbulence and global electromagnetic fields are self-organized, is a fundamental mechanism that governs the evolution of high-temperature plasmas in the universe and laboratory (e.g., the generation of edge transport barrier (ETB) of the H-mode in the toroidal plasmas). The roles of inhomogeneities of radial electric field (Er) are known inevitable. In this mechanism, whether the first derivative of Er (shear) or the second derivative of Er (curvature) works most is decisive in determining the class of nontrivial solutions (which describe the barrier structure). Here we report the experimental identification of the essential role of the Er-curvature on the ETB formation, for the first time, based on the high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We found the decisive importance of Er-curvature on ETB formation during ELM-free phase, but there is only a low correlation with the Er-shear value at the peak of normalized ion temperature gradient. Furthermore, in the ELMing phase, the effect of curvature is also quantified in terms of the relationship between pedestal width and thickness of the layer of inhomogeneous Er. This is the fundamental basis to understand the structure of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. PMID:27480931

  9. 75 FR 62319 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9, -9A, -11, -15, -17, and -17R Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Federal Register on May 19, 2010 (75 FR 27972). That action proposed to require overhauling fan blade... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will... actions involve components that mate to engine flanges. We partially agree. We revised the definition...

  10. Destabilization of ellipticity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes during ICRF heating and stabilization by negative-ion-based neutral beam injection in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusama, Y.; Fu, G. Y.; Kramer, G. J.; Saigusa, M.; Oikawa, T.; Ozeki, T.; Moriyama, S.; Tchernychev, F. V.; Nemoto, M.; Kondoh, T.; Hatae, T.; Tobita, K.; Kuriyama, M.; Cheng, C. Z.; Kimura, H.

    1999-09-01

    High-frequency modes in the 525-550 kHz range with toroidal mode numbers n = 3-7 were excited after the sawtooth crash during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating. Based on the stability analysis using the NOVA-K code, these modes were found to be consistent with ellipticity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (EAEs) excited in the EAE gap located at the q = 1 surface. A change in the safety factor after the sawtooth crash was essential for the excitation of EAEs in the core region of the plasma. The high-frequency modes were stabilized by the neutral beam injection at 350 keV using negative-ion-based neutral beam (NNB) injectors. Stability analysis using the NOVA-K code has shown that NNB-injected ions enhance the damping of the EAEs and tend to stabilize them.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia. PMID:25132006

  12. 76 FR 5066 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...-14398 (70 FR 73361, December 12, 2005). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010 (75 FR 50942). That NPRM proposed to modify the TLS of the... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...

  13. 75 FR 50942 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http... AD 2005-25-05, Amendment 39- 14398 (70 FR 73361, December 12, 2005), to require revisions to the TLS.... registry. We also estimate that it would take about 10 work-hours per engine to perform the...

  14. Experimental validation of non-uniformity effect of the radial electric field on the edge transport barrier formation in JT-60U H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-08-01

    The turbulent structure formation, where strongly-inhomogeneous turbulence and global electromagnetic fields are self-organized, is a fundamental mechanism that governs the evolution of high-temperature plasmas in the universe and laboratory (e.g., the generation of edge transport barrier (ETB) of the H-mode in the toroidal plasmas). The roles of inhomogeneities of radial electric field (Er) are known inevitable. In this mechanism, whether the first derivative of Er (shear) or the second derivative of Er (curvature) works most is decisive in determining the class of nontrivial solutions (which describe the barrier structure). Here we report the experimental identification of the essential role of the Er-curvature on the ETB formation, for the first time, based on the high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We found the decisive importance of Er-curvature on ETB formation during ELM-free phase, but there is only a low correlation with the Er-shear value at the peak of normalized ion temperature gradient. Furthermore, in the ELMing phase, the effect of curvature is also quantified in terms of the relationship between pedestal width and thickness of the layer of inhomogeneous Er. This is the fundamental basis to understand the structure of transport barriers in fusion plasmas.

  15. 75 FR 27972 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9, -9A, -11, -15, -17, and -17R Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... W12-140, Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail address above between 9 a.m. and 5..., 400 Main St., East Hartford, CT 06108; telephone (860) 565-7700; fax (860) 565-1605, for a copy of the... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the...

  16. Incessant Palpitations and Narrow Complex Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Han, Frederick T

    2016-03-01

    Junctional tachycardia (JT) is rare cause of supraventricular tachycardia. The intracardiac activation sequence is similar to atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Premature atrial contractions inserted during tachycardia can help distinguish JT from AVNRT. As noted in this case, slow pathway ablation for JT may not always be effective for termination of JT. Activation mapping during JT identified a low-amplitude potential in the region of the coronary sinus ostium and the inferior margin of the triangle of Koch that marked the successful ablation site for JT. PMID:26920171

  17. Study of turbofan engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    The near-term technology improvements which can reduce the fuel consumed in the JT9D, JT8D, and JT3D turbofans in commercial fleet operation through the 1980's are identified. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for new turbofans to be developed after 1985. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  18. Le sacrum de Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q ( Australopithecus africanus): nouvelles données sur la croissance et sur l'âge osseux du spécimen (hommage à R. Broom et J.T. Robinson) . The sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q (Australopithecus africanus): new data on the growth and on the osseus age of the specimen (homage to R. Broom and J.T. Robinson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Christine; Gommery, Dominique

    1999-08-01

    The fossil sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14Q ( Australopithecus africanus) was compared with 96 human sacrums of known age so as to reveal its growth stage. Robinson (1972) noticed the presence of an immature trait (unfused intervertebral disc between S1 and S2) in this individual which in other respects is supposed to be a fully matured adult. Our study brings us to define a "sub-adult" category corresponding to a class between the ages of 16 to 25 years in modern humans. Sts 14Q had the same state of maturation, which corresponds to a post-pubertal individual which had not finished its growth concerning the sacral breadth, and probably the pelvic breadth.

  19. EEsoF MICAD and ACADEMY macro files for coplanar waveguide and finite ground plan coplanar waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of macro files is presented which when appended to either the EEsoF MICAD.ELE or EEsoF ACADEMY.ELE file permits the layout of coplanar waveguide and finite ground plane coplanar waveguide circuits.

  20. Analysis of a tobacco vector and its actions in china: the activities of japan tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Japan Tobacco (JT) is the third largest tobacco company in the world, and China, the world's largest tobacco consumer, is one of the most important targets for JT. To provide information for tobacco control, we reviewed and analyzed JT and its tactics and strategies in the Chinese market mainly by systematic examination of documents which are made available in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. As a result, JT has had a special interest to expand sales of its cigarettes in the Chinese market. PMID:20979655

  1. Managing Innovation in English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in English language education (ELE) has become a major "growth area" in recent years. At the same time, an ELE innovation management literature has also developed, based on insights from innovation theory and their application, both from outside and within ELE, and concerned with attempting to critically evaluate and inform ELE…

  2. Percolation features of cooperative Jahn-Teller systems: Ising EFT framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujaes, Elie A.; Abou Ghantous, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Elastic exchange between two nearest Jahn-Teller (JT) centers in two or three dimensional dense crystals, can give an ordered macroscopic distortion known as cooperative JT effect (CJTE). A very diluted JT crystal does not show this effect. In the dynamic JT effect (DJTE), tunneling between different equivalent distorted wells has a pronounced influence on the CJTE. We investigate this phenomenon using a progressive increase in the concentration of these centers in the JT crystals, based on a bond percolation vector spin analogy technique within the framework of effective field theory (EFT). Mean field theory (MFT) was extensively used in previous studies of CJTE; however it neither includes correlation between JT centers in the lattice due to the complexity of the distortion field in the crystal nor the effect of tunneling between wells. We resort to an alternative procedure, by describing a JT center as a pseudo-spin vector , induced to represent the degenerate JT-distorted states, where two nearest JT centers interact via an elastic exchange described by an Ising type spin interaction. The DJTE is considered to be similar to an elastic transverse field term in the Hamiltonian portraying the effect of tunneling between equivalent wells in the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES). We will be particularly discussing S = 1, S = 3/2 and S = 5/2 spin cases, where 2 S + 1 wells in the APES are present and what JT systems they actually represent, with a percolative mechanism applied to the interactions between different JT centers. The different lattices are distinguished by their coordination numbers. Strong tunneling effects can suppress the CJTE and lead to a new state of criticality. Generalizations to higher spin systems will be obtained using a scaling technique. For the relevant distortions, we determine single site correlations, the macroscopic average distortion describing a structural phase transition and the elastic isothermal susceptibility as a

  3. 14 CFR 36.1 - Applicability and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certification procedure. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 36.1, see the List of CFR..., except for airplanes that are powered by Pratt & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; (ii) December 31... & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; and (iii) December 31, 1974, for airplanes with maximum weights...

  4. 14 CFR 36.1 - Applicability and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 36.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...,000 pounds, except for airplanes that are powered by Pratt & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines... powered by Pratt & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; and (iii) December 31, 1974, for airplanes...

  5. 14 CFR 36.1 - Applicability and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certification procedure. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 36.1, see the List of CFR..., except for airplanes that are powered by Pratt & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; (ii) December 31... & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; and (iii) December 31, 1974, for airplanes with maximum weights...

  6. 14 CFR 36.1 - Applicability and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certification procedure. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 36.1, see the List of CFR..., except for airplanes that are powered by Pratt & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; (ii) December 31... & Whitney Turbo Wasp JT3D series engines; and (iii) December 31, 1974, for airplanes with maximum weights...

  7. 40 CFR 87.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which is installed in or which is manufactured for installation in an aircraft. Aircraft gas turbine... T3, T8, and TSS. Class T3 means all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT3D model family. Class T8 means all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT8D model family. Class TSS means all aircraft...

  8. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  9. The Effects of Job Title vs. Job Description on Occupational Sex Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessell, John C.; Beymer, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Studies differences in sex-typing of occupations based on job title (JT) versus job description (JD), school classification, and gender, using 1,601 female and 1,344 male seventh graders and eighth graders viewing 2 videotapes of 18 occupations' JDs or JTs. JT elicited more sex typing than JD. Males had more sex-typed occupational attitudes. (RLC)

  10. Analysis of two-stage Joule-Thomson expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    To cool far infrared detectors for infrared observation or superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers for atmospheric observation, 1 K-class and 4 K-class coolers have been developed. These coolers consist of a two-stage Stirling cooler for pre-cooling and a Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler with a single JT valve. This paper presents descriptions of theoretical analyses based on enthalpy balance to elucidate the benefits of a two-stage JT valve type compared with those of a single JT valve type in a JT cooler. First, relational expressions for heat balance analysis of enthalpy for single-stage JT expansion are introduced. Then similar relational expressions for two-stage JT expansion are introduced under some assumptions. Results of heat balance analyses using several parameters demonstrated that, using two-stage JT expansion, the cooling capacity for a 1 K-class cooler is improved by 100%; that of a 4 K-class cooler is improved by about 30%.

  11. Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor.

    PubMed

    Rehfuss, Marc; Urban, James

    2005-07-01

    A Gram (-) coccobacillary bacterium, J(T), was isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. 16S rRNA and biochemical analysis has revealed strain J(T) closely resembles Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750T and A. faecalis subsp. parafaecalis DSM 13975T, but is a distinct, previously uncharacterized isolate. Strain J(T), along with the type strain of A. faecalis and its previously described subspecies share the ability to aerobically degrade phenol. The degradation rates of phenol for strain J(T) and reference phenol degrading bacteria were determined by photometrically measuring the change in optical density when grown on 0.1% phenol as the sole carbon source, followed by addition of Gibb's reagent to measure depletion of substrate. The phenol degradation rates of strain J(T) was found to exceed that of the phenol hydroxylase group III bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, with isolate J(T) exhibiting a doubling time of 4.5 h. The presence of the large subunit of the multicomponent phenol hydroxylase gene in strain J(T) was confirmed by PCR. The presence of the nirK nitrite reductase gene as demonstrated by PCR as well as results obtained from nitrite media indicated denitrification at least to N2O. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic, fatty acid analysis and results from DNA DNA hybridization, we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Alcaligenes faecalis, to be named Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus with the type strain J(T) (= DSM 16503) (= NRRL B-41076). PMID:16094869

  12. Photoluminescence properties of Jahn-Teller transition-metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of electron-phonon coupling associated with E ⊗e and T ⊗e Jahn-Teller (JT) effect in different transition-metal (TM) ions on de-excitation phenomena through nonradiative multiphonon relaxation, i.e., photoluminescence (PL) quenching. We developed a configurational curve model which is able to predict from the absorption spectrum whether a given JT-TM ion is PL or quenched. The prediction is made on the basis of an adapted Dexter-Klick-Russell parameter for JT systems, defined in terms of spectroscopic parameters through ΛJT=αΔeabs/Eabs, where Δeabs refers to the splitting of the parent octahedral Eg states by the JT distortion in E ⊗e (α =3/4) or T ⊗e (α =1/4), and Eabs is the energy of the first absorption band involving electronic transition between Eg and T2g. We show that PL in any JT-TM ion occurs whenever ΛJT<0.1 or is quenched if ΛJT>0.2. This result is noteworthy since it allows us to establish structural requirements for the JT-TM ion and the host crystal to be PL. Although PL properties of materials containing TM ions depend on a variety of structural factors such as the electronic configuration, the site symmetry, and the crystal field produced by neighboring atoms, the present model achieves this goal through a simple spectroscopic parameter: ΛJT. In this work we correlated the PL properties of different sixfold-coordinated JT systems such as Ti3+, Cu2+, Mn3+, Cr2+, Fe2+, Co3+, and Ni3+ in halides and oxides with ΛJT obtained from their respective absorption spectra. From this analysis we conclude that depending on the nature of the JT coupling and its strength, PL is either strongly favored or quenched in T ⊗e while it is mostly quenched in E ⊗e systems due to the larger JT distortion.

  13. Comfort for the dying: five year retrospective and one year prospective studies of end of life experiences.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Peter; Lovelace, Hilary; Brayne, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Many cultures have reported end-of-life experiences (ELEs) as part of the dying process. However, few studies have examined the mental states of the dying in the weeks and days before death. Following an ELE pilot study with a palliative care team, 38 nurses, doctors and end-of-life carers from two hospices and a nursing home took part in a 5-year retrospective followed by a 1-year prospective ELE study. Interviewees' reports (first-hand and second-hand accounts from relatives, patients and residents) suggested that ELEs are not uncommon. ELEs included deathbed phenomena (DBP) such as visions, coincidences and the desire to reconcile with estranged family members. These experiences seemed to comfort both the dying and the bereaved. Interviewees described other phenomena such as clocks stopping synchronistically at the time of death, shapes leaving the body, light surrounding the body and strange animal behavior. Interviewees confirmed that ELEs differed from drug-induced hallucinations and occurred in clear consciousness. Most expressed concern about a lack of specialist ELE training and education and recommended that ELE modules be included in their training courses. ELEs provided comfort and hope for the dying and consolation for the bereaved. Further research is required to find the true prevalence and range of ELE phenomena. PMID:19913927

  14. Characterization of multielectron dynamics in molecules: A multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock picture

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, Shu; Kono, Hirohiko; Oyamada, Takayuki; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Nakai, Katsunori; Koseki, Shiro

    2014-09-21

    Using the framework of multiconfiguration theory, where the wavefunction Φ(t) of a many-electron system at time t is expanded as Φ(t)=∑{sub I}C{sub I}(t)Φ{sub I}(t) in terms of electron configurations (Φ{sub I}(t)), we divided the total electronic energy E(t) as E(t)=∑{sub I}|C{sub I}(t)|{sup 2}E{sub I}(t) . Here E{sub I}(t) is the instantaneous phase changes of C{sub I}(t) regarded as a configurational energy associated with Φ{sub I}(t). We then newly defined two types of time-dependent states: (i) a state at which the rates of population transfer among configurations are all zero; (ii) a state at which (E{sub I}(t)) associated with the quantum phases of C{sub I}(t) are all the same. We call the former time-dependent state a classical stationary state by analogy with the stationary (steady) states of classical reaction rate equations and the latter one a quantum stationary state. The conditions (i) and (ii) are satisfied simultaneously for the conventional stationary state in quantum mechanics. We numerically found for a LiH molecule interacting with a near-infrared (IR) field ε(t) that the condition (i) is satisfied whenever the average velocity of electrons is zero and the condition (ii) is satisfied whenever the average acceleration is zero. We also derived the chemical potentials μ{sub j}(t) for time-dependent natural orbitals ϕ{sub j}(t) of a many-electron system. The analysis of the electron dynamics of LiH indicated that the temporal change in Δμ{sub j}(t) ≡ μ{sub j}(t) + ε(t) · d{sub j}(t) − μ{sub j}(0) correlates with the motion of the dipole moment of ϕ{sub j}(t), d{sub j}(t). The values Δμ{sub j}(t) are much larger than the energy ζ{sub j}(t) directly supplied to ϕ{sub j}(t) by the field, suggesting that valence electrons exchange energy with inner shell electrons. For H{sub 2} in an intense near-IR field, the ionization efficiency of ϕ{sub j}(t) is correlated with Δμ{sub j}(t). Comparing Δμ{sub j}(t) to ζ{sub j}(t), we

  15. Clogging of Joule-Thomson Devices in Liquid Hydrogen-Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operating Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurns, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes J-T devices to maintain tank fluid pressure and temperature. Previous experimental investigations have indicated that J-T devices may become clogged when flowing LH2 while operating at a temperature range from 20.5 K to 24.4 K. It has been proposed that clogging is due to a trace amount of metastable, supercooled liquid neon in the regular LH2 supply. In time, flow blockage occurs from accretion of solid neon on the orifice. This clogging poses a realistic threat to spacecraft propulsion systems utilizing J-T devices in cryogenic pressure control systems. TVS failure due to J-T clogging would prevent removal of environmental heat from the propellant and potential loss of mission. This report describes J-T clogging tests performed with LH2. Tests were performed in the expected Lunar Lander operating regime, and several methods were evaluated to determine the optimum approach to mitigating the potential risk of J-T clogging.

