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Sample records for elective coronary bypass

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  2. Effect of transfusion on dizziness in anemic patients after elective off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Zadeh, Mehdi Haddad; Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Dehnavi, Naime Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neurological disorders are common complications following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Dizziness in convalescence period is of high importance because it can prolong patient's stay at the hospital and decrease in sense of rehealing. Transfusion indication is seen in hemoglobin levels <7 g/dl; however, dizziness has been frequently observed in patients with hemoglobin levels 7-10 g/dl and they have dramatic response to transfusion. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate effect of transfusion on dizziness in hemoglobin levels of 7-10 g/dl to set a more accurate indication for transfusion in anemic patients after elective off-pump CABG. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 90 patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery from January to June 2011, in Afshar cardiovascular center, Yazd, Iran. Patients with hemoglobin levels of 7-10 g/ dl measured 48 h after CABG were included in this study and those who stayed in ICU more than 48 h were excluded. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group received packed cell according to study protocol while the control group did not receive packed cell. Hemoglobin concentration was measured at 48 h and 72 h after CABG and discharge time, respectively. Dizziness was evaluated 72 h after surgery. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.5 ± 10.67 years, from all of patients in which 50 cases (55.6%) were males and 40 cases (44.4%) were females. Dizziness after surgery occurred in 35 cases (38.8%), of whom, 27 cases (62.8%) were in the control group and 8 cases (17%) were in the transfusion group. Significantly a difference in the incidence of dizziness was found between two groups (P= 0.001). Conclusion: Transfusion in hemoglobin levels of 7-10 g/dl can be useful to decrease dizziness in anemic patients after elective off-pump CABG; however, the guidelines in textbooks suggest transfusion after CABG to be in hemoglobin levels <7 g/dl. PMID:23559766

  3. Shrunken Pore Syndrome is associated with a sharp rise in mortality in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin  C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin  C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin  C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin  C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin  C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0–5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957

  4. The Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate and Lidocaine in Hemodynamic Responses to Endotracheal Intubation in Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah Kiaee, Mehrdad; Safari, Saeid; Movaseghi, Gholam Reza; Mohaghegh Dolatabadi, Mahmoud Reza; Ghorbanlo, Masoud; Etemadi, Mehrnoosh; Amiri, Seyed Arash; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: There have been many concerns about alteration in hemodynamic parameters within and shortly after endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Objectives: We compared the attenuation effect of magnesium sulfate and lidocaine on hemodynamic responses after ETI, in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial 150 patients undergoing elective CABG were enrolled. Included patients were randomly allocated to three groups and received lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg), magnesium sulfate (50 mg/kg within five minute), or normal saline, 90 seconds before ETI. Baseline hemodynamic parameters including heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded immediately before anesthesia induction, before intubation, immediately after intubation, and at second and fifth minutes after intubation. Results: The baseline hemodynamic variables had no deference among the three groups. HR between intubation and five minute after intubation was significantly lower in two groups received lidocaine or magnesium sulfate in comparison with placebo group. Lidocaine induced more than 20% decrease in HR and MAP immediately after intubation; hence, lidocaine group showed significant MAP reduction in comparison with the two other groups. Conclusions: Lidocaine induced hemodynamic instability but premedication of magnesium sulfate maintained hemodynamic stability after intubation. Therefore, in patients undergoing CABG who received high-dose intravenous analgesic for general anesthesia, the administration of magnesium sulfate might result in maintaining hemodynamic stability after ETI in comparison with lidocaine. PMID:25237632

  5. Effect of dipyridamole on myocardial reperfusion injury: A double-blind randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    El Messaoudi, S; Wouters, C W; van Swieten, H A; Pickkers, P; Noyez, L; Kievit, P C; Abbink, E J; Rasing-Hoogveld, A; Bouw, T P; Peters, J G; Coenen, Mjh; Donders, Art; Riksen, N P; Rongen, G A

    2016-04-01

    Dipyridamole reduces reperfusion-injury in preclinical trials and may be beneficial in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty, but its effect on patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unknown. We hypothesized that dipyridamole limits myocardial reperfusion-injury in patients undergoing CABG. The trial design was a double-blind trial randomizing between pretreatment with dipyridamole or placebo. In all, 94 patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG were recruited between February 2010 and June 2012. The primary endpoint was plasma high-sensitive (hs-) troponin-I at 6, 12, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Secondary endpoints were the occurrence of bleeding, arrhythmias, need for inotropic support, and intensive care unit length of stay. Finally, 79 patients (33 dipyridamole) were included in the per-protocol analysis. Dipyridamole did not significantly affect postoperative hs-troponin-I (change in plasma hs-troponin I -3% [95% confidence interval -23% to 36%]; P > 0.1). Secondary endpoints did not differ between groups. Dipyridamole prior to CABG does not significantly reduce postoperative hs-troponin release. PMID:25773594

  6. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used ... is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the insides of your coronary arteries. ...

  7. Results of coronary surgery after failed elective coronary angioplasty in patients with prior coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Cohen, C L; Curling, P E; Jones, E L; Craver, J M; Guyton, R; King, S B; Douglas, J S

    1990-11-01

    The results of coronary artery bypass surgery after failed elective coronary angioplasty in patients who have undergone prior coronary surgery are unknown. Coronary angioplasty may be performed to relieve angina after surgery either to the native coronary vessels or to grafts. Failure of attempted coronary angioplasty may mandate repeat coronary surgery, often in the setting of acute ischemia. From 1980 to 1989, 1,263 patients with prior coronary bypass surgery underwent angioplasty; of these patients, 46 (3.6%) underwent reoperation for failed angioplasty during the same hospital stay. Of the 46 patients who underwent reoperation, 33 had and 13 did not have acute ischemia. In the group with ischemia, 3 patients (9.1%) died and 14 (42.4%) died or had a Q wave myocardial infarction in the hospital compared with no deaths (p = NS) and no deaths or Q wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.005) in the group without ischemia. At 3 years, the actuarial survival rate was 88 +/- 6% in the group with ischemia, whereas there were no deaths in the group without ischemia (p = NS), and freedom from death or myocardial infarction was 51 +/- 10% in the group with ischemia, versus no events in the group without ischemia (p = 0.006). In most patients with prior coronary bypass surgery, coronary angioplasty was performed without the need for repeat coronary bypass surgery. Should coronary angioplasty fail, reoperation in patients without acute ischemia can be performed with overall patient survival comparable to that of elective reoperative coronary bypass without coronary angioplasty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2229784

  8. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 3 days in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Life After Bypass After bypass surgery, your doctor will recommend that you join a cardiac rehabilitation program. These programs help you make lifestyle changes ...

  9. [Coronary artery bypass grafting without extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Kovács, E; Szabolcs, Z; Gyöngy, T; Hartyánszky, I; Hüttl, T; Matkó, I; Moravcsik, E; Bodor, E

    2001-12-01

    At the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Semmelweis University, Budapest we have performed 57 coronary bypass operations without using cardiopulmonary bypass between 1996 and September 2001. Due to the learning phase we preferred cases of 1-2 wessel diseases, and revascularisation necessary on the anterior surface of the heart. In the beginning the stabilization of the operative field was ensured by manual methods, then by applying mechanical stabilization devices (Octopus 2, Genzyme). As to the type of operative indication overwhelmingly elective operations were performed. REDO procedure, i.e. repeated coronary bypass operation was carried out in 2 cases. Forty-eight patients recovered without complication. Two patients died, one of them suffered perioperative infarction, the other died due to cerebral complication. Total mortality was 3.5%. As a consequence of cardiac ischaemia in the direct postoperative period, we performed emergent coronary ballon dilatation (PTCA) in two cases. In three cases we experienced perioperative infarction. We followed up our patients by way of interview and telephone interview. The follow-up is 95%, the average follow-up time is 15 months. Significant cardiac event (infarction, PTCA or REDO coronary operation) took place in the case of 7 patients. In the majority of our patients the operation resulted in an improvement of condition, 43 patients are free from angina. PMID:11816146

  10. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before What To Expect During What To Expect After What Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Cardiac Rehabilitation Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Surgery Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Send a link ...

  12. Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

    1989-06-15

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

  13. Reoperation after coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Menkis, A. H.; Carley, S. D.; Clough, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the western world, and myocardial revascularization during the first operation is well established. But patients are now surviving beyond the patency of their primary grafts. Repeat myocardial revascularization can be performed successfully in patients who have adequate ventricular function and graftable distal vessels. Images Figures 1-2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8495123

  14. Elective minimally invasive coronary artery bypass: Shunt or tournique occlusion? Assessment of a protective role of perioperative left anterior descending shunting on myocardial damage. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine impact of intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt to prevent myocardial damage in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. Methods 38 patients were randomly assigned to external tournique occlusion (n = 19) or intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group (n = 19). Blood samples for cardiac troponin T were collected at 30 minutes prior to, 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results One patient in external tournique occlusion and two patients in intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group were excluded from futher analysis due to preoperative cardiac troponin T level above the 99th-percentile. Postoperatively, each six patients in external tournique occlusion (33.3%) and intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt (35.3%) group were above the 99th-percentile. Two patients from each group (external tournique occlusion group 11.1% vs. intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group 11.8%) had peak values above 10-% coeficient of variation cutoff (p = 1). There were no significant differences in between both groups at all studied timepoints. Conclusion There was no protective effect of intraluminal shunting on myocardial damage compared to short-term tournique occlusion. It is upon the surgeon's discretion which method may preferrably be used to achieve a bloodless field in grafting of the non-occluded left anterior descending in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. PMID:22809563

  15. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... best option for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at least one major ... Grafting This type of CABG is similar to traditional CABG because the chest bone is opened to ...

  16. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePlus

    ... completely endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic ... scrub nurse, also a lot of experience with robotics now. And Dr. Atiq Rahman, fellow here for ...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  1. Massive Chylopericardium after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Ronald V.; Travers, Daniel J.; Marrangoni, Albert G.; Dimarco, Ross F.; Bekoe, Seth; Grant, Kathleen J.; Woelfel, George F.

    1987-01-01

    Massive isolated chylopericardium is a rare postoperative complication of coronary artery bypass surgery. In the following case, massive chylopericardium developed after a coronary artery bypass procedure in which the left internal mammary artery was used for revascularization. The chylopericardium resulted from direct trauma to the thoracic duct during mobilization of the left internal mammary artery to its origin at the subclavian artery. With adequate drainage, the problem was resolved. In cases in which drainage persists, ligation of the thoracic duct may be necessary. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:318-320) Images PMID:15227320

  2. Revascularization Options: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kappetein, A Pieter; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Head, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist. PMID:26567980

  3. Do Coronary Artery Bypass Operations Prolong Life?

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Kenneth W.; Engler, Robert L.; Ross, John

    1982-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass operations improve survival in patients with symptomatic left main coronary artery stenosis, but whether or not longevity is improved in other patients has been controversial. Small clinical studies, even when randomized, have not sufficiently controlled for the heterogeneous distribution of risk factors in patient cohorts treated medically and surgically. The first randomized study large enough to overcome such problems, the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study, showed that coronary artery bypass procedures prolonged survival only in the high-risk subgroup. The surgically treated patients suffered more perioperative morbidity and mortality and had worse long-term survival than similar patients operated on in more recent years. The European Coronary Surgery Study Group recently reported that the three-year to five-year survival of symptomatic patients with triple-vessel disease and normal left ventricular function was better if patients were randomly assigned to surgical therapy. The third and by far the largest randomized study, the Coronary Artery Surgery Study (CASS), has not yet reported long-term follow-up results. Large clinical studies, both randomized and nonrandomized, that have subgrouped patients by the number of diseased coronary arteries and by the degree of left ventricular dysfunction all show that survival with single-vessel disease is excellent and not improved by operation. Medically treated patients with double- and triple-vessel disease who have good left ventricular function generally now have a five-year survival greater than 85 percent and only two of the major studies suggest that it is improved by operation. The results of most studies, however, suggest that bypass operation prolongs survival in symptomatic patients when left ventricular dysfunction coexists with double- and triple-vessel disease. Continually improving surgical techniques may potentiate the small survival differences that are now apparent, but until then, because the survival differences are so small, it is recommended that limiting anginal symptoms remain the primary indication for a coronary bypass procedure for an individual patient. PMID:7046257

  4. Sexual Adjustment following Coronary Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurer, Shari

    1981-01-01

    Sexual adjustment of 19 individuals was measured before and four months after their coronary bypass surgery. Test variables were subject to an analysis of variance. Patients showed significant improvement in physical condition. Sexual adjustment, however, did not improve, as measured by the Structured and Scaled Interview to Measure Maladjustment.…

  5. Assessment of coronary bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Preston, T A

    1989-01-01

    Coronary bypass surgery developed as another in a line of surgical procedures dating back more than 60 years. The medical profession at first assessed this procedure with time-honored anecdotal techniques. Gradually, for a variety of reasons, improved methods of comparisons worked their way into assessments of bypass surgery. Randomized controlled trials met resistance but have been very influential. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has benefited from the knowledge generated during the last 25 years, but clinicians have been slower to apply the most advanced techniques. PMID:10313785

  6. Pre-operative Rehabilitation for Reduction of Hospitalization After Coronary Bypass and Valvular Surgery.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Patients Waiting for Elective Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG); Patients Waiting for Aortic Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Aortic Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Mitral Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Combined CABG/Valve Procedures.

  7. Coronary artery bypass surgery with heparin-coated perfusion circuits and low-dose heparinization

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, John C.; Bentley, Michael J.; Gelfand, Elliot T.; Koshal, Arvind; Modry, Dennis L.; Guenther, Craig R.; Etches, Wai S.; Stang, Linda J.; Lopushinsky, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of heparin-coated perfusion circuits with low-dose heparinization and centrifugal pumping compared with the standard method during coronary artery bypass grafting. Design Prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial. Setting A primary care institution. Patients Ninety patients who underwent first-time elective coronary artery bypass grafting were eligible for the study. After giving informed consent, they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (30/group). Interventions Perfusion on regular uncoated bypass equipment with a roller pump and full-dose heparinization (300 IU/kg bolus, activated clotting time [ACT] > 400 s) (group 1), on a heparin-coated oxygenator with a centrifugal pump and full-dose heparinization (group 2) and on fully heparin-coated bypass equipment with a centrifugal pump and low-dose heparinization (100 IU/kg bolus, ACT of 180–400 s) (group 3). Standard coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Outcome measures Postoperative bleeding, transfusion requirements and clinical outcomes. Results There were no complications related to the study protocol. Study groups were similar in terms of postoperative bleeding, transfusion requirements and clinical outcomes. Conclusions Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass with low-dose heparinization and centrifugal pumping is a safe practice but showed no advantages over the use of regular uncoated bypass circuits for coronary bypass surgery. PMID:12067167

  8. What to Expect during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from traditional surgery to newer, less-invasive methods. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting This type of surgery ... arteries being bypassed. Many steps take place during traditional CABG. You'll be under general anesthesia (AN- ...

  9. Is off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting superior to conventional bypass in octogenarians?

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Reece, T. Brett; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2011-01-01

    Objective Selected patients appear to benefit from off-pump coronary artery bypass compared with conventional coronary artery bypass with cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether elderly patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting operations derive any benefit when performed off-pump. We hypothesized that off-pump coronary bypass offers a greater operative benefit to elderly patients when compared with conventional coronary artery bypass. Methods A total of 1993 elderly patients (age ≥80 years) underwent isolated, primary coronary artery bypass graft operations at 16 different statewide centers from 2003 to 2008. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: conventional coronary artery bypass (n = 1589, age = 82.5 ± 2.4 years) and off-pump bypass (n = 404, age = 83.0 ± 2.4 years). Preoperative risk, intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, and costs were evaluated. Results Patients undergoing off-pump bypass grafting were marginally older (P = .001) and had higher rates of preoperative atrial fibrillation (14.6%vs 10.0%; P = .01) and New York Heart Association class IV heart failure (29.7% vs 21.1%; P <.001) than did those having conventional coronary bypass grafting. Other patient risk factors and operative variables, including Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality, were similar in both groups (P = .15). Compared with off-pump bypass, conventional coronary bypass incurred higher blood transfusion rates (2.0 ± 1.7 units vs 1.6 ± 1.9 units; P = .05) as well as more postoperative atrial fibrillation (28.4% vs 21.5%; P = .003), prolonged ventilation (14.7% vs 11.4%; P = .05), and major complications (20.1% vs 15.6%; P = .04). Importantly, postoperative stroke (2.6% vs 1.7%; P = .21), renal failure (8.1% vs 6.2%; P = .12), and postoperative length of stay (P = .41) were no different between groups. Despite more complications in patients having conventional bypass, operative mortality (P = .53) and hospital costs (P = .43) were similar to those of patients having off-pump procedures. Conclusions Performance of coronary artery bypass grafting among octogenarian patients is safe and effective. Off-pump coronary artery bypass confers shorter postoperative ventilation but equivalent mortality to conventional coronary artery bypass. Off-pump coronary artery bypass was associated with a reduction in the composite incidence of major complications in unadjusted and adjusted analyses and should be considered an acceptable alternative to conventional bypass for myocardial revascularization in elderly patients. PMID:21051050

  10. Robotic coronary artery bypass for aberrant right coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Teefy, Patrick; Kiaii, Bob; Vezina, William C; Chu, Michael Wa

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries that course between the aorta and pulmonary artery are subject to compressive forces and can manifest angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. The current report presents a young, female patient who presented with a short duration of severe, rapidly progressive angina despite optimal medical therapy. Combined computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scanning identified an anomalous dominant right coronary artery that appeared kinked at its origin between the aorta and main pulmonary artery. A robot-assisted right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery bypass was performed, which was confirmed to be widely patent (FitzGibbon grade A) on routine intraoperative angiography. The procedure completely resolved the patient's angina symptoms. PMID:20931103

  11. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. 870.4310 Section 870.4310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4310 Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  12. Coronary bypass using bilateral internal mammary arteries in an achondroplast.

    PubMed

    Alassal, Mohamed Abdulwahab; Youssef, Mostafa; Koudieh, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting for ischemic heart disease in achondroplastic dwarfs is very rare. Shortage of veins and inadequate vein quality may cause difficulties during surgery. Only 2 cases of coronary bypass surgery in an achondroplastic dwarf, in which the left internal mammary artery and vein grafts were used, have been reported. We describe the case of a 55-year-old male achondroplastic dwarf who had triple-vessel coronary disease and underwent successful coronary bypass surgery using one saphenous vein graft and bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. The anatomic and surgical challenges in achondroplasia are highlighted. PMID:24887865

  13. Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Black, Edward A; Ghosh, Sudip; Sin, Kenny; Spyt, Tom; Pillai, Ravi

    2004-12-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been adopted enthusiastically worldwide. However, despite more than 6 years' experience and refinement, many surgeons use it only sporadically and some hardly at all. This reluctance persists despite support for the procedure because of the lack of properly designed risk models and/or randomized studies. Although it has not been overwhelmingly shown that off-pump surgery is superior to the conventional on-pump procedure, the technique has its place in our specialty. It has been shown to be better for noncritical end points in selected patients in the hands of selected surgeons. That there are differences in surgical skill among surgeons is something we all know but rarely discuss in public. Until now, disparities in skill have been most salient with uncommon and extraordinarily challenging operations. Perhaps the off-pump procedure should be regarded as the "challenging" aspect of coronary artery bypass surgery, and self-restraint may need to remain in force if we are to continue to achieve the highest level of clinical excellence. PMID:15585716

  14. Imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts by computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Laspas, Fotios; Roussakis, Arkadios; Kritikos, Nikolaos; Mourmouris, Christos; Efthimiadou, Roxani; Andreou, John

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, computed tomography coronary angiography is commonly performed as a follow-up examination after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Coronary grafts owing to their minimal motion are well visualized by computed tomography coronary angiography, allowing radiologists to assess their patency noninvasively with very high diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to provide an excellent overview of the anatomy and findings concerning coronary artery bypass grafts. PMID:24159923

  15. Coronary Bypass - Survival Benefit in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Robert A; Smith, Andrew L

    2016-04-21

    Velazquez and colleagues report the outcomes from the 10-year extended follow-up of the surgical revascularization component of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) study.(1) This STICH Extension Study (STICHES) was a tenacious 15-year effort, achieving a 98% rate of follow-up from 99 institutions of 1212 patients with heart failure and severe left ventricular dysfunction who were randomly assigned to receive either medical therapy alone or medical therapy plus coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). CABG was found to confer a significant and substantial survival benefit at 10 years, with a rate of death from any cause that was 16% lower . . . PMID:27040599

  16. Remote ischaemic preconditioning for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Benstoem, Carina; Stoppe, Christian; Liakopoulos, Oliver J; Meybohm, Patrick; Clayton, Tim C; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of remote ischaemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, with or without valve surgery.

  17. Delays for coronary artery bypass surgery: how long is too long?

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Boris; Fradet, Guy

    2008-02-01

    When access to elective surgery is rationed by wait lists, patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting may have to wait after a decision to operate has been made. The current literature suggests that a long wait for planned surgical revascularization may lead to worsening of symptoms, deterioration in the patient's condition and a less favorable clinical outcome; it may also increase the probability of preoperative death and unplanned emergency admission. Yet there has been little evidence generated by appropriate statistical methodology that bears on the health effects of a delay in undergoing the operation. In this article, we present three potential approaches for summarizing wait-list data. We also discuss the utility of each method for determining the point at which a delay in waiting for coronary artery bypass surgery becomes too long, from the perspectives of hospital managers, surgeons and patients. PMID:20528353

  18. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Mortality after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Olivieri, Oliviero; Pizzolo, Francesca; Friso, Simonetta; Faccini, Giovanni; Bozzini, Claudia; Tenuti, Ilaria; Lotto, Valentina; Villa, Giuliano; Guarini, Patrizia; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Corrocher, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Background The independent prognostic impact, as well as the possible causal role, of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. No previous study specifically has addressed the relationship between HHcy and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of HHcy after CABG surgery. Methodology and Principal Findings We prospectively followed 350 patients who underwent elective CABG between May 1996 and May 1999. At baseline, fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were measured in all participants, and a post-methionine loading (PML) test was performed in 77.7% of them (n?=?272). After a median follow-up of 58 months, 33 patients (9.4%) had died, 25 because of cardiovascular events. HHcy, defined by levels higher than the 90th percentile (25.2 mol/L) of the population's distribution, was significantly associated to total and cardiovascular mortality (P?=?0.018 [log-rank test 5.57]; P?=?0.002 [log-rank test 9.76], respectively). The PML test had no prognostic value. After multiple adjustment for other univariate predictors by Cox regression, including statin therapy (the most powerful predictor in uni-/multivariate analyses), high-sensitivity C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) levels, and all known major genetic (MTHFR 677C?T polymorphism) and non-genetic (B-group vitamin status and renal function) tHcy determinants, HHcy remained an independent prognostic factor for mortality (HRs: 5.02, 95% CIs 1.88 to 13.42, P?=?0.001). Conclusions HHcy is an important prognostic marker after CABG, independent of modern drug therapy and biomarkers. PMID:17183715

  19. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery bypass surgery in octogenarians.

    PubMed Central

    Sollano, J A; Rose, E A; Williams, D L; Thornton, B; Quint, E; Apfelbaum, M; Wasserman, H; Cannavale, G A; Smith, C R; Reemtsma, K; Greene, R J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine whether coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is effective and cost-effective relative to medical management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the elderly. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The aging of the U.S population and the improvements in surgical techniques have resulted in increasing numbers of elderly patients who undergo this surgery. The three randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) that established the efficacy of CABG surgery completed patient enrollment from 19 to 24 years ago excluded patients older than 65 years. Although information regarding outcomes of CABG in this population is mainly available in case series, a major lacuna exists with respect to information on quality of life and cost effectiveness of surgery as compared with medical management. METHODS: The authors retrospectively formed surgical and medically managed cohorts of octogenarians with significant multivessel CAD. More than 600 medical records of patients older than 80 years who underwent angiography at our institution were reviewed to identify 48 patients who were considered reasonable surgical candidates but had not undergone surgery. This cohort was compared with 176 patients who underwent surgery. RESULTS: The cost per quality-adjusted life year saved was $10,424. At 3 years, survival in the surgical group was 80% as compared with 64% in the entire medical cohort and 50% in a smaller subset of the medical cohort. Quality of life in patients who underwent surgery was measurably better than that of the medical cohort with utility index scores, as measured by the EuroQoL, (a seven-item quality of life questionnaire) of 0.84, 0.61, and 0.74, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Performing CABG surgery in octogenarians is highly cost-effective. The quality of life of the elderly who elect to undergo CABG surgery is greater than that of their cohorts and equal to that of an average 55-year-old person in the general population. Images Figure 3. PMID:9742913

  20. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with mirror-imaging dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Sun, Hansong; Wang, Xianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Dextrocardia requires alterations in techniques during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We report two cases undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery and discuss techniques for the operative management of these patients. PMID:26059016

  1. Increased coronary artery disease severity in black women undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Anderson, Ethan J; Davies, Stephen W; Landrine, Hope; O'Neal, Jason B; Shiue, Kristin Y; Kindell, Linda C; Bruce Ferguson, T; Randolph Chitwood, W; Kypson, Alan P

    2015-02-01

    Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race-sex groups.Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group. PMID:25700324

  2. Increased Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Black Women Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Griffin, William F.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Davies, Stephen W.; Landrine, Hope; O’Neal, Jason B.; Shiue, Kristin Y.; Kindell, Linda C.; Bruce Ferguson, T.; Randolph Chitwood, W.; Kypson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran–Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race–sex groups. Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group. PMID:25700324

  3. Racial Disparities in Outcomes Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Hravnak, Marilyn; Ibrahim, Said; Kaufer, Abigail; Sonel, Ali; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    More than 12 million people in the United States have coronary heart disease, the second leading cause of hospitalization in the United States. It is known that persons within racial minorities, specifically African Americans, have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, yet are much less likely to undergo invasive cardiac treatment interventions. An invasive intervention commonly used to treat coronary heart disease is coronary artery bypass grafting, with over 140,000 operations performed annually in the United States. However, blacks are known to experience higher post–coronary artery bypass graft morbidity and mortality. The causes for racial disparities in post–coronary artery bypass graft outcomes are not well known but may include factors related to the individual, provider, system, and society/environment, either alone or in combination. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the literature regarding disparities in the health and healthcare of black patients with coronary heart disease with respect to CABG, and examine potential hypotheses for variant outcomes after surgery. PMID:16966914

  4. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Yerokun, Babatunde A; Williams, Judson B; Gaca, Jeffrey; Smith, Peter K; Roe, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    For patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), guideline recommendations and treatment pathways focus on revascularization for definitive treatment if the patient is an appropriate candidate. Despite the widespread use of revascularization for NSTE-ACS, most patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention, whereas a minority of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Focusing specifically on the USA, the contemporary utilization, preoperative and perioperative considerations, and outcomes of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have not been comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26945187

  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass: techniques, pitfalls, and results.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Tadashi; Wada, Hideichi; Nishimi, Masaru; Minematsu, Noritoshi

    2013-08-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), coronary artery anastomosis is generally performed under cardiac arrest using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To avoid the invasiveness of CPB, off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) is currently also used. In Japan, in particular, OPCAB now accounts for 60 % of all CABG operations and has become a standard surgical procedure. We herein provide a discussion of OPCAB. The goals of coronary artery bypass surgery are to achieve complete revascularization and maintain a high rate of graft patency for the long term. This requires stable exposure of the coronary arteries, including those located on the posterior surface of the heart and the formation of good-quality anastomoses. Achieving this depends not only on the competency of the individual surgeon, but also on smooth and effective teamwork among everyone involved, including the other surgeons, anesthetists, clinical technicians, and nurses. It is important for surgeons and surgical teams to examine their own outcomes and engage in self-scrutiny in an endeavor to improve these outcomes. PMID:23775231

  6. Platelet Hyperreactivity in Response to On- and Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bochsen, Louise; Rosengaard, Lisbeth Bredahl; Nielsen, Allan Bybeck; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A.; Johansson, Pär I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Hypercoagulability has been reported after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) compared with patients undergoing standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in platelet reactivity in response to cardiac surgery, both OPCAB and CABG. Platelet reactivity was monitored pre- and postoperatively (days 1 and 4) in elective OPCAB (n = 29) and CABG (n = 24) patients using the maximal amplitude (MA) parameter obtained with thrombelastography. Platelet reactivity was also examined at 1 month in 30 of the 53 patients. Twenty-three percent of the patients (12/53) had a preoperative MA value above normal reference value (MA > 69 mm). By postoperative day 4, 88% of the patients presented with an MA > 69 mm, and significant increases in MA were shown in both groups (p < .0001). Of the 30 patients examined at 1 month after surgery, 75% of the patients with high preoperative MA (6/8) remained at this level. In contrast, only 4.5% of patients with normal preoperative MA (1/22) presented with high MA at day 30. MA has previously been shown to correlate with the incidence of thrombotic and ischemic complications and this study identified 23% of patients needing coronary bypass surgery to be at high risk for recurrent ischemic events at 1 month after surgery, based on the MA. These results suggest that a more aggressive antithrombotic treatment might be warranted for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, both OPCAB and CABG, presenting with a high MA pre- and post-surgery. PMID:19361027

  7. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long-term outcomes (i.e., death and myocardial infarction) are similar. The cost of treatment beginning with PTCA may be lower than that of initial surgery, even when the increased need for repeat revascularization is taken into account. Despite this, surgical bypass remains the mainstay of therapy for patients with severe coronary artery disease and a poor prognosis for survival, and will remain the fallback procedure for patients who repeatedly undergo failed PTCA. At the present time, revascularization should be offered on the basis of symptom severity (in the presence of medical therapy) and in accordance with the prognosis for survival as judged by the extent and severity of disease (Table VI). Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is preferred in patients who require revascularization but can obtain no proven benefit from bypass surgery. Coronary artery bypass surgery, using the internal mammary artery when possible, remains the revascularization method of choice for patients with more severe disease or whose disease is not amenable to treatment using percutaneous methods (Table VII). PMID:7647598

  8. Late results of coronary bypass in patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms. The Cleveland Clinic Study.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzer, N R; Young, J R; Beven, E G; O'Hara, P J; Graor, R A; Ruschhaupt, W F; Maljovec, L C

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization was performed in a prospective series of 1000 patients under consideration for elective peripheral vascular reconstruction at the Cleveland Clinic from 1978-1982. Of these, 246 patients (mean age: 68 years) presented primarily because of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and are eligible for subsequent evaluation 3-7 years (mean: 4.6 years) after entrance into the study. Severe, surgically correctable coronary artery disease (CAD) was documented in 78 patients (32%) in the AAA group, and 70 patients (28%) received myocardial revascularization with four fatal complications (5.7%). A total of 56 patients in this subset had staged aneurysm resection, usually during the same hospital admission after coronary bypass, with a single death (1.8%) caused by cerebral infarction. The overall operative mortality rate for 126 coronary and AAA procedures was 4%. A total of 59 additional patients (25%) died during the late follow-up interval, including 14 patients (5.9%) with cardiac events and eight patients (3.4%) with ruptured aneurysms. The cumulative 5-year survival rate (75%) and cardiac mortality rate (5%) after coronary bypass reflected traditional parameters (preoperative ventricular function, completeness of revascularization) and are nearly identical to the results calculated for patients having normal coronary arteries or only mild to moderate CAD. In comparison, the cumulative survival and cardiac mortality rates in a small subset of patients with severe, uncorrected coronary involvement currently are 29% (p = 0.0001) and 34%, respectively. These data support the conclusion that selected patients who require elective resection of AAA also warrant myocardial revascularization to enhance perioperative risk and late survival. PMID:3494434

  9. Dipyridamole thallium scanning in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in elective abdominal aortic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, D.J.; Guernsey, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Dipyridamole thallium scanning was routinely performed on 68 consecutive patients who presented for elective aortic surgery. All 68 patients were judged by clinical assessment to be at low risk for perioperative cardiac complications. In addition, 42 of 68 patients had a history of myocardial infarction, stable angina, or abnormal echocardiographic findings (group 1). Twenty-six of 68 patients did not have a history of myocardial infarction, angina, or abnormal echocardiographic findings (group 2). In group 1, 34 of 4 patients had positive results on dipyridamole thallium scanning, and 15 of these patients were found to have critical coronary artery disease on subsequent cardiac catheterization; nine underwent immediate coronary artery bypass grafting, and six had their coronary artery disease treated medically and their vascular operations cancelled. The remaining 27 patients in group 1 underwent elective operations, with six (22%) of 27 sustaining postoperative cardiac complications. None of the group 2 patients was found to have critical coronary artery disease. All patients in group 2 underwent aortic operation without cardiac complication. Routine dipyridamole thallium scanning detected a 22% (15 of 68) incidence of critical coronary artery disease overall. There was a 36% (15 of 42) incidence of critical coronary artery disease in group 1 patients vs 0% in group 2 patients (95% confidence interval, 21% to 50%). The authors conclude that the use of dipyridamole thallium scanning in low-risk patients for cardiac screening prior to elective aortic operations is beneficial in selected patients who have a history of myocardial infarction, angina, or abnormal echocardiographic findings, but is not necessary in patients with no history of coronary artery disease.

  10. Clinical characteristics of functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Japanese octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Tobita, Ryo; Iwata, Kentaro; Kamisaka, Kenta; Yuguchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Masayuki; Oura, Keisuke; Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Ohhashi, Satoko; Kumamaru, Megumi; Hanafusa, Yusuke; Kato, Michitaka; Saitoh, Masakazu; Sakurada, Koji; Takahashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to elucidate characteristics of postoperative physical functional recovery in octogenarians undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. [Subjects and Methods] This was a multi-center, retrospective study. Nine hundred and twenty-seven elective isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgeries were evaluated (746 males and 181 females, mean age: 68.6 years, range: 31–86 years). Participants were stratified according to age < 80 years (n = 840; mean age, 67.1; range, 31–79) or > 80 years (n = 87; mean age, 82.2; range, 80–86). Patient characteristics and postoperative physical functional recovery outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] There was no significant difference between groups when considering the postoperative day at which patients could sit on the edge of the bed, stand at bedside, or walk around the bed. The postoperative day at which patients could walk 100 m independently was later in octogenarians, when compared with non-octogenarians (6.1 ± 3.2 days vs. 4.9 ± 3.9 days). In octogenarians, the percentage of patients who could walk 100 m independently within 8 days after surgery was 79.5%. [Conclusion] A postoperative target time in octogenarians for independent walking, following coronary artery bypass grafting, can be set at approximately 6 days. PMID:27065553

  11. Psychological Adjustment Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Janet W.

    1991-01-01

    Identified patterns of psychological adjustment following coronary bypass surgery in 100 individuals, 1 to 2 years postsurgery. Profiles were clustered into three groups based on level of distress (low, moderate, high). Findings revealed that over one-half of participants reported levels of psychological distress following surgery that were one or

  12. Psychological Adjustment Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Janet W.

    1991-01-01

    Identified patterns of psychological adjustment following coronary bypass surgery in 100 individuals, 1 to 2 years postsurgery. Profiles were clustered into three groups based on level of distress (low, moderate, high). Findings revealed that over one-half of participants reported levels of psychological distress following surgery that were one or…

  13. Surgical intervention utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary unroofing of anomalous coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Resley, Justin; Burke, Ryan; Isbell, David; Tribble, Reid; Martin, Jeffery; Petit, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Coronary arteries originating from the opposite coronary cusp and crossing the path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery are associated with ischemia and sudden cardiac death. An increased prevalence of these cases may be attributed to diagnostic advances in computed tomographic angiography (CTA). We report a retrospective review of ten patients referred for surgical intervention from March 2008 to present. Nine patients were diagnosed with right coronary arteries arising from the left coronary cusp and one patient with a left coronary artery arising from the right coronary cusp. Seven patients were male and the median age was 40 years (range, 21 to 51). Symptoms included atypical chest pain, tachy-arrythmias, diaphoresis, and dyspnea on exertion. CTA demonstrated anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite coronary cusp and traveling between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Surgical intervention was performed on all ten patients with no mortality and only one re-operation requiring bypass grafting. The sixth patient in the series had concomitant atherosclerotic disease, requiring left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was utilized with moderate hypothermia in all ten patients, with retrograde and/or coronary ostial cardioplegia administration. At routine surgical follow-up, all patients were without original presenting symptoms. Patients with anomalous coronary arteries arising from the opposite coronary cusp are at risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Surgical unroofing is a viable option for this patient population and avoids coronary artery bypass grafting. Since March 2008, we have operated on ten patients presenting with this anomaly and have had excellent short-term results. Further long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:20515983

  14. Patients Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mendona, Kelminda Maria Bulhes; de Andrade, Tarcisio Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis), followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery. PMID:26735601

  15. [Roentgenomorphological features of coronary artery lesions and coronary shunts in patients with relapse of myocardium ischemia after coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Iurchenko, D L; Denisiuk, D O; Sharafutdinov, V E; Volkov, A M; Iakovlev, N N; Paĭvin, A A; Vlasenko, S V

    2013-01-01

    The relapse of ischemia was detected in 127 patients in clinical series after coronary bypass surgery. It was noted in terms from 1 month till 204 months. The basic clinical manifestation or the relapse of ischemia was the recurrence of heart stroke in 74.8%. According to the data of coronary bypass angiography, the main cause of the ischemia relapse appears to be the dysfunction of early formed shunts in 64.6% patients. The development of early thrombosis of autografts is substantially determined by the pool and degree of stenosis of shunt coronary arteries. PMID:24000672

  16. Simultaneous off-pump coronary artery bypass graft and nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Roussakis, Antonios; Koletsis, Efstratios N; Kouerinis, Ilias; Balaka, Christina; Apostolakis, Efstratios; Malovrouvas, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    We report the one-stage surgical management of a 68-year-old patient with renal cell carcinoma and serious hematuria combined with coronary artery disease and unstable angina. After the accomplishment of coronary revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass, we proceeded to nephrectomy and resection of the renal tumor at the same time. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and at 17 months of follow-up, the patient showed no signs of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has never been reported before in the literature. PMID:19017005

  17. Emergency aorto-coronary venous bypass graft in cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Keon, W. J.; Abbas, S. Z.; Shankar, K. R.; Cohen, G.; Akyrekli, Y.; Nino, A. F.

    1971-01-01

    The mortality rate of shock complicating myocardial infarction is extremely high (80-100%) despite intensive medical management. Five patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock received an emergency aorto-coronary bypass graft, from three hours to five days after the onset of infarction and three to nine hours after the onset of shock. Selective coronary angiography was performed in all cases prior to operation. Four of the five patients survived and were discharged from hospital. Two cases with A-V dissociation and complete heart block reverted to normal sinus rhythm after the operation. This limited experience indicates that emergency aortocoronary bypass graft surgery can reduce mortality significantly in properly selected cases of cardiogenic shock. PMID:5317110

  18. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) ... coronarien - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery हिन्दी ( ...

  19. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with gout arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Filizcan, Ugur; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Zencirci, Ertugrul; Kaya, Erhan; Es, Mehmet Ugur; Gurol, Tayfun; Yildiz, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is accepted as the most common cause of mortality and morbidity nearly all over the world. Gout disease is the most common condition of inflammatory arthritis among the adult population. Literature includes limited information about the treatment strategies when both the conditions coexist. In this report, we present the case report of a 63 year old male patient with the diagnosis of Gout arthritis who underwent a coronary artery bypass grafting procedure successfully. PMID:22346148

  20. Acute coronary angiography after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, Karin; Andreasson, Anders; Axelsson, Tomas A; Albertsson, Per; Lepore, Vincenzo; Jeppsson, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Coronary angiography is the golden standard when myocardial ischemia after CABG occurs. We summarize our experience of acute coronary angiography after CABG. Design All 4446 patients (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 22% women) who underwent CABG 2007 to 2012 were included in this retrospective observational study. Incidence, indications, findings, measures of acute angiography after CABG was assessed. Outcome variables were compared between patients who underwent angiography and those who did not. Results Eighty-seven patients (2%) underwent acute coronary angiography. Patients undergoing angiography had ECG changes (92%), echocardiographic alterations (48%), hemodynamic instability (28%), angina (15%), and/or arrhythmia (13%). Positive findings were detected in 69% of the cases. Only ECG changes as indication for angiography had a moderate association with positive findings, but the precision increased if other sign(s) of ischemia were present. Thirty-day mortality (7% versus 2%, p = 0.002) was higher and long-term-cumulative survival lower (77% versus 87% at five years, p = 0.043) in angiography patients. Conclusions Acute angiography is a rare event after CABG. Postoperative myocardial ischemia leading to acute coronary angiography is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. PMID:26853097

  1. On Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Versus Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Yousuf-ul; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khan, Asadullah; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham

    2014-01-01

    There are two basic ways of performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): on pump CABG and off pump CABG. Off pump CABG is relatively a newer procedure to on-pump CABG and does not require the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass machine. On pump CABG is the more traditional method of performing bypass surgery. However its resultant inflammatory effects cause renal dysfunction, gastrointestinal distress and cardiac abnormalities which have forced the surgeons to look for alternatives to the procedure. An extensive literature search revealed that on pump CABG causes better revascularization as compared to off pump CABG while off pump CABG has a much lower post operative morbidity and mortality especially in high risk patients. We suggest that the technique used should depend on the ease of the surgeon doing the operation as both the methods seem almost equally efficient according to the review. PMID:24762361

  2. The experience of totally endoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the robotic system «Da Vinci» in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, V. U.; Alsov, S. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Mikheenko, I. L.; Chernyavsky, A. M.; Malakhov, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new technology - a thoracoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the use of Da Vinci robotic system in Russia is represented by the experience of NRICP. The technology was introduced in Russia in 2011. Overall, one hundred endoscopic coronary artery bypass procedures were performed. We have compared and analyzed results of coronary artery stenting vs minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. According to the results, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting has several advantages over alternative treatment strategies.

  3. Emergency Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery for Iatrogenic Left Main Coronary Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tarbiat, Masoud; Safarpoor, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic coronary artery dissection during coronary angiography with or without rupture is a rare but feared complication. We herein report a case of iatrogenic left main coronary artery dissection in a 49-year-old female. Admitted to our hospital with a recent history of severe hypotension, she develpled apnea during angiography. She was intubated and resuscitated with an Epinephrine infusion in the Cath-Lab. The diagnosis was iatrogenic left main coronary artery dissection based on angiography. Immediately, the patient was transferred to the operating room in a lethargic state with an Epinephrine infusion and prepared for emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In the ICU, she was completely alert with no hemodynamic complications and finally was discharged in a good overall condition. At 18 months' follow-up, the patient was in a stable situation with good daily function. PMID:26985212

  4. Upright bicycle exercise echocardiography after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Sawada, S G; Judson, W E; Ryan, T; Armstrong, W F; Feigenbaum, H

    1989-11-15

    Upright bicycle exercise echocardiography and coronary angiography were performed in 42 patients from 1 month to 15 years (mean 6.3 years) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to determine if exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities could be correlated with the presence and location of nonrevascularized vessels. Nonrevascularized vessels were defined as obstructed vessels without grafts, obstructed grafts or native vessels obstructed distal to bypass graft insertion. Adequate quality echocardiograms were recorded at rest, peak exercise and after exercise in 38 patients (90%). Rest and postexercise echocardiograms were adequate in 3 others. Only 1 patient was excluded from analysis for inadequate peak and postexercise echocardiograms. Exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities were present in 33 of 35 patients (94%) who had 1 or more nonrevascularized vessels and these abnormalities were absent in 5 of 6 (83%) who had all vessels revascularized. Wall motion abnormalities were localized to the territory of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery or to a combined right (R) coronary-left circumflex (LC) region of circulation. Exercise-induced wall motion abnormalities were present in 24 of 27 LAD artery regions (89%) and 23 of 26 R-LC regions (88%) that had nonrevascularized vessels. These abnormalities were absent in 13 of 14 LAD regions (93%) and in 12 of 15 R-LC regions (80%) that had only revascularized vessels. Upright bicycle exercise echocardiography was successfully performed after CABG. The technique detected and accurately localized nonrevascularized and revascularized vessels. PMID:2683711

  5. Progressively increasing operative risk among patients referred for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Paul G; Leonard, Niall; Herity, Niall A

    2006-01-01

    Objective Advances in surgical, anaesthetic and percutaneous interventional techniques may have led to higher risk patients being referred for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted mortality risk (EuroSCORE) of a contemporary cohort of patients referred for isolated elective CABG (2002) with that of a cohort referred five years previously (1997) and to examine temporal trends in patient demographics. Methods Records (n = 2873) of weekly cardiac surgical referral meetings were examined and the age, sex, type of operation and surgical decision for every patient referred from 1997 to 2002 inclusive were recorded. Furthermore samples of patients referred in 1997 (n = 111) and in 2002 (n = 110) were chosen, and a complete EuroSCORE was calculated for each patient and compared between groups. Results In both 1997 and 2002 the median EuroSCORE among patients not accepted for surgery was significantly higher than those accepted (1997; 3 vs 2, p<0.001. 2002; 5 vs.2, p<0.001). The median EuroSCORE of patients referred in 2002 was significantly higher than those referred in 1997 (3 vs. 2; p< 0.001). There was a progressive increase in median patient age throughout the study period and this accounted for the observed temporal increase in EuroSCORE. Conclusions Predicted mortality risk among patients referred for coronary artery bypass surgery is increasing, mainly due to patient age at referral. PMID:16755944

  6. Value of tomographic thallium-201 imaging in patients with chest pain following coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Starling, M.R.; Walsh, R.A.; Dehmer, G.J.; Lasher, J.C.; Blumhardt, R.

    1987-02-01

    To determine whether thallium-201 washout profile analysis can detect regional myocardial ischemia caused by coronary artery bypass graft occlusion or progression of disease in nonbypassed coronary arteries, 19 consecutive patients with chest pain following bypass grafting were evaluated with coronary arteriography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Twenty of the 55 coronary artery regions were perfused by an occluded bypass graft or a significantly stenosed (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing) nonbypassed coronary artery, while 35 coronary regions were perfused by patent bypass grafts or insignificantly diseased coronary arteries. The tomographic thallium-201 washout profile results correlated with the bypass graft and coronary arteriographic findings. The sensitivity of tomographic thallium-201 washout profile abnormalities for arteriographic abnormalities was 75%, while the specificity was 86%. The authors conclude that tomographic thallium-201 washout profile analysis may be very useful in the evaluation of patients with chest pain following coronary artery bypass grafting by detecting regional myocardial ischemia caused by occlusion of specific bypass grafts or progression of disease in nonbypassed coronary arteries.

  7. Comparison of neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios following coronary artery bypass surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Adalı, Fahri; Çarşanba, Görkem; Tecer, Evren; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Taş, Hanife Uzel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may induce postoperative systemic changes in leukocyte counts, including leukocytosis, neutrophilia or lymphopenia. This retrospective clinical study investigated whether offpump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery working on the beating heart without extracorporeal circulation could favourably affect leukocyte counts, including neutrophil-tolymphocyte (N:L) ratio, after CABG. Methods In this study, 30 patients who underwent isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and another 30 patients who underwent the same operation without CPB between May 2010 and May 2013, were screened from the computerised database of our hospital. Pre-operative, and first and fifth postoperative day differential counts of leukocytes with the N:L ratio of peripheral blood were obtained. Results A significant increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and N:L ratio, and a decrease in lymphocyte counts were observed at all time points after surgery in both groups. N:L ratio was significantly higher in the CPB group compared with the OPCAB group on the first postoperative day (20.73 ± 13.85 vs 10.19 ± 4.55, p < 0.001), but this difference disappeared on the fifth postoperative day. Conclusion CPB results in transient but significant changes in leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood stream in terms of N:L ratio compared with the off-pump technique of CABG. PMID:25903477

  8. Incidental invasive thymoma during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Smady, Moaath; Hammdan, Farouq F; Abu-Abeeleh, Mahmood M; Massad, Islam M

    2009-01-01

    We encountered 2 incidental cases of invasive thymomas at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan; during routine coronary artery bypass graft surgery between 2005 and 2008 with an incidence of 0.6%. Both patients presented with angina pain. None of the 2 patients had pressure symptoms (cough, shortness of breath or superior vena cava syndrome) or Myasthenia Gravis symptoms. Total thymectomy with dissection of perithymic fat was performed on both cases. No radiotherapy was given. No recurrence of the tumor was seen in 2 years follow up. These cases are presented to emphasize the occurrence of this tumor. PMID:19139788

  9. Glycemic Control during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Harold L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, which occurs in the perioperative period during cardiac surgery, has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The management of perioperative hyperglycemia during coronary artery bypass graft surgery and all cardiac surgical procedures has been the focus of intensive study in recent years. This report will paper the pathophysiology responsible for the detrimental effects of perioperative hyperglycemia during cardiac surgery, show how continuous insulin infusions in the perioperative period have improved outcomes, and discuss the results of trials designed to determine what level of a glycemic control is necessary to achieve optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:23209941

  10. Improving quality and outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T Bruce; Buch, Ashesh N

    2016-05-01

    The evolution in the approach, clinical care and outcomes of ischemic heart disease, has been dramatic over the past decade. Optimizing medical therapy initially and throughout the care delivery process has been transformative. The addition of new physiologic data to the traditional anatomic framework for diagnosis and therapy of more extensive stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) enables quality and outcomes improvements in this patient population overall and in the patient subsets of acute coronary syndrome and SIHD. In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), these developments have changed the objective goal of surgical revascularization over this time interval. This review discusses the opportunities for quality and outcomes improvement in CABG, in the context of SIHD overall. PMID:26818448

  11. Hydrogel-electrospun mesh composites for coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Rebecca E; Qu, Xin; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea Carolina; Bashur, Chris A; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S; Hahn, Mariah S

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of hydrogel-electrospun mesh hybrid scaffolds as coronary artery bypass grafts. The circumferential mechanical properties of blood vessels modulate a broad range of phenomena, including vessel stress and mass transport, which, in turn, have a critical impact on cardiovascular function. Thus, coronary artery bypass grafts should mimic key features of the nonlinear stress-strain behavior characteristic of coronary arteries. In native arteries, this J-shaped circumferential stress-strain curve arises primarily from initial load transfer to low stiffness elastic fibers followed by progressive recruitment and tensing of higher stiffness arterial collagen fibers. This nonlinear mechanical response is difficult to achieve with a single-component scaffold while simultaneously meeting the suture retention strength and tensile strength requirements of an implantable graft. For instance, although electrospun scaffolds have a number of advantages for arterial tissue engineering, including relatively high tensile strengths, tubular mesh constructs formed by conventional electrospinning methods do not generally display biphasic stress-strain curves. In the present work, we demonstrate that a multicomponent scaffold comprised of polyurethane electrospun mesh layers (intended to mimic the role of arterial collagen fibers) bonded together by a fibrin hydrogel matrix (designed to mimic the role of arterial elastic fibers) results in a composite construct which retains the high tensile strength and suture retention strength of electrospun mesh but which displays a J-shaped mechanical response similar to that of native coronary artery. Moreover, we show that these hybrid constructs support cell infiltration and extracellular matrix accumulation following 12-day exposure to continuous cyclic distension. PMID:21083438

  12. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in pregnancy requiring emergency caesarean delivery followed by coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L; Ong, M; Tan, C O; McDonnell, N J; Lo, C; Chiam, E

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare and often fatal condition of pregnancy. The long-term morbidity is unknown, but a small cohort of patients develop severe ventricular dysfunction as a consequence. We describe a 37-week gestation parturient who presented with cardiogenic shock secondary to spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection. Despite rapid diagnosis, stabilisation with an intra-aortic balloon pump and prompt transfer to a tertiary centre for emergency caesarean delivery and coronary artery bypass grafting, the patient developed a severe postoperative dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. There is little information about the long-term outcomes and the specific anaesthesia management of combined emergency caesarean delivery and cardiac surgery in pregnancy for spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Therefore, we outline our multidisciplinary management of this critically ill pregnant woman. PMID:23530793

  13. Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and catheter based coronary intervention in one operative session.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Laufer, Günther; Kolbitsch, Christian; Margreiter, Josef; Jonetzko, Patrycja; Pachinger, Otmar; Friedrich, Guy

    2005-06-01

    A 56-year-old male patient underwent robotically assisted totally endoscopic left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending artery (LAD) grafting. After protamine administration complete heart block developed in the patient. On intraoperative angiography the LIMA to LAD graft was perfectly patent but an acute occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) was noted. We performed an immediate on table percutaneous coronary angioplasty and stent placement to the RCA. The heart regained sinus rhythm and the wall motion abnormalities on the back wall of the heart resolved. No clinical symptoms indicating ongoing myocardial ischemia were noted postoperatively. This case demonstrates that a hybrid procedure of robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting and catheter based coronary intervention is feasible in one simultaneous session. PMID:15919329

  14. Outcome and Graft Patency in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Coronary Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan; Astaneh, Behrooz; Khosropanah, Shahdad

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy persists regarding the use of coronary endarterectomy (CE) in patients with severe coronary artery disease. We compared the comorbidities and perioperative characteristics of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with and without CE. Methods This study was performed in two private hospitals in Shiraz, Iran from May 2010 to December 2011 on 967 patients who underwent CABG without CE and 84 patients who underwent CABG with CE (the CE+ group). After follow-up at 9.66±3.65 months post-surgery, 28 patients from the CE+ group underwent angiography to evaluate the patency of grafts and native coronary vessels. Results Patients in the CE+ group had a more prevalent history of diabetes (48% vs. 36%) and number of diseased vessels (2.88±0.39 vs. 2.70±0.85). The overall hospital mortality was 1.8%, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups. In the 28 patients who underwent reangiography, 113 vessels were bypassed and 29 endarterectomies were performed, mostly on the left anterior descending artery (12 endarterectomies) and the right coronary artery (8 endarterectomies). In the endarterectomized vessels, a 66% patency rate was found in both the grafts and the native vessels. The native coronary vessels were more likely to be patent when the left internal mammary artery was used as a conduit than when a saphenous vein bypass graft was used. Conclusion The lack of a significant difference in postoperative complications in patients who underwent CABG with or without CE may indicate that CE does not expose patients to a higher risk of complications. Since most of the endarterectomized vessels were shown to be patent during the follow-up period, we propose that endarterectomy is a viable option for patients with severely diseased vessels. PMID:25705593

  15. Quality of life in the elderly after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Serpil; Yavuz, Turhan; Duver, Harun; Kutsal, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the clinical outcome, a patient's perspective and satisfaction with their health status have become important indicators. One of the most common measures to assess the quality of life is Short Form (SF)-36. The objective of the present study was to measure the functional status of elderly patients who had undergone coronary bypass surgery and to evaluate the impact of that surgery on their quality of life. The study involved 120 nonsmoking patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 1, 2001 and January 1, 2003 at the Sevket Demirel Heart Center. Assessments were made using physical, clinical, and laboratory findings. We used the Turkish version of the Short Form (SF)-36 preoperatively and 18 months after surgery. The paired t test, two-tailed correlation, and variant analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 120 patients, 108 could be followed during the study period. Significant physical and mental improvements were seen in all areas, especially in the items of vitality and mental health. Females seemed to benefit from surgery more than males. Cardiac surgery substantially improved the quality of life of our patients. The findings allowed us to determine the patient's perspective of his or her outcome. With this knowledge, health care workers can provide information to the patient regarding functional limitations after cardiac surgery. PMID:16479041

  16. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mohsen Mirmohammad; Radman, Masoud; Bidaki, Reza; Sonbolestan, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study is planned to obtain a better understanding of the correlation between sudden sensorineural hearing loss and cardiopulmonary bypass. There are many causes for sudden hearing loss which include infectious, circulatory, inner ear problems like meniere's disease, neoplastic, traumatic, metabolic, neurologic, immunologic, toxic, cochlear, idiopathic (unknown cause) and other causes. One of the less common cause is surgery include cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. Materials and Methods: This study is a self controlled clinical trial on 105 patients that was carried out in chamran Hospital, Esfahan, Iran. Participants were including all those patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in the hospital who fell under the criteria for inclusion. Patients underwent audiometric testing at our hospital on three or two different occasions during the course of this study, Initially before the procedure to test the baseline hearing capacity; then two week after the procedure to assess any changes in hearing ability following the surgery. Data analysis performed by co-variance analysis. Results: In our study the changes in the threshold of hearing in frequency of 1000 in right ear and in frequencies of 2000 and 4000 in left ear were significant, but this changes were about 2-3 db and were not noticeable. The difference in degree of SNHL, before and after surgery in different frequencies were been shown. Conclusion: As loss of the patients with symptomatic sensory neural hearing loss in this study, It isn't commanded the routin auditory assessment pre and post surgery was been done. PMID:23930250

  17. [Comparative assessment of ct-bypass angiography and invasive coronary angiography in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Men'kov, I A; Trufanov, G E; Zhelezniak, I S; Rud', S D; Kniazev, E A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ct-bypass angiography in the evaluation of significant stenosis and occlusion of grafts, recipient and nongrafted vessels in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period. Ct-bypass angiography was performed on 64-slice ct scanner with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm and a gantry rotation time of 0.4 s. All results were compared with quantitative invasive coronary angiography. 43 patients with 113 grafts were included in the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of significant stenosis were 94%, 95%, 88%, 98%, 95%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of significant stenosis in the recipient and nongrafted vessels were 91% and 90%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation graft occlusion, recipient and nongrafted vessels was 100%, 100% and 98%, respectively. Ct-bypass angiography allows accurate non-invasive assessment of significant stenosis and occlusion of coronary bypass grafts and native coronary arteries in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period. PMID:24611296

  18. Transfusion of blood products in off-pump coronary artery bypass and conventional coronary artery revascularization. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Maciej; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Camacho, Estillita; Ligowski, Marcin; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been a growing interest in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting in recent years. Beating-heart surgery is believed to be less invasive as it allows the side effects of extracorporeal circulation to be avoided. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to compare blood product transfusion rates between two groups of patients undergoing surgery for ischemic heart disease with either the off-pump technique or using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Material and methods There were 152 patients enrolled in the prospective randomized study. All procedures were elective. There were 84 patients (62 men and 20 women) at the mean age of 63.74 ± 7 years who underwent OPCAB (group I), and 68 patients (54 men and 14 women) at the mean age of 63.51 ± 6 years who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (group II). Results There were no perioperative deaths. The mean number of grafts was 2.27 ± 0.3 (OPCAB group) and 2.63 ± 0.6 (CPB group) (p < 0.05). The mean number of packed red blood cells transfused in the OPCAB group was 2.31 ± 0.18 units/patient and 3.94 ± 0.30 units/patient in the CPB group (p < 0.05). The mean number of fresh frozen plasma units transfused was 1.13 ± 0.13 in the OPCAB group vs. 1.57 ± 0.15 in the CPB group (p < 0.05). There were 12 patients (14%) in the OPCAB group who had no transfusion. Conclusions One of the most important advantages of the OPCAB technique is that it makes it possible to reduce the rate of blood product transfusions. PMID:26336410

  19. Perioperative ischemic injury after coronary bypass graft surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Hanelin, L.G.; Riggins, R.C.; Agnew, R.C.; Annest, L.S.; Anderson, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    Two hundred twelve patients who underwent isolated coronary bypass graft surgery were prospectively evaluated for perioperative ischemic injury. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative testing with technetium 99m pyrophosphate first-pass ventriculography combined with myocardial uptake scans, 12-lead electrocardiography, and serial creatinine phosphokinase MB determination. Fifteen percent of the patients had ischemic injury with at least two test results positive, but only 4 percent had positive results of all three tests. No single test proved adequate. Enzyme levels were highly sensitive and had value as a screening test. The electrocardiogram was specific but only moderately sensitive. The single best test was the radionuclide scan with good sensitivity and no false-positive results. All three tests are required to rigorously diagnose ischemic injury.