  16. Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson sorption cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Joule-Thomson (JT) sorption cryocooling is the most mature technology for cooling from a normal Room-Temperature (RT) down to temperatures below 100 K in the absence of moving parts. Therefore, high reliability and no vibrations are attainable, in comparison with other cryocoolers. Cooling to 80 - 100 K with JT cryocoolers is often implemented with pure nitrogen. Alternatively, mixed refrigerants have been suggested for reducing the operating pressures to enable closed cycle cryocooling. There is a variety of publications describing nitrogen sorption cryocoolers with different configurations of sorption compressors. In the present research we suggest a novel sorption JT cryocooler that operates with a mixed refrigerant. Merging of sorption cryocooling and a mixed refrigerant enables the use of a simple, single stage compressor for cooling to 80 - 100 K, lower operating temperatures of the sorption cycle, and thus - reduced power consumption. In previous studies we have analyzed sorption compressors for mixed gases and mixed refrigerants for JT cryocoolers, separately. In this paper the option of mixed refrigerant sorption JT cryocoolers is explored. The considerations for developing mixed refrigerants to be driven by sorption compressors and to be utilized with JT cryocoolers are provided. It appears that, unlike with pure nitrogen, mixed refrigerants can be suitable for JT cryocooling with a single stage sorption compressor.

  17. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... (``ELE''); Orbit Industries, Inc., of Los Angeles, California (``Orbit''); American Electric Depot...

  18. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  19. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    PubMed

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. PMID:23520354

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, van Hillegersberg R, Dekker E, Oliveira C, Cats A, Hoogerbrugge N; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary ... JH, van Hillegersberg R, Ligtenberg M, Bleiker E, Cats A; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer. ...

  1. Discretionary Review by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission: Is It Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Deficiencies in the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSAHRC), a court system created to carry out adjudicatory functions under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, are exposed and alternative solutions offered. (JT)

  2. Gingivostomatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. It may occur after infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which also causes cold ... Livingstone; 2015:chap 174. Schiffer JT, Corey L. Herpes simplex virus. In: Bennett JE, ed. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's ...

  3. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Gasco J, Mohanty A, Hanbali F, Patterson JT. Neurosurgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  4. Adult Education and Development: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Amrik

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the historical influences on theory and practice of economic development in India and of the relationship between adult education efforts and the social changes which bring about development. (JT)

  5. Junction temperature measurement of light emitting diode by electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S. M.; Luo, X. D.; Zhang, B.; Fu, L.; Cheng, L. W.; Wang, J. B.; Lu, W.

    2011-12-01

    Junction temperature (JT) is a key parameter of the performance and lifetime of light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a mobile instrument system has been developed for the non-contact measurement of JTs of LED under LabVIEW control. The electroluminescence (EL) peak shift of the LED is explored to measure the JT. Commercially available high power blue LEDs are measured. A linear relation between emission peak shift and JT is found. The accuracy of the JT is about 1 °C determined by the precision of the emission peak shift, ±0.03 nm, at 3σ standard deviation for blue LED. Using this system, on-line temperature rise curves of LED lamps are determined.

  6. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis References Joseph RL, Alleva JT, Hudgins TH. Piriformis syndrome. In: Frontera: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MONITORING: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE USE OF NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION: BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK CHAPTER NRMRL-ADA-01128 West, CC, and Wilson*, J.T. "Environmental Impacts and Monitoring: A Historical Perspective on the Use of Natural Attenuation for Subsurface Remediation." In: Environmental Chemistry: Fate, ...

  8. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Hey Mister! It's Upside Down!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Robert K.

    1977-01-01

    A graphing activity which allows students to work independently of the teacher and the textbook is described. The activity involves providing data in order to develop the skills necessary for interpreting the collected information. (JT)

  10. The State Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.; Jonsen, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews higher education consumer protection activities currently undertaken by the states, with suggestions about others that should be implemented and the role that state coordinating agencies can play in them. (Editor/JT)

  11. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, Duvivier EH, Pollack CV. Seizure disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Shih RD. Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  12. Teasing Hamsters in Electric Cages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Colin Flood

    1975-01-01

    Reviews several studies that examine the climate of feeling surrounding training courses for college teachers and the general social atmosphere of the job into which the trainee is being initiated. (JT)

  13. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 64. Maypole J, Woolf AD. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 101. McMullan JT, Duvivier EH, ...

  14. Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Plamthodathil

    1975-01-01

    A paper presented at the Consultation on College Humanities and Social Sciences Improvement Program in Bangalore, India, April 1975, outlines concepts, approach, techniques and resources for a student-centered experiential approach to college teaching. (JT)

  15. Acid Reflux (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sphincter. The most common surgical treatment is the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. This procedure involves wrapping the upper ... Ovaska JT. Comparison of long-term outcome of laparoscopic and conventional nissen fundoplication: a prospective randomized study ...

  16. A Case Study for Executive Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Phyllis J.

    1975-01-01

    A newly appointed woman dean discusses the value of a management development program involving a process of self-analysis and self-determination of leadership style and effectiveness (the University of Illinois "Executive Leadership Seminar"). (JT)

  17. Course in Art and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryman, John Henry

    1974-01-01

    Justifies and describes a course offered at Stanford Law School in 1972 listing course objectives and outlining content which included focus on art looting, government and the arts, artist's rights in the work of art, consumer protection, and taxation. (JT)

  18. Genital herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 80. Palmore TN, Henderson DK. ... Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 308. Schiffer JT and Corey L. ...

  19. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. ...

  20. The Use and Misuse of Mathematical Symbolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Donovan R.

    1978-01-01

    Many of the difficulties that students have with mathematical symbolism seem to stem from the use of a horizontal form for an equation and a vertical form for computation. The differences between these two forms are discussed. (JT)

  1. Study of the Educational Benefits of Proficiency Testing for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports a study that examined transcripts of 349 graduates to determine the effect of granting college course credit by examination on such variables as time required for graduation, level of course work, grade point average, and student costs. (JT)

  2. Organizing for Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren

    1975-01-01

    A college president challenges personnel administrators to play a leadership role in human resource management. Notes the need for career development programs for middle managers particularly and recommends an organizational development approach to faculty and staff career development. (JT)

  3. Handbook for Faculty: A Digest of Faculty and Administrative Actions. DePauw University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumaker, Arthur W.; Farber, Robert H.

    DePauw University organization, policies, and faculty benefits are presented in the 1971 faculty handbook. Included are descriptions of administrator responsibilities, including department heads, faculty leave and tenure regulations, and academic standards. (JT)

  4. Towards a Portable Marxist Criticism: A Critique and Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeil, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the recent work of Terry Eagleton and Raymond Williams, two proponents of Marxist literary theory. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of each writer, outlining an approach to Marxist literary criticism that blends the two theories. (JT)

  5. Teaching: By Personal Appearance or by Print?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ray H.

    1975-01-01

    Compares the professional effort and rewards of classroom teaching as opposed to teaching through writing, e.g. the writing of textbooks, etc. Notes that teaching by writing is generally considered higher on the totem pole of values. (JT)

  6. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have children in the future. They include vasectomy and tubal ligation. These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a ... 26. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, ...

  7. Study on a Miniature Mixed-gases Joule-Thomson Cooler Driven by an Oil-lubricated Mini-compressor for 120 K Temperature Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Yan, B.; Zou, X.; Zhuang, X. R.; Hu, Q. G.

    In this paper, a miniature J-T cooler using multicomponent mixtures was developed and tested, in which an oil-lubricated mini-compressor was used. Experimental tests on the performance of the miniature J-T cooler were carried out with two kinds of recuperative heat exchangers. One is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and the other is a plate-fin type recuperative heat exchanger with whereas a micro-channel configuration fabricated by the wire-electrode cutting method. The former one gave a no-load minimum temperature of 140 K, while the later one showsbetter performance. No-load minimum temperature of 110 K and about 4 W cooling capacity at 118 K were achieved with the plate-fin micro J-T cooler. Such miniature J-T coolers driven by oil-lubricated mini-compressors show good prospects in many applications.

  8. OECD Nations Launch Youth Job Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lloyd

    1978-01-01

    Review of programs initiated by various western countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)--government-initiated public and private programs to cope with the youth unemployment problem. (JT)

  9. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...

  10. Jobs with Service Programs: Home Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    A review of the kinds of jobs available in services developed to help the homebound elderly: Home health care, homemaker-home health aide, chore service, home repair and maintenance, home-delivered meals, telephone reassurance, and friendly visiting. (JT)

  11. The Accounting Curriculum in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, George Axel

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the need for combination of theory and practice in the college accounting curriculum, the author presents a conceptual framework for the body of knowledge which teaches the student principles and puts them into practice through illustrations. (JT)

  12. Radionuclide cystogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 533. Fulgham PF, Bishoff JT. Urinary tract imaging: Basic principles. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh ...

  13. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  14. Cool's Clams Casino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobey, Paul; Williams, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical game that reinforces basic multiplication facts, strengthens concepts of factors and multiples, and also provides arithmetic drill is described. Four variations of the game are also provided. (JT)

  15. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  16. Exploration of Home Economics Related Occupations in Clothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Virginia F.; Plumb, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    A five-unit lesson plan is presented titled "Introduction to Careers in the Fashion Industry" which involved three sections of a ninth grade home economics class in an assembly line sewing experience in a clothing production factory. (JT)

  17. Joule-Thomson Expander Without Check Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.; Gatewood, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooling effected by bidirectional, reciprocating flow of gas. Type of Joule-Thomson (J-T) expander for cryogenic cooling requires no check valves to prevent reverse flow of coolant. More reliable than conventional J-T expander, containing network of check valves, each potential source of failure. Gas flows alternately from left to right and right to left. Heat load cooled by evaporation of liquid from left or right compartment, whichever at lower pressure.

  18. Advanced laser shearography inspection of turbo-fan engine composite fan cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lape, Dale; Newman, John W.; Craig, David

    1995-07-01

    Shearography inspection techniques have been developed and implemented for the inspection of aluminum honeycomb turbofan aircraft engine fan cases for the JT15D-5D. Shearography has yielded improved sensitivity to unbonds and throughput over ultrasonic techniques formerly used in the production inspection. This paper discusses vacuum stress shearography, test method verification on the JT15D-5D fan case and shearography data correlation with destructive evaluation of test parts.

  19. A cryogenic heat exchanger with bypass and throttling and its thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Liu, D. L.; Wang, L. Y.; Shen, J.; Gan, Z. H.

    2015-12-01

    A precooled Joule-Thomson (J-T) cooler refrigerates at liquid helium temperature. Its third stage heat exchanger works below 20 K. Hot fluid cannot be sufficiently cooled due to nonidealism of the heat exchanger and helium-4 properties. In a J-T cycle of low pressure ratio, the heat exchanger with bypass and throttling improves the refrigeration capacity. Bypass and throttling reduces the temperature difference and entropy generation within the heat exchanger.

  20. Local Structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, N.; Jiang, Y.; Anderson, I. E.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Bridges, F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Proffen, Th.; Zheng, H.

    2009-01-26

    The combined local structure techniques, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function analysis, have been used for temperatures 4<= T<= 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the Co-O bond in La1?xSrxCoO3 for a significant fraction of Co sites (x<= 0.35), indicating few, if any, JT-active, singly occupied eg Co sites exist.

  1. Properties of Gas Mixtures and Their Use in Mixed-Refrigerant Joule-Thomson Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, E.; Gong, M.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2004-06-01

    The Joule-Thomson (J-T) effect has been widely used for achieving low temperatures. In the past few years, much progress has been made in better understanding the working mechanism of the refrigeration method and in developing prototypes for different applications. In this talk, there are three aspects of our research work to be discussed. First, some special thermal properties of the mixtures for achieving liquid nitrogen temperature range will be presented. Secondly, some important conclusions from the optimization of various mixed-refrigerant J-T cycles such as a simple J-T cycle and an auto-cascade mixed-refrigerant J-T cycle will be presented. Moreover, an auto-cascade, mixed-refrigerant J-T refrigerator with a special mixture capable of achieving about 50K will be mentioned. Finally, various prototypes based on the mixed-refrigerant refrigeration technology will be described. These applications include miniature J-T cryocoolers for cooling infrared detectors and high-temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgical knife for medical treatment, low-temperature refrigerators for biological storage and so forth. The on-going research work and unanswered questions for this technology will be also discussed.

  2. Vibronic Analysis of the widetilde{A}^2 E^'' State of NO_3 Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codd, Terrance J.; Roudjane, Mourad; Chen, Ming-Wei; Miller, Terry A.

    2013-06-01

    The nitrate radical is a key reactant in atmospheric chemistry leading to the formation of acid rain and is the primary oxidant in the night sky. The widetilde{A}^2 E^'' state of NO_3 is doubly degenerate and is therefore subject to Jahn-Teller (JT) coupling through the degenerate in-plane stretch and bend modes (ν_3 and ν_4 respectively). We have taken a moderate resolution CRDS spectrum of the widetilde{A}^2 E^''-widetilde{X}^2 A_2' transition of the NO_3 radical under jet-cooled conditions. We resolve ˜20 vibronic transitions and are able to assign many using an independent anharmonic oscillator model as was presented previously. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the nature of the JT effect in this electronic state we have performed a vibronic analysis including linear and quadratic JT coupling terms for ν_3 and ν_4 and possible bilinear coupling between the totally symmetric stretch, ν_1, and ν_4. We conclude that the JT coupling in ν_4 is quite weak. Satisfactory spectral fits can be obtained assuming weak JT coupling for ν_3 also, though there is some evidence of strong JT coupling for ν_3 and the strengths and weaknesses of each case are discussed. Codd, T. et al. 67^{th} Int. Symp. Molec. Spec. (2012)}

  3. Gate control of ferromagnetic insulating phase in lightly-doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, H.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Liu, Y.; Wu, R. R.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    The electric field effect on the lightly doped La0.875Sr0.125MnO3-δ (LSMO) thin film in electric double-layer transistors was investigated by measuring transport properties of the film under various gate voltages. It was found that the positive gate bias leads to an increase of the charge-orbital ordering (COO) transition temperature and a decrease of the Curie temperature TC, indicating the suppression of ferromagnetic metal (FMM) phases and preference of COO/ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) with the hole depletion by gate bias. Such different electric field effects can be ascribed to the weakening of the ferromagnetic interaction and enhancement of Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion caused by the transformation of JT inactive Mn4+-ions to JT active Mn3+-ions. Moreover, a step-like increase in the high temperature region of the ρ-T curve, which is related to the transition of cooperative JT distortion, was found to develop with increasing the positive bias, indicating that the cooperative JT distorted phase is stabilized by the depletion of holes in LSMO film. These results demonstrate that the modulation of holes via electric field strongly affects the balance between energy gains of different interactions and thus produce different effects on the competing FMI, FMM, and cooperative JT distorted phases in LSMO film.

  4. Search for WIMPs with NaI(Tl) detectors at Oto Cosmo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Fushimi, K.; Hayashi, K.; Kishimoto, T.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Kuramoto, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Takahisa, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Umehara, S.

    2003-06-01

    The cold dark matter search has been carried out at Oto Cosmo Observatory with the large volume NaI(Tl) scintillators of ELEGANT V(ELE-V). The new limits on WIMPs could be obtained by the analysis of the annual modulation. Recently, the performance of NaI(Tl) detector in ELE-V was successfully improved. these are also discussed.