  20. Conservative Management of Chylothorax after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pulathan, Zerrin; Kutanis, Dilek; Hemsinli, Dogus; Erturk, Engin; Civelek, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare sequela to cardiac surgery, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are various medical and surgical options for its management. We describe 2 cases of chylothorax that developed after coronary artery bypass grafting and were managed successfully with medical therapy alone. Conservative treatment such as we describe aims to reduce chyle flow, to drain the pleural cavity in an effective manner, and to prevent chronic sequelae. Optimal conservative treatment, consisting of nothing by mouth and the administration of a pleurodetic agent, should be started immediately upon diagnosis. In most cases, it reduces the need for reoperation and long-term hospitalization. Prospective randomized controlled trials are nonetheless needed to confirm these assumptions. PMID:25873827

  1. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus after coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Matthew F; Vuylsteke, Alain; Ritchie, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus that occurred after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient taking long-term lithium carbonate. Lithium toxicity (2.79 mmol/L) was identified on postoperative day 9. Serum sodium peaked at 175 mmol/L on postoperative day 21. Serum osmolality peaked at 384 mOsm/kg H2O, with a urinary osmolality of 403 mOsm/kg H2O. The patient was ultimately managed with hemofiltration and high-dose 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin. Recommendations are made based on our experience of this case. In patients on long-term lithium therapy, the potentially life-threatening complication of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should be specifically anticipated and managed. PMID:17643658

  2. Laser Doppler imaging of myocardial perfusion during coronary bypass surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Karin; Hermansson, Ulf; Nilsson, Gert E.; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik

    2000-05-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging has been used to assess the myocardium perfusion on the arrested heart during bypass surgery. Twenty-two patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, including usage of the left internal thoracic artery, were included in the study. The anticipated perfusion increase following declamping of the internal thoracic artery was investigated by mapping areas at the size of 10 cm X 11 cm, (n equals 11) and 7 cm X 5 cm (n equals 11). The larger images allowed quantification of blood flow in different regions of the myocardium. The size of the affected area was 32.2 +/- 12.9 cm2 with a total increase of 3.17 +/- 0.75 a.u. (range 0 - 10 a.u.). Corresponding values for areas surrounding the vessels and areas defined as the larger vessels in the myocardium were 29.0 +/- 10.9 cm2 (2.85 +/- 0.57 a.u.) and 3.5 +/- 2.8 cm2 (6.78 +/- 0.18 a.u.). All subjects but two showed a substantial blood flow increase (> 2 a.u.) after release of the clamp. Six subjects had a total increase of at least 4 a.u. Correlation analysis between areas including various number of sites showed an r equals 0.91 (p < 0,0001) or better. In conclusion, laser Doppler perfusion imaging can easily be used intraoperatively in conjunction with bypass surgery. It enables immediate assessment of both the increase and spatial distribution of myocardial perfusion following declamping of an arterial graft.

  3. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Anthony G; Relle, Margaret A; Lombardi, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2-9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287

  4. Outcome in Patients Having Salvage Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Santarpino, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Vito G; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Bounader, Karl; Beghi, Cesare; Fischlein, Theodor; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; De Feo, Marisa; Bancone, Ciro; Perrotti, Andrea; Chocron, Sidney; Dalen, Magnus; Svenarud, Peter; Rubino, Antonino S; Mignosa, Carmelo; Gherli, Riccardo; Musumeci, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Biancari, Fausto

    2015-10-15

    Salvage coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is often performed for cardiogenic shock on compassionate basis without clinical data justifying this aggressive approach. The aim of this study was to analyze early and intermediate outcomes after salvage CABG. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 85 patients who underwent salvage CABG at 11 European cardiac surgery centers. Salvage CABG was defined according to the EuroSCORE criteria, that is, a procedure performed in patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (external cardiac massage) en route to the operating theater or before induction of anesthesia. A percutaneous coronary intervention procedure preceded salvage CABG in 55 patients (64.7%). Thirty patients (35.3%) died during the inhospital stay. The mean EuroSCORE II was 32.0% and the observed-to-expected ratio was 1.08. Salvage CABG was associated with high rates of postoperative stroke (9.4%), resternotomy for bleeding (23.5%), resternotomy for hemodynamic instability (15.3%), dialysis (18.8%), severe gastrointestinal complications (12.9%), and deep sternal wound infection (10.6%). Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 58.6%, 49.8%, and 40.9%, respectively. Twenty patients (23.5%) were postoperatively treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The rates of adverse events after ECMO were particularly high (stroke 40%, resternotomy for bleeding 60%, dialysis 35%, gastrointestinal complications 30%, and deep sternal wound infection 30%). Of patients treated with ECMO, 8 (40%) survived to discharge, and 1-year survival was 29.2%. Salvage CABG is associated with high risk of immediate mortality and severe adverse events. However, the observed immediate and intermediate outcome justify coronary surgery in these critically ill patients. A number of these patients are currently treated by ECMO, and its results are encouraging. PMID:26303635

  5. [The correlation between flow pattern during cardiopulmonary bypass and patency of the coronary artery bypass grafts].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, H; Shirakawa, M; Nakayama, T; Asai, T; Nakayama, M; Ito, T; Yano, Y

    2005-07-01

    Recently the availability of transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is reported especially in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). But little is known about TTFM findings in on-pump CABG. We examined the correlation between the TTFM flow pattern and the angiography findings in on-pump CABG. The subjects consisted of 52 patients who underwent on-pump CABG and angiography early after operation. In these patients, 55 internal thoracic artery (ITA), 17 gastroepiploic artery (GEA), 13 saphenous vein graft (SVG) and 41 radial artery (RA) were tested with TTFM during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). TTFM demonstrated a diastolic filling pattern in 53 ITA, 16 GEA, 13 SVG and 36 RA. The angiography revealed that all these grafts were perfectly patent with the exception of a GEA with a flow competition pattern. TTFM revealed an abnormal flow pattern in 2 ITA (these 2 grafts were revised during CPB and the angiography demonstrated their perfect patency), 1 GEA (to and fro pattern), 0 SVG and 5 RA (the abnormal pattern was due to graft spasm in 3 of 5, and the angiography revealed their perfect patency, however, the angiography detected stenosis in the remaining 2 grafts). The present study found that the TTFM flow pattern during CPB correlated well with the angiography findings. TTFM during CPB was useful to detect graft failure, and grafts were revised safely during CPB. PMID:16004331

  6. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil for coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Monk, C R; Bolsin, S N; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-06-01

    The haemodynamic effects of total i.v. anaesthesia with a combination of propofol and alfentanil infusions were studied in eight patients with good left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Haemodynamic indices were measured before anaesthesia and at specified intervals before cardiopulmonary bypass. The technique resulted in haemodynamic changes comparable to those reported with opioid-based anaesthesia for coronary artery surgery, and has potential advantages. PMID:2064887

  7. Superior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysm- a rare complication of chest drain insertion in coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Umar; Jah, Asif; Ward, Nick; Gaunt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Although chest drain insertion during coronary artery bypass grafting is a fairly standard procedure, however it may result in extremely rare complications. Case presentation This is the first case being reported that demonstrates a pseudoaneurysm of superior epigastric artery resulting from chest drain insertion following coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion Adequate caution should be used along with good understanding of the anatomical landmarks during apparently simple and standard operative procedures. PMID:17459158

  8. Early Results of Coronary Endarterectomy Combined with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diffused Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Kong, Qing-Yu; Xiao, Wei; Liang, Lin; Chen, Xin-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is still a challenge for the cardiac surgeons to achieve adequate revascularization for diffused coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary endarterectomy (CE) offers an alternative choice of coronary artery reconstruction and revascularization. In this study, short-term result of CE combined with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was discussed in the treatment for the diffused CAD. Methods: From January 2012 to April 2014, 221 cases of CABG were performed by the same surgeon in our unit. Among these cases, 38 cases of CE + CABG were performed, which was about 17.2% (38/221) of the cohort. All these patients were divided into two groups: CE + CABG group (Group A) and CABG alone group (Group B). All clinical data were compared between the two groups, and postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. The categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test respectively. Results: Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and peripheral vascular disease were more common in group A. In this cohort, a total of 50 vessels were endarterectomized. Among them, CE was performed on left anterior descending artery in 11 cases, on right coronary artery in 29 cases, on diagonal artery in 3 cases, on intermediate artery in 2 cases, on obtuse marginal artery in 5 cases. There was no hospital mortality in both groups. The intro-aortic balloon pump was required in 3 cases in Group A (3/38), which was more often than that in Group B (3/183). At the time of follow-up, coronary computed tomography angiogram showed all the grafts with CE were patent (50/50). There is no cardio-related mortality in both groups. All these patients were free from coronary re-intervention. Conclusions: Coronary endarterectomy + CABG can offer satisfactory result for patients with diffused CAD in a short-term after the operation. PMID:26021501

  9. Thermographic visualisation of coronary artery blood flow during by-pass surgery.

    PubMed

    Brydon, J W; Lambie, A K; Wheatley, D J

    1979-03-01

    A technique is described for visualising coronary artery blood flow and assessing myocardial perfusion during aorta to coronary artery bypass surgery. The technique involves an injection of cold fluid into the graft which is then viewed thermographically using an infra-red camera. PMID:317873

  10. The Sexual Adjustment of Coronary Bypass Surgery Patients: A 4-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurer, Shari; Thurer, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Measured the sexual adjustment of 14 individuals before coronary bypass surgery and both four months and four years afterwards. Results showed that sexual adjustment worsened with the onset of symptomatic coronary artery disease and did not improve at either follow-up interval. (LLL)

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass increases the risk of vasoplegic syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hossne Junior, Nelson Américo; Miranda, Matheus; Monteiro, Marcus Rodrigo; Branco, João Nelson Rodrigues; Vargas, Guilherme Flora; Pestana, José Osmar Medina de Abreu; Gomes, Walter José

    2015-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery bypass grafting is currently the best treatment for dialysis patients with multivessel coronary artery involvement. Vasoplegic syndrome of inflammatory etiology constitutes an important postoperative complication, with highly negative impact on prognosis. Considering that these patients have an intrinsic inflammatory response exacerbation, our goal was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of vasoplegic syndrome after myocardial revascularization in this group. Methods A retrospective, single-center study of 50 consecutive and non-selected dialysis patients who underwent myocardial revascularization in a tertiary university hospital, from 2007 to 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass or not (off-pump coronary artery bypass). The incidence and mortality of vasoplegic syndrome were analyzed. The subgroup of vasoplegic patients was studied separately. Results There were no preoperative demographic differences between the cardiopulmonary bypass (n=20) and off-pump coronary artery bypass (n=30) group. Intraoperative data showed a greater number of distal coronary arteries anastomosis (2.8 vs. 1.8, P<0.0001) and higher transfusion rates (65% vs. 23%, P=0.008) in the cardiopulmonary bypass group. Vasoplegia incidence was statistically higher (P=0.0124) in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (30%) compared to the off-pump coronary artery bypass group (3%). Vasoplegia mortality was 50% in the cardiopulmonary bypass group and 0% in the off-pump coronary artery bypass group. The vasoplegic subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant clinical differences. Conclusion Cardiopulmonary bypass increased the risk for developing postoperative vasoplegic syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure.

  12. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA), lysozyme, vimentin, desmin, platelet factor 4, and thrombospondin. Antigens were visualised by a chromogen providing an orange-red immunoprecipitate at the site of epitope localisation. The intraluminal, amorphous exudate present in most grafts was not composed simply of fibrin or fibrinogen, as previously thought, but was a multiprotein complex including wWFAg, fibronectin, thrombospondin and platelet factor 4. Along with macrophages, these components probably enter the graft after haemodynamic, physical, and chemical injury to, and disruption of, the endothelial cell. Progressive myointimal proliferation and fibrosis of these grafts may be local repetitive responses to macrophages and platelets, cells previously known to participate in vascular disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2659629

  13. Preventing Deep Wound Infection after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Charles S.; Yarbrough, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of deep wound infections before, during, and after coronary artery bypass grafting have prompted research to clarify risk factors and explore preventive measures to keep infection rates at an irreducible minimum. An analysis of 42 studies in which investigators used multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus and obesity are by far the chief preoperative risk factors. A 4-point preoperative scoring system based on a patient's body mass index and the presence or absence of diabetes is one practical way to determine the risk of mediastinitis, and other risk-estimate methods are being refined. Intraoperative risk factors include prolonged perfusion time, the use of one or more internal mammary arteries as grafts, blood transfusion, and mechanical circulatory assistance. The chief postoperative risk factor is reoperation, usually for bleeding. Unresolved issues include the optimal approach to Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and the choice of a prophylactic antibiotic regimen. We recommend that cardiac surgery programs supplement their audit processes and ongoing vigilance for infections with periodic, multidisciplinary reviews of best-practice standards for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient care. PMID:23678210

  14. Implications of Hemodialysis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Gouge, Catherine A.; Kindell, Linda C.; Kennedy, Whitney L.; Bolin, Paul; O’Neal, Jason B.; Anderson, Curtis A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Chitwood, W. Randolph; Kypson, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis. To our knowledge, no studies have examined long-term outcomes of hemodialysis patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a predominately rural, low-income, and racially dichotomous population. Methods Long-term survival of hemodialysis patients undergoing non-emergent, isolated CABG was compared with non-hemodialysis patients. Survival probabilities were computed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and stratified by hemodialysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed using a Cox regression model. Results Hemodialysis patients (n=220) had shorter long-term survival than non-hemodialysis patients (median survival=3.3 versus 14 years, p<0.0001). The survival difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for clinically relevant variables (HR=5.2, 95%CI=4.4-6.2). Conclusion Hemodialysis patients had significantly shorter long-term survival compared with non-hemodialysis patients after CABG. Further research is needed to address the cost and policy implications of our findings, especially among priority populations. PMID:25309935

  15. Augmented reality image guidance for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Hawkes, David; Casula, Roberto; Hu, Mingxing; Pedro, Ose; Zhang, Dong Ping; Penney, Graeme; Bello, Fernando; Edwards, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We propose a novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB). A key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilization of the heart, thus the most dominant source of non-rigid deformation is the motion of the beating heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle. We can then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo-endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot using 2D-3D registration methods. We are investigating robust feature tracking and intensity-based methods for this purpose. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures.

  16. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery depletes plasma thiamine levels

    PubMed Central

    Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Smithline, Howard; Carney, Erin; Chou, Peter P.; Salciccoli, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Thiamine is an essential component of cellular metabolism, and lack of this vitamin results in a potentially life-threatening biochemical lesion. The stress of surgery and critical disease depletes electrolytes, minerals, and essential biochemical substrates. We hypothesized that critical illness (represented by major surgery) will result in decreased thiamine levels over time. Methods We performed a prospective, observational study of serial thiamine levels of 15 patients who underwent non-emergent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The primary endpoint was change in thiamine levels from pre- to immediately post-surgery. Secondary endpoints included change in thiamine levels between pre- surgery and 6 and 24 hour time-points. Results Of the 15 study patients, one did not have a plasma thiamine measurement at time zero because of lab error and could not be accounted for in paired comparisons over time. Plasma thiamine levels decreased significantly from the pre to post-CABG period (p = 0.0004). In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease in thiamine levels from pre-surgery to 24 hours (P = 0.003). Conclusion Our data suggest that major surgery (as a surrogate for the stress of critical illness) depletes thiamine levels; further study is needed to determine whether routine replacement of thiamine in the critically ill is warranted. PMID:20005469

  17. Risk factors for mortality of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseini; Brandi, Josélia de Cássia Menin; dos Santos, Marcio Antônio; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass grafting is a safe procedure performed worldwide with low rates of mortality and morbidity in general population. Objective To investigate risk factors for mortality of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Methods A total of 1,628 consecutive patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were retrospectively studied from December 1999 to February 2012. Data analysis involved paired Student t test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher’s exact test for the categorical data. Logistic regression, Odds Ratio and 95%CI were used for definition of risk factors for mortality. Results Of a total of 1,628 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 141 (8.7%) died. The following risk factors for mortality were identified after logistic regression: dialysis (OR=7.61; 95%CI 3.58-16.20), neurologic dysfunction type I (OR=4.42; 95%CI 2.48-7.81), use of IABP (OR=3.38; 95%CI 1.98-5.79), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR=3.09; 95%CI 2.04-4.68), serum creatinine on admission and peak values > 0.4mg/dL (OR=2.67; 95%CI 1.79-4.00), age > 65 years (OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.55-3.44), and time between hospital admission and and surgical procedure (OR=1.53; 95%CI 1.03-2.27). Conclusion Dialysis, type I neurologic dysfunction, use of IABP, cardiopulmonary bypass time (> 115 minutes), serum creatinine on admission and peak values>0.4mg/dL, age > 65 years and time between hospital admission and surgical procedure were considered as risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:25714203

  18. Prevalence of Delirium in Opium Users after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Fard, Masoud Mozhdehi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, especially delirium commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. Clinical evidences suggest an increase in delirium in opium abusers after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. In this study, the prevalence of delirium in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients after CABG were compared. Methods: In a cross-sectional study after obtaining institutional approval and informed consent, 325 patients candidate for elective CABG were included in the study. All patients with history of opium abuse met the criteria for opioid dependence using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition definitions. Delirium after CABG was assessed in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients up to a maximum of 5 days after surgery with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Results: A total of 325 patients were evaluated (208 without and 117 with a history of opium abuse). Postoperative delirium occurred within 72 h after surgery in 44.31% of all patients. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of postoperative delirium between the opium users (80.7%) and nonaddict patients (25%) in the intensive care unit (P < 0.001). Opium addiction was a risk factor for postoperative delirium after CABG Surgery. Conclusions: Delirium after CABG surgery is more prevalent in opium users compared with nonaddict patients. Therefore, opium abuse is a possible risk factor for postoperative delirium in cardiac surgical patients. PMID:25105003

  19. Variation in patients’ perceptions of elective percutaneous coronary intervention in stable coronary artery disease: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Philip G; Buchanan, Donna M; Abdallah, Mouin S; Spertus, John A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the perceptions of patients with stable coronary artery disease of the urgency and benefits of elective percutaneous coronary intervention and to examine how they vary across centers and by providers. Design Cross sectional study. Setting 10 US academic and community hospitals performing percutaneous coronary interventions between 2009 and 2011. Participants 991 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Main outcome measures Patients’ perceptions of the urgency and benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention, assessed by interview. Multilevel hierarchical logistic regression models examined the variation in patients’ understanding across centers and operators after adjusting for patient characteristics, using median odds ratios. Results The most common reported benefits from percutaneous coronary intervention were to extend life (90%, n=892; site range 80-97%) and to prevent future heart attacks (88%, n=872; site range 79-97%). Although nearly two thirds of patients (n=661) reported improvement of symptoms as a benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (site range 52-87%), only 1% (n=9) identified this as the only benefit. Substantial variability was noted in the ways informed consent was obtained at each site. After adjusting for patient and operator characteristics, the median odds ratios showed significant variation in patients’ perceptions of percutaneous coronary intervention across sites (range 1.4-3.1) but not across operators within a site. Conclusion Patients have a poor understanding of the benefits of elective percutaneous coronary intervention, with significant variation across sites. No sites had a high proportion of patients accurately understanding the benefits. Coupled with the wide variability in the ways in which hospitals obtain informed consent, these findings suggest that hospital level interventions into the structure and processes of obtaining informed consent for percutaneous coronary intervention might improve patient comprehension and understanding. PMID:25200209

  20. Comparison of the Postprocedural Quality of Life between Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Kaneez; Yousuf-ul-Islam, Mohammad; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khetpal, Akash; Khetpal, Neelam; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Amir, Raamish Bin; Kakalia, Hoshang Rustom; Zaidi, Qaiser Hasan; Mian, Sharmeen Kamran; Kazani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of choice between coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has remained unclear. Considering quality of life (QOL) increases life expectancy, we believe QOL should be important in determining the optimum treatment. Thus the objective of this review was to illustrate the comparative effects of CABG and PCI on postprocedural QOL. Methods. We searched PubMed (Medline) and Embase from inception of the databases to May 2014 using “PCI versus CABG quality of life”, “Percutaneous Coronary intervention versus Coronary artery bypass graft surgery Quality of life”, “PCI versus CABG health status”, “Angioplasty versus CABG”, “Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass surgery health status”, and different combinations of the above terms. 447 articles were found. After applying strict exclusion criteria, we included 13 studies in this review. Results. From the 9 studies that compared QOL scores at 6 months after procedure, 5 studies reported CABG to be superior. From the 10 studies that compared QOL among patients at 1 year after procedure, 9 reported CABG to be superior. Conclusion. It can be established that CABG is superior to PCI in improving patient's QOL with respect to all scales used to determine quality of life. PMID:26989556

  1. Effects of hydraulic circuit training following coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Haennel, R G; Quinney, H A; Kappagoda, C T

    1991-02-01

    The effect of hydraulic circuit training (HCT) on stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Qc), aerobic power (peak VO2), and muscular strength and endurance was evaluated in 24 post-coronary artery bypass (CABS) patients (mean age = 52.8 +/- 2.6 yr). All assessments other than muscular strength and endurance were based upon a symptom limited graded exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Muscular strength and endurance were assessed on a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer. Sixteen patients were assigned randomly to 8 wk of cycle training or HCT (N = 8 in each). Subjects assigned to cycle training exercised on bicycle ergometers. The HCT group exercised on a three-station circuit, completing three circuits per day. Each circuit consisted of three 20 s work intervals at each station with a 1:1 work:rest ratio. Results from the training groups were compared with results from eight patients who served as a nonexercising control group. Following training the peak VO2 was significantly increased in the training groups (20% and 11% for the cycle and HCT groups, respectively; P less than 0.05). For both training groups, the increase in peak VO2 was associated with increases in SV and Qc and a reduction in heart rate (HR) at submaximal levels of exercise (P less than 0.05). Only the HCT group demonstrated an increase in both muscular strength and endurance during knee and shoulder exercises (P less than 0.05). These findings suggest that a program of HCT can elicit improvements in cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength and endurance in post-CABS patients. PMID:2017011

  2. What Are the Risks of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before What To Expect During What To Expect After What Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Cardiac Rehabilitation Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Surgery Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Send a link ...

  3. What to Expect After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before What To Expect During What To Expect After What Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Cardiac Rehabilitation Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Surgery Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Send a link ...

  4. Percutaneous Closure of a Coronary Artery-to-Vein Graft Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome after Recent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh; Gupta, Kamal; Wiley, Mark; Parashara, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm formation has been reported in degenerated coronary artery saphenous vein bypass grafts, as well as in native coronary arteries after interventional procedures or blunt trauma. In contrast, pseudoaneurysm formation arising from the anastomotic site of native coronary vessels soon after coronary artery bypass grafting is rare, and neither the clinical presentation of this phenomenon nor its treatment is well described. We present the case of a 63-year-old man, a recent coronary artery bypass grafting patient, who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to a large and expanding pseudoaneurysm of the saphenous vein-to-ramus intermedius artery graft anastomosis. After several attempts, we successfully treated the pseudoaneurysm by means of percutaneous coil embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute coronary syndrome secondary to a pseudoaneurysm at the coronary arterysaphenous vein graft anastomosis. In addition, this appears to be the first report of the percutaneous treatment of such a pseudoaneurysm by means of coil embolization. PMID:26175645

  5. Previous percutaneous coronary intervention increases morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Gaurav S.; LaPar, Damien J.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the incidence of previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing and that prior PCI influences patient morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods A total of 34,316 patients underwent isolated CABG operations at 16 different statewide, institutions from 2001 to 2008. Patients were stratified into prior PCI (n = 4346; 12.7%) and no prior PCI (n = 29,970). Patient risk factors, intraoperative variables, and outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The incidence of prior PCI in CABG has risen from <1% to 22.0% from 2001 to 2008 (P < .001). Prior PCI patients were younger (P < .001) and more commonly had previous myocardial infarction (P < .001), but less commonly had heart failure (P < .001). The operative mortality was similar between groups (2.3% vs 1.9%; P = .13). Prior PCI patients had more major complications (15.0% vs 12.0%; P < .001), longer hospitalization (P = .01), and higher readmission rates (P = .01). Importantly, by multivariate analyses, prior PCI was not associated with mortality, but was an independent predictor of major complications after CABG (odds ratio, 1.15; P = .01). Conclusion The incidence of prior PCI in patients undergoing CABG is increasing. Previous PCI is associated with a higher risk of major complications, greater hospital length of stay, and higher readmission rates after CABG. PMID:22503323

  6. Impact of the interval between coronary angiography and off-pump coronary bypass surgery on postoperative renal function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-young; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Na Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Background Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant complication after coronary artery bypass surgery. Prior coronary angiography increases the likelihood of AKI due to the use of a radiocontrast dye. This study examined the effect of coronary angiography on the postoperative renal function after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). Methods The records of 110 patients who required OPCAB were reviewed. These patients also had at least two of the following conditions: chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, emergency surgery, congestive heart failure, age >75 years, hematocrit <30%, a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, or the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. The patients were divided into two groups; coronary angiography performed within two days of OPCAB (Control group, n = 55), and coronary angiography performed more than two days before OPCAB (Angio group, n = 55). The serum creatinine (SCr) and serum cystatin C levels were measured on the day before surgery, as well as on postoperative days 1, 2, 3 and 7. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also obtained on those days. AKI was defined as an increase in Cr ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dl within 48 hours. Results The postoperative changes in the SCr, cystatin C and eGFR were similar in the two groups. The incidence of AKI and renal replacement therapy were similar in the two groups. Conclusions Coronary angiography performed within two days of OPCAB does not affect the postoperative renal function. PMID:20498792

  7. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with active idiopathic cryoglobulinemia: revisiting the issue

    PubMed Central

    Fakih, Hafiz Abdul Moiz; Elueze, Emmanuel; Vij, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryoglobulinemia is a cold-reactive autoimmune disease. It is of distinctive importance in cardiac surgery because of the use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Cryoglobulins, which activate at variable levels of hypothermia, can cause precipitation during surgery leading to possibly severe leukocytoclastic or necrotizing vasculitis, clinically manifested as ischemic events, such as cutaneous ulcerations, glomerulonephritis, arthritis, or peripheral neuropathies among the most reported associated comorbidities. Management of CPB and systemic protection in this rare but unique scenario requires individualized planning. We report the case of a patient with active cryoglobulinemia who was preoperatively managed with plasmapheresis. He underwent hypothermic coronary bypass with no precipitation and flare during and after surgery. Case presentation We describe the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian male with clinically significant idiopathic cryoglobulinemia and history of recurrent skin lesions and toe amputations secondary to cold exposure. He presented with 2-h duration of chest pain and new onset atrial fibrillation. After cardiac catheterization, a diagnosis of three-vessel coronary artery disease was established and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was scheduled. Because of a high risk of flare-up during surgery, the patient was preemptively treated with two sessions of plasmapheresis before bypass. He then underwent hypothermic CABG. The pre- and perioperative course was unremarkable without any clinical evidence of precipitation. The patient was discharged on day 6 postoperatively without any complications. Conclusion Preoperative plasmapheresis before hypothermic coronary bypass can prevent fatal cryoglobulinemia-related complications in patients with active disease. PMID:26908383

  8. Endovascular Treatment of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Jeffery L. Kang, Preet S.

    2006-04-15

    Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.

  9. [Vaso-reactive properties of radial and internal mammary arteries: application to coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Chardigny, C; Jebara, V; Descombes, J J; Acar, C; Verbeuren, T; Fabiani, J N

    1994-09-01

    Satisfactory results were obtained with the radial artery used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass. However, spasm of this conduit was observed. Human radial and internal mammary artery ring segments were studied in organ chambers. Potassium chloride, norepinephrine, serotonin and thromboxane A2 mimetic were used to obtain dose-response curves, permitting assessment of force of contraction and sensitivity. The radial artery presents stronger contractions than the internal mammary artery. The two vessels have equal sensitivity to the vasoconstrictors used. These data emphasize the hyperreactivity of the radial artery and the need for prevention of vasospasm when this vessel is used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass. PMID:7646232

  10. Re-Birth After Coronary Bypass Graft Surgery: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Fuh, Suh Boudouin; Sadeghi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Although coronary artery bypass graft surgery has significant effects on reducing the symptoms of coronary artery disease, there is not enough knowledge and understanding of lived experience of patients after surgery. Understanding lived experience of this group of patients would be helpful for healthcare staff to provide better services to the patients. The aim of this study was to describe with a deeper understanding, the lived experiences of patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and a Van-Manen analysis method, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven participants who had lived experienced of at least six months post - coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Re-birth was the main theme that emerged in the process of data analysis. This theme was derived from four sub-themes including “feels younger”, “vigorous heart”, “intrepid life” and “oriented to be healthy”. Life after a coronary artery bypass graft surgery is often appreciated as a re-birth by persons with these experiences as surgery did not only provide a feeling of wellness, but also added a sensation of youthfulness and improvement in the quality of life for these participants. In addition, they would actively participate in health promotional activities such as; adherence to medication and diet regimes, changes in lifestyle to maintain their health. PMID:24762368

  11. The present day potential role of fractional flow reserve-guided coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Casselman, Filip; Van der Merwe, Johan; Ferrara, Angela; Barbato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    The favorable impact of fractional flow reserve measurements on the decision-making and overall outcomes of percutaneous coronary artery intervention is well established. However, the clinical application of fractional flow reserve in surgical revascularizations is still debated. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on the current potential role of fractional flow reserve guidance in coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:26806476

  12. Successful percutaneous stenting of a right gastroepiploic coronary bypass graft using monorail delivery system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Safi, A M; Mandawat, M K; Anderson, J E; Kwan, T; Feit, A; Clark, L T

    2000-02-01

    The right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) is being successfully used as an arterial conduit in a selected group of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, myocardial ischemia may result due to spasm, occlusion, and stenosis of this graft. The anastamosis site at distal right coronary artery (RCA) or posterior descending artery (PDA) is the most common location for stenosis of an in situ gastroepiploic coronary bypass graft. Balloon angioplasty of such stenoses has been reported with optimal short-term results. Stent deployment would decrease the restenosis rate, so that repeat procedures could be minimized for these technically challenging lesions. We describe a case of successful deployment of a stent with monorail delivery system at the anastamotic site stenosis of an in situ gastroepiploic right coronary artery bypass graft. This percutaneous coronary intervention could prevent redo coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:197-199, 2000. PMID:10642773

  13. Thoracoscopic treatment of postoperative chylothorax after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, J. P.; Joosten, H. J.; Postmus, P. E.

    1994-01-01

    Chylothorax after sternotomy for aortocoronary bypass surgery is a rare but serious complication. To avoid lateral thoracotomy a left sided thoracoscopy was performed and the site of the leakage was immediately found and successfully clipped. PMID:7878569

  14. Depression and Geographic Status as Predictors for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Chu, Danny; Springer, Justin; Hiatt, Emily; Nguyen, Quang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationships between depression, geographic status, and clinical outcomes following a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: Using the 2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we identified 63,061 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery (urban 57,247 and rural 5,814). We

  15. Dissociative anaesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery using ketamine and midazolam. A case report.

    PubMed

    Edge, K R; Braude, B M; Press, P; van Hasselt, C H

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous anaesthesia with a combination of ketamine (Ketalar) and midazolam (Dormicum) infusions was administered to a 49-year-old patient, with a documented history of opiate allergy, undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. A ketamine infusion supplemented with indomethacin suppositories was used for postoperative pain control. PMID:3490702

  16. Depression and Geographic Status as Predictors for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Chu, Danny; Springer, Justin; Hiatt, Emily; Nguyen, Quang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationships between depression, geographic status, and clinical outcomes following a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: Using the 2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we identified 63,061 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery (urban 57,247 and rural 5,814). We…

  17. Control of tachycardia and hypertension following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: efficacy and haemodynamic effects of esmolol.

    PubMed

    Tempe, D K; Mulchandani, P; Tandon, M S; Mehta, N; Tomar, A S; Banerjee, A; Khanna, S K

    1999-01-01

    Hypertension following coronary artery bypass grafting is not uncommon, especially in patients having good left ventricular function. It is often accompanied by tachycardia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of esmolol in the treatment of tachycardia and hypertension immediately following cardiopulmonary bypass and to study other haemodynamic effects of esmolol. Thirty patients undergoing elective [corrected] coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this prospective study. Morphine-based anaesthetic technique along-with standard bypass techniques were used in all the patients. The study was performed in the operating room about 30-45 minutes after the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients having a heart rate of more than 90 bpm and systolic blood pressure of more than 130 mm Hg without any inotropic support were included and randomly assigned to esmolol or control group. Esmolol was administered in a bolus dose of 500 micrograms/kg followed by infusion of upto 100 micrograms/kg/min. The patients in the control group were administered comparable volumes of normal saline. Baseline haemodynamic measurements were obtained just before the administration of esmolol or normal saline and were repeated after 5, 10, 15, 30 and 45 min. The baseline measurement in both the groups showed that patients were maintaining a state of hyperdynamic circulation with high systolic blood pressure (esmolol group 148 +/- 15 mm Hg, control group 140 +/- 8 mm Hg; p = NS), heart rate (esmolol group 128 +/- 17 bpm, control group 127 +/- 17 bpm; p = NS) and cardiac index (esmolol group 3.1 +/- 1 L/min/m2, control group 3.3 +/- 0.5 L/min/m2; p = NS). Esmolol decreased systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p < 0.01) and cardiac index (p < 0.05) at five minutes. These changes persisted throughout the study period. The left ventricular stroke work index decreased at five minutes (p < 0.05) and remained so till 30 minutes. The maximum fall in heart rate (15%) and systolic blood pressure (16%) was observed at 45 minutes. There were no haemodynamic changes in the control group except that cardiac index, stroke volume and left ventricular stroke work index increased at five minutes. We conclude that esmolol lowers the indices of cardiovascular work in patients who demonstrated hyperdynamic circulation. This was achieved by decreasing the heart rate and systolic blood pressure which was accompanied by decrease in cardiac index and left ventricular stroke work index. PMID:10624069

  18. Can Plasma Fibrinogen Levels Predict Bleeding After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Alireza; Ghiasi, Mohammadsaeid; Aghaei, Aghdas; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghanbari, Behrooz; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fibrinogen is the main biomarker for bleeding. To prevent excessive postoperative bleeding, it would be useful to identify high-risk patients before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Objectives: In order to predicating bleeding after CABG, we sought to determine whether preoperative fibrinogen concentration was associated with the amount of bleeding following CABG. Patients and Methods: A total of 144 patients (mean age = 61.50 ± 9.42 years; 65.7% men), undergoing elective and isolated CABG, were included in this case-series study. The same anesthesia technique and medicines were selected for all the patients. In the ICU, the patients were assessed in terms of bleeding at 12 and 24 hours post-operation, amount of contingent blood products received, and relevant tests. Statistical tests were subsequently conducted to analyze the correlation between preoperative fibrinogen concentration and the amount of post-CABG bleeding. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of bleeding at 12 and 24 hours post-operation was 285.37 ± 280.27 and 499.31 ± 355.57 mL, respectively. The results showed that postoperative bleeding was associated with different factors whereas pre-anesthesia fibrinogen was not correlated with bleeding at 12 (P = 0.856) and 24 hours (P = 0.936) post-operation. There were correlations between the extra-corporal circulation time and bleeding at 12 hours post-operation (ρ = 0.231, P = 0.007) and bleeding at 24 hours post-operation (ρ = 0.218, P = 0.013). Conclusions: Preoperative assessment of plasma fibrinogen levels failed to predict post-CABG bleeding. PMID:25478546

  19. Increasing Severity of Aortic Atherosclerosis in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients Evaluated by Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Denny, John T.; Pantin, Enrique; Chiricolo, Antonio; Tse, James; Denny, Julia E.; Mungekar, Sagar S.; Chyu, Darrick; Solina, Alann

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic disease in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients is a potential contributor to complications in the perioperative periods. This study was undertaken to better define how the frequency of aortic atheromatous disease among patients coming for CABG has evolved over the last decade. Methods Data from elective patients coming for CABG who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examinations following induction of anesthesia were obtained for the years 2002 and 2009. Aortas were graded according to the method of Kronzon, with the following interpretations: normal = grade I, intimal thickening = 2, atheroma of less than 5 mm = 3, atheroma of > 5 mm = 4, and any mobile atheroma = 5. The data of 124 patients who underwent comprehensive exam of the aorta by one cardiac anesthesiologist were gathered and assigned into two groups based on the year TEE was done. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. The data were presented as mean ± SD. Results There was significant difference between group 2002 (2.05 ± 1.28) and group 2009 (2.59 ± 1.11) in atheroma grade (P = 0.013). Conclusions Patients coming for CABG in group 2009 exhibited significantly higher grades of aortic atheroma on TEE, compared to group 2002. Understanding the risk of atheroma in the elderly CABG population may help in altering surgical approaches to lessen the risk of catastrophic stroke. Potential options needing further study include the off-pump approach and modification of cross-clamp site and technique as well as other modalities. PMID:25379067

  20. Coronary artery bypass graft: why is the saphenous vein prone to intimal hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Sur, Swastika; Sugimoto, Jeffrey T; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-07-01

    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and the resultant intimal hyperplasia cause coronary artery bypass graft failure. Both internal mammary artery and saphenous vein are the most commonly used bypass conduits. Although an internal mammary artery graft is immune to restenosis, a saphenous vein graft is prone to develop restenosis. We found significantly higher activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the smooth muscle cells of the internal mammary artery than in the saphenous vein. In this article, we critically review the pathophysiology of vein-graft failure with detailed discussion of the involvement of various factors, including PTEN, matrix metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, in uncontrolled proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells towards the lumen, and invasion of the graft conduit. We identified potential target sites that could be useful in preventing and (or) reversing unwanted consequences following coronary artery bypass graft using saphenous vein. PMID:24933515

  1. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Shahzad G.; Husain, Mubassher; Popescu, Florentina L.; Chudasama, Dimple; Daley, Siobhan; Amrani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12), readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10), or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05). Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up. PMID:24106710

  2. Association of pre and intraoperative variables with postoperative complications in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Camila; Barrile, Silvia Regina; Martinelli, Bruno; Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Arca, Eduardo Aguilar; Gimenes, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Okoshi, Katashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To associate the pre- and intraoperative variables with postoperative complications of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods The pre- and intraoperative risk factors of individuals of both genders with diagnosis of coronary insufficiency undergoing coronary artery bypass graft have been studied. Results Fifty-eight individuals with median age 62 ± 10 year-old were included in the study, 67% of whom were male. Fourteen (24.1%) patients were smokers, 39 (67.2%) had previous myocardial infarction history, 11 (19%) had undergone coronary angioplasty, 74% had hypertension, 27% had diabetes mellitus, 64% had dyslipidemia and 15.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eighteen (31%) patients presented postoperative complications, most frequent being: infection in surgical incision, difficulties in deambulation, dyspnea, urinary infection and generalized weakness. Male patients had fewer complications than females (P=0.005). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remained hospitalized for longer time periods (P=0.019). Postoperative complications occurred in 50% of the patients with creatinine increased, while only 27.1% of the patients with normal value of creatinine had complications (P=0.049). In addition, complications occurred in 50% of the patients with diabetes mellitus, while only 23.8% of patients without diabetes mellitus had complications (P=0.032). The intraoperative factors showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion The preoperative factors are associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:24598958

  3. Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Multivessel Disease in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, Jonathan O; Oduwole, Adefisayo M

    2016-02-20

    A 31 year old female with known history of coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention presented with acute coronary syndrome. Unknown that patient was pregnant she had inadvertent radiation exposure to the fetus during cardiac catheterization which showed triple vessel disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Patient subsequently underwent multivessel off pump coronary artery bypass surgery with intraaortic balloon pump support after declining the recommendation for abortion. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient subsequently delivered a full term healthy baby several months later.Off pump revascularization with its ability to maintain pulsatile perfusion to the fetus should be considered if technically feasible for severe coronary artery disease requiring surgery during pregnancy. PMID:26268262

  4. Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting improves short-term outcomes compared with minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenhui; Cai, Junfeng; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Anqing; Ye, Xiaofeng; Li, Haiqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafts (RACAB) utilizing the da Vinci surgical system are increasingly used and allow the surgeon to conveniently harvest internal mammary arteries (IMAs). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of off-pump RACAB and minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in the short and medium term. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 132 patients with single- or multiple-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent minimally invasive off-pump CABG (OPCAB) between May 2009 and May 2014. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical approach, MIDCAB and RACAB group. The anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was performed as regular OPCAB through the incision on the beating heart using regular stabilization devices (Genzyme Corporation). The preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data, including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), were compared. Results The preoperative data were similar. RACAB significantly shorten the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and postoperative compared with the MIDCAB group (P<0.05). There were 12 (19.7%) patients treated with a two-stage hybrid procedure in the MIDCAB group and 34 (47.9%) patients in the RACAB group (P=0.001). Thirty-day mortality was 1.6% in the MIDCAB group. There were 9 (14.7%) MIDCAB patients and 2 (2.8%) RACAB patients (P=0.013) that developed new arrhythmia. The two groups showed comparable mid-term survival (P=0.246), but the MACCEs were significantly different (P=0.038). Conclusions RACAB may be a valuable alternative for patients requiring single or simple multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although the mid-term mortality outcomes are similar, RACAB improves short-term outcomes and mid-term MACCE-free survival compared with MIDCAB. PMID:27076941

  5. The effect of image distortion on 3-D reconstruction of coronary bypass grafts from angiographic views.

    PubMed

    Dorsaz, P A; Dorsaz, L; Doriot, P A

    2000-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of coronary bypass grafts performed from X-ray angiographic images may become increasingly important for the investigation of damaging mechanical stresses imposed to these vessels by the cyclic movement of the heart. Contrary to what we had experienced with coronary arteries, appreciable reconstruction artifacts frequently occur with grafts. In order to verify the hypothesis that those are caused by distortions present in the angiographic images (acquired with image intensifiers), we have implemented a grid correction technique in our 3-D reconstruction method and studied its efficiency with phantom experiments. In this article, the nature of the encountered artifacts and the way in which the dewarping correction eliminates them are illustrated by a phantom experiment and by the reconstruction of a real coronary bypass vein graft. PMID:11055790

  6. Depression and Anxiety following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Current Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of coronary artery disease among the Indian Population. Due to increasing availability and affordability of tertiary care in many parts of India, carefully selected patients undergo coronary artery bypass surgery to improve cardiac function. However, the procedure is commonly associated with depression and anxiety which can adversely affect overall prognosis. The objective of this review is to highlight early identifiable symptoms of depression and anxiety following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in Indian context so as to facilitate prompt intervention for better outcome. The current review was able to establish firm evidence in support of screening for depression and anxiety following CABG. Management of depression and anxiety following CABG is briefly reviewed. PMID:27034884

  7. [A coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass with intraaortic balloon pumping in patient with low cardiac function combined with cerebral vascular disease].

    PubMed

    Nishida, M; Gohra, H; Hirata, K; Ikeda, N; Mikamo, A; Okada, H; Hamano, K; Zempo, N; Esato, K

    2001-08-01

    We reported a 55-year-old man, who had coronary and cerebral vascular disease. Cerebral angiography showed occlusion at left internal carotid artery (ICA) and 50% stenosis at right ICA C4 portion. But acetazolamide reactivity was kept symmetrically. Coronary angiography showed severe three vessel disease, and left ventriculography showed diffuse severe hypokinesis/akinesis, and EF was below 30%. The patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass with intraaortic balloon pumping to keep intraoperative blood pressure high. After the operation he recovered uneventfully without neurological complication. PMID:11517550

  8. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, Jurriën M; Plokker, HW Thijs; Verheugt, Freek WA

    2001-01-01

    Thrombosis plays a major role in acute vessel closure both after coronary balloon angioplasty and after stenting. This review will address the role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in preventing early thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary intervention. The focus will be on agents that are routinely available and commonly used. PMID:11806786

  9. The management of impending myocardial infarction using coronary artery by-pass grafting and an intra-aortic balloon pump.

    PubMed

    Harris, P L; Woollard, K; Bartoli, A; Makey, A R

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 patients with impending myocardial infarction 25 were treated using a combination of coronary artery by-pass grafting and intra-aortic balloon pumping. Eight patients were treated with coronary artery by-pass grafting alone. Twenty-two of the 25 patients who were treated with the combined technique made a full recovery. Three patients sustained definite myocardial infarctions and one of these died. Five of the 8 patients treated by grafting alone suffered infarction and of these 3 died. The value of intra-aortic balloon pumping in combination with coronary artery by-pass grafting in the management of impending myocardial infarction is discussed. PMID:6968314

  10. Thoracic epidural analgesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Sharma, Munish; Arora, Reetesh; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thoracic epidural analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are well documented. However, the literature available on the role of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery is scarce. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to establish whether HTEA is beneficial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing elective OPCAB surgery. After institutional ethics board approval and informed consent, 62 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB were randomly grouped into two (n = 31 each). Both groups received general anesthesia (GA), but in the HTEA group patients, TEA was also administered. Standardized surgical and anesthetic techniques were used for both the groups. Pulmonary function tests were performed pre-operatively, 6 h and 24 h post-extubation and on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 along with arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) analysis. Time for extubation (h) and time for oxygen withdrawal (h) were recorded. Pain score was assessed by the 10-cm visual analogue scale. All hemodynamic/oxygenation parameters were noted. Any complications related to the TEA were also recorded. Patients in the HTEA group were extubated earlier (10.8 h vs. 13.5 h, P < 0.01) and their oxygen withdrawal time was also significantly lower (26.26 h vs. 29.87 h, P < 0.01). The VAS score, both at rest and on coughing, was significantly lower in the HTEA group at all times, post-operatively (P < 0.01). The forced vital capacity improved significantly at 6 h post-operatively in the HTEA group (P = 0.026) and remained significantly higher thereafter. A similar trend was observed in forced expiratory volume in the first second on day 2 in the HTEA group (P = 0.024). We did not observe any significant side-effects/mortality in either group. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB surgery, HTEA is a good adjunct to GA for early extubation, faster recovery of pulmonary function and better analgesia. PMID:20826963

  11. The effectiveness of the correction of cognitive impairment using computer-based stimulation programs for patients with coronary heart disease after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Eryomina, Oksana Vasilyevna; Petrova, Marina Mikhaylovna; Prokopenko, Semyon Vladimirovich; Mozheyko, Elena Yuryevna; Kaskaeva, Darya Sergeevna; Gavrilyuk, Oksana Alexandrovna

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated effectiveness of using copyrighted computer-based stimulation programs in the correction of cognitive function in patients with coronary heart disease after coronary bypass surgery.A total of 74 patients were examined, all the patients underwent a course of drug therapy, 37 patients underwent a course of rehabilitation in addition to medical therapy using computer-based stimulation programs (1 time per day for 20 min within 10 days). A course of rehabilitation using computer-based stimulation programs in patients with coronary heart disease after coronary bypass surgery was proved to be an effective way of correcting cognitive function. PMID:26386717

  12. [Factors influencing life quality improvement in patients of different age one year after coronary artery bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Sumin, A N; Gaĭfulin, R A; Mos'kin, M G; Korok, E V; Shcheglova, A V; Raĭkh, O I; Ivanov, S V; Barbarash, O L

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at examining the factors having an impact on changes in the quality of life (QL) parameters a year after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in different age groups. 408 patients aged 31-79 years had their QL assessed by means of the SF-36 questionnaire before and one year after elective CABG. Additionally, the patients were tested for the presence of type D personality before and one year after CABG by means of the DS-14 questionnaire. The groups were comparable in terms of previous carotid endarterectomy, peripheral arterial and aortic reconstruction number (p > 0.05). One year after CABG the improved QL (p < 0.01) was reported whereas type D patients had significantly poorer psychological test results (p < 0.01). One year after CABG type D personality and high Euroscore had an independent impact on the QL improvement while previous carotid endartectomies resulted in a significantly improved psychological health component. Thus, along with the detection and treatment of non-coronary lesions the personality type assessment and focused behavioral interventions can contribute to the QL improvement in long-term CABG period. PMID:24003741

  13. Off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries and the right gastroepiproic artery.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Keita; Une, Dai; Kurata, Atsushi; Ruel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We report our initial experience of an off-pump total arterial minimally invasive coronary arterial bypass grafting (MICS CABG) with the use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) and the right gastroepiproic artery. A 47-year old male with renal dysfunction secondary to diabetes mellitus was admitted for heart failure due to severe triple-vessel disease. Off-pump MICS CABG with total arterial grafts was elected because the patient refused to undergo median sternotomy due to the strong desire to regain the baseline function promptly. Total arterial grafts were selected to maximize the potential long-term outcome. There were no postoperative complications except temporary dialysis. Postoperative coronary computed tomography revealed the patency of all grafts. Our experience suggests that BITA can be safely harvested under direct vision in MICS CABG. Total arterial graft revascularization with BITA via minimally invasive approach may offer the benefits of MICS CABG while providing the undetermined but potentially superior conduit longevity of arterial grafts. PMID:26369344

  14. Early and mid-term results of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Shantanu; Agarwal, Surendra K.; Gupta, Devendra; Mohanty, Satayapriya; Kapoor, Aditya; Tewari, Satyendra; Bansal, Anubhav; Ambesh, Sushil P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. This technique coupled with use of off pump technique of surgical revascularization makes it truly less invasive. This method is highly effective even in high-risk patients. Results of this procedure are comparable to standard off pump technique and are better than percutaneous coronary intervention utilizing drug-eluting stent. We present an early and mid-term result of the use of this technique. Method We enrolled 33 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Operation was performed utilizing off-pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Median follow up of 2.5 years (6 months–4 years) is available. Results Median age was 58.5 years (41–77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 7, double vessel in 14 and triple vessel disease in 12 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. There was no operative and 30-day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 6.6% (2 out of 33 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction and there were no deaths during follow up. Conclusion MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:24814114

  15. Analysis of clinical outcomes of intra-aortic balloon pump during coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yumun, Gunduz; Aydin, Ufuk; Ata, Yusuf; Tokta?, Faruk; Aybars Pala, Arda; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet Fatih; Turk, Tamer; Yavuz, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim The mortality rate in coronary artery bypass surgery increases with advancing patient age. This study was conducted to analyse and compare older (above 65 years of age) with younger patients (below 65 years of age) who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and had an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) inserted, comparing hospital stay, clinical features, intensive care unit stay, postoperative complications, and morbidity and mortality rates. Methods One hundred and ninety patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and required IABP support were enrolled in this study. Patients younger than 65 years of age were considered young, and the others were considered old. Ninety-two patients were young and 98 were old. The mortality rates, pre-operative clinical characteristics, postoperative complications, and duration of intensive care unit and hospital stays of the groups were compared. The risk factors for mortality and complications were analysed. Results One hundred and thirty-eight of the patients were male, and the mean patient age was 62.7 9.9 years. The mortality rate was higher in the older patient group than the younger group [34 (37.7%) and 23 (23.4 %), respectively (p = 0.043)]. The cross-clamp time, mean ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and length of stay in the intensive care unit were similar among the groups (p > 0.05). Cardiopulmonary bypass time was the single independent risk factor for mortality in both groups. Conclusion In this study, high mortality rates in the postoperative period were similar to prior studies regarding IABP support. The complication rates were higher in the older patient group. Prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass and advanced age were determined to be significant risk factors for mortality. PMID:26925473

  16. Psychological state in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khani, Azam; Andalib, Elham; Alikhasi, Hasan; Rafiei, Mohammadali

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) are well accepted treatments for coronary artery disease. Many patients and their spouses experience increased level of stress, anxiety and depression before and after going under the procedure. One hundred and ninety-six cardiac patients who were candidate for CABG or PCI procedures and their spouses were asked to complete Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 before and 1 month after procedures. Anxiety, depression and stress level in patients and their spouses going under the procedures significantly reduced over time. Scores of anxiety, depression and stress in patients and their spouses were correlated. There was no difference in the level of anxiety, depression and stress between CABG and PCI groups before to after procedures. We suggest providing information about the procedures to both patients and their spouses to deal better with their own psychological state. PMID:24750214

  17. Rupture of a coronary bypass graft aneurysm: CT evaluation and coil occlusion therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shapeero, L.G.; Guthaner, D.F.; Swerdlow, C.D.; Wexler, L.

    1983-11-01

    Since its inception in 1967, saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft (SVCABG) surgery has become the procedure of choice for revascularization of the myocardium in patients with angina refractory to medical therapy. Complications of bypass surgery have been reported both in the immediate postoperative period and late, months to years after surgery. We present an unusual complication: rupture of a SVCABG aneurysm. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the pseudoaneurysm, angiography identified the site of rupture from an aneurysm of the vein graft, and therapeutic embolization occluded the bleeding site.

  18. Epicardial Adipose Tissue is Associated with Extensive Coronary Artery Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    KAYA, Mehmet; YENITERZI, Mehmet; YAZICI, Pınar; DIKER, Mustafa; CELIK, Omer; ERTÜRK, Mehmet; BAKIR, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume measured by 256-slice dual source computed tomography (DSCT) and the complexity with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Material and methods: Study subjects were enrolled as they were undergoing DSCT for coronary evaluation. Two subgroups were formed according to coronary artery bypass history: Group A (patients with significant CAD), Group B (patients with normal coronary arteries). In both groups, EAT volume was measured by DSCT with the same technique. The complexity of CAD was assessed by using Syntax score (SxS). Group A patients were subdivided into two groups according to these results (Group A1, A2). Outcomes: Ninety-three patients (53 male, 40 female) with a mean age of 55.1 years were enrolled in the study (48 in group A and 45 in Group B). The serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were found statistically higher in Group A. In Group A, mean EAT volume was 44.87±21.28 cm3 while it was in normal range (32.37±17.50 cm3) in control group (p=0.003). Higher EAT volume was found to be related to FPG (r=0.242, p=0.015) and body surface area (BSA) (r =0.268, p=0.009) and also correlated positively with CAD. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between subgroups when considering the complexity of CAD. Conclusions: Our data shows that increased EAT volume is associated with significant CAD. EAT volume contributes to the development of coronary lesions, but it does not affect the complexity of the lesions. PMID:25705268

  19. Meta-analysis of organ damage after conversion from off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dayal; Rao, Christopher; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Ashrafian, Hutan; Protopapas, Aristotle; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-08-01

    The relative efficacy of off-pump and on-pump coronary revascularization is uncertain. A complication of off-pump surgery which is rarely considered is intraoperative conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass. Consequently, meta-analysis was performed of studies comparing morbidity after converted and nonconverted off-pump coronary revascularization. There were significant increases in the likelihood of stroke, myocardial injury, bleeding, renal failure, wound infection, intraaortic balloon pump requirement, transfusion, and respiratory and gastrointestinal complications after conversion. The underlying mechanisms need to be urgently elucidated. Prevention and treatment protocols for conversion warrant serious consideration and the risk of conversion may need to be discussed when obtaining informed patient consent. PMID:21801945

  20. Acute coronary artery bypass graft failure in a patient with polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Meshii, Katsuaki; Ohnaka, Motoaki

    2016-02-01

    Polycythemia vera in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is clinically rare. A 65-year-old man with polycythemia vera was admitted with effort-related chest discomfort. We planned coronary artery bypass grafting for left anterior descending artery and obtuse marginal branch stenosis, using bilateral internal thoracic arteries, with perioperative prophylactic management to avoid thromboembolism. His internal thoracic arterial grafts occluded during and after surgery due to thrombus, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction developed, which needed a percutaneous coronary intervention. This case suggests that optimal management methods should be studied further to contribute to better patient outcomes in this condition. PMID:25193984

  1. Axillary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass with an externally stented graft: a technical report

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Rao, Christopher; Salvador, Loris; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of minimally invasive cardiac surgery a number of alternative inflow sites for coronary artery bypass grafting have been utilized, especially in higher risk patients. The use of axillary-coronary artery bypass is a safe and effective alternative especially in the case of patients requiring redo coronary revascularization. However, the length and convoluted course of the axillary-coronary vein graft makes is susceptible to twisting, trauma and neointimal hyperplasia. We therefore report a case of an axillary-coronary artery bypass in a high risk patient in which a Dacron conduit was used to externally support and protect the vein graft to the left anterior descending artery. Surgical technique and considerations are presented and discussed. PMID:18269756

  2. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparin–platelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  3. Practice changes in glycemic management and outcomes in coronary artery bypass surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Lori; Smith-Snyder, Cecilia M; Hudson, Laurel R; Hamar, G Brent; Westerfield, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether a quality improvement initiative in hyperglycemia management could result in substantiated practice changes and improved outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Retrospective chart review and analysis of 103 randomly selected patients hospitalized for coronary artery bypass surgery was used. After the glycemia awareness initiative, the perioperative use of intravenous insulin infusion therapy increased in the total population (P = .01) as well as in the diabetes population (P = .03). Frequency of blood glucose level tests ordered for nondiabetic patients increased from 2.8 per day to 4.3 per day (P = .38). Blood glucose values improved in the diabetic population (Ps = .02, .048). The average length of stay improved in all nondiabetic patients (10.7-8.1 days, P = .07) including those who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiac catheterization (7.8-6.2 days, P = .09) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery with catheterization with complications (15.0-9.0 days, P = .12). The glycemia awareness initiative resulted in a positive impact on practice patterns. Undiagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are important and unrecognized issues within this hospital population. It is recommended that healthcare practitioners assume that cardiac patients have an increased likelihood of impaired fasting glucose and hyperglycemia. Advanced practice nurses can improve patient outcomes by ordering glucose testing and glycemic management as a routine practice for all cardiac surgery patients, regardless of diabetes diagnosis. Cardiac staff nurses can recommend glucose testing and screening for prediabetes and diabetes as a routine part of all nursing assessment. PMID:15632810