  5. ICT Support for Collaborative Learning--A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consiglio, Teresa; van der Veer, Gerrit C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on experiences in teaching service design in a blended learning context, we developed an electronic learning environment (ELE) including features that turned out to be suitable for learners from different cultures. We used this ELE in Italy and in China. Students were guided through collaborative learning and mutual teaching. Students were…

  6. Elemene injection induced autophagy protects human hepatoma cancer cells from starvation and undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Keming; Hu, Chunping; Lin, Lin; Qin, Shukui; Cai, Xueting

    2014-01-01

    Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25152762

  7. SU-E-T-187: Feasibility Study of Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Multiple Divided Partial Arcs in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y; Ozawa, S; Tsegmed, U; Nakashima, T; Shintaro, T; Ochi, Y; Kawahara, D; Kimura, T; Nagata, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using flattening filter free (FFF) mode with jaw tracking (JT) feature for single breath hold as long as 15 s per arc in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) against intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) FFF-JT. Methods: Ten hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were planned with 10 MV FFF using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system which delivered by TrueBeam to administer 48 Gy/ 4 fractions. Eight non-coplanar beams were assigned to IMRT using step-and-shoot technique. For VMAT, two or three non-coplanar partial arcs (up to 180 degrees) were further divided into subarcs with gantry rotation less than 80 degrees to limit delivery time within 15 s. Dose distributions were verified using OCTAVIUS II system and pass rates were evaluated using gamma analysis with criteria of 3%/3 mm at threshold of 5% to the maximum dose. The actual irradiation time was measured. Results: The VMAT-FFF-JT of partial-arcs with sub-divided arcs was able to produce a highly conformal plan as well as IMRT-FFF-JT. Isodose lines and DVH showed slight improvement in dosimetry when JT was employed for both IMRT and VMAT. Consequently, VMAT-FFF-JT was superior in reducing the dose to liver minus gross tumor volume. VMAT-FFF-JT has shorter total treatment time compared with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) FFF because the gantry was rotated simultaneously with the beam delivery in VMAT. Moreover, due to the small and regular shape of HCC, VMAT-FFF-JT offered less multileaf collimator motion, thus the interplay effect is expected to be reduced. The patient specific QA of IMRT and VMAT acquired the pass rates higher than 90%. Conclusion: VMAT-FFF-JT could be a promising technique for liver SBRT as the sub-divided arcs method was able to accommodate a single breath hold irradiation time of less than 15 s without deterioration of the dose distribution compared with IMRT-FFF-JT.

  8. An Application of Space-Based Gas Mixtures for Joule-Thompson Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. T.; Yevdokimova, O. V.; Lobko, M. P.; Yakuba, V. V.

    An extension of deepspace research, specifically, the work done on Alpha program, will inevitably require new and different cryostating systems. The primary differences will be in the areas of cooling power and temperature. One variant which can be used with J-T cryocoolers is the application of diverse gas mixtures which can work over a large temperature range. We have found that the J-T cycle is an efficient application of mixed gas working fluids, being very similar to a vapor-compression cycle utilized in household refrigerants. The simplicity and viability of a J-T design and the associated minimal heat losses compensate for theoretical efficiency ratio of Stirling-type machines. Simultaneously, the J-T machines are never restricted in terms of output power and contain no moving parts in the cold zone resulting in minimal vibration during operation. The effective cooling of these systems allows parallel cooling of multiple objects. Finally in long-life system designs these cryocooler systems are feasibly coupled with phase-transition thermal storage accumulators. The application of such J-T systems is especially efficient under space conditions, due to the fact that there is an option to use at low temperatures a radiation release unit for the outlet of compression heat and for preliminary cooling of the system. This is not possible for terrestrial applications. Particularly, obtaining the -10 to 100 (C temperature range is feasible through the use of low As/(( - coefficient coatings; shade screens; or radiator unit orientations. Computational and experimental research has provided us high efficiency gas-mixture J-T cryocooler results between 60 to 100K cooling temperatures. We have actual space systems which were tested and operated for 80-90 K with efficiencies of 20 to 25 W/W. The authors of this research have studied various gas mixtures as candidates for use with simple J-T single contour J-T systems. We have seen resultant reduction of energy consumption

  9. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khursheed; Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE), and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM) were mixed (1:4 v/v), and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9–4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5%) biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad spectrum

  10. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE), and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM) were mixed (1:4 v/v), and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5%) biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad spectrum

  11. Eucalyptus leaf extract suppresses the postprandial elevation of portal, cardiac and peripheral fructose concentrations after sucrose ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Hosotani, Tetsuro; Kawasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Hayashi, Shuichi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2010-05-01

    Overintake of sucrose or fructose induces adiposity. Fructose undergoes a strong Maillard reaction, which worsens diabetic complications. To determine whether Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract (ELE) suppresses the postprandial elevation of serum fructose concentrations (SFCs) in the portal, cardiac, and peripheral blood after sucrose ingestion, we performed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and measured SFC without any interference by contaminating glucose in the samples. Fasting Wistar rats were orally administered water (control group) or ELE (ELE group) before sucrose ingestion. Blood was collected from the portal vein, heart, and tail. The increase in the SFCs in the portal and cardiac samples 30 min after sucrose ingestion was lower in the ELE group than in the control group. The coefficient of correlation between the SFCs in the portal and cardiac samples was 0.825. The peripheral SFC in the control group progressively increased and was 146 micromol/L at 60 min. This increase was significantly lower in the ELE group. In contrast, the serum glucose concentrations in the 2 groups were similar. ELE suppressed postprandial hyperfructosemia in the portal, cardiac, and peripheral circulations. ELE may counteract glycation caused by high blood fructose concentrations induced by the consumption of fructose-containing foods or drinks. PMID:20490315

  12. β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Ya-jie; Zhai, Ping-ping; Su, Xi; Li, Xiang; Li, Yan; Hou, Li; Cui, Xiao-nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells. Methods. After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks. Results. β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration. Conclusion. β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα. PMID:26221582

  13. Density functional theory study of the multimode Jahn-Teller problem in the open-shell corannulenes and coronenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjelković, Ljubica; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Zlatar, Matija

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of the multimode Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion in anions and cations of corannulene and coronene is presented, combining multideterminantal-DFT (MD-DFT) and Intrinsic Distortion Path (IDP) methods. The JT distortion is derived from the sum of contributions of all possible JT active normal modes. The Csbnd C stretching modes play the most important role in the stabilization of the systems, in all investigated species, pushing the nuclei toward the minima on the potential energy surface. The further inspection of the IDP revealed that the relaxation of the geometry arrives in the final part of the path and is encountered by the softest vibrational modes. The same trend was observed in cyclopentadienyl radical, benzene anion, benzene cation and fullerene ions. This gives microscopic origin into the mechanism of the distortion and provides general behavior of the JT effect in these similar molecules. Moreover, MD-DFT and IDP, as fast and fully non-empirical approaches, can be considered as a reliable tool for better understanding of the JT effect.

  14. Pressure drop characteristics of cryogenic mixed refrigerant at macro and micro channel heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Jeong, Sangkwon; Hwang, Gyuwan

    2012-12-01

    Mixed Refrigerant-Joule Thomson (MR-JT) refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. The temperature glide effect is one of the major features of using mixed refrigerants since a recuperative heat exchanger in a MR-JT refrigerator is utilized for mostly two-phase flow. Although a pressure drop estimation for a multi-phase and multi-component fluid in the cryogenic temperature range is necessarily required in MR-JT refrigerator heat exchanger designs, it has been rarely discussed so far. In this paper, macro heat exchangers and micro heat exchangers are compared in order to investigate the pressure drop characteristics in the experimental MR-JT refrigerator operation. The tube in tube heat exchanger (TTHE) is a well-known macro-channel heat exchanger in MR-JT refrigeration. Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs) have been developed as a compact heat exchanger with micro size channels. Several two-phase pressure drop correlations are examined to discuss the experimental pressure measurement results. The result of this paper shows that cryogenic mixed refrigerant pressure drop can be estimated with conventional two-phase pressure drop correlations if an appropriate flow pattern is identified.

  15. Jahn-Teller Transitions in the Bimetallic Oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott

    2011-01-01

    Bimetallic oxalates are a class of layered molecule-based magnets with transition-metal ions M(II) and M'(III) coupled by oxalate molecules (C2O4)-2 in an open honeycomb structure. Magnetic compensation (MC) has been observed in ferrimagnetic Fe(II)Fe(III) compounds with certain cations between the bimetallic layers. This behavior can be explained [1] by considering the C3-symmetric crystal field produced by the six oxygen atoms surrounding each Fe ion, which splits the L = 2, 3d6 multiplet on the Fe(II) sites into two doublets and one singlet. MC occurs when the doublet lies lowest in energy and carries an orbital angular momentum Lz between about 0.25 and 1.0. Because the low-energy doublet is half-filled, a Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion may break the C3 symmetry near the ferrimagnetic transition temperature. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling on the Fe(II) sites, the JT distortion would always occur at T = 0. However, due to the competition between the spin-orbit coupling and JT energies, the JT distortion disappears at low temperatures in compounds that display MC [2]. Comparison is made with recent experiments and predictions are made for controlling the MC and JT critical temperatures.

  16. Is the pseudogap in the high T{sub c} cuprates evidence for dynamic van Hove Jahn-Teller effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission has demonstrated that in optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the van Hove singularity (vHs) is pinned close to the Fermi level. Such a pinning was predicted by the vHs scenario, due to strong electron-phonon coupling. This coupling arises for a novel Jahn-Teller (JT) effect, in which a structural distortion splits the degeneracy of the two vHs`s. In the lanthanum cuprates, there appears to be a sequence of dynamic JT phases, possibly terminating in a low-temperature static JT phase. The highest-temperature JT phase corresponds to the onset of octahedral tilts in the La cuprates (pyramidal tilts in YBCO), can can be identified with the experimentally observed pseudogap phase. Here the author summarizes recent experimental evidence for such a dynamic JT effect in the cuprates.

  17. Jahn-Teller and pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects in trifluoromethane radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanta, Susanta

    2016-08-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) effects in the ground, first and second excited electronic states of the trifluoromethane radical cation are theoretically examined here. Extensive ab initio computation of electronic potential energy surfaces and their coupling surfaces are performed. Full quantum dynamics are obtained by both time-independent and time-dependent quantum mechanical methods. This system belongs to (E+A)⊗e JT-PJT family. Our results compare well with the experimental data. JT interactions are fairly strong in the second excited B˜2 E electronic state and the PJT interaction between A˜2A2 - B˜2 E electronic states is stronger which cause an increase of the spectral line density of the vibronic spectrum.

  18. Development of 1K-class Joule-Thomson cryocooler for next-generation astronomical mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Ootsuka, Kiyomi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of a 1K-class Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler in Japan for application to upcoming next-generation astronomy missions. In this development, engineering models (EMs) were designed and manufactured for verification tests. The survival of the models in the mechanical and thermal vacuum environment tests of the JT compressors was proven to be possible with stable compression performance. In addition, the electromagnetic noise and disturbance force associated with the JT compressors were evaluated. Gas analysis showed that the estimated total amount of CO2 gas contaminant was less than the getter capacity for the required lifetime. A nominal cooling power of 10 mW at 1.7 K was verified using the EM test units.

  19. Joule-Thomson cryogenic cooler with extremely high thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven; Wu, J. J.; Trimble, Curt

    1991-01-01

    An 80-K Joule-Thomson (J-T) cooling system designed for the Probe Infrared Laser Spectrometer (PIRLS) proposed for the Huygens Titan Probe of the Cassini Saturn orbiter mission is presented. The cryogenic cooling requirements of the PIRLS instrument are listed, and the cooler system design including details of a J-T cryostat, cold head, and dewar design is described along with the results of a thermal modeling effort and lab cooler performance testing. It is shown that by using active feedback temperature control of the cold head in combination with the self-regulating action of the J-T cryostat, a temperature stability of less than 0.1 mK/min is achieved by the cooler weighting 1.8 kg.

  20. Effect of dynamics on the elastic softening of vacancies in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Koun; Ishisada, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Recently, elastic softening at temperatures below 20 K has been observed in nondoped floating zone silicon. From the experimental analysis, it has been suggested that this softening is caused by an intrinsic vacancy defect through the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect. We have theoretically studied the relations between softening and the vacancies. The ground state of the JT distortion is stiff. However, by considering atomistic dynamical and anharmonic effects, it is found that low-energy excitations exist in the E-mode distortion and that different polarizations of the E-distortion can be easily interchanged. The calculated energy barriers for the reorientation of JT distortions are consistent with other experiments and calculations. This low-lying mode can be the cause of softening in the elastic responses.

  1. The Jahn-Teller effect in the 3pe' Rydberg state of H3: review of experimental and ab initio determinations.

    PubMed

    Jungen, Ch; Jungen, M; Pratt, S T

    2012-11-13

    The dissociative recombination (DR) of H(3)(+) ions with electrons, producing neutral atomic and molecular fragments, is driven primarily by the vibronic Jahn-Teller (JT) interaction between the electronic components of the pe' e(-)-H(3)(+) collision (Rydberg) channel. The JT parameters characterizing this interaction are therefore of great interest as they are required for the theoretical predictions of the DR cross section. In this contribution, we review various determinations of these quantities that have been made previously, based both on spectroscopic studies of 3pe' Rydberg-excited H(3) states, and on the analysis of the corresponding ab initio H(3) Rydberg potential surfaces near the conical intersection (D(3h) symmetry) for n=3-5. The highly correlated theoretical 3pe' potential surfaces of Mistrík et al. are used for a new determination of both the linear and quadratic JT terms. PMID:23028155

  2. Jahn-Teller effects and surface interactions in multiply-charged fullerene anions and the effect on scanning tunneling microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Janette L.; Alqannas, Haifa S.; Lakin, Andrew J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the combined effects of Jahn-Teller (JT) coupling and interactions with a surface substrate on fullerene anions C602- to C604-. JT coupling alone causes the C60 ions to instantaneously distort from the icosahedral symmetry of the neutral molecule to a lower symmetry, with the molecule moving dynamically between a set of equivalent distortions. When adsorbed on a surface, the number of equivalent minimum-energy distortions is reduced. The implications of this on observed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images will be discussed, and comparisons made with existing experimental data. We show that a consistent interpretation of the images from all of the charge states of C60 can only be obtained using a JT model in which the symmetry is further reduced by surface interactions. The comparison with experimental data also allows us to determine relationships between the quadratic Jahn-Teller coupling and surface interaction parameters.

  3. Mechanical tests on the welding part of SS316LN after heat treatment for Nb 3Sn superconducting conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yusuke; Sakasai, Akira; Hamada, Kazuya; Takano, Katsutoshi; Nakajima, Hideo; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Matsukawa, Makoto; Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi

    2004-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plans to construct a tokamak fusion device called JT-60SC in which superconducting magnet systems will be used. The purpose in this paper is to qualify type 316LN stainless steel (SS316LN) for use as the conduit material of the Nb 3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor for the central solenoid (CS) of JT-60SC. Tensile properties, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth rates of the as-welded metal and the aged (923 K × 240 h) one of SS316LN were evaluated at 4 K. The tensile properties and fatigue crack growth rates were adequate to ensure the design requirements for JT-60SC. However, fracture toughness of the aged weld metal could not be validated due to unstable crack growth. It was concluded that improvement of fracture toughness after aging was required to ensure the structural integrity of the CS conduit.

  4. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  5. Synchronization of networked Jahn-Teller systems in SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We consider the nonlinear effects in a Jahn-Teller (JT) system of two coupled resonators interacting simultaneously with a flux qubit using coupled SQUIDs. A two-frequency description of JT system that inherits the networked structure of both nonlinear Josephson junctions and harmonic oscillators is employed to describe the synchronous structures in a multifrequency scheme. Eigenvalue spectrum is used to show the switch between the effective single mode and two mode configuration in terms of frequency difference. The Rabi supersplitting is investigated by the spectral response of JT systems in different coupling regimes. Second-order coherence functions are employed to investigate antibunching effects in resonator mode. Synchronous structure between correlations of privileged mode and qubit is obtained in localization-delocalization and photon blockade regime controlled by the population imbalance.

  6. Educational Thought in the Period of the Consolidation and Development of Socialist Society in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Traces Soviet educational history during the 1950s and 1960s. Presents chapter four from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Reviews theories and research of key Soviet educators during this period. (CH)

  7. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  8. Accurate Extraction of Electrostatic Force by a Voltage-Pulse Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2015-06-19

    The classification of interaction forces between two approaching bodies is important in a wide range of research fields. Here, we propose a method to unambiguously extract the electrostatic force (F(ele)), which is one of the most significant forces. This method is based on the measurement of the energy dissipation under applied voltage pulse between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample. It allowed us to obtain F(ele) as a function of the tip-sample distance and voltage including the distance-independent part, to which conventional AFM is insensitive. The obtained F(ele) curves nicely fit the analytical model, enabling estimation of the geometry of the tip. The distance-dependent contact potential difference could also be correctly obtained by the measured F(ele), opening an alternative route to quantitative Kelvin probe force microscopy. PMID:26196989

  9. The Creation of a New System of Scientific Pedagogical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter 2 from Ele Isaevich Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Focuses on achievements of the 1920s in establishing a Soviet system of education. Reviews biographies and ideas of five eminent Soviet educators. (CH)

  10. A Brief Look at the Development of Certain Other Branches of Pedagogical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Concludes the excerpts from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Notes research done in the Soviet Union on preschool instruction, special education, adult, vocational, and technical education, and briefly mentions comparative research on modern foreign pedagogy. (CH)

  11. Research in the Field of the History of the School System and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Presents the seventh chapter from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Reviews publications of research done in Soviet educational history since the 1920s. Lists influential Soviet education historians and briefly describes their areas of concentration. (CH)

  12. Theoretical investigations into the electronic structures and electron transport properties of fluorine and carbonyl end-functionalized quarterthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Yuai; Gao, Hong-Ze; Su, Zhong-Мin; Geng, Yun

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we concentrate on systematic investigation on the fluorination and carbonylation effect on electron transport properties of thiophene-based materials with the aim of seeking and designing electron transport materials. Some relative factors, namely, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), vertical electron affinity (VEA), electron reorganization energy (λele), electron transfer integral (tele), electron drift mobility (μele) and band structures have been calculated and discussed based on density functional theory. The results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms and carbonyl group especially for the latter could effectively increase EA and reduce λele, which is beneficial to the improvement of electron transport performance. Furthermore, these introductions could also affect the tele by changing molecular packing manner and distribution of FMO. Finally, according to our calculation, the 3d system is considered to be a promising electron transport material with small λele, high electron transport ability and good ambient stability. PMID:25909689

  13. Distribution of macroalgae and sediment chlorophyll A along salinity and elevation gradients in Oregon tidal marshes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae contribute to trophic and biogeochemical processes in tidal wetlands. We investigated patterns of sediment pigment content and macroalgal abundance and diversity in marshes in four Oregon estuaries representing a variety of vegetation types, salinity regimes, and tidal ele...