  4. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting – midterm mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Domaradzki, Wojciech; Krauze, Jolanta; Kinasz, Leszek; Jankowska-Sanetra, Justyna; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Paradowski, Krzysztof; Cisowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Completeness of myocardial revascularization is essential in surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the most difficult cases. Material and methods Among 1559 patients who had CABG in our department, the cases of 17 who underwent an adjunct left anterior descending endarterectomy were analyzed. All procedures were performed with median sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and in mild hypothermia (34°C), by the same surgeon. No coronary artery endarterectomy was planned before surgery. Results There was no infarction or cardiac arrest during hospitalization. Only one patient required mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation). Each patient was contacted and investigation for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was performed. Eleven patients (65%) already underwent midterm clinical evaluation. There was no death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident during the entire period (mean follow-up at 15.3 months). One patient required urgent coronarography due to chest pain. No other patient had chest pain or significant deterioration of ventricular function in echocardiography. Conclusions Outcomes and potential indications for performing left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to CABG are discussed. PMID:26855644

  5. Localization of bypass-induced changes in flow in coronary artery models.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Liepsch, D

    2003-11-01

    Right coronary artery bypass restores blood flow through heart tissues. This also induces changes in flow leading to its failure. By this work the sites which are prone to such changes are localized. The bypass models are developed from transparent silicon rubber of elastic properties similar to arterial tissues. Flow visualization is carried out by photoelasticity technique by using dilute solution of vanadium pentoxide. This analysis carried out under pulsatile flow conditions shows that the proximal stenotic region continues to contribute to the alteration in flow in the hood region of the bypass. Thus making its proximal and distal regions prone to flow-induced changes, which may lead to its blockage over the long duration. PMID:15332491

  6. Atrial fibrillation and flutter following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A retrospective study and review

    PubMed Central

    Premaratne, Ishani D; Fernando, Naomi D; Williams, Lashira; Hasaniya, Nahidh W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Its incidence can range from 10 to 60% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. This rhythm can result in shorter or longer intervals between beats. Methods Medical records of 143 patients from the Queen’s Medical Center, Kuakini Medical Center, Saint Francis Medical Center, and Straub Hospital and Clinic, all of which are located in Honolulu, Hawaii were reviewed. An additional 39 records of patients who did not develop these complications were also reviewed as a control group. Patients were selected according to the ICD codes for atrial fibrillation/flutter and coronary artery bypass graft. Both anomalies can lead to increased health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. In this study, possible predisposing factors to these complications were investigated. The time of onset, weight gain, elapsed time, fluid status (in/out), hematocrit, and drug regimens were compared between the two groups. Results The differences in weight gain, fluid status, and hematocrit between the groups were not significant. There were a total of 17 different drugs prescribed to the group as a whole but not every patient received the same regimen. Conclusions Atrial fibrillation and flutter were found to be more common in males, particularly between the ages of 60 and 69 years. There were no other significant findings. PMID:27123238

  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting using skeletonized in situ arterial grafts

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoaki; Nota, Hiromitsu; Kuroyanagi, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Takashima, Noriyuki; Hayakawa, Masato; Naito, Shiho

    2013-01-01

    Skeletonization is an advanced technique of graft harvesting for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and while it requires meticulous attention, it has many advantages. For example, skeletonization of internal thoracic artery (ITA) can minimize sternal ischemia and lower the risk of mediastinitis, and is longer and larger than pedicled ITA. In this article we describe the surgical techniques demonstrated in our video, which details our techniques of skeletonization of arterial grafts and off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) exclusively using these in situ grafts. Our method of right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) skeletonization has only three technical steps. The first step is to pass thin vessel loops under the GEA. The second step is to unroof the tissue surrounding the GEA. The last step is to seal and sever all the branches. Skeletonization of the GEA not only prevents vasospasm but also leads to GEA dilatation, and facilitates inspection and makes sequential anastomosis easier. Bilateral use of the skeletonized ITA and use of the skeletonized GEA can cover most coronary artery target sites without any manipulation of the ascending aorta. In our consecutive series of over 1,000 patients, the stroke rate was 0.5%. Our method helps to make the technique simple and secure in this technically demanding operation, and we believe that OPCAB with these grafts provides the best possible coronary revascularization. PMID:23977635

  8. Should the radial artery be used as a bypass graft following radial access coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lisa M; Galvin, Sean D; Javid, Mohamed; Matalanis, George

    2014-02-01

    The radial artery (RA) is often selected as the next conduit of choice following the internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting operations (CABG). Radial access coronary angiography (RA-CA) has grown in popularity among cardiologists and has been advocated as the access route of choice for coronary angiography and intervention by many groups. However, sheath insertion and instrumentation may lead to structural and functional damage to the RA, which may preclude its use as a bypass conduit. The increasing use of RA-CA may therefore have an adverse effect on the ability to use the RA as a bypass conduit at subsequent CABG. To review this, a best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'should the radial artery be used as a bypass conduit following radial access coronary angiography'? Altogether, 167 papers were found using the reported search; 11 papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these studies were tabulated. Acute RA occlusion occurs in 2.3-30.5% of patients undergoing RA-CA. While a significant number of occluded RA's show recanalization on early follow-up, markers of endothelial function such as intima-media thickening (IMT) and flow-mediated dilatation remain impaired. RA-CA causes structural injury to the RA with evidence of histological injury (including intimal hyperplasia, periarterial tissue/fat necrosis and adventitial inflammation) along with intimal tears and medial dissections evident along the entire length of the vessel. Only one paper directly assesses patency rates of RA's used as bypass grafts following RA-CA finding a significant adverse effect on graft patency (77% patency in RA-CA, compared with 98% in the control group). We recommend avoiding the RA as a bypass conduit if it has previously been used for RA-CA. In situations where conduit options are limited, if possible, the RA should be avoided for at least 3 months following RA-CA and it may be beneficial to assess the RA's patency and flow characteristics with Doppler ultrasound preoperatively. PMID:24254539

  9. Use of extracorporeal life support for emergency coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Biswa Ranjan; Prabhu, Anil; Provenzano, Sylvio; Karl, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year old boy was admitted with an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left sinus of Valsalva, with an interarterial course of the narrow proximal segment. He underwent coronary ostial augmentation and main pulmonary artery translocation to the left pulmonary artery. In the post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) period, he developed thrombotic occlusion of the RCA resulting in arrhythmia and ventricular dysfunction, requiring extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the form of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rather than CPB. After confirming this complication by cardiac catheterization, the right coronary artery territory was revascularized with a pedicled right internal thoracic artery graft. The entire procedure was performed on a beating heart using a stabilizer during ECLS. This strategy may be useful in situations with unstable haemodynamics and a low risk of blood loss. PMID:23478345

  10. Coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart using the octopus method--a case report.

    PubMed

    Tan, P H; Tsai, T C; Chen, C S; Liu, K; Yang, L C; Wang, J H; Lin, S H

    2000-12-01

    A 74-year-old male was admitted due to chest tightness for one month. He had received percutaneous transilluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) because of single-vessel disease one year ago. Cardiac catheterization examination carried out during this admission revealed 90% stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and circumflex branch (CX). Because another attempt of PTCA was considered not optimal, the patient was advised to undergo surgical grafting to which he consented. After expediently balancing the merits and demerits of every practicable surgical procedure--the essential determinant in selection of which was that the patient's condition and criteria of indication of that procedure were in perfect harmony--we decided to carry out minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) with the application of Octopus tissue stabilizer. We report the surgical course and anesthetic management of the patient and discourse some detail in MIDCAB. PMID:11392070

  11. Redux valvular surgery with coronary artery bypass graft in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Jalel, Ziadi; Sobhi, Mleyhi; Skander, Ben Omrane; Adel, Khayati

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutation at the locus for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and is frequently associated with premature coronary artery disease and aortic valve involvement. The surgical treatment of these complications is accompanied by a high degree of risk, even in skillful hands. An intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy and LDL aphaeresis in association with surgery may be useful. The case of a 12-year-old girl, with a medical history of familial hypercholesterolemia is reported here, operated two years previously for valvular aortic stenosis; Ross intervention was done. She was readmitted for acute coronary syndrome. Three coronary artery bypass grafting was performed with saphenous veins with positive results. PMID:24701091

  12. [Dose the administration of low-dose aprotinin contribute to an anti-inflammatory effect in coronary artery bypass grafting?].

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, B; Hamano, K; Gohra, H; Katoch, T; Fujimura, Y; Zempo, N; Esato, K

    1999-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the administration of low-dose aprotinin contributed to an anti-inflammatory effect in coronary artery bypass grafting. Levels of the inflammatory cytokines; IL-6, IL-8, and GEL, were measured before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, then 1, 3 and 6 days after coronary artery bypass grafting, in a group of patients given aprotinin (n = 7) and a control group (n = 15). A comparison of the levels of all these inflammatory cytokines between the two groups revealed no significant difference at any time point. This indicates, that low-dose aprotinin did not contribute to an anti-inflammatory effect in coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:10513162

  13. Particles deposition induced by the magnetic field in the coronary bypass graft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, Sandor I.; Totorean, Alin F.; Vekas, Ladislau

    2016-03-01

    Bypass graft failures is a complex process starting with intimal hyperplasia development which involve many hemodynamic and biological factors. This work presents experimental results regarding the possibility to use magnetic drug delivery to prevent the development of the intimal hyperplasia using a simplified but intuitive model. The primary goal is to understand the magnetic particle deposition in the anastomosis region of the bypass graft taking into account the complex flow field created in this area which involves recirculation region, flow mixing and presence of particles with high residence time. The three-dimensional geometry model was used to simulate the motion and accumulation of the particles under the magnetic field influence in anastomotic region of the coronary bypass graft. The flow patterns are evaluated both numerically and experimentally and show a good correlation in term of flow parameters like vortex length and flow stagnation point positions. Particle depositions are strongly dependent on the magnet position and consequently of the magnetic field intensity and field gradient. Increased magnetic field controlled by the magnet position induces increased particle depositions in the bypass graft anastomosis. The result shows that particle depositions depend on the bypass graft angle, and the deposition shape and particle accumulation respectively, depend by the flow pattern in the anastomosis region.

  14. Left Radial Versus Femoral Access for Coronary Angiography in Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Thomas F; Khan, Ali; Yen, Lu-Yin; Newcombe, Ruth; Humphreys, Hayley; El-Jack, Seif

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that coronary angiography of native coronary arteries via the radial artery results in reduced morbidity and mortality, when compared with a femoral approach. However, the efficacy and safety of the transradial approach in patients with coronary grafts is relatively unknown. We performed a retrospective audit of all patients with a history of previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery who underwent diagnostic angiography at our institution from 2008-2012. The primary efficacy endpoint was procedure time (minutes), while the secondary efficacy measure was patient radiation exposure (μGy/m²). There were 326 post-CABG patients studied during the defined period, with 254 via femoral approach and 72 via left radial artery. There was no significant difference between the two approaches in procedure time (37 minutes in radial group vs 35 minutes in femoral group; t-test, P=.43). There was also no difference in radiation exposure (7855 μGy/m² in femoral group vs 6825 μGy/m² in radial group; Satterthwaite t-test, P=.08). This study shows the validity of a left radial approach in patients who have undergone angiography post CABG. It suggests that transradial angiography can be safely performed in these patients, without significant increase in procedural time or radiation exposure. PMID:26887028

  15. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Goh, Anne C H; Go, Alan S; Lundstrom, Robert J; Zaroff, Jonathan; Jang, James J; Allen, Elaine

    2016-05-15

    The optimal coronary revascularization strategy (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains uncertain. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies comparing CABG and PCI in patients with ESRD using a random-effects model for the primary outcome of long-term all-cause mortality. Our review registered through PROSPERO included observational studies published after 2011 to ensure overlap with previous studies and identified 7 new studies for a total of 23. We found that the median sample size in the selected studies was 125 patients (25 to 15,784) with a large variation in the covariate risk adjustment and only 3 studies reporting the indications for the revascularization strategy. CABG was associated with a small reduction in mortality (relative risk 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.96) with significant heterogeneity demonstrated (p = 0.005, I(2) = 48.6%). Subgroup analysis by categorized "year of study initiation" (<1990, 1991 to 2003, >2004) further confirmed the summary estimate trending toward survival benefit of CABG along with a substantial decrease in heterogeneity after 2004 (p = 0.64, I(2) = 0%). In conclusion, our updated systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that in patients with ESRD referred for coronary revascularization, CABG was associated with a small decrease in the relative risk of long-term mortality compared with PCI. The generalizability of the finding to all patients with ESRD referred for coronary revascularization is limited because of a lack of known indications for coronary revascularization, substantial variation in covariate risk adjustment, and lack of randomized clinical trial data. PMID:27013385

  16. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A.; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A.; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Methods Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ≥ 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7–6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 85 mmHg; and A1c ≥ 5.7% or on therapy]. Results Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m2 and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Conclusion Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. PMID:25728823

  17. Choice of vein-harvest technique for coronary artery bypass grafting: rationale and design of the REGROUP trial.

    PubMed

    Zenati, Marco A; Gaziano, J Michael; Collins, Joseph F; Biswas, Kousick; Gabany, Jennifer M; Quin, Jacquelyn A; Bitondo, Jerene M; Bakaeen, Faisal G; Kelly, Rosemary F; Shroyer, A Laurie; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2014-06-01

    The Randomized Endo-vein Graft Prospective (REGROUP) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850082) is a randomized, intent-to-treat, 2-arm, parallel-design, multicenter study funded by the Cooperative Studies Program (CSP No. 588) of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Cardiac surgeons at 16 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers with technical expertise in performing both endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) and open vein harvesting (OVH) were recruited as the REGROUP surgeon participants. Subjects requiring elective or urgent coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass with use of ≥1 saphenous vein graft will be screened for enrollment using pre-established inclusion/exclusion criteria. Enrolled subjects (planned N = 1150) will be randomized to 1 of the 2 arms (EVH or OVH) after an experienced vein harvester has been assigned. The primary outcomes measure is the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization. Subject assessments will be performed at multiple times, including at baseline, intraoperatively, postoperatively, and at discharge (or 30 days after surgery, if still hospitalized). Assessment of leg-wound complications will be completed at 6 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-ups will occur at 3-month intervals after surgery until the participating sites are decommissioned after the trial's completion (approximately 4.5 years after the full study startup). To assess long-term outcomes, centralized follow-up of MACE for 2 additional years will be centrally performed using VA and non-VA clinical and administrative databases. The primary MACE outcome will be compared between the 2 arms, EVH and OVH, at the end of the trial duration. PMID:24633760

  18. Prevalence Pattern of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Presenting for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Pieris, Rajeeva Rivikath; Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al-Abri, Qasim Saleh Abdullah; Rizvi, Syed Gauhar Alam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify the pattern of prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting for coronary artery bypass grafting at a single center in Oman. Methods All patients who had coronary artery bypass grafting between March 2008 to March 2010 were included and data were obtained from history and laboratory investigations. The prevalence rates of eight conventional risk factors are presented as a retrospective single center observational study. Results Out of 146 total patients, 107 (73.29%) were male. The age ranged from 31 to 87 years old. The mean age was 58.18 ± 10.08 years (males = 56.81 ± 10.42, females = 61.95 ± 7.97). Hypertension was present in 119 patients (81.51%), 115 patients (78.77%) had dyslipidemia, 107 patients (73.29%) were male, 79 patients (54.11%) had diabetes mellitus, 70 patients (47.95%) were over the age of 60 years, 41 patients (28.08%) gave a history of smoking, 31 patients (21.23%) were obese, and 19 patients (13.01%) gave a positive family history. Conclusions The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by dyslipidemia, male gender, diabetes mellitus, old age, smoking, obesity and positive family history; 87.7% had three or more risk factors. The females in this study were older than the males and had more risk factors at presentation. The most common combination of factors seen together was diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and male gender. PMID:24936271

  19. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  20. Reusing the patent internal mammary artery as a conduit in redo coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Tennyson, Charlene; Mosca, Roberto; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer

    2016-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, in patients with previous internal mammary artery/internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts, can the internal mammary artery/ITA be reused/recycled in redo coronary artery bypass surgery? Fourteen papers were found using the reported search of which 10 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There was variation in patient selection, the number of patients reported, outcome measures recorded, and methods and duration of follow-up. The results were mostly in favour of using a recycled ITA when it could be safely harvested. Most studies were retrospective. One large series of 60 patients who underwent redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using previously implanted ITAs had a mean time to reoperation of 117 68 months. They reported no operative deaths; no patients required further or subsequent target vessel revascularization; 30-day mortality was 8.3% and myocardial infarction rate was 3%. Another two series of 16 and 12 patients underwent recycling of arterial grafts during coronary artery revascularization with no perioperative deaths in either. Postoperative angiography was performed in 10 patients in one of these studies, which showed excellent flow in all redone left internal thoracic artery (LITA) grafts. One study reported results from a prospective cohort of 9 patients who underwent redo coronary artery bypass grafting. Interval between operations was between 1 and 132 months. There was no perioperative mortality, but 1 patient required reintervention (to an interposition vein graft). A further study of 4 patients who underwent redo CABG using ITAs that were patent but with severe stenosis at the distal anastomosis had no mortality. Postoperative angiography showed patency of all grafts. There have also been 4 case reports on reusing the ITA/ITA in redo CABG with no damage to the reused LITA, no perioperative mortality and satisfactory follow-up at up to 29 months. Evidently, the recycled ITA can be used in redo coronary artery bypass grafting. Papers found were retrospective series or case reports. As such, there is no direct comparison in outcomes between the recycled ITA and first-time ITA harvest or any other conduit for CABG. In conclusion, we find that when it is possible to harvest a previously used ITA, studies have shown it to be a safe and viable conduit in redo CABG with good long-term outcomes. PMID:26669852

  1. Unsteady simulation of distal blood flow in an end-to-side anastomosed coronary bypass graft with stenosis.

    PubMed

    Najarian, Siamak; Dargahi, Javad; Firouzi, Faramarz; Afsari, Jamshid

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the unsteady state modeling of blood flow in an end-to-side anastomosed bypass graft, which has a stenosis upstream from the junction. In coronary artery bypass grafting/surgery (CABG), new arteries are created in order to provide blood to the heart using other blood vessels as conduits to bypass the blocked section in the patient's coronary arteries. The failure of coronary artery bypass procedures has been attributed to both intimal hyperplasia (IH) and atherosclerosis. It is believed that these two phenomena are, in turn, related to the local hemodynamic factors. In this work, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to simulate the physiological blood flow through a model of a stenosed coronary bypass graft with the realistic assumption of non-Newtonian flow for human blood. For different flow repartitions and at different times of the cycle, both the recirculating areas and wall shear stress (WSS) are studied. Based on the different distribution of flow rates in the bypass graft and the host artery, the flow features are investigated and the influence of non-Newtonian behavior is discussed in terms of separation points, reattachment points, and the wall shear stresses. Various differences are observed based on the assumption of non-Newtonian behavior of blood, which have not been reported before when a simplified Newtonian approach is utilized. PMID:17075169

  2. Multiscale modeling and simulation of blood flow in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Kahn, Andy; Marsden, Alison

    2011-11-01

    We present a computational framework for modeling and simulation of blood flow in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. We evaluate the influence of shape on the homeostatic state, cardiac output, and other quantities of interest. We present a case study on a patient with multiple CABG. We build a patient-specific model of the blood vessels comprised of the aorta, vessels branching from the top of the aorta (brachiocephalic artery and carotids) and the coronary arteries, in addition to bypass grafts. The rest of the circulatory system is modeled using lumped parameter 0D models comprised of resistances, compliances, inertances and elastance. An algorithm is presented that computes these parameters automatically given constraints on the flow. A Finite element framework is used to compute blood flow and pressure in the 3D model to which the 0D code is coupled at the model inlets and outlets. An adaptive closed loop BC is used to capture the coupling of the various outlets of the model with inlets, and is compared with a model with fixed inlet BC. We compare and contrast the pressure, flowrate, coronary perfusion, and PV curves obtained in the different cases. Further, we compare and contrast quantities of interest such as wall shear stress, wall shear stress gradients and oscillatory shear index for different surgical geometries and discuss implications of patient-specific optimization. I would like to acknowlege AHA for funding this work.

  3. Coronary artery bypass grafting hemodynamics and anastomosis design: a biomedical engineering review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, coronary arterial bypass grafting hemodynamics and anastomosis designs are reviewed. The paper specifically addresses the biomechanical factors for enhancement of the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs). Stenosis of distal anastomosis, caused by thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH), is the major cause of failure of CABGs. Strong correlations have been established between the hemodynamics and vessel wall biomechanical factors and the initiation and development of IH and thrombus formation. Accordingly, several investigations have been conducted and numerous anastomotic geometries and devices have been designed to better regulate the blood flow fields and distribution of hemodynamic parameters and biomechanical factors at the distal anastomosis, in order to enhance the patency of CABGs. Enhancement of longevity and patency rate of CABGs can eliminate the need for re-operation and can significantly lower morbidity, and thereby reduces medical costs for patients suffering from coronary stenosis. This invited review focuses on various endeavors made thus far to design a patency-enhancing optimized anastomotic configuration for the distal junction of CABGs. PMID:24330653

  4. Effect of Preoperative Aspirin Replacement With Enoxaparin in Patients Undergoing Primary Isolated On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Nenna, Antonio; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Prestipino, Filippo; Lusini, Mario; Sutherland, Fraser W; Beattie, Gwyn W; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Nappi, Francesco; Chello, Massimo

    2016-02-15

    Management of preoperative antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is variable among surgeons: guidelines collide with prejudices because replacement of aspirin with low-molecular-weight heparin is still performed because of a presumed minor bleeding risk. This study aims to analyze postoperative bleedings and complications in patients scheduled for elective primary isolated on-pump CABG, depending on preoperative aspirin treatment or its replacement with enoxaparin. In this cohort study, we propensity score matched 200 patients in whom aspirin was stopped at least 5days before CABG and replaced with enoxaparin and 200 patients who continued aspirin therapy until the day before surgery. Postoperative bleedings and complications were monitored during hospitalization. Among patients who continued aspirin treatment, mean overall bleeding was 701.0 334.6ml, whereas in the matched enoxaparin group, it was significantly greater (882.6 64.6ml, p value <0.001); this was associated with reduced postoperative complications, lower values of postoperative C-reactive protein in aspirin takers, and a presumed protective effect for statins. After propensity score adjustment, aspirin treatment carried a protective effect against major postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 0.312, p= 0.001). In conclusion, postoperative bleeding is reduced in patients who continued aspirin, likely due to a reduction in postoperative inflammation. The practice of empirically discontinuing aspirin and replacing it with enoxaparin before CABG should be abandoned. Patients with coronary artery disease referred to CABG should continue antiplatelet medications until the surgical procedure. Those results might be extended to patients under oral anticoagulant therapy requiring CABG. PMID:26721653

  5. IL-18 level in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or valve replacement: which link with epicardial fat depot?

    PubMed

    Dozio, E; Dogliotti, G; Malavazos, A E; Bandera, F; Cassetti, G; Vianello, E; Zelaschi, R; Barassi, A; Pellissero, G; Solimene, U; Morricone, L; Sigruener, A; Tarabin, V; Schmitz, G; Menicanti, L; Corsi Romanelli, M M

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines produced constitutively by different cell types and by adipose tissue. Due to the link between obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, we aimed to measure IL-18 circulating level in patients undergoing open-heart surgery both for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or for valve replacement (VR), and we also evaluated whether epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) depot may be a potential source of IL-18. Circulating IL-18 protein was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-18, IL-18 receptor 1 (IL-18 R1) and IL-18 receptor accessory protein (IL-18-RAP) gene expression in EAT depot were evaluated by one colour microarray platform. EAT thickness was measured by echocardiography. In this study we found that all cardiovascular patients (CABG and VR) have increased circulating IL-18 level compared to healthy control subjects (p < 0.0001), but no statistical significant difference was observed between CABG and VR groups (p = 0.35). A great increase in the gene expression of IL-18 (p < 0.05), IL-18 R1 (p < 0.01) and IL-18 RAP (p < 0.001) was observed in EAT samples obtained from CABG vs VR patients. In conclusion, CABG and VR patients had similar increased level of circulating IL-18 protein, but in EAT depots isolated from CABG gene expression of IL-18, IL-18 R1 and IL-18-RAP resulted higher than in VR patients. Future investigation on local IL-18 protein production, its autocrine-paracrine effect and its correlation with plasmatic IL-18 level could give more information on the relationship between IL-18 and coronary artery disease. PMID:23298491

  6. Long-term Outcome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Compared with Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Emad A.; Azab, Basem; Patel, Nileshkumar; Spagnola, Jonathan; Shariff, Masood A.; Kaleem, Umar; Morcus, Rewais; Asti, Deepak; McGinn, Joseph T.; Lafferty, James; McCord, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) have better outcomes with coronary revascularization than conservative treatment. With the improvement in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) techniques using drug eluting-stents, this became an attractive option in elderly. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS-CABG) is a safe and effective alternative to conventional CABG. We aimed to explore the long-term outcomes after PCI vs MICS-CABG in ≥75 year-old patients with severe CAD. Methods: A total of 1454 elderly patients (≥75 year-old patients) underwent coronary artery revascularization between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients were selected in the study if they have one of the Class-I indications for CABG. Groups were divided according to the type of procedure, PCI or MICS-CABG, and 5 year follow-up. Results: Among 175 elderly patients, 109 underwent PCI and 66 had MICS-CABG. There was no significant difference observed in both groups with long-term all-cause mortality (31 PCI vs 21% MICS-CABG, p=0.151) and the overall 5 year survival was similar on Kaplan-Meier curve (Log rank p=0.318). The average length of stay in hospital was significantly shorter in the PCI than in the MICS-CABG group (4.3 vs 7.8 days, p<0.001). Only 4.7% of the PCI group were discharged to rehabilitation facility compared with 43.9% of the MICS-CABG group (p<0.001). The rate of repeat revascularization was significantly higher in the PCI group than in the MICS-CABG group (15 vs 3%, p=0.014). Conclusion: Among elderly patients, long-term all-cause mortality is similar after PCI and MICS-CABG. However, there is a significantly higher rate of repeat revascularization after PCI. PMID:27014373

  7. Coronary aspirate TNF? reflects saphenous vein bypass graft restenosis risk in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk for periprocedural complications and adverse cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention. We addressed the potential for coronary microvascular obstruction and restenosis in patients with and without DM undergoing stenting for saphenous vein bypass graft (SVG) stenosis under protection with a distal occlusion/aspiration device. Methods SVG plaque volume and composition were analyzed using intravascular ultrasound before stent implantation. Percent diameter stenosis was determined from quantitative coronary angiography before, immediately after and 6?months after stent implantation. Coronary aspirate was retrieved during stent implantation and divided into particulate debris and plasma. Total calcium, several vasoconstrictors, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? in particulate debris and coronary aspirate plasma were determined. Results Patients with and without DM had similar plaque volume, but larger necrotic core and greater particulate debris release in patients with than without DM (20.32.7 vs. 12.72.6% and 143.919.3 vs. 75.110.4?mg, P<0.05). The TNF? concentration in particulate debris and coronary aspirate plasma was higher in patients with than without DM (15.96.6 vs. 5.12.4 pmol/mg and 2.20.7 vs. 1.10.2 pmol/L, P<0.05), whereas total calcium and vasoconstrictors were not different. Patients with DM had a greater percent diameter stenosis 6?months after stent implantation than those without DM (22.175.22 vs. 6.341.11%, P<0.05). The increase in TNF? immediately after stent implantation correlated with restenosis 6?months later (r=0.69, P<0.05). Conclusion In diabetics, particulate debris and coronary aspirate plasma contained more TNF?, which might reflect the activity of the underlying atherosclerotic process. Trial registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01430884; unique identifier: NCT01430884 PMID:23305356

  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting as re-do surgery in two cases in which the right gastroepiploic artery was grafted to the right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takashi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Nishibayashi, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Transdiaphragmatic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) to the right coronary artery, is an effective way to reduce the risks of second bypass surgery as well as the risk of graft injury after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We report two cases of successful OPCAB as re-do surgery in which the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) was grafted to the right coronary artery. The first case was a 58-year-old woman, who underwent CABG 10 years ago. OPCAB (RGEA to right coronary artery) was performed since myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed ischemia in the inferior wall. The second case was a 67-year-old man who had hypertension, hyperlipidemia, peripheral arterial disease, and was undergoing dialysis (for 6 years). Six years previously, he developed a mycotic aneurysm of the right coronary artery and underwent open-heart surgery. He often had episodes of angina at night or during dialysis, and then developed congestive heart failure and was hospitalized. Since ischemia was considered to be in the inferior wall, the RGEA was grafted to the right coronary artery. PMID:21881364

  9. ICU Blood Pressure Variability May Predict Nadir of Respiratory Depression After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Anne S. M.; Costa, Paulo H. M.; de Lima, Carlos E. B.; Pádua, Luiz E. M.; Campos, Luciana A.; Baltatu, Ovidiu C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Surgical stress induces alterations on sympathovagal balance that can be determined through assessment of blood pressure variability. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is associated with postoperative respiratory depression. In this study we aimed at investigating ICU blood pressure variability and other perioperative parameters that could predict the nadir of postoperative respiratory function impairment. Methods: This prospective observational study evaluated 44 coronary artery disease patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). At the ICU, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored every 30 min for 3 days. MAP variability was evaluated through: standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variation independent of mean (VIM), and average successive variability (ASV). Respiratory function was assessed through maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures and peak expiratory flow (PEF) determined 1 day before surgery and on the postoperative days 3rd to 7th. Intraoperative parameters (volume of cardioplegia, CPB duration, aortic cross-clamp time, number of grafts) were also monitored. Results: Since, we aimed at studying patients without confounding effects of postoperative complications on respiratory function, we had enrolled a cohort of low risk EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) with < 2. Respiratory parameters MIP, MEP, and PEF were significantly depressed for 4–5 days postoperatively. Of all MAP variability parameters, the ASV had a significant good positive Spearman correlation (rho coefficients ranging from 0.45 to 0.65, p < 0.01) with the 3-day nadir of PEF after cardiac surgery. Also, CV and VIM of MAP were significantly associated with nadir days of MEP and PEF. None of the intraoperative parameters had any correlation with the postoperative respiratory depression. Conclusions: Variability parameters ASV, CV, and VIM of the MAP monitored at ICU may have predictive value for the depression of respiratory function after cardiac surgery as determined by peak expiratory flow and maximal expiratory pressure. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02074371. PMID:26903799

  10. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Reijane Oliveira; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Sousa, Felipe André Silva; Soares, Milena de Oliveira; Pinto, Jivago Gentil Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32); Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26); and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20). Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  11. Transradial Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Unprotected Left Main and/or Multivessel Disease in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhi Jian; Yan, Zhen Xian; Liu, Xiao Li; Shen, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The overall safety and efficacy of transradial coronary intervention (TRI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with unprotected left main (UPLM) disease and/or multivessel coronary disease (MVD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been established. Consecutive patients with ACS undergoing TRI with drug-eluting stent (n = 1431) or CABG (n = 651) for UPLM and/or MVD were included. A propensity-score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 cohorts, yielding 524 pairs of matched patients. Median clinical follow-up was 32 months. After propensity-score adjustment, no significant difference was observed between the TRI and CABG groups in all-cause mortality (4.0% vs 5.2%; P = .375). Transradial coronary intervention was favored by a significant increase in the incidence of stroke in the CABG group (0.4% vs 1.9%; P = .020), whereas a significantly increased target vessel revascularization rate (16.8% vs 6.3%; P < .0001) observed in the TRI group favored CABG. Composite outcome (death/myocardial infarction/stroke) was comparable between the TRI and the CABG groups (8.0% vs 11.5%; P = .061). Clinical outcomes of TRI on UPLM and/or MVD for patients with ACS are comparable to CABG in composite safety outcomes with the advantage to TRI for avoiding a stroke. PMID:25818105

  12. Transfusion-related acute lung injury following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Bitargil, M; Arslan, C; Başbuğ, H S; Göçer, H; Günerhan, Y; Bekov, Y Y

    2015-11-01

    Blood transfusion is sometimes a necessary procedure during or following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)/possible TRALI is a rare and fatal complication and characterized by acute hypoxemia and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs within 6 hours following a transfusion. Anti-leukocyte antibodies or, possibly, other bioactive substances cause inflammation and capillary endothelial destruction in susceptible recipients' lungs. Prompt diagnosis and mechanical ventilatory support are important. A successful treatment of two male patients following CABG surgery, compatible with TRALI/possible TRALI, is presented here. PMID:25575703

  13. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future of Myocardial Revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the heart-lung machine ushered in the era of modern cardiac surgery. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains the most common operation performed by cardiac surgeons today. From its infancy in the 1950s till today, CABG has undergone many developments both technically and clinically. Improvements in intraoperative technique and perioperative care have led to CABG being offered to a more broad patient profile with less complications and adverse events. Our review outlines the rich history and promising future of myocardial revascularization. PMID:25374960

  14. Comparison of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Black Versus White Patients After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy T; Gudimella, Preeti; O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Landrine, Hope; Kindell, Linda C; Davies, Stephen W; Sarpong, Daniel F; O'Neal, Jason B; Crane, Patricia; Nelson, Margaret A; Ferguson, Thomas Bruce; Chitwood, Walter Randolph; Kypson, Alan P; Anderson, Ethan J

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, no studies have addressed the influence of race on this association. A total of 13,594 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG without preoperative AF between 1992 and 2011 were included in our study. The association between body mass index and POAF was compared by race. Relative risk and 95% CIs were computed using maximum likelihood log-binomial regression. Increasing levels of body mass index were associated with higher POAF risk after CABG in black but not white patients (pinteraction = 0.0009). PMID:26857161

  15. Comparison of incentive spirometry and intermittent positive pressure breathing after coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Oikkonen, M; Karjalainen, K; Kähärä, V; Kuosa, R; Schavikin, L

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two patients were randomized to receive either incentive spirometry (IS) or intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) in addition to conventional chest physical therapy following coronary artery bypass grafting. Slow vital capacity and peak expiratory flow readings decreased rapidly and to an equal extent in both groups after surgery, and partly recovered by the sixth postoperative day (POP). Arterial PO2 values were similar for the groups on the first three POPs. On the POPs 2, 3, and 6, the number of chest films showing atelectases as well as the number of individual patients having atelectases revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Based on the three variables studied, we consider both devices equal in efficiency after coronary surgery. PMID:1984988

  16. A retrospective review of leg wound complications after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    East, Susan A; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Armbrecht, Eric S

    2013-10-01

    Little research or attention has been paid to finding out whether wound closure with sutures or staples attains the best outcomes after saphenous vein harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook a quality improvement project to compare the prevalence of leg wound complications (eg, infection, seroma, hematoma, dehiscence) between two types of skin closure (ie, staples, subcuticular sutures) after conventional open surgery with bridging between incisions and vein harvesting during coronary revascularization to determine the need for practice changes. We found no significant differences between patients with wound complications and those without. However, in this project, the risk for infections was greater for patients with diabetes whose wounds were closed by using subcuticular sutures. These findings have led to practice changes for reducing leg wound complications within our institution: clinicians now assess patients for increased risk of leg wound complications preoperatively and opt to close wounds with staples for patients who have diabetes. PMID:24075335

  17. Overcoming Aspirin Resistance with Loading Clopidogrel Earlier in Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Tutar, Eralp; Candemir, Basar; Ustun, Elif Ezgi; Erol, Cetin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the clinical effect of clopidogrel loading time on adverse cardiovascular events among patients with aspirin resistance. Recurrent adverse events may still occur despite dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting. Aspirin resistance is one of the possible reasons of this trouble. Optimal antiplatelet strategy for coronary stenting is unknown among patients with aspirin resistance. A total of 980 patients scheduled for elective coronary stenting were enrolled and allocated into two groups according to the loading time of clopidogrel more or less than 6 hours before coronary intervention (early- or late-loaded groups, respectively). Aspirin resistance was determined according to the urinary levels of 11-dehydrothromboxane B2. Overall 240 patients who were allocated to early- and late-loaded groups were identified as aspirin resistant according to the urinary levels of 11-dehydrothromboxane B2. After a follow-up period of 12 months major adverse cardiac events were observed among 16 patients (13.9%) in the early-loaded group and 30 patients (25.8%) in the late-loaded group (p = 0.02). Early loading of clopidogrel was an independent predictor of lower rate of cardiac events (hazard ratio = 0.46 [0.32–0.76, 95% confidence interval], p = 0.001). The rates of bleeding events and periprocedural myocardial infarction were similar in early- and late-loaded groups. The current study demonstrated that loading of clopidogrel earlier than 6 hours before elective coronary stenting among aspirin-resistant patients was associated with increased benefits for ischemic events with similar bleeding rates. PMID:25780324

  18. The impact of avoiding cardiopulmonary by-pass during coronary artery bypass surgery in elderly patients: the Danish On-pump Off-pump Randomisation Study (DOORS)

    PubMed Central

    Houlind, Kim; Kjeldsen, Bo Juul; Madsen, Susanne Nørgaard; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Holme, Susanne Juel; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Haahr, Poul Erik; Mortensen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation for ischemic heart disease provides improved quality of life and, in some patients, prolonged survival. Concern has, however, been raised about complications that may be related to the use of cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamping. It has been hypothesized that when coronary artery by-pass grafting is performed without the use of CPB, the rate of serious complications is reduced. Methods/Design The trial is designed as an open, randomized, controlled, clinical trial with blinded assessment of end-points. Patients at or above 70 years of age, referred for surgical myocardial revascularisation, are included and randomised to receive coronary artery by-pass grafting either with or without the use of CPB and aortic cross-clamping. Follow-up is performed by clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic data that are evaluated by independent committees that are blinded with respect to the result of the randomisation. End points include mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, graft patency, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. The trial is performed in four different Danish, cardiac surgery centres. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00123981 PMID:19575814

  19. Epidemiology of coronary artery bypass grafting at the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa, São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Fichino, Maria Zenaide Soares; da Silva, Gilmara Silveira; Bastos, Flávia Cortez Colosimo; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge of the prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities, as well as the evolution and complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft allows comparison between institutions and evidence of changes in the profile of patients and postoperative evolution over time. Objective To profile (risk factors and comorbidities) and clinical outcome (complications) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in a national institution of great surgical volume. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in the hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, from July 2009 to July 2010. Results We included 3,010 patients, mean age of 62.2 years and 69.9% male. 83.8% of patients were hypertensive, 36.6% diabetic, 44.5% had dyslipidemia, 15.3% were smokers, 65.7% were overweight/obese, 29.3% had a family history of coronary heart disease. The expected mortality calculated by logistic EuroSCORE was 2.7%. The isolated CABG occurred in 89.3% and 11.9% surgery was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. The most common complication was cardiac arrhythmia (18.7%), especially acute atrial fibrillation (14.3%). Pneumonia occurred in 6.2% of patients, acute renal failure in 4.4%, mediastinites in 2.1%, stroke in 1.8% and AMI in 1.2%. The in-hospital mortality was 5.4% and in isolated coronary artery bypass graft was 3.5%. The average hospital stay was 11 days with a median of eight days (3-244 days). Conclusion The profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in this study is similar to other published studies. PMID:25859865

  20. Radionuclide methods of identifying patients who may require coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.; Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.

    1985-12-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography performed in conjunction with exercise stress testing can provide clinically useful information regarding the functional significance of underlying coronary artery stenoses in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Knowledge of type, location, and extent of myocardial /sup 201/Tl perfusion abnormalities or the severity of exercise-induced global and regional dysfunction has prognostic value. Risk stratification can be undertaken with either radionuclide technique by consideration of the magnitude of the ischemic response and may assist in the selection of patients for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In patients with coronary artery disease, delayed /sup 201/Tl redistribution observed on exercise or dipyridamole /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy, particularly when present in multiple vascular regions and associated with increased lung /sup 201/Tl uptake, has been shown to be predictive of an adverse outcome, whereas patients with chest pain and a normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigram have a good prognosis with medical treatment. Similarly, a marked fall in the radionuclide ejection fraction from rest to exercise has been found to correlate with high-risk anatomic disease. Another important application of radionuclide imaging in patients being considered for CABG (particularly those with a depressed resting left ventricular ejection fraction) is the determination of myocardial viability and potential for improved blood flow and enhanced regional function after revascularization. 69 references.

  1. Indium-111 antimyosin scintigraphy before and after coronary bypass surgery: unexpected preoperative myocardial uptakes.

    PubMed

    Adrie, C; Montalescot, G; Basset, J Y; Amoyal, P; Drobinski, G; Grosgogeat, Y; Ancri, D; Thomas, D

    1997-10-10

    The present study was designed to evaluate 111In-antimyosin scintigraphy in detecting pre- and post-operative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Fab antimyosin scintigraphy has been shown to be sensitive and specific in detecting myocardial necrosis and to be potentially valuable in situations where other criteria are not reliable. In a previous study, postoperative antimyosin uptakes occurred in 82% of the studied patients. Sixteen consecutive patients with an indication of coronary artery surgery were assessed by preoperative coronary angiography, serial electrocardiograms, and myocardial scanning with 111Indium-labeled antimyosin antibodies performed before and after operation. In four patients, a recent myocardial infarction (1 to 3 months) was detected with an accurate localization when compared to the classic criteria of myocardial infarction. One more patient with a 21-year old myocardial infarction showed an intense uptake whereas there was no recent acute coronary event. Four other patients had an unexpected preoperative uptake, since there were no acute coronary events in their medical history. All preoperative scintigraphic uptakes were still present on the second scan performed postoperatively in these nine patients. Only one patient showed a new postoperative uptake when compared to the preoperative scan which was normal; this postoperative septal infarct was confirmed by a postoperative coronary angiography. Extracardiac uptakes (sternum and ribs) were frequently observed after operation and might hamper the interpretation of postoperative scintigrams. Unexpected preoperative uptakes may be related to non diagnosed small necrosis. A preoperative reference scan is required for an accurate interpretation of a postoperative 111In-antimyosin uptake. Moreover, extracardiac uptakes may limit the interpretation of perioperative cardiac damage. PMID:9363744

  2. Preoperative usages of levosimendan in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Eris, Cuneyt; Yavuz, Senol; Toktas, Faruk; Turk, Tamer; Gucu, Arif; Erdolu, Burak; Goncu, M Tugrul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Levosimendan (LS) is a new inotropic drug which belongs to the group of drugs known as calcium sensitizers. It is different from other inotropic agents by its inotropic and vasodilatory actions without an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption and considered as a good choice in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We aimed to investigate the proper time of the administration and the effect of prophylactic usage of LS in patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Forty patients who underwent isolated CABG with LVEF) less than 30% were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the induction time of LS during different phases of the operation and compared to a non-LS control group. LS infusion (0.2 μg/kg/min) was applied 12 hours before the operation in Group 1 (G1) (n=10), after the induction of anaesthesia in Group 2 (G2) (n=10) and during the pump removal period in Group 3 (G3) (n=10) and non-LS control group 4 (G4) (n=10). Demographic data, operative characteristics, hemodynamic parameters and serum lactate, troponin, creatinine levels were compared between groups before and after LS treatment during pre and postoperative period. Data were evaluated by Fisher exact, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank tests. Results: We found that the duration of tracheal intubation, the intensive care unit stay and the hospital stay were significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared to the patients in G3 and G4. During postoperative period, in G1 and G2 one (10%) patient from each required intraaortic balloon pump (IABP), while in G3 two (20%) patients and in G4 five (50%) patients required IABP. Cardiac index (CI) was significantly increased in all groups from baseline to intensive care unit (ICU)1h and ICU24h. When groups compared each other significant increase was found in G1-G4 (p=0.001) and G2-G4 (p=0.007) at ICU1h. There was a significant increase in % EF especially in G1-G4 (p=0.011) and G2-G4 (p=0.007) at ICU1h. Systemic vascular resistance index significantly decreased in G1 and G2 in comparison to G3 and G4. However there was no significant decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of all 4 groups before and after LS. There was a significant decrease in mean pulmonary arterial pressure in G1 and G2 according to G4. Compared with the other groups preoperatively LS-treated patients (G1 and G2) had lower postoperative troponin I, serum lactate and creatinine concentrations. Conclusions: Our study shows that the elective preoperative initiation of LS especially 12 hours before the operation onset is associated with better improvement on cardiac functions as well as with lower mortality and complication rates, lower use of additional inotropic and vasopressor drugs, less need for intra-aortic balloon pump support and shorter length of stay in the ICU in patients with high perioperative risk or compromised left ventricular function. As a result, patients who received an infusion of LS 12 hours before surgery showed an evidence of less myocardial damage which suggested the preconditioning effect of the drug. PMID:24482709

  3. The effect of incentive spirometry on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)

    PubMed Central

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Bollbanabad, Hiva Mohammadi; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen; Khalifezade, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background: After coronary artery bypass surgery, pulmonary complications and oxygenation disorders are common, which have an important role in mortality and morbidity. Different methods are used for the improvement of pulmonary function and oxygenation, of which incentive spirometry (IS) has been investigated here. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of IS on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial. Fifty patients who were candidates for CABG were chosen. The patients had been allocated to two random groups of intervention and control. The intervention was done through IS. These two groups were compared for the arterial blood gases’ preoperative level, and the levels on first (after extubation), second, and third postoperative days. Results: The study findings showed that on the third postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the mean amount of arterial blood oxygen (82.3 ± 4.7 vs. 72.7 ± 7.1, respectively, P = 0.02), arterial blood carbon dioxide (36.8 ± 2 vs. 43.7 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.007), and oxygen saturation (96.8 ± 1.4 vs. 90.5 ± 1.4, respectively, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This investigation shows that using IS is significantly effective in the improvement of blood arterial gas parameters. PMID:26985228

  4. The effectiveness of lavender essence on strernotomy related pain intensity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Ashrastaghi, Om Golsum; Habibi, Valiollah; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ayasi, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the side effects of pharmacological methods, there has been a suggestion to use nonpharmacological methods such Aromatherapy following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of lavender 2% aromatherapy on sternotomy pain intensity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients who have undergone surgery. Materials and Methods: During this clinical trial, 50 patients who were candidates for CABG, were randomly divided into two equal groups, that is, the control group (n = 25) and the case group (n = 25). Following CABG, the case group received two drops of 2% lavender oil every 15 minutes with supplemental oxygen and the control group received only supplemental oxygen through a face mask. The data collection tools comprised of the demographic check list and visual analog scale (VAS) for evaluating the pain intensity. The pain intensity were assessed pre- and five, 30, and 60 minutes post aromatherapy. The final data were analyzed by the t-test and chi-squared test. Results: The findings showed that the pain perception intensity in the case group was lower than that in the control group at the 30- and 60-minute phases after intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The result indicated that aromatherapy can be used as a complementary method in postoperative pain reduction, as it reduced pain. The patients require two sedative drugs, and moreover, it avoids expenses of treatment. PMID:26261829

  5. Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Myocardial Ischemia Caused by an Overgrown Left Internal Thoracic Artery Side Branch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Re; Oh, Se Jin; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient who developed recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) demonstrated deterioration in the myocardial perfusion, and coronary angiography revealed an overgrown side branch of the grafted left internal thoracic artery (ITA); otherwise, there were no significant changes compared with previous imaging studies obtained after the CABG. After percutaneous embolization of the grafted left ITA side branch, the angina was resolved and myocardial SPECT showed improved perfusion. PMID:25346902

  6. Improvement of Ejection Fraction After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Patients with Impaired Left Ventricular Function

    PubMed Central

    Haxhibeqiri-Karabdic, Ilirijana; Hasanovic, Aida; Kabil, Emir; Straus, Slavenka

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The present study evaluates our experience with aorto-coronary bypass grafting in patients with severe dysfunction of left ventricle (LV) and low ejection fraction-EF(<35%). Revascularization of myocardium in this settings remains contraversial because of concerns over morbidity, mortality and quality of life. Material and Methodes: Forty patients with severe coronary artery disease and dysfunction of LV (low ejection fraction <35%) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in period of 3 years. Preoperative diagnostic of 40 patients was consisted of anamnesis, clinical exam, non-invasive methods EHO, MR and invasive diagnostic methods-cateterization. The major indication for surgery was severe anginal pain, heart failure symptoms and low ejection fraction. Internal mammary artery was used in all operated patients. Results: Average age of patients who have been operated was 59,8. In the present study, 81,3% were male and 18,8% female. We found one-vessel disease present in 2,5% (1/40) of patients, two -vessel disease in 40% (16/40), three-vessel disease in 42,5% (17/40) and four -vessel disease in 15% (6/40) of patients. One bypass grafting we implanted in 2,5% patients, two bypasses in 42,5%, three bypasses in 45 5%, and four bypasses in 10% of patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction assessed preoperativly was 18%-27% and postoperatively was improved to 31, 08% in period of 30 days. Conclusion: In patients with left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed safely with improvement in quality of life and in left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:25568566

  7. Haemostasis alterations in coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison between the off-pump technique and a closed coated cardiopulmonary bypass system

    PubMed Central

    Scrascia, Giuseppe; Rotunno, Crescenzia; Guida, Piero; Conte, Manuela; Amorese, Lillà; Margari, Vito; Schinosa, Luigi de Luca Tupputi; Paparella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in off-pump coronary artery bypass operation and in patients in whom a closed phosphorylcoline-coated cardiopulmonary bypass system was applied. Cardiopulmonary bypass induces activation of coagulative and fibrinolytic systems, which together with intraoperative haemodilution augment the risk of postoperative bleeding and transfusion of blood products. METHODS Thirty-six off-pump coronary artery bypass and 36 coronary artery bypass grafting patients in whom a closed, phosphorylcholine-coated cardiopulmonary bypass system with a closed-collapsible venous reservoir (Physio group) was used were prospectively enrolled. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems was assessed evaluating the release of prothrombin fragment 1.2 and plasmin–antiplasmin complex preoperatively (T0), 30 min after heparin administration (T1), 15 min after protamin administration (T2), 3 h after protamin administration (T3) and on postoperative days 1 (T4) and 5 (T5). Platelet function was evaluated through Platelet Function Analyzer 100®. RESULTS During the operation, prothrombin fragment 1.2 and plasmin–antiplasmin levels were slightly higher in the Physio group, the difference being not statistically significant. In the off-pump coronary artery bypass group, prothrombin fragment 1.2 was significantly higher at T3 (618.7 ± 282.7 vs 416.6 ± 250.2 pmol/l; P = 0.006), T4 (416.7 ± 278.8 vs 310.2 ± 394.6 pmol/l; P < 0.001) and T5 (629.3 ± 295.2 vs 408.4 ± 409.7 pmol/l; P = 0.002), and plasmin–antiplasmin was significantly higher at T4 (731.1 ± 790 vs 334 ± 300.8 ng/ml; P = 0.019) and T5 (1744.4 ± 820.7 vs 860.1 ± 488.4 ng/ml; P = 0.003). Platelet Function Analyzer 100® closure time values were significantly higher in the Physio group patients at T3 (131.3 ± 105.7 vs 215.6 ± 58.9 s; P = 0.002). The off-pump coronary artery bypass patients had greater chest tube drainage (874.3 ± 371.5 vs 629.1 ± 334.5 ml; P = 0.005). The mean priming volume was 1240 ± 215 ml in the Physio group. Much more Physio patients received red blood cell transfusions (14 vs 25 patient; P = 0.009), because of higher intraoperative transfusion rates (6 vs 15 patients; P = 0.016). Despite similar preoperative haemoglobin levels (13 ± 1.2 vs 12.6 ± 1.4 g/dl; P = 0.2), postoperative haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the Physio group. CONCLUSIONS The Physio cardiopulmonary bypass approach does not significantly alter haemostasis during the operation compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass providing a reduced activation in the postoperative period reducing also chest tube drainage. However, further priming volume reduction is required to decrease intraoperative red blood cell transfusion. PMID:23335652

  8. Assessment of the effect of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery on right ventricle function using strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Mohammad; Hosseintash, Mahsa; Foroughi, Mahnoosh; Naderian, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricle function significantly decreases after coronary artery bypass surgery; as one of the likely causes, such a condition is attributed to the use of cardiopulmonary pump (CPB). Because nowadays there is a tendency toward increasing use of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery, this study was conducted to evaluate the right ventricle function after this type of surgery using strain and strain rate imaging (SRI) echocardiography. Methods This study was conducted on 30 patients, candidate for elective OPCAB surgery, between 2011 and 2012. Standard echocardiography was performed before the surgery and the right ventricle function was examined using strain and SRI echocardiography. Then patient underwent surgery, 6 days and 3 months after surgery they underwent echocardiography again and the results obtained from the three stages were compared with each other. Results Participants included 30 patients (23 males and 7 females) with a mean age of 66±11 years. Compared to the prior of the surgery, 6 days and 3 months after the surgery there was a significant decrease in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) at the lateral annulus of tricuspid valve, and strain and SRI of right ventricle. However, the values obtained 3 months after surgery were significantly higher than those obtained after 6 days. In other words, the right ventricle function 6 days after the surgery had dropped, however some of the values recovered 3 months after the surgery. Conclusions The findings of this study are consistent with other studies in this field and showed that after coronary artery surgery a decline occurs in right ventricular function. However, more detailed quantitative strain and SRI parameters which were measured in our study showed that at the early days after the OPCAB surgery there is a decline in the right ventricle function which is relatively reversible at longer intervals (3 months after surgery). PMID:27054103

  9. Impact of Drug-Eluting Stents on the Comparative Effectiveness of Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Baker, Laurence C; Go, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents (DES) have largely replaced bare-metal stents (BMS) for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is uncertain, however, whether introduction of DES had a significant impact the comparative effectiveness of PCI versus coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) for death and myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We identified Medicare beneficiaries 66 years of age and older who underwent multivessel CABG or multivessel PCI, and matched PCI and CABG patients on propensity score. We defined the BMS era as January 1999 through April 2003 and the DES era as May 2003 through December 2006. We compared five-year outcomes of CABG and PCI using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for baseline characteristics and year of procedure, and tested for an interaction (Pint) of DES era with treatment (CABG or PCI). Results Five-year survival improved from the BMS era to the DES era by 1.2% for PCI and by 1.1% for CABG, and the CABG:PCI hazard ratio was unchanged (0.90 vs. 0.90, Pint = 0.96). Five-year MIfree survival improved by 1.4% for PCI and 1.1% for CABG, with no change in the CABG:PCI hazard ratio (0.81 vs. 0.82, Pint = 0.63). By contrast, survival-free of MI or repeat coronary revascularization improved from the BMS era to the DES era by 5.7% for PCI and 0.9% for CABG, and the CABG:PCI hazard ratio changed significantly (0.50 vs. 0.57, Pint ? 0.0001). Conclusions The introduction of drug-eluting stents did not alter the comparative effectiveness of CABG and PCI with respect to hard cardiac outcomes. PMID:25497260

  10. Effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Lawson, W E; Seifert, F; Anagnostopoulos, C; Hills, D J; Swinford, R D; Cohn, P F

    1988-02-01

    Because left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is abnormal in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), pulsed Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate LV filling before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Filling was evaluated by Doppler in 2 studies: (1) in a group of 41 unpaired patients (11 with angiographically normal coronary arteries, 14 with CAD but without CABG and 16 at 1 week after CABG) and (2) in a group of 12 patients with CAD before and 1 week after CABG. Doppler sampling at the level of the mitral anulus was analyzed for the deceleration half-time and for the ratio of peak late (A) to peak early (E) filling velocity, measures reflecting early ventricular filling and the relative contribution of atrial contraction to ventricular filling. In the first study the deceleration half-time was significantly prolonged in both CAD and CABG groups. The late to early peak transmitral velocity ratio, however, was significantly prolonged only in the nonrevascularized CAD patients. In the second group of CAD patients studied before and 1 week after surgical revascularization, both the late to early peak transmitral velocity ratio and the deceleration half-time showed significant postoperative improvement. Thus, patients with CAD showed impairment in early LV filling and a compensatory increase in the proportion of filling with active atrial contraction. Successful CABG appears to result in normalization of early filling and decreased reliance on active atrial transport. PMID:3257633

  11. Patient Specific Multiscale Simulations of Blood Flow in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalore Ramachandra, Abhay; Sankaran, Sethuraman; Kahn, Andrew M.; Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-11-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to revascularize blocked coronary arteries in roughly 400,000 patients per year in the US.While arterial grafts offer superior patency, vein grafts are used in more than 70% of procedures, as most patients require multiple grafts. Vein graft failure (approx. 50% within 10 years) remains a major clinical issue. Mounting evidence suggests that hemodynamics plays a key role as a mechano-biological stimulus contributing to graft failure. However, quantifying relevant hemodynamic quantities (e.g. wall shear stress) invivo is not possible directly using clinical imaging techniques. We numerically compute graft hemodynamics in a cohort of 3-D patient specific models using a stabilized finite element method. The 3D flow domain is coupled to a 0D lumped parameter circulatory model. Boundary conditions are tuned to match patient specific blood pressures, stroke volumes & heart rates. Results reproduce clinically observed coronary flow waveforms. We quantify differences in multiple hemodynamic quantities between arterial & venous grafts & discuss possible correlations between graft hemodynamics & clinically observed graft failure.Such correlations will provide further insight into mechanisms of graft failure and may lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  12. [Policy of using the right internal thoracic artery "in situ" for coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Vecherskiĭ, Iu Iu; Andreev, S L; Zatolokin, V V