  14. Equilibrium Plasma Position Control for a Large Tokamak Using Modern Control Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, Kohyu; Saito, Seiji; Ogata, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa

    1980-09-01

    Optimal control techniques are applied to maintain the plasma in its equilibrium position in a large tokamak. The application of the state space equation to plasma position control is also discussed. Optimal controls with states, which are plasma current, OH coil current and vertical field current, and integrated plasma displacement feedbacks are formulated as linear, time invariant expressions with quadratic performance indices. Effective plasma position control was obtained with integral state feedback in computer simulations for the JT-60. These control techniques will be applied to the JT-60.

  15. Jahn-Teller distortion of neutral divacancy in Si studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Y.; Inoue, K.; Tang, Z.; Yonenaga, I.; Chiba, T.; Saito, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the diamagnetic neutral divacancy (V20) in Si is studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Based on the anisotropy of electron momentum distribution around the divacancies obtained by two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) technique, the preferred alignment of the divacancy in a specimen by compressing uniaxial stress along the [0 1 1] axis is detected. The direction of the alignment evidences the pairing JT distortion rather than the resonant bonding distortion, which is similar to the distortion in the singly negative divacancy (V2-).

  16. MATE program: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freling, Melvin

    1987-01-01

    The performance of candidate erosion resistant airfoil coatings installed in ground tested experimental JT8D and JT9D engines and subjected to cyclic endurance at idle, takeoff and intermediate power conditions has been evaluated. Engine tests were terminated prior to the scheduled 1000 cycles of endurance test due to high cycle fatigue fracture of the Gator-Gard plasma sprayed 88WC-12Co coating on titanium alloy airfoils. Coated steel (AMS5616) and nickel base alloy (Incoloy 901) performed well in both engine tests. Post test airfoil analyses consisted of binocular, scanning electron microscope and metallographic examinations.

  17. Statistical mechanical lattice models of endohedral and exohedral xenon adsorption in carbon nanotubes and comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Manos, George; Rekabi, Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of xenon in carbon nanotubes has been investigated by Kuznetsova et al. [A. Kuznetsova, J.T. Yates Jr., J. Liu, R.E. Smalley, J. Chem. Phys. 112 (2000) 9590] and Simonyan et al. [V. Simonyan, J.K. Johnson, A Kuznetsova, J.T. Yates Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 114 (2001) 4180] where endohedral adsorption isotherms show a step-like structure. A matrix method is used for calculation of the statistical mechanics of a lattice model of xenon endohedral adsorption which reproduces the isotherm structure while exohedral adsorption is treated by mean-field theory.

  18. Analysis of turbofan engine performance deterioration and proposed follow-on tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Kruckenberg, H. D.; Toomey, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data and engine parts on in-service JT3D and JT8D engines were analyzed and documented relative to engine deterioration. It is concluded that the fan-compressor system of these engines contributes to the long term engine deterioration. An engine test and instrumentation plan was formulated for a proposed follow-on program. The goal of this program is to verify the above conclusion and to attempt to identify more precisely which components of the fan-compressor system are at fault.

  19. Local structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas; Sundaram, Nalini; Jiang, Y; Anderson, Ingrid; Belanger, D P; Booth, C H; Bridges, F; Mitchell, J F; Zheng, H

    2008-01-01

    The combined local structure techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine struture (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, have been used for temperatures 4 {<=} T {<=} 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion of the Co-O bond in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} for a significant fraction of Co sites (x {<=} 0.35), indicating few, if any, J-T active, single-occupied e{sub g} Co sites exist.

  20. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-04-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  1. Nacelle Aerodynamic and Inertial Loads (NAIL) project. Appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The testing was conducted on the Boeing-owned 747 RA001 test bed airplane during the concurrent 767/JT9D-7R4 engine development program. Following a functional check flight conducted from Boeing Field International (BFI) on 3 October 1980, the airplane and test personnel were ferried to Valley Industrial Park (GSG) near Glasgow, Montana, on 7 October 1980. The combined NAL and 7670JT9D-7R4 test flights were conducted at the Glasgow remote test site, and the airplane was returned to Seattle on 26 October 1980.

  2. NASA/Pratt and Whitney experimental clean combustor program: Engine test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and associated fuel system components were successfully tested in an experimental JT9D engine at steady-state and transient operating conditions, using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Full-scale JT9D experimental engine tests were conducted in a phase three aircraft experimental clean combustor program. The low-pollution combustor, fuel system, and fuel control concepts were derived from phase one and phase two programs in which several combustor concepts were evaluated, refined, and optimized in a component test rig. Significant pollution reductions were achieved with the combustor which meets the performance, operating, and installation requirements of the engine.

  3. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved design reduces clogging and maintains constant pressure drop as flow rate varies. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve pressure drop regulated by spring pushing stainless-steel ball against soft brass seat. Pressure drop remains nearly constant, regardless of helium flow rate and of any gas contaminants frozen on valve seat. Because springloaded J-T valve maintains constant pressure drop, upstream roomtemperature throttle valve adjusts flow rate precisely for any given upstream pressure. In addition, new valve relatively invulnerable to frozen gas contaminants, which clog fixed-orifice J-T valves.

  4. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  5. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

  6. Inhibitory effects of eucalyptus and banaba leaf extracts on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fructose/high-glucose diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. PMID:26000287

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Eucalyptus and Banaba Leaf Extracts on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by a High-Fructose/High-Glucose Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. PMID:26000287

  8. Investigation of elemene-induced reversal of tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7 cells through oestrogen receptor α (ERα) re-expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xia; Tang, Bo; Zheng, Peishi; Zhang, Yang

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine therapy is an important therapeutic approach for the treatment of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. However, a number of these endocrine therapies can fail when the tumour loses its ER expression during treatment. To date, few studies have explored the potential clinical significance of traditional Chinese medicine in inducing the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancers. We used the ERα-negative MCF7 breast cancer cell line to create a tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant cell line, MCF7/TAM cells. After treating MCF7/TAM cells with ELE to induce the re-expression of ERα, we investigated the role and molecular mechanisms by which elemene (ELE) promotes the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy. We discovered that treatment with 10 μg/ml ELE restored the sensitivity of MCF7/TAM cells to TAM. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ELE treatment upregulated ERα mRNA levels in MCF7/TAM cells, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of ERα expression. Western blot analysis revealed that ELE treatment decreased the protein expression levels of Ras, MEK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in MCF7/TAM cells. The loss of ERα expression was the primary reason for TAM resistance in MCF7 cells. The ELE-induced reversal of TAM resistance was mediated by the upregulation of ERα mRNA and the re-expression of ERα through the MAPK pathway. PMID:23053650

  9. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  10. Extended region of nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. I. Phenotypes of Tn5 insertion mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.A.; Tu, J.K.; Ogawa, J.; Sanga, R.; Fisher, R.F.; Long, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    Rhizobium meliloti Nod/sup -/ mutant WL131, a derivative of wild-type strain 102F51, was complemented by a clone bank of wild-type R. meliloti 1021 DNA, and clone pRmJT5 was recovered. Transfer of pRmJT5 conferred alfalfa nodulation on other Rhizobium species, indicating a role in host range determination for pRmJT5. Mutagenesis of pRmJT5 revealed several segments in which transposon insertion causes delay in nodulation, and/or marked reduction of the number of nodules formed on host alfalfa plants. The set of mutants indicated five regions in which nod genes are located; one mutant, nod-216, is located in a region not previously reported to encode a nodulation gene. Other mutant phenotypes correlated with the positions of open reading frames for nodH, nodF and nodE, and with a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. A mutant in nodG had no altered phenotype in this strain. One nodulation mutant was shown to be a large deletion of the common nod gene region. The authors present a discussion comparing the various studies made on this extended nod gene region.

  11. Photocopy of original drawing showing Building 3 layout (drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Building 3 layout (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES-H.L. GOGERTY: DISPENSARY, CONNECTING CORRIDORS, FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, AND DETAILS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  12. Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing A (drawing located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing A (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES- H.L. GOGERTY: DISPENSARY, SICK CALL AND ADMINISTRATION, FLOOR PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  13. Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing B (drawing located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing B (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES-H.L. GOGERTY: DISPENSARY, SURGICAL AND OBSTETRICAL, FLOOR PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  14. Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing E (drawing located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing E (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES-H.L. GOGERTY: SICK OFFICERS QUARTERS, FLOOR PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  15. Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing A (drawing located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawing showing Wing A (drawing located at NAWS China Lake, Division of Public Works). J.T. STAFFORD-J.H. DAVIES-H.L. GOGERTY: DISPENSARY, SICK CALL AND ADMINISTRATION, ROOF FRAMING PLAN AND DETAILS - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, Dispensary, Main Site, Lauritsen Road at McIntyre Street, Ridgecrest, Kern County, CA

  16. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  17. Admissions and Preferences: Sequel to Defunis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James B.

    1973-01-01

    Three unresolved affirmative action admissions problems are examined: the role of students in admissions decisions, the validity of racial quotas, and to what extent applicants are entitled to due process protection of the fourteenth ammendment. Included is a synopsis of DeFunis v. Odegaard, which upheld a reverse discrimination claim. (JT)

  18. The Yale Tuition Postponement Plan in the Mid-Seventies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Yale Tuition Postponement Plan (TPO), an income-contingent loan scheme, is discussed and analysed with reference to the interest rate crisis and default rates. Conclusion: the high default rate is the most dangerous weakness of contingency loans, and this Plan is the only scheme of its kind likely to exist in the near future. (Editor/JT)

  19. The Value of the B.Ed. Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, G. B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Benefits of the Bachelor of Education degree recently introduced in England and Wales in an attempt to increase the number of university graduate teachers are analyzed with the conclusion that taking the one-year degree course subsequent to a 3-year teachers college certificate program offers higher investment returns than the alternatives. (JT)

  20. EEOC v. University of New Mexico--Tenth Circuit Reduces Standards for Production of Employee Personnel Files in EEOC Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Rex E.

    1975-01-01

    The Tenth Circuit Court affirmed that the University of New Mexico must comply with an Equal Employment Opportunity (EEOC) subpoena for personnel records. The author concludes after examining the case that the court's decision will probably not have an enduring effect in defining employee privacy interests and EEOC access to records. (JT)

  1. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: A COMPARISON OF METHODS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA- 00160 Wilkin*, R.T., McNeil*, M.S., Adair*, C.J., and Wilson*, J.T. Field Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen: A Comparison of Methods. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation (Fall):124-132 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/403. The abili...

  2. Student Pre- and Post-Evaluation of an Off-Campus Clinical Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, R. Keith

    1975-01-01

    Describes the development and use of standardized forms found to be effective for evaluating clinical clerkship experiences of pharmacy students. Copies of the Preliminary Questionnaire and the Post-Evaluation Form are included along with the goals of the Washington State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Pharmacy Program. (JT)

  3. Mandatory Housing Requirements: The Constitutionality of Parietal Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the validity of parietal rules under both the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Models of substantive due process and equal protection are developed and applied to the various types of parietal rules that have been implemented at universities throughout the nation. (Author/JT)

  4. The Impact of Geduldig v. Aiello on the EEOC Guidelines on Sex Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Rhoda

    1975-01-01

    From an analysis of criteria applicable to sex discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, the author concludes that although the Fourteenth Amendment may not require standards such as those in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines, neither does it prohibit them. (JT)

  5. Equal Protection of the Laws: Sex is Not a Suspect Classification; Kahn v. Shevin, 94 S. Ct. 1734 (1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregg Darrow

    1974-01-01

    In Kahn v. Shevin the Supreme Court upheld a Florida Supreme Court ruling that a state tax exemption for widows was not in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The author discusses this and earlier sex discrimination cases, holding that a strict scrutiny test in such cases would promote equality of the sexes. (JT)

  6. DeFunis v. Odegaard: The "Non-Decision" with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavinsky, Larry M.

    1975-01-01

    Based on the question of whether racial preference and quotas to advance the educational opportunities of certain racial and ethnic minorities are compatible with the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, a case against reference to race is presented in light of the DeFunis v. Odegaard case. (JT)

  7. Primary Care, Ambulatory Care, and Family Medicine: Overlapping But Not Synonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    Defines and depicts graphically the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary care functions (from least to most intensified phases of medical care); ambulatory care (care of sick or well people not confined to bed); and family medicine (an emerging medical discipline focusing on complete and longterm care of the family). (JT)

  8. On the thermal gradient in the Earth's deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirone, M.

    2015-09-01

    Temperature variations in large portions of the mantle are mainly controlled by the reversible and irreversible transformation of mechanical energy related to pressure and viscous forces into internal energy along with diffusion of heat and chemical reactions. The simplest approach to determine the temperature gradient is to assume that the dynamic process involved is adiabatic and reversible, which means that entropy remains constant in the system. However heat conduction and viscous dissipation during dynamic processes effectively create entropy. The adiabatic and non-adiabatic temperature variation under the influence of a constant or varying gravitational field are discussed in this study from the perspective of the Joule-Thomson (JT) throttling system in relation to the transport equation for change of entropy. The JT model describes a dynamic irreversible process in which entropy in the system increases but enthalpy remains constant (at least in an equipotential gravitational field). A comparison is made between the thermal gradient from the JT model and the thermal gradient from two models, a mantle convection and a plume geodynamic model coupled with thermodynamics including a complete description of the entropy variation. The results show that the difference is relatively small and suggests that thermal structure of the asthenospheric mantle can be well approximated by an isenthalpic model when the formulation includes the effect of the gravitational field. For non-dynamic or parameterized mantle dynamic studies the JT formulation provides a better description of the thermal gradient than the classic isentropic formulation.

  9. Salary Equity Adjustments: For Whom and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the development of a system to identify faculty members who deserve salary adjustment and to determine the range of the adjustment. Examples are given to illustrate the method, which was developed by a Central Michigan University committee on salary inequities. (JT)

  10. A Psychomotor Skills Course for Orthopaedic Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Frederick G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The course described and evaluated here was developed at the University of Washington School of Medicine to teach 20 orthopaedic residents operative techniques, instrument usage, and safety precautions outside of the operating room without hazard to the patient or regard to time constraints. (JT)

  11. Interstitial Jurisprudence Illustrated in Teaching Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, David A.

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of criminal law theory into the first-year criminal law course is discussed as an example of adding the jurisprudence of specific subject matters to standard courses. Jurisprudential issues appropriate for study are suggested along with guidelines for teaching techniques, selection of materials, and use of class time. (JT)

  12. Financial Aid Reports: Loans to Parents, New Help for the Middle-Income Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James L.; Johnstone, D. Bruce

    1975-01-01

    Addresses the need for a national parental loan program proposing that loans up to the amount of the total expected contribution less that portion which can reasonably be expected out of current disposable purchasing power be offered as part of a total financial assistance package. (JT)

  13. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  14. Watergate Lawyer Syndrome; An Educational Deficiency Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew S.

    1974-01-01

    Observes the failure of law schools to teach students how to cope with the professional stress induced by complicated conflicts of interest. Describes resulting insensitivity and unawareness which can lead to unprofessional and unethical behavior. Suggests how schools and graduates can help alleviate the syndrome. (JT)

  15. Programmed Student Achievement: A Hawthorne Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nabil F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of college students were given instructions using different testing techniques to determine whether the superior performance obtained with Programed Student Achievement (PA) was due to a Hawthorne Effect. Results seem to preclude any attempt to interpret the effectiveness of PA on that basis. (Editor/JT)

  16. 1974-1975 Annual Survey of Labor Relations and Employment Discrimination Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Robert Philip; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Major headings in this review of 1974-75 labor relations and employment discrimination law include Unfair Labor Practices, Arbitration, Seniority, Sex Discrimination, Affirmative Action Under Title VII, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Enforcement Powers under Section 706, and Federal Employment--Judicial Application of Section 717. (JT)

  17. Current and Emerging Labor Relations Issues in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Reviews current case law alerting public institutions as well as those covered under the National Labor Relations Act to consequences and problems of faculty unionization, including issues of conflict between the faculty senate and a union, exclusive representation, supervisory status of faculty members, and scope of negotiation issues. (JT)

  18. The Several Ages of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Examines the various stages of human development (as outlined by Erik Erikson and others) with their psychological stresses of recurring crises of identity and expectation and explores some of the implications for education's best serving human needs. Focuses on early childhood, late adolescence, middle age, and old age. (JT)

  19. The Terms and Tasks of "Open Admissions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Noting the need to define the terms used for policies which are changing the role of admissions offices, the author defines "open admissions" as "universal opportunity for post-secondary schooling" and points out changes in the core tasks of recruiting, selecting, counseling, and management of student records and data. (JT)

  20. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  1. Suggested Responses to the Impact of Academic Collective Bargaining on University Costs and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, George W.

    1976-01-01

    Potential administrative cost items involved in collective bargaining are listed with comments and suggestions for dealing with them (e.g. experienced labor counsel for unit determination hearings and decisions). Suggestions for handling six major areas of impact on personnel administrative structure and decision-making are also included. (JT)

  2. The "Cost-Effectiveness" of Sim One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kaaren I.; Abrahamson, Stephen

    1975-01-01

    Sim One is a computer-controlled patient, a sophisticated simulator developed by the University of Southern California School of Medicine. This article summarizes fifteen cost-effectiveness studies conducted over a 2-year period. Savings with the use of Sim One were found to justify the cost within a short period. (JT)

  3. Comment on Survey of Teaching Methods of Environmental Law Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Geoffrey J.

    1976-01-01

    In answer to the quandry of environmental law teachers as to how to deal with the magnitude of environmental problems, the author proposes focus on the nature of the legal decision system as a tool for handling the environment before examining specific areas such as energy, transportation, etc. (JT)

  4. MPI Enhancements in John the Ripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Edward R.; Lin, Michael; Skoczen, Wesley

    2010-11-01

    John the Ripper (JtR) is an open source software package commonly used by system administrators to enforce password policy. JtR is designed to attack (i.e., crack) passwords encrypted in a wide variety of commonly used formats. While parallel implementations of JtR exist, there are several limitations to them. This research reports on two distinct algorithms that enhance this password cracking tool using the Message Passing Interface. The first algorithm is a novel approach that uses numerous processors to crack one password by using an innovative approach to workload distribution. In this algorithm the candidate password is distributed to all participating processors and the word list is divided based on probability so that each processor has the same likelihood of cracking the password while eliminating overlapping operations. The second algorithm developed in this research involves dividing the passwords within a password file equally amongst available processors while ensuring load-balanced and fault-tolerant behavior. This paper describes John the Ripper, the design of these two algorithms and preliminary results. Given the same amount of time, the original JtR can crack 29 passwords, whereas our algorithms 1 and 2 can crack an additional 35 and 45 passwords respectively.

  5. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  6. Graduate and Professional Education: An Incisive Look at Dentistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyre, Glenn F.; Zhonga, Frida A.

    1975-01-01

    Factors influencing the graduate and professional education of women are reviewed and a successful University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Dentistry outreach program is described for recruiting women dental students through use of a slide-tape, special publications, and the involvement of school counselors. (JT)

  7. Columbia University Today: Why the Peanut Butter Revolution Didn't Spread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Deborah

    1975-01-01

    A 1970 graduate of Columbia, who was involved in the 1968 student protests, returns to assess the mood of students and the Columbia Corporation (the University as a legal entity) and concludes that students are less militant, possibly because of admissions policies, but that the Columbia Corporation has not changed. (JT)

  8. Evaluation of Instructional Methods for Teaching Veterinary Students the Components of Inflammation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, O. J.; Welser, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Seven multi-media instructional programs were evaluated on the basis of test scores, student attitudes, program preparation time, and cost of materials. Programs ranked best were videotape with 35mm slides, programmed instruction with 35mm slides, and Self-Evaluation Test only. (JT)

  9. Employment Discrimination--Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967--Bona Fide Occupational Qualification--Hodgson v. Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Susan Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Examines the circuit court's decision in favor of Greyhound in a suit alleging that the company's refusal to accept applications for bus driver from persons under 35 violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). Submits that the decision frustrates congressional intent by permitting arbitrary and unreasonable age discrimination. (JT)

  10. Faculty Unionism and Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, William F.

    1973-01-01

    With reference to personal experience, labor board decisions, and faculty collective bargaining agreements, the author discusses the causes of faculty unionism, what constitutes a tenure system and what problems it creates, what is involved in the bargaining process, and the implications involved in negotiating tenure. (JT)

  11. The Personal Consequences of a Year of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Dennison

    1976-01-01

    A study using experimental and control groups evaluated the effects of a year of study on the self-realization of a group of junior-year students in France. Some support for the hypotheses was obtained but later assessment suggests personality changes did not persist. Further research is called for. (Editor/JT)

  12. What Do You Do With $50 Million?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, William

    1975-01-01

    The impact on the University of Richmond (UR) of its 1969 gift of $50 million from an alumnus and trustee is examined. The fairly typical, small, church-related liberal arts university with an enrollment of about 4,000 has concentrated on student life and faculty welfare and the relationship between the two. (JT)

  13. The Perfect Politician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    The perfect politician, the ideal political ally to a library, is often but not always an elected official. He or she is always an effective champion of "reasonable financial support," i.e., "the amount...which a thoroughly competent librarian can spend wisely." That is what J.T. Wyer, director of the New York State Library, said in his "What the…

  14. Retention by Sex and Race of 1968-1972 Medical School Entrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Davis G.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1975-01-01

    While the national study reported here reveals recent medical school attrition rates to be lower than for 1949-58 entrants, the rate for women and underrepresented minorities is still less than for white males, although the gap appears to be narrowing. Recommendations for optimum retention are included. (Editor/JT)

  15. Hoods for Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Harold; and others

    Detailed discussions are presented dealing with the selection and design of fume hoods for science laboratories. Areas covered include--(1) air flow design, (2) materials properties, (3) location in the laboratory, (4) testing and adjustment, (5) exhaust systems, and (6) hazards of fume discharges. (JT)

  16. Hope for a Forgotten Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, William

    1975-01-01

    Describes Gloucester College Project Bootstrap designed to provide opportunity for the simultaneous achievement of a high school diploma and a college degree for male heads of families between 25 and 43 years old. Includes a weekly $50-stipend, tuition, and books, the balance of income coming from part-time employment. (JT)

  17. Higher Education at a Distance: Developments and Projects in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Erhard U.

    1975-01-01

    A case study in the planning for a possible distance-study system in Germany. Three project areas are described (the Quadringa radio colleges, the German Institute of Distance Study, and multi-media study teams in universities). Efforts to establish a national system are analyzed and compared to the development of Britain's Open University. (JT)

  18. A Marketing Plan That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    Olivet College's marketing plan included survey of students, alumni, townspeople, and doners and analysis of the college's customer appeal, prices, and product mix. The author reports that the marketing objectives are being met and discusses the rationale and problems of applying business marketing principles to education. (JT)

  19. The Rockford School of Medicine Undergraduate Quality Assurance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Daniel; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An undergraduate program of ambulatory care quality assurance is described which has been operational at the Rockford School of Medicine for three years. Focus is on involving students in peer review and related audit activities. Results of preliminary evaluation are reported and generalizations offered. (JT)

  20. Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

  1. Student Suspension and Expulsion Proceedings in Tax Supported Institutions: What Process is Due?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Marc I.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the different procedural safeguards which students enjoy in connection with the various disciplinary measures imposed by public school officials: procedural due process rights of students when they are subject to suspensions of up to 10 days, 10 days to three months, more than three months, and expulsions. (JT)

  2. The Use of Test Results from ASA Workshops to Evaluate Workshop Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donegan, Judith H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of test given to participants in six American Society of Anesthesiologists workshops were analyzed to determine whether attendance increased scores on sequential tests (before, immediately after, and three months later). Both workshop and control groups of anesthesiologists increased their scores with each successive test. (Editor/JT)

  3. Teaching of Formal Courses by Medical Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jess A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Four courses on the use of the library are described which were taught by librarians at the University of Tennessee Center for Health Services to graduate students in basic medical sciences, dentistry, and pharmacy and undergraduates in medical records administration. Also included is a survey of medical libraries offering such courses. (JT)

  4. Instant Experience in Clinical Trials: A Computer-Aided Simulation Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    Describes "Instant Experience," a simulation and game method in which students are given information about a promising new drug and asked to design a protocol for a clinical trial of the drug. Evaluation of a trial workshop showed positive response to the method. Educational goals to be achieved through its use are noted. (JT)

  5. The Timing of Student Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Alan E.

    1975-01-01

    Proposes a plan by which medical students could take a final examination 80 percent of the way through a course, allowing students to learn in their own way with more efficient use of teacher time and less stress of terminal exams because all students would have two chances without penalty. (JT)

  6. Genetic defects associated with familial and sporadic hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Geoffrey N; Cole, David E C

    2013-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) occurs sporadically, but occasionally it may be a feature of a familial condition, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), MEN2A, or the HPT-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia/neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (FHH/NSHPT). PHPT may also occur as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), and has been observed as a consequence of mutations in the CDKN1B gene (MEN4). Tumorigenesis in these conditions may be the result of protooncogene activation (e.g. RET in MEN2) or two-hit losses of a tumor suppressor (e.g. MEN1, HPT-JT). In patients with MEN1, HPT-JT or FHH/NSHPT, the hyperparathyroidism manifests at a younger age and affects both sexes equally. In MEN1, mutations of the MEN1 gene also cause enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary tumors. In MEN2, activating mutations in the RET protooncogene also cause medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. In HPT-JT, mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 are associated with parathyroid carcinoma, but tumors of the kidneys and uterus are additional features. In some FIHP families, a CASR mutation may be identified. In parathyroid carcinoma, even if sporadic, molecular diagnostics for CDC73/HRPT2 should be considered, as it should be for younger patients. Further exploration of these hereditary syndromes may shed light on the molecular mechanisms giving rise to nonhereditary PHPT. PMID:23652676

  7. University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine Postsophomore Pathology Fellowship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Dan L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Since 1959 selected sophomore pathology students have been offered a fellowship to work as junior faculty members for one year between their second and third years in medical school. A recent evaluation of that program is reported in which objective and subjective measures indicate program goals are being attained. (JT)

  8. A Critical Review of the West African School Certificate Examination Syllabus in History as Taught in Western Nigeria Grammar Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author compares syllabus outlines for the 5-year grammar school course (Grades 8-12 equivalent) in West Africa, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and concludes that a national directive on history syllabus similar to that of Britain and the U.S. is needed including aims of history teaching in Nigeria. (JT)

  9. Microchannel heat exchanger for two-phase Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Jisung; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson (MR-JT) refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is one of the promising cryogenic compact recuperators for MR-JT refrigerators due to its compactness, high NTU and robustness. However, PCHE composed with microchannel bundles can cause flow mal-distribution, and it can cause the degradation of thermal performance of the system. To mitigate the flow mal-distribution problem, the cross link (or intra-layer bypass) can be adapted to parallel microchannels. Two heat exchangers are fabricated in this study; one has straight channels, and the other one has intra-layer bypass structure between channels to enhance the flow distribution. The MR-JT refrigerators are operated with these two heat exchanger and the no-load temperatures are compared. The lower no load temperature achieved with the intra-layer bypass structured heat exchanger. The results indicate that the flow mal-distribution in the microchannel heat exchanger can be mitigated with intra-layer bypass structure, and relaxation of flow mal-distribution in the heat exchanger guarantee the MR-JT refrigerator's performance.

  10. Academic Freedom in South Africa: The Open Universities in South Africa and Academic Freedom, 1957-1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerva, 1975

    1975-01-01

    When the South African government initiated a racial separation policy in universities in 1957 the Universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, declared their opposition and continue after 17 years to pursue their efforts for racial equality. This report assesses the effects on university structure and academic freedom. (JT)

  11. 77 FR 16916 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney (PW)Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... NPRM published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72348). That NPRM proposed to... Written The Boeing Company and an individual commenter support the NPRM (76 FR 72348, November 23, 2011... engine models. We agree. In addition to the JT9D-7R4G2 and -7R4H1 engines, the NPRM (76 FR...

  12. A new ECG biomarker for drug toxicity: a combined signal processing and computational modeling study.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Rodriguez, Blanca; Pueyo, Esther

    2010-01-01

    QT prolongation is the only clinically proven, yet insufficient, electrocardiogram (ECG) biomarker for drug-induced cardiac toxicity. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether JT area, i.e., total area of the T-wave, can serve as an ECG biomarker for drug-induced cardiac toxicity using both signal processing and computational modeling approaches. An ECG dataset that contained recordings from patients under control and sotalol condition was analyzed. In order to relate sotalol-induced ECG changes to its effect on ion channel level, i.e., blockade of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel (I(Kr)), varied degrees of I(Kr) blockade were simulated in a slab of ventricular tissue. The mean JT area increased by 36.5% following the administration of sotalol in patients. Simulations in the slab tissue showed that sotalol increased action potential duration preferentially in the midmyocardium, which led to increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and JT area. In conclusion, JT area reflects the transmural dispersion of repolarization and may be a potentially useful surrogate/supplemental ECG biomarker to assess drug safety. PMID:21096447

  13. The Coagulation Method of Starting Lecture-Discussion Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, David

    1976-01-01

    Describes a method used in the first class periods of a foundations of education course of 20-35 students to introduce students to each other and develop the interpersonal climate necessary for an effective discussion course. Involves breaking up into groups of five strangers for personal introductions and later class presentations. (JT)

  14. A tri-atomic Renner-Teller system entangled with Jahn-Teller conical intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csehi, A.; Bende, A.; Halász, G. J.; Vibók, Á.; Das, A.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Baer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study concentrates on a situation where a Renner-Teller (RT) system is entangled with Jahn-Teller (JT) conical intersections. Studies of this type were performed in the past for contours that surround the RT seam located along the collinear axis [see, for instance, G. J. Halász, Á. Vibók, R. Baer, and M. Baer, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094102 (2006)]. The present study is characterized by planar contours that intersect the collinear axis, thus, forming a unique type of RT-non-adiabatic coupling terms (NACT) expressed in terms of Dirac-δ functions. Consequently, to calculate the required adiabatic-to-diabatic (mixing) angles, a new approach is developed. During this study we revealed the existence of a novel molecular parameter, η, which yields the coupling between the RT and the JT NACTs. This parameter was found to be a pure number η = 2√ 2 /π (and therefore independent of any particular molecular system) and is designated as Renner-Jahn coupling parameter. The present study also reveals an unexpected result of the following kind: It is well known that each (complete) group of states, responsible for either the JT-effect or the RT-effect, forms a Hilbert space of its own. However, the entanglement between these two effects forms a third effect, namely, the RT/JT effect and the states that take part in it form a different Hilbert space.