    2015-01-01

    The authors analysed the outcomes in a total of 73 patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of the "in situ" the right internal thoracic artery. Of these, 14 patients endured bypass grafting with assessment of the conformity of the length of the "in situ" right ITA as a conduit for the distal third of the right coronary artery (RCA). 16 patients underwent grafting of the RITA "in situ" with the RCA by passing through the pleural cavity. The remaining 43 patients were subjected to bilateral mammary composite bypass grafting using the radial artery (RA). A total of 22 segments of the RA were subjected to a comparative morphometric examination depending on the method of exposure. We additionally analysed 56 cases of utilizing the RA with the use of the pharmacological protocol of preventing spasm. The results were regarded statistically significant if p<0.05. We used the non-parametric criterion of Mann-Whitney. The obtained results showed that the right ITA "in situ" may be used for bypass grafting of the RCA system, excluding the risk of graft tension, if the perpendicular from the 6th intercostal space crosses the sharp edge of the heart 1.5-2 cm distal to the medial point, with the minimum number of complications after 1.5±0.3 years (7.1%). When the above-mentioned perpendicular is located proximal to the middle point of the sharp edge of the heart it is possible to use the right ITA "in situ" for the RCA system thanks to passing the conduit through the right pleural cavity under the anterior segment of the upper lobe and the medial segment of the middle lobe of the right lung with no complications after 1 year. The method of composite bypass grafting by means of the proximal segment of the right ITA "in situ" and the RA makes it possible to effectively revascularize any portions of the coronary bed (latency 94.7% after 3.0±0.8 years), to avoid manipulations on the aorta, and to save the bed of the right ITA in the middle and distal third of the sternum with no postoperative complications. It was revealed that in the conditions of decreased osmotic pressure the increase in the thickness of the vascular wall is more pronounced in the skeletonized segments of the RA (1.38±0.05 mm) as compared with the segments surrounded by connective and fatty tissue (1.09±0.04 mm). The pharmacological protocol for prevention of radial artery spasm used in 56 patients resulted in a small number of complications observed after 3.0±0.8 years (myocardial infarctions - 1.75%, angina pectoris relapse - 7%). Hence, the developed methods of using the right ITA "in situ" widen possibilities of bilateral mammary bypass grafting, excluding the existing problems of routine use of the both ITAs "in situ". PMID:25757178

  13. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  14. Incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bohatch Júnior, Milton Sérgio; Matkovski, Paula Dayana; Giovanni, Frederico José Di; Fenili, Romero; Varella, Everton Luz; Dietrich, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A retrospective study with analysis of 230 medical records between January 2011 and October 2013 was conducted. Results Fifty-six (24.3%) out of the 230 patients were female. The average age of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was 59.91±8.62 years old, and off-pump was 57.16±9.01 years old (P=0.0213). The average EuroSCORE for the on-pump group was 3.37%±3.08% and for the off-pump group was 3.13%±3% (P=0.5468). Eighteen (13.43%) patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting developed postoperative atrial fibrillation, whereas for the onpump group, 19 (19.79%) developed this arrhythmia, with no significant difference between the groups (P=0.1955). Conclusion Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period. Important predictors of risk for the development of this arrhythmia were identified as: patients older than 70 years old and presence of atrial fibrillation in perioperative period in both groups, and non-use of beta-blockers drugs postoperatively in the on-pump group. PMID:26313722

  15. Rare postoperative delayed malignant hyperthermia after off-pump coronary bypass surgery and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Raut, Monish S; Kar, Sibashankar; Maheshwari, Arun; Shivnani, Ganesh; Kumar, Arun; Daniel, Elvin; Joshi, Sandeep; Motihar, Amit; Gupta, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a very rare phenomena. It is generally observed within less than an hour after discontinuation of the anesthetic trigger. Present case describes rare delayed postoperative presentation of MH after off-pump coronary bypass surgery. Prompt recognition and immediate treatment with dantrolene can effectively treat the fatal syndrome. Family education and genetic counseling should be encouraged. PMID:27052086

  16. The effect of postoperative positive end-expiratory pressure on postoperative bleeding after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Salihoglu, Ece; Celik, Sezai; Ugurlucan, Murat; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Turhan-Caglar, Fatma Nihan; Isik, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To compare postoperative prophylactic use of two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels in order to prevent postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Material and methods Sixty patients undergoing an elective off-pump CABG operation were included in this prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Patients were divided into two groups as receiving either 5 cm H2O (group 1) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (group 2) after the operation until being extubated. Chest tube outputs, use of blood products and other fluids, postoperative hemoglobin levels, accumulation of pleural and pericardial fluid after the removal of chest tubes, and duration of hospital stay were recorded and compared. Results Low- and high-pressure PEEP groups did not differ with regard to postoperative chest tube outputs, amounts of transfusions and crystalloid/colloid infusion requirements, or postoperative hemoglobin levels. However, low-pressure PEEP application was associated with significantly higher pleural (92 ±37 ml vs. 69 ±29 ml, p = 0.03) and pericardial fluid (17 ±5 ml vs. 14 ±6 ml, p = 0.04) accumulation. On the other hand, high-pressure PEEP application was associated with significantly longer duration of hospitalization (6.25 ±1.21 days vs. 5.25 ±0.91 days, p = 0.03). Conclusions Prophylactic administration of postoperative PEEP levels of 8 cm H2O, although safe, does not seem to reduce chest-tube output or transfusion requirements in off-pump CABG when compared to the lower level of PEEP. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the benefits and identify ideal levels of PEEP administration in this group of patients. PMID:25395944

  17. Laparoscopic gastrectomy after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideki; Takahashi, Norihiko; Tahara, Munenori; Takahashi, Masahiro; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2014-08-01

    We successfully executed laparoscopic distal gastrectomy in two patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA). A laparoscopic distal gastrectomy preserving the RGEA graft with Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed on two men, one 69 years of age and one 73 years of age. In both cases, the RGEA was used during coronary artery bypass grafting for the posterior descending branch. The laparoscopic approach helped avoid injury to the RGEA associated with laparotomy and retractor placement. In addition, the locations of ports necessary for laparoscopy were situated away from the RGEA graft and from adhesions resulting from bypass. Using typical laparoscopic settings, we were able to easily identify the grafted RGEA. Thus, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is not only less invasive than open gastrectomy procedures, but it is also associated with a lower risk of injury to the RGEA graft. PMID:25131322

  18. Impact of surgical shape on blood flow pattern for patient specific coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Marsden, Alison

    2010-11-01

    We present a numerical framework for studying blood flow patterns in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass surgeries. We use a stabilized finite element framework for performing blood flow simulations. Specialized lumped parameter boundary conditions for the coronary arteries, aorta and its branches are utilized. Computational models of CABG patients are constructed from CT scan images. A comprehensive study of how surgical shape affects hemodynamics in patient-specific CABG surgery has not been performed till date. The objective of this work is to study the effect of surgical geometry on blood flow pattern, especially downstream and in the proximity of the suture locations of the bypass graft. Quantities such as energy efficiency, wall shear stresses and its gradients and oscillatory shear index are extracted and compared for different surgical shapes in a systematic fashion. A framework and results for robust optimization of bypass graft anastomoses in unsteady flow will be presented. Implications of surgical geometry on graft patency will be discussed.

  19. Superiority of moderate control of hyperglycemia to tight control in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; LaPar, Damien J.; Stukenborg, George J.; Morrison, Christine C.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although consensus in cardiac surgery supports tight control of perioperative hyperglycemia (glucose <120 mg/dL), recent studies in critical care suggest moderate glycemic control may be superior. We sought to determine whether tight control or moderate glycemic control is optimal after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods From 1995 to 2008, a total of 4658 patients with known diabetes or perioperative hyperglycemia (preoperative glycosylated hemoglobin ≥8 or postoperative serum glucose >126 mg/dL) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution. Patients were stratified into 3 postoperative glycemic groups: tight (≤126 mg/dL), moderate (127–179 mg/dL), and liberal (≥180 mg/dL). Preoperative risk factors, glycemic management, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results Operative mortality was 2.5%(119/4658); major complication rate was 12.5%(581/4658). Relative to moderate group, more patients in tight group had preoperative renal failure (tight 16.4%, 22/134, moderate 8.3%, 232/2785, P = .001) and underwent emergent operations (tight 5.2%, 7/134, moderate 1.9%, 52/2785, P = .007); however, Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted mortality risk was lower in tight group (P < .001). Moderate group had lowest mortality (tight 2.9%, 4/134, moderate 2.0%, 56/2785, liberal 3.4%, 59/1739, P = .02) and incidence of major complications (tight 19.4%, 26/134, moderate 11.1%, 308/2785, liberate 14.2%, 247/1739, P < .001). Risk-adjusted major complication incidence (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.87) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.83) were lower with moderate glucose control than with tight or liberal management. Conclusions Moderate glycemic control was superior to tight glycemic control, with decreased mortality and major complications, and may be ideal for patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:21163498

  20. Application of Low-Level Laser Therapy Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Kamran; Lajevardi, Marjan; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An attack of acute myocardial infarction (MI) poses the threat of great damage to cardiac tissue. Operative therapeutic modalities such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may enhance myocardial perfusion in high-grade coronary vasculature occlusions. It has been shown previously that Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) significantly reduces infarct size following induction of myocardial infarction in rats and dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on cardiac tissue healing markers following grafting operations for coronary vessel occlusion. Methods: Thirty-two cases having each two or three coronary vessel occlusions (2VD/3VD) underwent low-level laser therapy post-CABG, and 28 patients who did not undergo laser therapy were studied as a control group. Diode laser (810 nm, 500 mW) was used as LLLT protocol for 3 successive days post-CABG. Repeated measurements of blood cell count (CBC) and cardiac damage markers (CPK, CPK-MB, LDH) attained before CABG and during the 5 days of LLLT post-operatively, taken at one and 12 hours after daily laser irradiation. Results: In a comparison of the mean levels of the control and laser group, the variables were statistically different on 5th day after intervention for WBC, Neutrophil and Lymphocyte counts and WBC and lymphocyte changes. A statistically significant difference was seen in changes of CPK, CPK-mb and LDH over time P<0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that low-level laser irradiation after CABG surgery could decrease cardiac cellular damage and help accelerate the repair of cardiac tissue post-operatively. This may lower post-operative disability as well as bed rest period in these patients. PMID:25653805

  1. Effect of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on clinical, angiographic, neurocognitive, and quality of life outcomes: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruzzeh, Sharif; George, Shane; Bustami, Mahmoud; Wray, Jo; Ilsley, Charles; Athanasiou, Thanos; Amrani, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical, angiographic, neurocognitive, and quality of life outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Design Randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary cardiothoracic centre in Middlesex, England. Participants 168 patients (27 women) requiring primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Interventions Patients were randomised to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 84) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (n = 84), carried out by one surgeon. Angiographic examination was carried out at three months postoperatively. Neurocognitive tests were carried out at baseline and at six weeks and six months postoperatively. Main outcome measures Clinical outcome, graft patency at three months, neurocognitive function at six weeks and six months, and health related quality of life. Results Graft patency was evaluated by angiography in 151 (89.9%) patients and was similar between the cardiopulmonary bypass and off-pump groups (risk difference - 1%, 95% confidence interval - 5% to 4%), with the off-pump group considered the treatment group. Patients in the off-pump group required fewer blood transfusions (1.7 units v 1.0 unit, P = 0.02), shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (7.7 hours v 3.9 hours, P = 0.03), and shorter hospital stay (10.8 days v 8.9 days). Scores for neurocognitive function showed a significant difference in three memory subtests at six weeks and two memory subtests at six months in favour of the off-pump group. Conclusions Patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery showed similar patency of grafts, better clinical outcome, shorter hospital stay, and better neurocognitive function than patients who underwent conventional coronary artery bypass grafting surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:16740529

  2. Prognostic Value of Albuminuria on Cardiovascular Outcomes After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kunimura, Ayako; Ishii, Hideki; Uetani, Tadayuki; Harada, Ken; Kataoka, Takashi; Takeshita, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Satoshi; Shinoda, Norihiro; Kato, Bunichi; Kato, Masataka; Suzuki, Susumu; Amano, Tetsuya; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is the most widely evaluated marker of kidney damage. Many previous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of albuminuria and increased cardiovascular events. However, there are limited data regarding the impact of albuminuria in patients requiring coronary revascularization. This study investigated whether the urinary albumin excretion rate could predict cardiovascular events in such a population. We enrolled 698 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention. The baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; mg/gCr) was measured and patients were divided into those with normoalbuminuria (ACR <30 mg/gCr), microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/gCr), or macroalbuminuria (ACR >300 mg/gCr). We collected data on the incidences of cardiac death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction. We identified 389, 230, and 79 patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria, respectively. During follow-up (median: 1,564 days), 41 events occurred. The event-free survival rate was 89% in patients with macroalbuminuria, 92% in those with microalbuminuria, and 97% in those with normoalbuminuria, respectively (log-rank test p = 0.002). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, Cox analysis revealed hazard ratios for cardiac death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction were 2.56 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.32, p = 0.01) in those with microalbuminuria and 4.02 (95% CI 1.59 to 10.12, p = 0.003) in those with macroalbuminuria compared with those with normoalbuminuria. In conclusion, an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate independently predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes, with a gradual risk increase that progressed from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:26772442

  3. Clinical comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with domestic drug-eluting stents versus off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Xin, Xingli; Geng, Tao; Xu, Zesheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with domestic drug-eluting stents (DES) and off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: A total of 227 patients with ULMCA disease and underwent revascularization was included. One hundred and six patients were treated with PCI with domestic DES implantation and 121 patients with off pump CABG. Clinical outcomes with respect to the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including death any cause, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and target vessel revascularization (TVR) during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the domestic DES and off pump CABG groups in the risk of death, non-fatal MI, stroke, and TVR during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up. Overall in-hospital MACCE in PCI versus CABG was 0.94% versus 5.78% (P<0.05). The overall MACCE at 12-month follow up in PCI versus CABG was in 3.77% versus 3.31% (P>0.05). Conclusions: Domestic DES is feasible and safety in the treatment of ULMCA lesions. When compared with off-pump CABG, domestic DES achieved similar completeness of revascularization, similar in-hospital and 12-month follow-up outcomes. A longer follow-up is needed. PMID:26550424

  4. The predictive value of multiple electrode platelet aggregometry for postoperative bleeding complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Karolina; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Kruk, Mariusz; Różański, Jacek; Kuśmierczyk, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative bleeding is one of the most serious complications of cardiac surgery and requires transfusion of blood or blood products. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel (CLO) are the two most commonly used antiplatelet agents; when used in combination (i.e., as dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]), they exert a synergistic effect. Dual antiplatelet therapy, however, significantly increases the risk of postoperative bleeding. The effect of antiplatelet therapy can be monitored by platelet aggregation testing. One of the most commonly methods used for assessing platelet reactivity is multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) which can be performed with the use of Multiplate analyzer. Although the method has long been used in interventional cardiology to assess the effect of antiplatelet therapy, it is not available at cardiac surgery departments as a standard diagnostic procedure. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of bleeding complications following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients on single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) and patients on DAPT and to determine the usefulness of routine measurement of platelet responsiveness before CABG surgery in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Material and methods A consecutive cohort of 200 patients referred for elective surgical treatment of stable coronary artery disease was enrolled (100 consecutive patients on SAPT [ASA 75 mg/day] and 100 consecutive patients on DAPT [ASA 75 mg/day + CLO 75 mg/day]). All subjects continued their antiplatelet therapy until the day before surgery. For each subject, platelet aggregation testing in the form of an ASPI test and an ADP test was performed on the Multiplate analyzer. Each subject underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. For the primary and secondary endpoints in our study we adopted the definition provided in ‘Standardised Bleeding Definitions for Cardiovascular Clinical Trials: A Consensus Report from the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium’ (‘Circulation’, 2011) for BARC type 4 bleeding (i.e. CABG-related bleeding). Results An ROC curve was constructed for the ASPI test and ADP test for a total of 200 patients. No significant correlations were demonstrated between the ASPI test results and either the primary endpoint or the secondary endpoints. A correlation was found between the ADP test results and the composite primary endpoint and each of the secondary endpoints. The primary endpoint of major postoperative bleeding occurred in 16 subjects. From the ROC curve, we established the optimal cut-off value for the ADP test of 26 U at sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 69%, positive predictive value of 69.90%, and negative predictive value of 71.13%. Conclusions In patients on antiplatelet therapy, an ADP test result of < 26 U is strongly predictive of serious bleeding complications after CABG surgery. The MEA ADP test allows to identify the group of patients at an increased risk of postoperative bleeding. PMID:27212971

  5. Simultaneous “hybrid” percutaneous coronary intervention and minimally invasive surgical bypass grafting: Feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Reicher, Barry; Poston, Robert S.; Mehra, Mandeep R.; Joshi, Ashish; Odonkor, Patrick; Kon, Zachary; Reyes, Peter A.; Zimrin, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Surgical and percutaneous coronary artery intervention revascularization are traditionally considered isolated options. A simultaneous hybrid approach may allow an opportunity to match the best strategy for a particular anatomic lesion. Concerns regarding safety and feasibility of such an approach exist. We examined the safety, feasibility, and early outcomes of a simultaneous hybrid revascularization strategy (minimally invasive direct coronary bypass grafting of the left anterior descending [LAD] artery and drug-eluting stent [DES] to non-LAD lesions) in 13 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease that underwent left internal mammary artery to LAD minimally invasive direct coronary bypass performed through a lateral thoracotomy, followed by stenting of non-LAD lesions, in a fluoroscopy-equipped operating room. Assessment of coagulation parameters was also undertaken. Inhospital and postdischarge outcomes of these patients were compared to a group of 26 propensity score matched parallel controls that underwent standard off-pump coronary artery bypass. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. All hybrid patients were successfully treated with DES and no inhospital mortality occurred in either group. Hybrid patients had a shorter length of stay (3.6 ± 1.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.3 days, P < .0001) and intubation times (0.5 ± 1.3 vs 11.7 ± 9.6 hours, P < .02). Despite aggressive anticoagulation and confirmed platelet inhibition, hybrid patients had less blood loss (581 ± 402 vs 1242 ± 941 mL, P < .05) and decreased transfusions (0.33 ± 0.49 vs 1.47 ± 1.53 U, P < .01). Six-month angiographic vessel patency and major adverse cardiac events were similar in the hybrid and off-pump coronary artery bypass groups. A simultaneous hybrid approach consisting of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal mammary artery to LAD combined with revascularization of the remaining coronary targets using percutaneous coronary artery intervention with DES is a feasible option accomplished with acceptable clinical outcomes without increased bleeding risk. PMID:18371473

  6. Is coronary artery bypass grafting an acceptable alternative to myotomy for the treatment of myocardial bridging?

    PubMed

    Attaran, Saina; Moscarelli, Marco; Athanasiou, Thanos; Anderson, Jon

    2013-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Is CABG an effective alternative for the treatment of myocardial bridging?' Altogether, only six papers were identified using the reported search that represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, and results of these papers are tabulated; these studies reported the outcome of myotomy and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for myocardial bridging. All of these studies were retrospective reports of the results of surgical intervention in patients with myocardial bridging. They showed that the incidence of myocardial bridging was less than 1-1.5% in patients with angina requiring angiography, and 7-9% of these patients had refractory angina despite medical treatment and required surgery. The evidence on the treatment of this congenital condition that mainly affects the middle segment of left anterior descending artery is limited, and there are no treatment guidelines currently available. Stenting of the tunnelled segment has shown high failure rates in approximately half of the cases. Current evidence in the literature suggests that surgery is the mainstay treatment for myocardial bridging. Surgery is performed either as supra-arterial myotomy and de-roofing of the muscle bands on- or off-pump, or as coronary artery bypass grafting of the affected coronary artery beyond the tunnelled segment. Although no mortality was reported with either of these operations, surgical myotomy on deep and extensive myocardial bridges carries the risk of entering the right ventricle, bleeding and aneurysm formation. In addition, in a small percentage of the patients undergoing myotomy, angina recurred. Despite the possibility of competitive flow in the native coronary artery after CABG for myocardial bridging, we did not identify any evidence demonstrating graft occlusion after CABG for myocardial bridging. In conclusion, in extensive and deep myocardial bridgings, CABG may be the treatment of choice that carries low risk, limited complications and excellent symptomatic relief. PMID:23171516

  7. Cabrol-Type Aortocoronary Anastomosis Technique in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Sik; Na, Chan-Young; An, Hyonggin

    2016-04-01

    Background In conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), multiple anastomoses in the ascending aorta are needed for multiple coronary targeting. We have introduced a single-site proximal anastomosis technique for multiple coronary targeting. A single anastomosis between the ascending aorta and graft was performed using a side-to-side maneuver (Cabrol type). Additionally, the graft was connected to another graft by end-to-end anastomosis for the coronary artery on the opposite side. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcome and graft patency of this Cabrol-type aortocoronary anastomosis technique. Methods From 2002 to 2012, a total of 483 patients (mean age, 64.6 years) underwent CABG using our Cabrol-type aortocoronary anastomosis technique. The average number of target coronary arteries per person was 3.4 ± 0.6. The mean follow-up duration was 74.2 ± 31.3 months; 98.7% of hospital survivors completed the follow-up. Postoperative coronary computed tomography angiography was performed in 377 patients (81.8%). Results Operative mortality was 4.6%. The actuarial overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 97.8 ± 0.7%, 89.3 ± 1.5%, and 69.0 ± 3.9%, respectively. The actuarial major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event-free survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 95.7 ± 0.9%, 80.1 ± 2.0%, and 60.8 ± 3.7%, respectively. One- and 5-year patency rates of the Cabrol-type aortocoronary graft were 81.1 ± 2.2% and 61.3 ± 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our Cabrol-type aortocoronary anastomosis technique did not have superior clinical outcomes and graft patency compared with conventional CABG. However, this technique might be an alternative option in select patients with atherosclerotic disease of the ascending aorta, or other embarrassing situations. PMID:26090886

  8. Minimized extracorporeal circulation is improving outcome of coronary artery bypass surgery in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Freundt, Miriam; Ried, Michael; Philipp, Alois; Diez, Claudius; Kolat, Philipp; Hirt, Stephan W; Schmid, Christof; Haneya, Assad

    2016-03-01

    Advanced age is a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Minimized extracorporeal circulation (MECC) has been shown to reduce the negative effects associated with conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC). This trial assesses the impact of MECC on the outcome of elderly patients undergoing CABG. Eight hundred and seventy-five patients (mean age 78.35 years) underwent isolated CABG using CECC (n=345) or MECC (n=530). The MECC group had a significantly shorter extracorporeal circulation time (ECCT), cross-clamp time and reperfusion time and lower transfusion needs. Postoperatively, these patients required significantly less inotropic support, fewer blood transfusions, less postoperative hemodialysis and developed less delirium compared to CECC patients. In the MECC group, intensive care unit (ICU) stay was significantly shorter and 30-day mortality was significantly reduced [2.6% versus 7.8%; p<0.001]. In conclusion, MECC improves outcome in elderly patients undergoing CABG surgery. PMID:26034198

  9. Randomized trial of the effects of exercise training after coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Sullivan, M.

    1985-04-01

    Fifty-three male volunteers who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to a medically supervised exercise program (N = 28) or to usual community care (N = 25). They were tested initially and at one year with exercise tests for thallium scintigraphy, maximal oxygen uptake, and electrocardiography. Approximately one third of the patients had signs and/or symptoms of ischemia consistent with incomplete or unsuccessful revascularization. Over the year there were five dropouts, but no major complications occurred. The exercisers attended an average of 82% of the sessions (three times a week) and trained at 80% of their maximal heart rate. Both the exercisers with and those without angina had significant increases in estimated and measured oxygen uptake and significant declines in submaximal and resting heart rate. There was a trend toward improved thallium scans in the exercised patients with angina.

  10. Depression, anxiety, and cardiac morbidity outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: a contemporary and practical review

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Phillip J; Baker, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Research to date indicates that the number of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients affected by depression (i.e., major, minor, dysthymia) approximates between 30% and 40% of all cases. A longstanding empirical interest on psychosocial factors in CABG surgery patients highlights an association with increased risk of morbidity in the short and longer term. Recent evidence suggests that both depression and anxiety increase the risk for mortality and morbidity after CABG surgery independent of medical factors, although the behavioral and biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Though neither depression nor anxiety seem to markedly affect neuropsychological dysfunction, depression confers a risk for incident delirium. Following a comprehensive overview of recent literature, practical advice is described for clinicians taking into consideration possible screening aids to improve recognition of anxiety and depression among CABG surgery patients. An overview of contemporary interventions and randomized, controlled trials are described, along with suggestions for future CABG surgery research. PMID:22916068

  11. Health maintenance organizations and hospital quality for coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Van Horn, R L; Pauly, M V; Williams, S V; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1999-09-01

    This study uses hospital discharge data for 1992-1994 to assess differences between HMO and insured non-HMO patients in California and Florida with regard to the quality of the hospitals used for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The authors found that commercially insured HMO patients in California used higher quality hospitals than commercially insured non-HMO patients, controlling for patient distance to the hospital. In contrast, commercially insured HMO and non-HMO patients in Florida were similarly distributed across hospitals of different quality levels, whereas Medicare HMO patients in Florida used lower quality hospitals than patients in the standard Medicare program. The authors conclude that the association between HMO coverage and hospital quality may differ across geographic areas and patient populations, possibly related to the maturity and structure of managed care markets. PMID:10510608

  12. Coronary artery bypass graft patients' pain perception during epicardial pacing wire removal.

    PubMed

    Roschkov, Sylvia; Jensen, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Surgical placement of temporary epicardial pacing wires (EPWs) onto the epicardial surface of the heart is standard practice during cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity and quality of pain and sensations experienced during the procedure of EPWs removal for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients. A descriptive study, incorporating the McGill Pain Questionnaire-short form and visual analogue scales, was used with 100 CABG patients requiring EPW removal. The pain intensity was reported as mild (47%), while the main sensation experienced was pulling (70%). Age, gender, previous cardiac surgery and EPW removal experience, and use of analgesics did not influence the pain and sensations experienced. However, subjects who had EPWs removed on post-operative day five or earlier did present with higher MPQ-SF affective and combined scores. CABG patients can be prepared for EPW removal by providing information that the procedure is a mildly painful, pulling sensation. PMID:15460837

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery:a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Manouchehr; Ghaderi, Hamid; Foroughi, Mahnoosh; Mirjafari, S Adeleh

    2016-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is a neurologic disorder that may appear after infection or major surgery.  Guillian-Barre syndrome following cardiac surgery is rare and only based on case reports, and we review all of the published cases. A 52-year-old man after 5 months suffering from chest pain was referred to our hospital and underwent coronary artery bypass graft for 3 vessel disease. The patient was discharged without complication on the 5th postoperative day. He presented Guillain- Barre syndrome after 12 months. He has not completely recovered weakness of upper extremities grade 4/5 with atrophy of both upper extremities remains after 18 months. This disorder is similar to classic GBS. It is important to be alert to de novo autoimmune neurological disorders after cardiac surgery. These disorders are similar to classic autoimmune disease and treated with standard therapies. PMID:26853295

  14. Simple exposure of the internal thoracic artery for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Inderjit S.

    2000-01-01

    A simple method is described for harvesting a pedicle of internal thoracic artery for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of a small scapular retractor. The technique has been used successfully in 39 patients. All patients were followed up early postoperatively by angiography, and the patency rate was 96%. Follow-up angiography (mean [and standard error] 9.6 [4.8] months) was carried out in 63% of the patients, demonstrating a cumulative patency rate of 95.4% with no evidence of steal. None of the patients died and there were no cases of myocardial infarction perioperatively. Recurrent angina developed in 2 patients. This technique is safe, effective and inexpensive. PMID:10812351

  15. Redo off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting via a left thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Duvan, Ibrahim; Ates, Sanser; Emre Onuk, Burak; Pinar Sungar, Umit; Kurtoglu, Murat; Halidun Karagoz, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our experience in a meticulously selected group of patients undergoing redo off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery from the descending aorta to the circumflex artery (Cx) and its branches. Methods Between January 2001 and October 2013, 32 patients at our hospital underwent redo off-pump CABG from the descending aorta to the Cx and its branches via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Of these patients, 27 were male (84.3%) and five were female (15.7%), with a mean age of 61.66 ± 8.63 years. All patients had a patent left internal thoracic artery-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LITA–LAD) anastomosis. Thoracotomy was performed through the fifth intercostal space. The saphenous vein or radial artery was prepared as a graft at the same time as the left posterolateral thoracotomy from the contralateral extremity, without any positional problem. Results The main reasons for surgery in this group of patients were new lesion formation in 19, graft occlusion in six, and both in seven patients. The average operating time was 143.90 ± 36.93 minutes, respiratory assist time was 5.08 ± 1.88 hours, intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 21.3 ± 4.41 hours and hospital stay was 5.06 ± 2.74 days. Thirty-eight bypasses were performed. The follow-up period was 56.17 ± 39.2 months. Six patients were lost in the follow-up period and four patients died. Twenty-two were alive and free of cardiac problems. Conclusion Redo off-pump CABG via a left posterolateral thoracotomy provided a safe and effective surgical approach with lower rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients who required revascularisation of the Cx and its branches. PMID:25475408