  15. A Novel Mutation in a Patient with Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumour Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Virginia; Larrañaga, Ihintza; Guimón, Maite; Martinez-Conde, Rafael; Eguia, Asier; Perez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare variant of familial hyperparathyroidism, characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to one or multiple parathyroid adenomas, and benign tumours of the mandible and maxilla. It has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and is associated with mutations that deactivate the cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) gene, also known as hyperparathyroidism 2 (HRPT2), located on the long arm of chromosome 1, that encodes for the tumour suppressor protein parafibromin. In the majority of cases, PHPT is the presenting symptom, but up to 30 % of HPT-JT cases initially present with an ossifying fibroma of the maxillofacial bones. HPT-JT may result in severe hypercalcemia-related complications and an elevated risk of parathyroid carcinoma. For this reason, early identification of the disease is important. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who was found to have jaw tumours and was later diagnosed with PHPT. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in exon 1 of CDC73. This report contributes to the understanding of the genetics of this rare syndrome. It also highlights the fact that HPT-JT should be considered and CDC73 mutation analysis should be performed in cases of early-onset PHPT associated with ossifying fibromas of the jaw. PMID:26995009

  16. Constitutional Law--Equal Protection--"Benign" Discrimination--Minority Admissions Programs--Supreme Court's Response to Preferential Treatment--DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 U.S. 312 (1974); Kahn v. Shevin, 416 U.S. 351 (1974); Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535 (1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Judith Ilene

    1975-01-01

    Three U.S. Supreme Court rulings on minority preference cases are analyzed with reference to the question of the constitutionality of minority preferential admissions. It is concluded that the Court's unpredictability casts doubt on the validity of minority preference and that special consideration should be given in a racially neutral manner. (JT)

  17. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  18. Habits, Fears, and Desires of the Genus Graduate Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne Robinson

    1976-01-01

    Based on interviews with graduate students in English, biochemistry, and psychology the author discusses common characteristics of graduate students (lifelong observers with faith in authority and strong emotional attachment to a minute field of inquiry) and notes implications for their teaching and their contributions to society. (JT)

  19. International Education: An Agenda for Global Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    1975-01-01

    In light of the need for national leaders informed in international affairs and for informed citizenry capable of supporting and questioning the experts, responses from various quarters to the need for international education are found to be substantial but shy of the obvious and growing need. (JT)

  20. Amending the Amendments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, William

    1976-01-01

    Reviews activity in Congress, federal agencies, and higher education associations as legislation to extend and improve the 1972 Higher Education Amendments is being fashioned. Issues include a public vs. private debate regarding use of the Basic Opportunity Grant program (BOG) to foster access as opposed to choice among institutions. (JT)

  1. A Substitute for the Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleicher, Michael N.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a wage-withholding proposal for impasse resolution in faculty collective bargaining in a state system. A percentage of each faculty member's salary and a significant contribution from the state treasury are put into an escrow account which goes into the federal treasury if settlement is not reached within 45 days. (JT)

  2. On the thermal gradient in the Earth's deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirone, M.

    2016-02-01

    Temperature variations in large portions of the mantle are mainly controlled by the reversible and irreversible transformation of mechanical energy related to pressure and viscous forces into internal energy along with diffusion of heat and chemical reactions. The simplest approach to determine the temperature gradient is to assume that the dynamic process involved is adiabatic and reversible, which means that entropy remains constant in the system. However, heat conduction and viscous dissipation during dynamic processes effectively create entropy. The adiabatic and non-adiabatic temperature variation under the influence of a constant or varying gravitational field are discussed in this study from the perspective of the Joule-Thomson (JT) throttling system in relation to the transport equation for change of entropy. The JT model describes a dynamic irreversible process in which entropy in the system increases but enthalpy remains constant (at least in an equipotential gravitational field). A comparison is made between the thermal gradient from the JT model and the thermal gradient from two models, a mantle convection and a plume geodynamic model, coupled with thermodynamics including a complete description of the entropy variation. The results show that the difference is relatively small and suggests that thermal structure of the asthenospheric mantle can be well approximated by an isenthalpic model when the formulation includes the effect of the gravitational field. For non-dynamic or parameterized mantle dynamic studies, the JT formulation provides a better description of the thermal gradient than the classic isentropic formulation.

  3. Significant Labor Decisions--An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polhemus, Graig E.

    1977-01-01

    Major labor cases decided during 1976 did not project a clear or simple path for further Constitutional and statutory interpretation, but the year's labor decisions did reveal a new willingness on the part of the U.S. Supreme Court to depart from earlier views of Constitutional law. (JT)

  4. Social Work in the Police Agency: Implications for Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treger, Harvey

    1976-01-01

    Issues uncovered in a 3-year action-research project that placed social workers and graduate students in community police departments were selection of staff and students, attitudes about the law, confidentiality, motivating the reluctant client, and sensitivity to police-social worker perceptions of each other. (JT)

  5. Dental Topics for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Mortimer

    1976-01-01

    As part of the required Introduction to Clinical Sciences course, second-year students at Georgetown University School of Medicine attend three one-hour lectures on dentistry: restorative dentistry, oral surgery, and various diseases. Contents of the lectures are summarized here. (JT)

  6. Pseudorotation in fullerene anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Janette L.; Hands, Ian D.; Bates, Colin A.

    2007-07-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) problems are often characterised by an adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) containing either a set of isoenergetic wells or a trough of equivalent-energy points, which may be warped by higher-order coupling terms or anisotropic effects. In all three cases, the JT effect will be dynamic. Either tunnelling between the wells or rotation (of a distortion) around the trough will restore the original symmetry of the system. This motion is referred to as pseudorotation. It should be possible to observe a JT system in a distorted geometry if measurements are made on a sufficiently short timescale. In various cubic systems, this timescale has been calculated to be the order of picoseconds. Such timescales are accessible using modern methods of ultrafast spectroscopy. Measurements of pseudorotation rates can lead to important information on the strength and nature of the JT coupling present. We will present analytical calculations that allow the rate of pseudorotation to be determined in terms of the vibronic coupling parameters. We will show how these results can be applied to E ⊗ e systems and then to the more complicated system applicable to C60- anions. This is of particular interest because of the high icosahedral symmetry of fullerene ions and also because of the many potential uses of materials containing these ions. We conclude by outlining experiments that should be capable of measuring pseudorotation in C 60 anions.

  7. NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF NTBE ON A SITE ON LONG ISLAND, NY: SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-00170 Kolhatkar, R., Wilson*, J.T., and Hinshalwood, G. "Natural Biodegradation of NTBE on a Site on Long Island, NY." In: 6th Intl. In-Situ and On-Site Symposium on Bioremediation of MTBE, Alcohols, and Ethers, Battelle, The Si...

  8. Bookstore in Trouble: The Proverbial Iceberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Ivan L.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the plight of two troubled bookstores, both state system stores with state charters as nonprofit corporations, probing some of their weaknesses, failures, and resultant difficulties and the positive action, including structural change and new management, involved in recovery and restoration of adequate operating funds. (JT)

  9. Applicability of the Joule-Thomson Cryocooler Coupled with Membrane-Based Purification System for Liquefaction of Natural Gas in Small Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, A.; Chorowski, M.

    2008-03-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers using gas mixture have been studied theoretically and experimentally for a variety of applications. Gas separation technology using polymer membrane is emerging. In this paper the concept of coupling the J-T cooler with a hollow fiber membranes is presented. The apparatus can be used in many applications, like compressed natural gas (CNG) purification and condensation into LNG or separation and liquefaction of nitrogen from air. The paper describes the system and experimental dependence of the separated nitrogen purity on the membrane inlet air pressure. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is used to optimize the composition of the mixture for natural gas cooling and liquefaction. Possible applications of the system depend on membrane material. Membranes used in separation of N2/air or CO2/CH4 are now commercially available [2,6]. The combination of the J-T cooler with N2/air membrane enables the construction of the liquid nitrogen production system aimed at cryosurgical applications. Similarly, J-T cooler coupled with CO2/CH4 membrane can be used for purification and liquefaction of natural gas in small quantities e.g. satisfying future car refueling system needs.

  10. Visual investigation of solid-liquid phase equilibria for nonflammable mixed refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Yoo, J.; Park, I.; Park, J.; Cha, J.; Jeong, S.

    2015-12-01

    Non-flammable mixed refrigerant (NF-MR) Joule Thomson (J-T) refrigerators have desirable characteristics and wide cooling temperature range compared to those of pure J-T refrigerators. However, the operating challenge due to freezing is a critical issue to construct this refrigerator. In this paper, the solid-liquid phase equilibria (i.e. freezing point) of the NF-MR which is composed of Argon, R14 (CF4), and R218 (C3F8), has been experimentally investigated by a visualized apparatus. Argon, R14 and R218 mixtures are selected to be effectively capable of reaching 100 K in the MR J-T refrigerator system. Freezing points of the mixtures have been measured with the molar compositions from 0.1 to 0.8 for each component. Each test result is simultaneously acquired by a camcorder for visual inspection and temperature measurement during a warming process. Experimental results show that the certain mole fraction of Argon, R14, and R218 mixture can achieve remarkably low freezing temperature even below 77 K. This unusual freezing point depression characteristic of the MR can be a useful information for designing a cryogenic MR J-T refrigerator to reach further down to 77 K.

  11. The Radcliffe Institute: Is There Life After Birth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1975-01-01

    Purposes and program of the Radcliffe Institute are described from its creation in 1960 as "one effort to change the social climate for women" by offering part-time fellowships so that talented women might again become "visible professionally" to its present increasingly professional orientation. (JT)

  12. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Potůček, Z.; Kusmartseva, O. E.; Goryachev, N. S.; Bryknar, Z.; Demikhov, E. I.; Trepakov, V. A.; Dejneka, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn-Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn3+ or Cu2+), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognized, is still elusive in the ground state properties. Here we discovered that, in these materials, there exist excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantized as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We observed features originating from these excitations in the optical spectra of a model compound LaMnO3 using ellipsometry technique. They appear clearly as narrow sidebands accompanying the electron transition between the JT split orbitals at neighboring Mn3+ ions, displaying anomalous temperature behavior around the Néel temperature T N ≈ 140 K. We present these results together with new experimental data on photoluminescence found in LaMnO3, which lend additional support to the ellipsometry implying the electronic-vibrational origin of the quantum rotor orbital excitations. We note that the discovered orbital excitations of quantum rotors may play an important role in many unusual properties observed in these materials upon doping, such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance.

  13. Characteristics of a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, T.

    2013-09-01

    Closed-cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers have been developed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) with the aim of realizing a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K. The latest JT cryocooler at NMIJ/AIST consists of a 3He JT cooling circuit and a pulse tube mechanical refrigerator. The characteristics of the apparatus including a residual gas analysis of the JT cooling circuit are presented in this paper. Currently the initial cool-down is performed using a heat-exchange gas. It normally takes about 30 h to reduce the temperature from room temperature to 5 K at the thermometer comparison block of the apparatus. The correct timing of the removal of the heatexchange gas is important for the efficient operation of the apparatus. Incomplete removal of the heat-exchange gas induces excess heat load on the apparatus and thermal disturbances. Some examples of abrupt temperature bursts are discussed in this paper. Mechanical refrigerators generate cyclic mechanical vibrations, and precision resistance thermometers are usually very sensitive to a mechanical vibration. The measured vibration level of the developed apparatus is reported. The damage to the apparatus due to the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011, and possible countermeasures in the case of future earthquakes are also discussed.

  14. Poor Reception for Broadcast Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Robert D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Noting reports of 17,251 college juniors and seniors majoring in radio-television broadcasting and only 141,500 employees now working in the field, the author discusses the causes and implications including the value of the radio-TV degree and the cost of broadcast education. (JT)

  15. Test Bias and the Prediction of Grades in Law School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    Use of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and undergraduate grade point average for members of minority groups are examined in relationship to recent LSAT studies and related research on admissions tests and test bias. Traditional predictors of law school grades were found to be as accurate for minority as for majority persons. (JT)

  16. Production of Artificial Lightning in An Ordinary Clear Light Bulb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaffo, Peter Alfred

    1981-01-01

    Reported is a method of producing artificial lightning in an ordinary clear lightbulb. The appearance of sparks produced is that of a miniature stroke of forked lightning seen in natural thunderstorms. The sparks also show the intricate branching patterns often seen in natural lightning. (JT)

  17. Jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of isopropoxy radical: vibronic analysis of B̃-X̃ and B̃-Ã band systems.

    PubMed

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Roudjane, Mourad; Melnik, Dmitry G; Miller, Terry A; Liu, Jinjun

    2014-12-26

    Recently we published [ Liu et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 154312 ] an analysis of the rotational structure of the B̃-X̃ origin band spectrum of isopropoxy, which confirmed that the double methyl substitution of methoxy to yield the isopropoxy radical only slightly lifted the degeneracy of the former's X̃(2)E state. Additionally the spectral results provided considerable insight into the relativistic and nonrelativistic contributions to the experimental splitting between the components of the (2)E state. However, left unexplained was how the Jahn-Teller (JT) vibronic coupling terms within methoxy's (2)E state manifest themselves as pseudo-Jahn-Teller (pJT) vibronic coupling between the Ã(2)A″ and X̃(2)A' levels of isopropoxy. To cast additional light on this subject we have obtained new isopropoxy spectra and assigned a number of weak, "forbidden" vibronic transitions in the B̃-X̃ spectrum using new electronic structure calculations and rotational contour analyses. The mechanisms that provide the nonzero probability for these transitions shed considerable information on pJT, spin-orbit, and Coriolis coupling between the à and X̃ states. We also report a novel mechanism caused by pJT coupling that yields excitation probability to the B̃ state dependent upon the permanent dipole moments in the B̃ and à or X̃ states. By combining a new B̃-à and the earlier B̃-X̃ rotational analyses we determine a much improved value for the experimental Ã-X̃ separation. PMID:25054866

  18. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. 5: Acoustic final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Q2S(quiet two-stage) fan is a 0.836m (32.9 in.) diameter model of the STF 433 engine fan, selected in a 1972 study for an Advanced Technology Transport (ATT) airplane. Noise-control features include: low tip speed, moderate stage pressure rise, large blade-vane spacings, no inlet guide vanes, and optimum blade and vane numbers. Tests were run on the baseline Q2S fan with standard inlet and discharge ducts. Further tests were made of a translating centerbody sonic inlet device and treated discharge ducts. Results were scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan size for comparison with current two-stage fans, and were also scaled to STF 433 fan size to compare calculated ATT flyover noise with FAR 36 limits. Baseline Q2S results scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan sizes showed substantial noise reductions. Calculated unsuppressed baseline ATT flyovers averaged about 2.5 EPNdB below FAR 36 limits. Using measured sonic inlet results, scaled baseline Q2S fan results, and calculated attenuations for a 1975 technology duct liner, projected flyover noise calculations for the ATT averaged about FAR 36 limits minus 10 EPNdB. Advances in suppression technology required to meet the 1985 goal of FAR 36 limits minus 20 EPNdB are discussed.

  19. A Couples Group of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kenneth; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An experiment at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine with a short-term medical student couples' workshop designed to foster increased sensitivity between medical students and their partners resulted in recommendation that such workshops be offered to medical students. (JT)

  20. Labor Law: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Is Not Limited to 180 Days From the Filing of a Charge in Which to Bring Suit Against an Employer. (EEOC v. Cleveland Mills Co., 502 F.2d 153 (4th Cir. 1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Larry

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the legality of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) action against Cleveland Mills Co. over four years after charges were filed with the EEOC in 1968. Concludes that the circuit court was right in reversing the district court decision that the EEOC has a time limit on its right to sue. (JT)

  1. Characteristics of a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazaki, T.

    2013-09-11

    Closed-cycle Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers have been developed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) with the aim of realizing a liquid-helium-free calibration apparatus for cryogenic thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K. The latest JT cryocooler at NMIJ/AIST consists of a {sup 3}He JT cooling circuit and a pulse tube mechanical refrigerator. The characteristics of the apparatus including a residual gas analysis of the JT cooling circuit are presented in this paper. Currently the initial cool-down is performed using a heat-exchange gas. It normally takes about 30 h to reduce the temperature from room temperature to 5 K at the thermometer comparison block of the apparatus. The correct timing of the removal of the heatexchange gas is important for the efficient operation of the apparatus. Incomplete removal of the heat-exchange gas induces excess heat load on the apparatus and thermal disturbances. Some examples of abrupt temperature bursts are discussed in this paper. Mechanical refrigerators generate cyclic mechanical vibrations, and precision resistance thermometers are usually very sensitive to a mechanical vibration. The measured vibration level of the developed apparatus is reported. The damage to the apparatus due to the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11, 2011, and possible countermeasures in the case of future earthquakes are also discussed.

  2. Assessing Competence in Pediatric Cardiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Apul E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In response to the need to assure physician competence, a rating scale was developed at the University of Minnesota Medical School for use in evaluating clinical competence in pediatric cardiology. It was tested on first- and second-year specialists. Development and testing procedures are described. (JT)

  3. School Learning and Adjustment: Interdisciplinary Training for Pediatricians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockowitz, Ruth J.; Stebbins, Winifred

    1975-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the School Health Programs of the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry's pediatric training: first-year lectures, second-year electives, clinical consultation for house officers, and a year-long experience as a local school consulting pediatrician for associate residents and fellows. (JT)

  4. Design & simulation of in-plane MEMS Lorentz force magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, Aditi, Tripathi, C. C.; Gopal, Ram

    2016-03-01

    This report presents the design and simulation of a MEMS based In-plane Lorentz Force Magnetometer (I-LFM), simulated for 8 um UV-LIGA technology using FEM tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. Designed I-LFM was simulated in the magnetic field range varied from 1 μJT to 100μJT. The proposed structure composed of a comb drive actuator, configured such that the fingers overlap with each other to generate capacitive coupling for its actuation. The magnetic field can be detected in Z-axis by this comb drive structure. The device was excited by supplying the sinusoidal current with the frequency equivalent to resonance frequency of the device at its first mode i.e. 12.047 kHz. In order to achieve the maximum mechanical output, the device was operated at the resonant frequency. Simulations based results shows a good linearity in the magnetic field range of 1 μJT to 100 μJT with a high quality factor of 130.

  5. Doctor-Patient Communication in General Practice Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, D. J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of categories of verbal interaction in a series of tape-recorded doctor-patient interviews enabled the author to perform a critical self-audit of his consultations. He suggests the methods could be employed with advantage in the fields of undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. (JT)

  6. Is The Modern Lease a Contract or a Conveyance?--A Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Stephen A.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that "contrary to conventional wisdom, current landlord-tenant law is modern, commercial, and already grounded in contract doctrine." Discusses the origins of the doctrines most frequently cited as illustrations of leasings property basis and redevelops the role of property law in adjudicating leasing disputes. (JT)

  7. Simulated Game Playing in Law School; An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald B.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the successful use of six simulated games in a commercial law class of 84 students and discusses teacher and student evaluation of their effectiveness. The six games, three with a legislative setting and three with a court setting, are included. (JT)

  8. Self-Assessment Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Howard S.; Tamblyn, Robyn M.

    1976-01-01

    The self assessment technique described here allows a student to evaluate his own clinical skills without the need for a faculty observer. In use for over two years for medical and nursing students and residents in the area of neurology, it requires the services of a simulated patient, a videotape machine, and a secretary. (JT)

  9. SHELTER THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, THE SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS INFLUENCE ON FORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    FALLOUT PROTECTION CAN BE PROVIDED BY CAREFUL ARRANGEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS WITHOUT SPECIFIC FACILITIES FOR THEIR PURPOSE AND WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH NORMAL SPACE USE. CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION ARE DISCUSSED AND ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDING DESIGN WITH RESPECT TO DISTANCE, GEOMETRY, AND TIME ARE GIVEN. (JT)

  10. Spin-Orbit Interaction and Jahn-Teller Transition in Bimetallic Oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Okamoto, Satoshi; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2009-01-01

    The C3-symmetric crystal-field potential in the Fe(II)Fe(III) bimetallic oxalates splits the L = 2 Fe(II) multiplet into two doublets and one singlet. In compounds that exhibit magnetic compensation, one of the doublets lies lowest in energy and carries an average orbital angular momentum Lcf z that exceeds a threshold value of roughly 0.25. In a range of Lcf z , a Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion increases the energy splitting of the low-lying doublet and breaks the C3 symmetry of the bimetallic planes around the ferrimagnetic transition temperature. Due to the competition with the spin-orbit coupling, the JT distortion disappears at low temperatures in compounds that display magnetic compensation. A comparison with recent measurements provides strong evidence for this inverse, low-temperature JT transition. The size of the JT distortion is estimated using first-principles calculations, which suggest that the long-range ordering of smaller, non-C3-symmetric organic cations can eliminate magnetic compensation. Keywords: Jahn-Teller distortion; Spin-orbit interaction; Crystal fields; Bimetallic oxalates

  11. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  12. The Prediction of Academic and Clinical Performance in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Harrison G.; Hall, Wallace B.

    1975-01-01

    A study of medical student performance showed the clinical performance factor more or less unpredictable from aptitude and premedical academic achievement indices while the academic performance factor was forecast with acceptable accuracy by equations based on the Medical College Admissions Test and premedical grade point average. (JT)

  13. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Tietjens J, Teerlink JR. Serelaxin and acute heart failure. Heart 2016;102:95–9. In this review the latest set of competing interests were not included in the published version. They are as follows; JT has no competing interests. JRT has received research grants and consulting fees from Amgen, Bayer, Cytokinetics, Novartis, and Trevena. PMID:26769379

  14. Education for Becoming: Two Field Programs at Antioch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael; Prier, Linda

    1974-01-01

    Based on the premise that therapy is a way of learning, two Field Centers were developed: (1) a small group in New Mexico who studied geology, botany, wilderness survival skills and themselves, the latter using group dream study methods and (2) a group in Switzerland to study Jungian psychology including individual analysis. (JT)

  15. Accreditation of Veterinary Medical Education: Part II--Influence of the American Veterinary Medical Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Elizabeth K.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)

  16. Alexander v. Gardner-Denver: A Threat to Title VII Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the decision on the rights of an employee, who has unsuccessfully pursued a race or sex discrimination claim through arbitration, to "relitigate" the claim under Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Conclusion: the decision endangers Title VII rights by granting too much weight to prior arbitration awards. (JT)

  17. Sex Discrimination as to Maternity Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Arthur

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of the state of the law at all points where maternity produces a claim of sex discrimination in employment and discussion of whether, under Geduldig v. Aiello, all private fringe benefit systems must equate normal pregnancy with temporary sickness and disability. (JT)

  18. Pregnancy and Sex-Based Discrimination in Employment: A Post-Aiello Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joanne L.

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the effect of the Supreme Court decision, Geduldig v. Aiello, on the interpretative guidelines of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which in enforcing Title VII of the Civil Rights Act treats pregnancy like any other temporary disability. Concludes that the Court should give "great deference" to the EEOC guidelines. (JT)

  19. Educational Materials Reviewed for AVLINE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norbert A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Information gathered from faculty members about nontextbook educational materials is reviewed by the Association of American Medical Colleges before cataloging, indexing, and abstracting at the National Library of Medicine for listing in AVLINE, a computer information service available through the MEDLARS system. (JT)

  20. English Literature as a Passive Catalyst to Success in English Language at the School Certificate/General Certificate of Education 0-Level Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor, Adonis F.; Sengova, Mathew J.

    1974-01-01

    Reports research in Sierra Leone investigating whether the study of English Literature influences secondary school pupils' competence in English language. Grades of 663 pupils who took both courses were compared with those of 490 who took only language. Results indicate that literature did not aid in language study. (JT)

  1. The Student-Athlete and the National Collegiate Athletic Association: The Need for a Prima Facie Tort Doctrine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Roy D., III

    1975-01-01

    In examining whether courts have jurisdiction to hear student-athlete grievances against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the author rejects the position that the NCAA's activities are under cover of state law, and instead proposes that the student-athlete's remedy lies in an action against the NCAA for a prima facie tort. (JT)

  2. Antifungal properties of native Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

    PubMed

    Rao, K L N Mallikharjuna; Raju, K Siva; Ravisankar, H

    2015-11-01

    Isolates of Trichoderma native to tobacco rhizosphere, were evaluated for their antifungal properties against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum, fungal pathogens causing collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. Isolate TvJt1 showed maximum HCN production (0.14 OD) followed by ThHt1 and minimum by isolates ThJnt and ThRt1 (0.08 and 0.09 OD). Indole acetic acid (IAA) production among the isolates varied from 6.48 to 14.82 pg ml(-1). Isolate ThJO1 produced maximum siderophore (13.48 m mol ml(-1), whereas isolate TvJt1 produced minimum content (6.24 m mol ml(-1)). Isolate ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity (62.12 p kat m;(-1)) as compared to other isolates, followed by isolate TvHt2. Isolate TvHt2 showed maximum and significantly higher β-1, 3-glucanase activity (9.94 n kat ml(-1)) when compared to all other isolates. Isolate ThJt1 showed second highest activity of β-1, 3-glucanase (6.75 n kat/ml). In dual culture, inhibition of mycelial growth of Pythium by isolate TvHt2 was maximum (72.45%) followed by ThJt1 whereas inhibition of mycelial growth of S. rolfsii by these two isolates was at a par (78.36% and 76.17%) and significantly higher than some isolates. Isolates TvHt2 and ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth (80.24% and 76%) by production of non-volatiles. Inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth by production of volatile compounds by Trichoderma isolates ranged from 54.36 to 72.6% and 66.24 to 84.24% respectively. Hence, further investigation with potential isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 in tobacco nursery may help to explore these bioagents for control of collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. PMID:26688972

  3. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  4. Origin of distinct structural symmetry of the neopentane cation in the ground electronic state compared to the methane cation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, T

    2016-04-21

    An ab initio quantum dynamics study has been performed to explore the distinct structural symmetry of C(CH3)4(+) in the ground electronic state compared to CH4(+). Additionally, the underlying details of the highly diffuse and complex vibronic structure of the first photoelectron band of C(CH3)4 have been investigated. Associated potential energy surfaces over the two-dimensional space of nuclear coordinates, subject to the T2⊗ (e + t2) Jahn-Teller effect, are established from extensive electronic structure calculations and (then) the nuclear dynamics calculations are done on them via wave packet propagation including the nonadiabatic coupling of the three electronic sheets. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental observations. The JT stabilization energies due to T2⊗e, T2⊗t2 and T2⊗ (e + t2) distortions in the X[combining tilde](2)T2 electronic manifold of C(CH3)4(+) illustrate that the highest stabilization occurs through the T2⊗t2-JT distortion (in the ground state of C(CH3)4(+)). However, CH4(+) gains such maximum stabilization due to T2⊗ (e + t2)-JT distortion. From this novel result and applying the epikernel principle, we propose that the structural evolution of C(CH3)4(+) from Td to C3v minimum energy configuration occurs via JT active vibrations of t2 symmetry, whereas CH4(+) rearranges to the C2v structure through a combination of JT active e and t2 bending vibrations. PMID:27030072

  5. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  6. Electrical stimulation to optimize cardioprotective exosomes from cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Berman, A E; Weintraub, N L; Tang, Y L

    2016-03-01

    Injured or ischemic cardiac tissue has limited intrinsic capacity for regeneration. While stem cell transplantation is a promising approach to stimulating cardiac repair, its success in humans has thus far been limited. Harnessing the therapeutic benefits of stem cells requires a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and methods to optimize their function. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) represent a particularly effective cellular source for cardiac repair, and pre-conditioning CSC with electrical stimulation (EleS) was demonstrated to further enhance their function, although the mechanisms are unknown. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells primarily exert their effects through communicating with endogenous tissues via the release of exosomes containing cardioprotective molecules such as miRNAs, which upon uptake by recipient cells may stimulate survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Exosomes are also effective therapeutic agents in isolation and may provide a feasible alternative to stem cell transplantation. We hypothesize that EleS enhances CSC-mediated cardiac repair through its beneficial effects on production of cardioprotective exosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure may in part result from EleS-induced preconditioning of endogenous CSC to promote cardiac repair. With future research, our hypothesis may provide applications to optimize stem cell therapy and augment current pacing protocols, which may significantly advance the treatment of patients with heart disease. PMID:26880625

  7. β-elemene decreases cell invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yinghua

    2013-08-01

    Inactivation of E-cadherin results in cell migration and invasion, hence leading to cancer aggressiveness and metastasis. Downregulation of E-cadherin is closely correlated with a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Thus, re-introducing E-cadherin is a novel strategy for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine, β-elemene (ELE), on E-cadherin expression, cell migration and invasion in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. MCF-7 cells were treated with 50 and 100 µg/ml ELE. E-cadherin mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. E-cadherin protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Cell motility was measured by a Transwell assay. ELE increased both the protein and mRNA levels of E-cadherin, accompanied by decreased cell migration and invasion. Further analysis demonstrated that ELE upregulated estrogen receptor‑α (ERα) and metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3), and decreased the nuclear transcription factor Snail. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ELE decreases cell migration and invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression via controlling the ERα/MTA3/Snail signaling pathway. PMID:23732279

  8. The Restorative Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf Extract on Vascular Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosoo, Shingo; Koyama, Masahiro; Kato, Mai; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Yasuyo; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Wada, Atsunori; Wada, Keiji; Nishibe, Sansei; Nakamura, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf is a traditional Chinese antihypertensive and antidiabetic medicine. We examined the effects of chronic Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) administration on artery function and morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ELE was orally administered via normal diet ad libitum to six-week-old male SHRs at a concentration of 5% for seven weeks. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation, plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, and media thickness were assessed. ELE significantly improved ACh-induced aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation but did not affect SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in the SHRs, as compared to the animals receiving normal diet. Plasma NO levels and media thickness were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the ELE-treated SHRs. Therefore, long-term ELE administration may effectively improve vascular function by increasing plasma NO levels and bioavailability, and by preventing vascular hypertrophy in the SHR aorta. PMID:26690110

  9. Preservation of Sub-Microscopic Scale Structural Relics in Biotite: Implications for 40AR/39AR Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrando, M.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Ferraris, C.

    2012-12-01

    Relic crystals of magmatic biotite that undewent eclogite facies metamorphism were investigated by laser step-heating and laser in-situ 40Ar/39Ar techniques, in conjunction with SEM, EMP and TEM analyses, to elucidate the influence of recrystallization on K-Ar systematics. Samples were collected from meta-granitoids of the Gran Paradiso Massif (Western Alps), emplaced at upper crustal depths (P~0.25-0.35 GPa) in the Permian and metamorphosed at P>2.0 GPa and T~500-600°C in the Middle-Late Eocene. Two different samples, which underwent different degrees of Alpine re-equilibration, were examined. Sample JT1007 still preserves the original cm-sized magmatic quartz, k-feldspar and brown biotite (Bt 1), rarely rimmed by small green biotite crystals (Bt 2) related to Alpine metamorphism. Sample JT1008, instead, is characterized by a larger degree of Alpine re-equilibration, with static re-crystallization of the original magmatic quartz into aggregates of fine-grained polygonal crystals and common green biotite rims around brown Bt 1. Compositional profiling across Bt 1 in sample JT1007 reveals a progressive decrease in Ti content towards the crystal rims, which overlap with the composition of Bt 2. Compositional profiling across Bt 1 in sample JT1008, instead, reveals a homogeneous Ti content across the grain. This compositional pattern is mirrored by TEM investigation at the sub-micron scale, revealing a systematic zoning in Bt 1 from sample JT1007, with high-temperature magmatic politypes, surrounded by 1M politypes, still preserved in crystal cores. Crystal rims, instead, are characterized by 1M politypes only. Biotites from JT1008, instead, are homogeneous, solely consisting of 1M politypes. Infrared laser step-heating experiments on mineral separates from the two samples gave contrasting results: JT1008 yielded a flat spectrum, for more than 90% of the released 39ArK, with an error-weighted mean age of 36.5±0.3 Ma; JT1007 yielded a slightly saddle-shaped profile

  10. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  11. ``Learning to Research'' in a Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study on the Effectiveness of a Socio-constructivist Learning Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Alonso, C.; Fernández-Pampillón, A.; de-Miguel, E.; Pita, G.

    Learning is the basis for research and lifelong training. The implementation of virtual environments for developing this competency requires the use of effective learning models. In this study we present an experiment in positive learning from the virtual campus of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). In order to carry it out we have used E-Ling, an e-learning environment that has been developed with an innovative didactic design based on a socio-constructivist learning approach. E-Ling has been used since 2006 to train future teachers and researchers in “learning to research”. Some of the results of this experiment have been statistically analysed in order to compare them with other learning models. From the obtained results we have concluded that E-Ling is a more productive proposal for developing competences in learning to research.

  12. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  13. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Loevey, Katalin Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p{sub WBI/HDR-BT} = 0.26; p{sub WBI/ELE} = 0.11; p{sub ELE/HDR-BT} = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT.

  14. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to reduce fuel consumption of current commercial aircraft engines, methods were investigated for improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for use on vane platforms in the JT9D turbofan engine. Increased durability concepts under evaluation include use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application. Initial burner rig tests conducted at temperatures of 1010 C (1850 F) indicate that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coating systems were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 100-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  15. Tone generation by rotor-downstream strut interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Balombin, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A JT15D fan stage was acoustically tested in the NASA Lewis anechoic chamber as part of the joint Lewis-Langley Research Center investigation of flight simulation techniques and flight effects using the JT15D engine as a common test vehicle. Suspected rotor-downstream support strut interaction was confirmed through the use of simulated support struts which were tested at three axial rotor-strut spacings. Tests were also performed with the struts removed. Inlet boundary layer suction in conjuction with an inflow control device was also explored. The removal of the boundary layer reduced the fan fundamental tone levels suggesting that the mounting and mating of such a device to the nacelle requires careful attention. With the same inflow control device installed good acoustic agreement was shown between the engine on an outdoor test stand and the fan in the anechoic chamber.

  16. Tone generation by rotor-downstream strut interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Balombin, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A JT15D fan stage was acoustically tested in the NASA Lewis anechoic chamber as part of the joint Lewis-Langley Research Center investigation of flight simulation techniques and flight effects using the JT15D engine as a common test vehicle. Suspected rotor-downstream support strut interaction was confirmed through the use of simulated support struts which were tested at three axial rotor-strut spacings. Tests were also performed with the struts removed. Inlet boundary layer suction in conjunction with an inflow control device was also explored. The removal of the boundary layer reduced the fan fundamental tone levels suggesting that the mounting and mating of such a device to the nacelle requires careful attention. With the same inflow control device installed good acoustic agreement was shown between the engine on an outdoor test stand and the fan in the anechoic chamber.

  17. Gifford-McMahon/Joule-Thomson Refrigerator Cools to 2.5 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Fernandez, Jose; Hanson, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    A compact refrigerator designed specifically for cooling a microwave maser low-noise amplifier is capable of removing heat at a continuous rate of 180 mW at a temperature of 2.5 K. This refrigerator is a combination of (1) a commercial Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator nominally rated for cooling to 4 K and (2) a Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit. The GM refrigerator pre-cools the J-T circuit, which provides the final stage of cooling. The refrigerator is compact and capable of operating in any orientation. Moreover, in comparison with a typical refrigerator heretofore used to cool a maser to 4.5 K, this refrigerator is simpler and can be built at less than half the cost.

  18. Localized electron heating by strong guide-field magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuehan; Inomoto, Michiaki; Sugawara, Takumichi; Yamasaki, Kotaro; Ushiki, Tomohiko; Ono, Yasushi

    2015-10-01

    Localized electron heating of magnetic reconnection was studied under strong guide-field using two merging spherical tokamak plasmas in the University of Tokyo Spherical Tokamak experiment. Our new slide-type two-dimensional Thomson scattering system is documented for the first time the electron heating localized around the X-point. Shape of the high electron temperature area does not agree with that of energy dissipation term Et.jt . If we include a guide-field effect term Bt/(Bp+αBt) for Et.jt , the energy dissipation area becomes localized around the X-point, suggesting that the electrons are accelerated by the reconnection electric field parallel to the magnetic field and thermalized around the X-point.

  19. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Hilmi, A; Inoue, T; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Kobayashi, S; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2012-02-01

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of ∼2 m(2). The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D(-) ion beams for 100 s. PMID:22380274

  20. Spectroscopic determination of kinetic parameters for frequency sweeping Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Garbet, X.

    2010-12-15

    A method for analyzing fundamental kinetic plasma parameters, such as linear drive and external damping rate, based on experimental observations of chirping Alfven eigenmodes, is presented. The method, which relies on new semiempirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, consists of fitting procedures between the so-called Berk-Breizman model and the experiment in a quasiperiodic chirping regime. This approach is applied to the toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) on JT-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [N. Oyama et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104007 (2009)], which yields an estimation of the kinetic parameters and suggests the existence of TAEs far from marginal stability. Two collision models are considered, and it is shown that dynamical friction and velocity-space diffusion are essential to reproduce nonlinear features observed in experiments. The results are validated by recovering measured growth and decay of perturbation amplitude and by estimating collision frequencies from experimental equilibrium data.

  1. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation is reported of improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for the vane platforms in the JT9d turbofan engine. The program aims for reduced fuel consumption of commercial aircraft engines; the use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application are being evaluated. The initial burner rig tests at temperatures up to 1010 C indicated that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coatings were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 1000-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  2. A 0.63 micrometers polarization maintaining optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Tamaki, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable was developed with negligible small loss increase and high crosstalk for optical interferometric measuring system of JT-60 (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute TOKAMAK-60). Optical interferometric measuring system is required for high precise non-contact measurement of distance or vibration. Polarization maintaining optical fiber enabled to measure them in extremely high electromagnetic field of JT-60. Developed cable is flame-resistant non-metallic type complex 16 fiber cable for 0.6 micron use, that has 8 polarization maintaining optical fibers (stress applying, called PANDA fiber) and 8 single mode optical fibers. This paper shows the experimental result and the possibility of manufacturing polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable for 0.63 micron use.

  3. Plate fin heat exchanger model with axial conduction and variable properites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Benjamin Jacob; White, Michael Joseph; Klebaner, Arkadiy

    2012-06-01

    Future superconduction radio frequency (SRF) cavities, as part of Project X at Fermilab,will be cooled to superfluid helium temperatures by a cryogenic distribution system supplying cold supercritical helium. To reduce vapor fraction during the final Joule Thomson (J-T) expansion into the superfluid helium cooling bath, counter-flow, plate-fin heat exchanger are an effective option. However, at liquid helium temperatures requires consideration of axial heat conduction along the direction of flow, in addition to variable fluid properties. Here we present a numberical model that includes the effects of axial guide design decisions on heat exhanger material choice and geometry. In addition, the J-T expansion process is modeled with the heat exchanger to analyze the effect of heat load and cryogenic supply parameters.

  4. High performance infrared fast cooled detectors for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Espuno, Laurent; Taalat, Rachid; Sultan, Ahmad; Cassaigne, Pierre; Matallah, Noura

    2016-05-01

    SOFRADIR was selected in the late 90's for the production of 320×256 MW detectors for major European missile programs. This experience has established our company as a key player in the field of missile programs. SOFRADIR has since developed a vast portfolio of lightweight, compact and high performance JT-based solutions for missiles. ALTAN is a 384x288 Mid Wave infrared detector with 15μm pixel pitch, and is offered in a miniature ultra-fast Joule- Thomson cooled Dewar. Since Sofradir offers both Indium Antimonide (InSb) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride technologies (MCT), we are able to deliver the detectors best suited to customers' needs. In this paper we are discussing different figures of merit for very compact and innovative JT-cooled detectors and are highlighting the challenges for infrared detection technologies.

  5. The pollution reduction technology program for can-annular combustor engines - Description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutant reduction and performance characteristics were determined for three successively more advanced combustor concepts. Program Element I consisted of minor modifications to the current production JT8D combustor and fuel system to evaluate means of improved fuel preparation and changes to the basic airflow distribution. Element II addressed versions of the two-staged Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and represented a moderate increase in hardware complexity and difficulty of development. The concept selected for Element III employed vaporized fuel as a means of achieving minimum emission levels and represented the greatest difficulty of development and adaptation to the JT8D engine. Test results indicate that the Element I single-stage combustors were capable of dramatic improvement in idle pollutants. The multistage combustors evaluated in Program Elements II and III simultaneously reduced CO, THC and NOx emissions, but were unable to satisfy the current 1979 EPA standards.

  6. Low pollution combustor designs for CTOL engines - Results of the Experimental Clean Combustor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Experimental Clean Combustor Program is a multi-year, major contract effort. Primary program objectives are the generation of combustor technology for development of advanced commercial CTOL engines with lower exhaust emissions than current aircraft and demonstration of this technology in a full-scale JT9D engine in 1976. This paper describes the pollution and performance goals, Phase I and II test results, and the Phase III combustor hardware, pollution sampling techniques, and test plans. Best results were obtained with the Vorbix concept which employs multiple burning zones and improved fuel preparation and distribution. Substantial reductions were achieved in all pollutant categories, meeting the 1979 EPA standards for NOx, THC, and smoke when extrapolated to JT9D cycle conditions. The Vorbix concept additionally demonstrated the capability for acceptable altitude relight and did not appear to have unsolvable durability or exit temperature distribution problems.

  7. Thermodynamic aspects of small 4.2-K cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirtle, F. W.; Lessard, P. A.; Kaufman, J. M.; Kerney, P. J.

    Advantages regarding a use of superconducting electronic devices are related to potential benefits in size, weight, accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility. For the employment of such devices, suitable cryogenic systems are needed. As closed cycle coolers have advantages with respect to potential size, weight, and longevity, an investigation has been performed for the evaluation of different closed cycle system options from a thermodynamic point of view. A survey of available technology is provided, and aspects of thermodynamic optimization are explored, taking into account the single engine Claude cycle, regenerative cycles with J-T loops, and a comparison of the total power requirements for the three cycles. A study is conducted of wet (two-phase) expanders, cold gas compressors, and ejectors to determine potential improvements to the J-T sections of the various cycles.

  8. Peritoneal dialysis in microencephaly.

    PubMed

    Peters, April

    2008-01-01

    J.T. was able to remain home in her familiar environment and receive safe and adequate treatment for her renal disease. J.T. had no infectious episodes or hospitalizations while under this unit's care for 35 months. She was also able to participate in her regular activities of daily living, interact with her family members, and travel on occasion, thus maintaining a good quality of life. Therefore, unit goals for her care were met. J.T.'s experience demonstrates that with proper teaching, preparation, and support from the dialysis care team working with a dedicated family, peritoneal dialysis can be an ideal modality for the treatment of ESRD in people with mental disabilities. PMID:19260611

  9. Jaw tumor in primary hyperparathyroidism is not always a brown tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ennazk, Laila; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary hyperparthyrodism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease. It results from an inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion relative to serum ionized calcium level. Clinical manifestation of severe PHPT include bone disease called osteitis fibrosa cystica which reflects an increase osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic activity. This high bone turnover is responsible of the occurrence of osteoclastomas, also named “brown tumors” (1). Rarely, PHPT may occur in inherited forms with association to fibrous jaw tumor that are unrelated to hyperparathyroidism. In this uncommon disease: hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, parathyroid tumor is frequently malignant and usually associated with nonendocrine malignancies (2). We report a case of a HPT-JT syndrome to focus on the differential diagnosis with brown tumors. PMID:27252751

  10. Jaw tumor in primary hyperparathyroidism is not always a brown tumor.

    PubMed

    Ennazk, Laila; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparthyrodism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease. It results from an inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion relative to serum ionized calcium level. Clinical manifestation of severe PHPT include bone disease called osteitis fibrosa cystica which reflects an increase osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic activity. This high bone turnover is responsible of the occurrence of osteoclastomas, also named "brown tumors" (1). Rarely, PHPT may occur in inherited forms with association to fibrous jaw tumor that are unrelated to hyperparathyroidism. In this uncommon disease: hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, parathyroid tumor is frequently malignant and usually associated with nonendocrine malignancies (2). We report a case of a HPT-JT syndrome to focus on the differential diagnosis with brown tumors. PMID:27252751

  11. TiO2 nanotube (T_NT) surface treatment revisited: Implications of ZnO, TiCl4, and H2O2 treatment on the photoelectrochemical properties of T_NT and T_NT-CdSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Bratindranath; Wilson, Winn; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan (Ravi)

    2012-12-01

    The surface treatment of an anodized TiO2 nanotube (T_NT) is very desirable for enhancing its photoelectrochemical properties and often is a prerequisite to deposition of any overlying layer for photoactivity efficiency improvement. This study provides a comparative analysis of the effects of such surface treatments and the mechanistic insights behind the observed improvements in the performance of the treated T_NTs. T_NT surface treatment using three approaches, viz., TiCl4, Zn(NH3)42+, and H2O2 is examined. TiCl4 and Zn(NH3)42+ treatment results in the formation of discontinuous islands of the respective oxides with 5-10 nm and 15-20 nm diameter particles. TiCl4 treatment demonstrates an increase of 7.4% in photovoltage and is the most effective of the three approaches. Zn(NH3)42+ treatment also results in an ~2% increase in photovoltage. However, a surface treatment of T_NT using H2O2 results only in a favourable shift in flatband potential (80 mV). The T_NTs are rendered ineffective as H2O2 treatment causes the destabilization of the T_NT at the base. Finally, the activity of an overlying chalcogenide layer is improved with the TiCl4 and Zn(NH3)42+ treatment (and not with H2O2) as evident from the photoelectrochemical responses: (JT_NT-TiO2-CdSe > JT_NT-ZnO-CdSe > JT_NT-CdSe > JT_NT-H2O2-CdSe).The surface treatment of an anodized TiO2 nanotube (T_NT) is very desirable for enhancing its photoelectrochemical properties and often is a prerequisite to deposition of any overlying layer for photoactivity efficiency improvement. This study provides a comparative analysis of the effects of such surface treatments and the mechanistic insights behind the observed improvements in the performance of the treated T_NTs. T_NT surface treatment using three approaches, viz., TiCl4, Zn(NH3)42+, and H2O2 is examined. TiCl4 and Zn(NH3)42+ treatment results in the formation of discontinuous islands of the respective oxides with 5-10 nm and 15-20 nm diameter particles. TiCl4

  12. The effect of external magnetic field on the Raman peaks in manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, A. K.; Rout, G. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report here a microscopic theoretical model study exhibiting the effect of external magnetic field on the Raman excitation peaks in the CMR manganite system. The Hamiltonian consists of Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion in e{sub g} band, the double exchange interaction and the Heisenberg spin-spin interaction. Further the phonons are coupled to e{sub g} band electrons, J-T distorted e{sub g} band and the double exchange interaction. The Raman spectral intensity is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green function. The spectra exhibits three peaks besides a very weak high energy peak. The magnetic field effect on these peaks are reported.

  13. Impact of gate workfunction in junctionless versus junction SOI n-MOSFET transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, A. R. N.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Othman, Noraini; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Hashim, U.; Lee, H. Cheun; Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Kahar, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of gate workfunction variation on DC characteristics in 100 nm gate length silicon-on-insulator (SOI) junctionless (JL) and junction transistors has been investigated by using numerical simulations. The digital figure-of-merits characteristics such as threshold voltage (VTH), on/off-current ratio, subthreshold voltage, and drain-induced-barrier-lowering are the main parameters that have been investigated. The rate of change in VTH with the respect to gate workfunction for both JLT and JT devices was almost same. Besides that, it shows the designated JLT device is achieving full-depletion at higher gate workfunction of more than 5.0 eV whereas the designated JT device is more wider range, ranging from low, mid-gap or high workfunction.

  14. Optimization of the working fluid for a sorption-based Joule-Thomson cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zalewski, D. R.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson coolers operate vibration-free, have a potentially long life time, and cause no electromagnetic interference. Therefore, they are appealing to a wide variety of applications, such as cooling of low-noise amplifiers, superconducting electronics, and optical detectors. The required cooling temperature depends on the device to be cooled and extends into the cryogenic range well below 80 K. This paper presents a generalized methodology for optimization in a sorption-based JT cooler. The analysis is based on the inherent properties of the fluids and the adsorbent. By using this method, the working fluid of a JT cooler driven by a single-stage sorption compressor is optimized for two ranges of cold-tip operating temperatures: 65-160 K and 16-38 K. The optimization method is also extended to two-stage compression and specifically nitrogen and carbon monoxide are considered.

  15. Dynamic PID loop control

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.

  16. Effect of forward motion on engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, G. L.; Low, J. K. C.; Watkins, J. A.; Merriman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used to determine a procedure for correcting static engine data for the effects of forward motion are described. Data were analyzed from airplane flyover and static-engine tests with a JT8D-109 low-bypass-ratio turbofan engine installed on a DC-9-30, with a CF6-6D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine installed on a DC-10-10, and with a JT9D-59A high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine installed on a DC-10-40. The observed differences between the static and the flyover data bases are discussed in terms of noise generation, convective amplification, atmospheric propagation, and engine installation. The results indicate that each noise source must be adjusted separately for forward-motion and installation effects and then projected to flight conditions as a function of source-path angle, directivity angle, and acoustic range relative to the microphones on the ground.

  17. QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES

    SciTech Connect

    LAO,LL; SNYDER,PB; LEONARD,AW; OIKAWA,T; OSBORNE,TH; PETRIE,TW; FERRON,JR; GROEBNER,RJ; HORTON,LD; KAMADA,Y; MURAKAMI,M; SAARELMA,S; STJOHN,HE; TURNBULL,AD; WILSON,HR

    2003-03-01

    A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALOONING MODES. Several testable features of the working model of edge localized modes (ELMs) as intermediate toroidal mode number peeling-ballooning modes are evaluated quantitatively using DIII-D and JT-60U experimental data and the ELITE MHD stability code. These include the hypothesis that ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable MHD modes, the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region, and ELM size generally becomes smaller at high edge collisionality. ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of the unstable MHD modes become significantly large. These testable features are consistent with many ELM observations in DIII-D and JT-60U discharges.

  18. Vacuum insulation of the high energy negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Hilmi, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2012-02-15

    Vacuum insulation on a large size negative ion accelerator with multiple extraction apertures and acceleration grids for fusion application was experimentally examined and designed. In the experiment, vacuum insulation characteristics were investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source with >1000 apertures on the grid with the surface area of {approx}2 m{sup 2}. The sustainable voltages varied with a square root of the gap lengths between the grids, and decreased with number of the apertures and with the surface area of the grids. Based on the obtained results, the JT-60SA (super advanced) negative ion source is designed to produce 22 A, 500 keV D{sup -} ion beams for 100 s.

  19. Dynamic Jahn-Teller Effect in Negatively Charged Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Tesfaye; Zhang, Peihong

    2011-03-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attracted much research interest recently owing to its desirable optical properties and long spin coherent lifetime. The ground state of NV- center has a 3 A2 symmetry, which can be optically excited, to a 3 E state. The excited state is orbitally degenerate therefore should experience either static or dynamic Jahn-Teller (JT) effects. We use accurate first-principles methods to study structural and electronic properties of the NV- center in diamond both in the ground and excited states. Our results indicate that the excited state of the NV- center is indeed a dynamic JT system. We acknowledge the Center for Computational Research at the University at Buffalo, SUNY. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-0946404 and by the Department of Energy under GrantNo. DE-SC0002623.

  20. Effects of Structure on Magnetic Properties in La1-xSrxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louca, Despo; Egami, Takeshi

    1996-03-01

    Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis was carried out on pulsed neutron powder diffaction data of x=0 and x=0.15 Sr-doped La1-xSrxMnO3 to study the local structure as a function of temperature. In the undoped case, strong Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions are observed with an elongation of x or y-axes. This has been established crystallographically and confirmed by PDF. A split in the PDF peak of the nearest neighbor Mn-O pairs is observed at 2.0 and 2.2 A with the ratio of 2:1. In the doped case, x=0.15, two levels of JT distor- tions are observed. At low temperatures, JT distortions are reduced by do- ping in the crystallographic picture, but PDF shows that some sites are dis- torted and some are not. As a result, the 2.0 A peak remains but the 2.2 A peak gets weaker. Ar room temperature, another secondary JT effect is obser- ved. This is seen by the breaking of symmetry between two undistorted dire- ctions. Real space refinement suggested the displacement of the B cation, Mn. At this temperature, in addition to the low T effects, splitting of the 2.0 A peak is observed to 1.89 A and 2.06 A. This is the first observance of such a structural change. This structural change should have huge effects on the change of resistivity at the Curie temperature. Physical implications will be discussed. This work was supported by NSF DMR93-00728.