  16. Primary Payer Status is Associated with Mortality and Resource Utilization for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Stukenborg, George J.; Guyer, Richard A.; Stone, Matthew L.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Lau, Christine L.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicaid and Uninsured populations are a significant focus of current healthcare reform. We hypothesized that outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the United States is dependent upon primary payer status. Methods From 2003–2007, 1,250,619 isolated CABG operations were evaluated using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Patients were stratified by primary payer status: Medicare, Medicaid, Uninsured, and Private Insurance. Hierarchical multiple regression models were applied to assess the effect of primary payer status on postoperative outcomes. Results Unadjusted mortality for Medicare (3.3%), Medicaid (2.4%) and Uninsured (1.9%) patients were higher compared to Private Insurance patients (1.1%, p<0.001). Unadjusted length of stay was longest for Medicaid patients (10.9±0.04 days) and shortest for Private Insurance patients (8.0±0.01 days, p<0.001). Medicaid patients accrued the highest unadjusted total costs ($113,380±386, p<0.001). Importantly, after controlling for patient risk factors, income, hospital features, and operative volume, Medicaid (OR=1.82, p<0.001) and Uninsured (OR=1.62, p<0.001) payer status independently conferred the highest adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality. In addition, Medicaid payer status was associated with the longest adjusted length of stay and highest adjusted total costs (p<0.001). Conclusions Medicaid and Uninsured payer status confers increased risk adjusted in-hospital mortality for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting operations. Medicaid was further associated with the greatest adjusted length of stay and total costs despite risk factors. Possible explanations include delays in access to care or disparate differences in health maintenance. PMID:22965973

  17. Improved perioperative neurological monitoring of coronary artery bypass graft patients reduces the incidence of postoperative delirium: the Haga Brain Care Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palmbergen, Wijnand A.C.; van Sonderen, Agnes; Keyhan-Falsafi, Ali M.; Keunen, Ruud W.M.; Wolterbeek, Ron

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Postoperative delirium is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery. Risk factors for postoperative delirium include poor cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative cerebral desaturations. Our aim was to reduce the postoperative delirium rate by using a new prevention strategy called the Haga Brain Care Strategy. This study evaluates the efficacy of the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy to reduce the postoperative delirium rate after elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. The primary endpoint was the postoperative delirium rate, and the secondary endpoint was the length of stay in the intensive care unit. METHODS The Haga Brain Care Strategy consisted of the conventional screening protocol for delirium with the addition of preoperative transcranial Doppler examinations, perioperative cerebral oximetry, modified Rankin score, delirium risk score and (if indicated) duplex examination of the carotid arteries. In case of poor preoperative haemodynamics, the cerebral blood flow was optionally optimized by angioplasty or the patient was operated on under mild hypothermic conditions. Perioperative cerebral desaturations >20% outside the normal range resulted in intervention to restore cerebral oxygenation. Cerebral oximetry was discontinued when patients regained consciousness. Patients undergoing elective CABG procedures in 2010 were compared with patients scheduled for coronary bypass graft procedures in 2009 who had not been exposed to additional Haga Brain Care Strategy assessment. RESULTS A total of 233 and 409 patients were included in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The number of patients subjected in 2010 to transcranial Doppler examinations, cerebral oximetry or both (Haga Brain Care Strategy) were 262 (64.1%), 201 (49.1%) and 139 (34.0%), respectively. The overall rate of postoperative delirium decreased from 31 (13.3%) in 2009 to 30 (7.3%) in 2010 (P = 0.019). A binary logistic regression model showed that the Haga Brain Care Strategy was an independent predictor of a reduced risk of developing a postoperative delirium (odd ratio = 0.37, P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS With the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy in 2010, a reduction of the incidence of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing elective CABG procedures was observed. In addition, the length of stay in the intensive care unit showed an overall tendency to decline. The limited number of observations and the current study design do not allow a full evaluation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy but the data support the idea that a sophisticated preoperative assessment of cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative monitoring of cerebral oximetry reduce the incidence of the postoperative delirium in CABG surgery. PMID:22778141

  18. Preoperative factors affecting cost and length of stay for isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: hierarchical linear model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of preoperative patient and hospital factors on resource use, cost and length of stay (LOS) among patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Design Observational retrospective study. Settings Data from the Japanese Administrative Database. Participants Patients who underwent isolated, elective OPCAB between April 2011 and March 2012. Primary outcome measures The primary outcomes of this study were inpatient cost and LOS associated with OPCAB. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to examine the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on inpatient costs and LOS. The independent variables were patient and hospital factors. Results We identified 2491 patients who underwent OPCAB at 268 hospitals. The mean cost of OPCAB was $40 665 ±7774, and the mean LOS was 23.4±8.2 days. The study found that select patient factors and certain comorbidities were associated with a high cost and long LOS. A high hospital OPCAB volume was associated with a low cost (−6.6%; p=0.024) as well as a short LOS (−17.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions The hospital OPCAB volume is associated with efficient resource use. The findings of the present study indicate the need to focus on hospital elective OPCAB volume in Japan in order to improve cost and LOS. PMID:26576810

  19. Changes in occipital capillary perfusion pressures during coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, J A; Langemo, D K

    1996-01-01

    This study compared tissue interface pressures (TIPs) on the occiput of 25 volunteer patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Pressures were measured using the Gaymar pressure gauge and electropneumatic sensor before and after induction of anesthesia, after the patient was placed on the cardiopulmonary bypass pump, every 30 minutes throughout the procedure, immediately after the patient came off the pump, and before the incision was closed. Significant differences were found over time on mean TIPs and mean arterial pressures (MAPs). Pre-induction mean TIP was significantly higher than TIPs recorded on-pump, post-pump, and prior to closure. The highest average MAPs were at pre-induction; these were significantly higher than MAPs recorded at all other times. The TIPs recorded during surgery were high enough to put the patient at risk for circulation impairment and pressure ulcer development. Therefore, we recommend repositioning patients' heads regularly during surgery and assessing skin postoperatively for alopecia and pressure ulcers. PMID:8716271

  20. Outcomes of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Patients with Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Presenting with STsegment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj; Kamaruddin, Hazlyna; Iqbal, Javaid; Wheeldon, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on outcomes of patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) presenting acutely as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Objectives: To compare outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI with or without previous CABG surgery. Methods: An all-comer single-centre observational registry from a cardiothoracic centre in UK. All consecutive patients presenting for PPCI between 2007 and 2012 were included. Electronic records were used to extract relevant information. Mortality data were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Overall median follow-up period was 1.7 years (intraquartile range 0.9-2.5). Results: Complete data were available for 2133 (97%) patients. 47-patients had previous history of CABG. Out of these, the infarct related artery (IRA) was native vessel in 22 and graft in 25 patients. Post re-vascularization TIMI flow was inferior in CABG cohort (

  1. Influence of Total Coronary Occlusion on Clinical Outcomes (from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 DiabetesTrial).

    PubMed

    Damluji, Abdulla A; Pomenti, Sydney F; Ramireddy, Archana; Al-Damluji, Mohammed S; Alfonso, Carlos E; Schob, Alan H; Marso, Steven P; Gilchrist, Ian C; Moscucci, Mauro; Kandzari, David E; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) on long-term clinical outcomes of patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. We evaluated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes, who underwent either prompt revascularization (PR) with intensive medical therapy (IMT) or IMT alone according to the presence or absence of CTO. Of 2,368 patients enrolled in the trial, 972 patients (41%) had CTO of coronary arteries. Of those, 482 (41%) and 490 (41%) were in the PR with IMT versus IMT only groups, respectively. In the PR group, patients with CTO were more likely to be selected for the coronary artery bypass grafting stratum (coronary artery bypass grafting 62% vs percutaneous coronary intervention 31%, p <0.001). Compared to the non-CTO group, patients with CTO had more abnormal Q wave, abnormal ST depression, and abnormal T waves. The myocardial jeopardy score was higher in the CTO versus non-CTO group (52 [36 to 69] vs 37 [21 to 53], p <0.001). After adjustment, 5-year mortality rate was significantly higher in the CTO group in the entire cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, p = 0.013) and in patients with CTO managed with IMT (HR 1.46, p = 0.031). However, the adjusted risk of death was not increased in patients managed with PR (HR 1.26, p = 0.180). In conclusion, CTO of coronary arteries is associated with increased mortality in patients treated medically. However, the presence of a CTO may not increase mortality in patients treated with revascularization. Larger randomized trials are needed to evaluate the effects of revascularization on long-term survival in patients with CTO. PMID:26853953

  2. Impact of body mass index on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vinícius Eduardo Araújo; Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; dos Reis, Tâmara Oliveira; Rabello, Renato Rocha; Rocha, Eduardo Augusto Victor; Couto, Célia Maria Ferreira; Couto, José Carlos Ferreira; Bento, Alduir

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze the impact of body mass index on outcomes of 101 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined valve/ coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in a private hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery from May 2009 to December 2012. All patients were followed up from the first day of admission until discharge or death. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The main outcome measure was the association between BMI and postoperative morbidities and mortality. Results Multivariate analysis identified obesity as an independent predictor of increased risk of surgical reintervention (odds ratio [OR] 13.6; 95%CI 1.1 - 162.9; P=0.046) and reduced risk of bleeding (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.69; P=0.025). Univariate analysis showed that obesity was associated with increased frequency of wound dehiscence (P=0.021). There was no association between BMI and other complications or mortality in univariate analysis. There was also no association between body mass index and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit or hospital stay. Conclusion Obese individuals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined surgery have a higher postoperative risk of surgical reintervention and lower chances of bleeding. PMID:26313724

  3. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Using the Radial Artery as a Secondary Conduit Improves Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lin, John; Cheng, Wen; Czer, Lawrence S.; De Robertis, Michele A.; Mirocha, James; Ruzza, Andrea; Kass, Robert M.; Khoynezhad, Ali; Ramzy, Danny; Esmailian, Fardad; Trento, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical benefits of the left internal thoracic artery–to–left anterior descending coronary artery graft are well established in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). However, limited data are available regarding the long‐term outcome of the radial artery (RA) as a secondary conduit over the established standard of the saphenous venous graft. Methods and Results We compared the 12‐year survival outcome in a set of propensity‐matched CABG patients who received either the RA or the saphenous vein as a secondary conduit. A multivariable logistic regression that included 18 baseline characteristics was used to define the propensity of receiving an RA graft. The propensity model resulted in 260 matched pairs who underwent first‐time isolated CABG from 1996 to 2001 with similar preoperative characteristics (C statistic=0.86). The cumulative 12‐year survival estimated by use of the Kaplan–Meier method was higher for the RA graft patients (hazard ratio 0.76; P=0.03). This survival advantage was especially significant in diabetics (P=0.005), in women (P=0.02), and in the elderly (P=0.04.) The protective effect appeared beginning at year 5 post surgical intervention. Conclusion The RA as a secondary conduit provided superior long‐term survival after CABG, especially in diabetic patients, women, and the elderly. This effect was most pronounced >5 years after surgery. PMID:23969224

  4. Improving coronary artery bypass graft durability: use of the external saphenous vein graft support.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig; Berdajs, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting remains the best option for patients suffering from multivessel coronary artery disease, and the saphenous vein is used as an additional conduit for multiple complete revascularizations. However, the long-term vein graft durability is poor, with almost 75% of occluded grafts after 10 years. To improve the durability, the concept of an external supportive structure was successfully developed during the last years: the eSVS Mesh device (Kips Bay Medical) is an external support for vein graft made of weft-knitted nitinol wire into a tubular form with an approximate length of 24 cm and available in three diameters (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 mm). The device is placed over the outer wall of the vein and carefully deployed to cover the full length of the graft. The mesh is flexible for full adaptability to the heart anatomy and is intended to prevent kinking and dilatation of the vein in addition to suppressing the intima hyperplasia induced by the systemic blood pressure. The device is designed to reduce the vein diameter of about 15-20% at most to prevent the vein radial expansion induced by the arterial blood pressure, and the intima hyperplasia leading to the graft failure. We describe the surgical technique for preparing the vein graft with the external saphenous vein graft support (eSVS Mesh) and we share our preliminary clinical results. PMID:25976117

  5. A Numerical Multiscale Framework for Modeling Patient-Specific Coronary Artery Bypass Surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Abhay B.; Kahn, Andrew; Marsden, Alison

    2014-11-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed to revascularize diseased coronary arteries, using arterial, venous or synthetic grafts. Vein grafts, used in more than 70% of procedures, have failure rates as high as 50% in less than 10 years. Hemodynamics is known to play a key role in the mechano-biological response of vein grafts, but current non-invasive imaging techniques cannot fully characterize the hemodynamic and biomechanical environment. We numerically compute hemodynamics and wall mechanics in patient-specific 3D CABG geometries using stabilized finite element methods. The 3D patient-specific domain is coupled to a 0D lumped parameter circulatory model and parameters are tuned to match patient-specific blood pressures, stroke volumes, heart rates and heuristic flow-split values. We quantify differences in hemodynamics between arterial and venous grafts and discuss possible correlations to graft failure. Extension to a deformable wall approximation will also be discussed. The quantification of wall mechanics and hemodynamics is a necessary step towards coupling continuum models in solid and fluid mechanics with the cellular and sub-cellular responses of grafts, which in turn, should lead to a more accurate prediction of the long term outcome of CABG surgeries, including predictions of growth and remodeling.

  6. Staged stenting of a long aneurysm of a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Peiman; Resink, Therese; Erne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A 65-year-old male who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) 21 years ago and received a mitral valve annuloplasty 5 years ago presented with recurrent angina. Computed tomography showed an aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft (SVG), measuring approximately 43 x 33 mm with mural thrombus. Diagnostic catheterization showed that the SVG to the marginal branch of the left circumflex artery had a large aneurysm with mural thrombus, which measured 32 x 45 mm. The lesion was pretreated with a 5.5 x 47 mm Magic Wallstent (Boston Scientific, Maple Grove, Minnesota) followed by 4.0 x 26, 4. x 26, 4.0 x 19 and 4.0 x 16 mm PTFE-covered stents. Postdilatation was performed using a 5.0 x 20 mm balloon. Because of significant flow from the distal end of the PTFE-covered stents seen at coronary angiography after 6 months, we implanted another 4.0 x 26 mm PTFE-covered stent at the distal edge of the previous stent. Final angiography and intravascular ultrasound showed no significant flow into the aneurysm. PMID:18174622

  7. [Comparative analysis of immediate results of reoperative coronary artery bypass surgery depending on the procedure of operative intervention].

    PubMed

    Iurchenko, D L; Denisiuk, D O; Sharafutdinov, V E; Volkov, A M; Iakovlev, N N; Paĭvin, A A

    2013-01-01

    The operations of coronary artery bypass surgery were performed in 52 patients over the period of time since June 2004 till November 2012. The age of the patients was from 46 till 77 years (on average 60.8 +/- 7.8 years). These patients were divided three groups on the basis of features of methods of coronary artery bypass surgery. The groups were matched between each other due to the initial clinic data. Acute cardiovascular insufficiency predominated in the structure of complications of the early postoperative period in 9 (17.3%) patients. These 6 (11%) patients were operated under condition of the artificial circulation used. An average time of in-patient treatment was 13.6 +/- 5.6, 10.7 +/- 3.5 and 15.2 +/- 6.1 days of hospitalization respectively. The hospital lethality made up 3.8%. Reoperative myocardial revascularization is an effective method of treatment of recurrence of myocardial ischemia after coronary artery bypass surgery. The performance of coronary revascularization on the working heart facilitates to the reduction of the risk of the development of postoperative complications, including cardial ones and can lead to quick recovery. PMID:24340967

  8. Meta-Analysis of Radial Versus Femoral Artery Approach for Coronary Procedures in Patients With Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Rigattieri, Stefano; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Burzotta, Francesco; Rathore, Sudhir; Pugliese, Francesco R; Fedele, Silvio; Ziakas, Antonios G; Zhou, Yu J; Guzman, Luis A; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-04-15

    Cardiac catheterization through the radial artery approach (RA) has been shown to significantly reduce access-site complications compared with the femoral artery approach (FA) in many clinical settings. However, in the subset of patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), optimal vascular access site for coronary angiography and intervention is still a matter of debate. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies comparing RA with FA in patients with previous CABG. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers; weighted mean differences and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for continuous outcomes, whereas odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Summary statistics were calculated by random-effects model using Review Manager 5.3 software. The meta-analysis included 1 randomized and 8 nonrandomized studies, with a total of 2,763 patients. Compared with FA, RA required similar procedural time (mean difference 3.24 minutes, 95% CI -1.76 to 8.25, p = 0.20), fluoroscopy time (mean difference 0.62 minutes, 95% CI -0.83 to 2.07, p = 0.40), and contrast volume (mean difference -2.58 ml, 95% CI -18.36 to 13.20, p = 0.75) and was associated with similar rate of procedural failure (OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.80, p = 0.46), higher rate of crossover to another vascular access (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.74 to 17.87, p <0.0001), and lower risk of access-site complications (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.80, p = 0.006). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis suggests that in patients with previous CABG undergoing coronary procedures, RA, compared with FA, is associated with increased crossover rate but may reduce access-site complications. PMID:26892452

  9. Quadruple Vessel Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a 14-Year-Old Child With Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4G/4G Gene Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovic, Draginja; Lafaro, Rocco; Giamelli, Joseph; Suvro, Sett; Erb, Markus; Yaghoubian, Saman

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial ischemia due to coronary artery disease is an extremely rare condition in childhood and adolescence. Absence of obvious serious risk factors remains a challenge to modern cardiology. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who underwent quadruple-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting with bilateral pedicled internal mammary artery and bilateral radial artery grafting. We try to highlight a rare but important 4G variant PAI-1 (SERPINE 1) gene mutation as the etiology of severe coronary artery disease in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, he is one of the youngest patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with 4 arterial grafts. PMID:26848133

  10. Impact of top end anastomosis design on patency and flow stability in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Sachi; Kitamura, Tadashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Oka, Norihiko; Nakashima, Kouki; Horai, Tetsuya; Ono, Minoru; Miyaji, Kagami

    2016-05-01

    For coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), free grafts such as a saphenous vein or radial artery are often used for grafts to the lateral and posterior walls. However, the relationship between top-end anastomosis design and long-term patency remains unknown. Because coronary artery blood flow is dominant during diastole, top-end anastomosis may work better if the graft is directed towards the apex, whereas the shortest graft pathway appears to be most efficient. Using computational fluid dynamic models, we evaluated the hemodynamic variables that were affected by the angle of the top-end anastomosis. We created three-dimensional geometries of the aortic root with coronary arteries that involved 75 % stenosis in the obtuse marginal and postero-lateral branches. Two bypass models under vasodilator administration were created: in a"Model A", the top-end anastomosis is parallel to the long axis of the ascending aorta and the graft passed over the conus directed towards the apex; in a "Model B", the top-end anastomosis is directed toward the shortest pathway, and form near the right angles to the long axis of the ascending aorta. Wall shear stress (WSS) and its fluctuation, an oscillatory shear index (OSI) were evaluated to predict fibrosis progression at the anastomosis site and graft flow. Graft flow was 197.3 ml/min and 207.3 ml/min in the "Model A" and "Model B", respectively. The minimal WSS value inside the graft with the "Model A" and "Model B" was 0.53 Pa and 4.09 Pa, respectively, and the OSI value was 0.46 and 0.04, respectively. The top-end anastomosis of a free graft should be directed vertically towards the aorta to achieve the shortest graft pathway to maintain a high graft flow rate and to avoid the risks of endothelial fibrosis and plaque progression over the long-term after CABG. PMID:25910614

  11. Single vs double antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome: Predictors of bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Tarzia, Vincenzo; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Buratto, Edward; Paolini, Carla; Dal Lin, Carlo; Rizzoli, Giulio; Bottio, Tomaso; Gerosa, Gino

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of anti-platelet therapy and derangements of pre-operative classical coagulation and thromboelastometry parameters to major bleeding post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Two groups of CABG patients were studied: Group A, treated with aspirin alone (n = 50), and Group B treated with aspirin and clopidogrel (n = 50). Both had similar preoperative, clinical, biologic characteristics and operative management. Classic coagulation parameters and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) profiles were determined preoperatively for both groups and the same heparin treatment was administered. ROTEM profiles (INTEM and EXTEM assays) were analyzed, both for traditional parameters, and thrombin generation potential, expressed by area-under-curve (AUC). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between rates of major bleeding between patients treated with aspirin alone, compared with those treated with aspirin and clopidogrel (12% vs 16%, P = 0.77). In the 14 cases of major bleeding, pre-operative classic coagulation and traditional ROTEM parameters were comparable. Conversely we observed that the AUC in the EXTEM test was significantly lower in bleeders (5030 ± 1115 Ohm*min) than non-bleeders (6568 ± 548 Ohm*min) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We observed that patients with a low AUC value were at a significantly higher risk of bleeding compared to patients with higher AUC, regardless of antiplatelet treatment. This suggests that thrombin generation potential, irrespective of the degree of platelet inhibition, correlates with surgical bleeding. PMID:26413234

  12. Coronary stenting versus coronary bypass surgery in patients with multiple vessel disease and significant proximal LAD stenosis: results from the ERACI II study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, A; Rodríguez Alemparte, M; Baldi, J; Navia, J; Delacasa, A; Vogel, D; Oliveri, R; Fernández Pereira, C; Bernardi, V; O’Neill, W; Palacios, I F

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using stent implantation versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with multiple vessel disease with involvement of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Methods: 230 patients with multiple vessel disease and severe stenosis of the proximal LAD (113 with PCI, 117 with CABG). They were a cohort of patients from the randomised ERACI (Argentine randomized trial of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass surgery in multivessel disease) II study. Results: Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in 30 day major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat procedures) between the strategies (PCI 2.7% v CABG 7.6%, p = 0.18). There were no significant differences in survival (PCI 96.4% v CABG 95%, p = 0.98) and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction (PCI 92% v CABG 89%, p = 0.94) at 41.5 (6) months’ follow up. However, freedom from new revascularisation procedures (CABG 96.6% v PCI 73%, p = 0.0002) and frequency of angina (CABG 9.4% v PCI 22%, p = 0.025) were superior in the CABG group. Conclusion: Patients with multivessel disease and significant disease of the proximal LAD randomly assigned in the ERACI II trial to PCI or CABG had similar survival and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction at long term follow up. Repeat revascularisation procedures were higher in the PCI group. PMID:12527674

  13. Elective single-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention in a vegetative state patient.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masaki; Satoh, Takeshi; Makigami, Kuniko

    2010-01-01

    A 73-year-old male in a persistent vegetative state underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unstable angina with multiple-vessel stenosis. The maximum dose pharmaceutical therapy was ineffective in controlling his symptoms. The goal of the procedure was to alleviate the patient's severe chest pain and vomiting with minimal invasion and risk. The procedure was effective despite treating only the culprit artery. Symptoms disappeared immediately after PCI and the patient remained attack free for 12 months. With the consent of the patient's family and support of medical staff, elective single-vessel PCI can be a practical and effective treatment option for refractory angina in patients with impaired consciousness. PMID:20102389

  14. A patent ductus arteriosus complicating cardiopulmonary bypass for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement only discovered by computed tomography 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Lars B; Maessen, Jos G; Sardari Nia, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Manipulation of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass significantly decreased venous return. Several measures were necessary to improve venous return to a level at which continuation of the procedure was safe. Based on the initial troubles with venous return, we decided to selectively cross-clamp the aorta. This resulted in a large amount of backflow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, necessitating additional vents in the pulmonary artery and directly in the left ventricle. The procedure was continued uneventfully, and postoperative recovery was without significant complications. Postoperative 2D computed tomography did not show any signs of a shunt, but 3D reconstruction showed a small patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:25164136

  15. Current status and future directions in computer-enhanced video- and robotic-assisted coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Boyd, W Douglas; Kodera, Kojiro; Stahl, Kenneth D; Rayman, Reiza

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, both the Cleveland Clinic and London Health Sciences Centre groups have embraced robotic assistance and more recently demonstrated the efficacy of this technology in totally closed-chest, beating heart myocardial revascularization. This endeavor involved an orderly progression and the learning of new surgical skill sets. We review the evolution of robot-enhanced coronary surgery and forecast the future of endoscopic and computer-enhanced, robotic-enabling technology for coronary revascularization. This report describes a computer-assisted totally closed-chest coronary bypass operation, and preliminary results are discussed. The internal thoracic artery (ITA) was harvested through three 5-mm access ports and prepared and controlled endoscopically. A prototype sternal elevator was used to increase intrathoracic working space. A 10-mm endoscopic stabilizer was placed through the second intercostal space, and the left anterior descending coronary artery was controlled with silastic snares. Telerobotic anastomoses were completed end-to-side using custom-made, double-armed 8-0 polytetrafluroethylene sutures. To date, 84 patients have undergone successful myocardial revascularization with robotic assistance with a 0% surgical mortality rate. ITA harvest, anastomotic, and operating times for the entire group have been longer than for conventional surgery at 61.3 +/- 17.9 minutes, 28.5 +/- 28.2 minutes, and 368 +/- 129 minutes, respectively. Bleeding, ventilatory times, arrhythmias, hospital lengths of stay, and return to normal activity have been reduced. Recently, we have developed a new robotic revascularization strategy called Atraumatic Coronary Artery Bypass that is a promising mid-term step on the pathway to totally endoscopic, beating-heart coronary artery bypass. We conclude that computer-enhanced robotic techniques are safe, and further clinical studies are required to define the full potential of this evolving technology. PMID:11977023

  16. The risk of death associated with delayed coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sobolev, Boris G; Levy, Adrian R; Kuramoto, Lisa; Hayden, Robert; Brophy, James M; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background The detrimental effect of delaying surgical revascularization has been estimated in randomized trials and observational studies. It has been argued that the Kaplan-Meier method used in quantifying the hazard of delayed treatment is not appropriate for summarizing the probability of competing outcomes. Therefore, we sought to improve the estimates of the risk of death associated with delayed surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. Methods Population-based prospective study of 8,325 patients registered to undergo first time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in any of the four tertiary hospitals that provide cardiac care to adult residents of British Columbia, Canada. The cumulative incidence of pre-operative death, the cumulative incidence of surgery, and the probability that a patient, who may die or undergo surgery, dies if not operated by certain times over the 52-week period after the decision for CABG were estimated. The risks were quantified separately in two groups: high-severity at presentation were patients with either persistent unstable angina or stable angina and extensive coronary artery disease, and low-severity at presentation were stable symptomatic patients with limited disease. Results The median waiting time for surgery was 10 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 15 weeks) in the high-severity group and 21 weeks (IQR 30 weeks) in the low-severity group. One percent of patients died before surgery: 54 in the high-severity and 26 in the low-severity group. For 58 (72.5%) patients, death was related to CVD (acute coronary syndrome, 33; chronic CVD, 16; other CVD, 4; and sudden deaths, 5). The overall death rate from all causes was 0.61 (95% CI 0.48-0.74) per 1,000 patient-weeks, varying from 0.62 (95% CI 0.45-0.78) in the high-severity group to 0.59 (95% CI 0.37-0.82) in the low-severity group. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity, the all-cause death rate in the low-severity group was similar to the high-severity group (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.64-1.62). The conditional probability of death was greater in the high-severity group than in the low-severity group both for all-cause mortality (p = 0.002) and cardiovascular deaths (p <0.001). Conclusion The probability of death conditional on not having undergone a required CABG increases with time spent on wait lists. PMID:16822309

  17. Genome-wide association study of perioperative myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kertai, Miklos D; Li, Yi-Ju; Li, Yen-Wei; Ji, Yunqi; Alexander, John; Newman, Mark F; Smith, Peter K; Joseph, Diane; Mathew, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identification of patient subpopulations susceptible to develop myocardial infarction (MI) or, conversely, those displaying either intrinsic cardioprotective phenotypes or highly responsive to protective interventions remain high-priority knowledge gaps. We sought to identify novel common genetic variants associated with perioperative MI in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using genome-wide association methodology. Setting 107 secondary and tertiary cardiac surgery centres across the USA. Participants We conducted a stage I genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1433 ethnically diverse patients of both genders (112 cases/1321 controls) from the Genetics of Myocardial Adverse Outcomes and Graft Failure (GeneMAGIC) study, and a stage II analysis in an expanded population of 2055 patients (225 cases/1830 controls) combined from the GeneMAGIC and Duke Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes (PEGASUS) studies. Patients undergoing primary non-emergent coronary bypass grafting were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome variable was perioperative MI, defined as creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) values ≥10× upper limit of normal during the first postoperative day, and not attributable to preoperative MI. Secondary outcomes included postoperative CK-MB as a quantitative trait, or a dichotomised phenotype based on extreme quartiles of the CK-MB distribution. Results Following quality control and adjustment for clinical covariates, we identified 521 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the stage I GWAS analysis. Among these, 8 common variants in 3 genes or intergenic regions met p<10−5 in stage II. A secondary analysis using CK-MB as a quantitative trait (minimum p=1.26×10−3 for rs609418), or a dichotomised phenotype based on extreme CK-MB values (minimum p=7.72×10−6 for rs4834703) supported these findings. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harbouring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways of biological relevance to extracellular matrix remodelling, endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport and inflammation. Conclusions Using a two-stage GWAS and pathway analysis, we identified and prioritised several potential susceptibility loci for perioperative MI. PMID:25948407

  18. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome diagnosis after coronary artery bypass: comparison between diagnostic criteria and clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Manzar; Shirani, Shapour; Paknejad, Omalbanin; Yousefshahi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a potential complication of cardiac surgery, given that patients undergoing CABG frequently have hypoxemia and pulmonary dysfunction during initial hours after surgery. Thus, ARDS criteria in these patients are more likely to be positive while these criteria may not match the patient`s clinical picture. We aimed to investigate frequency of rapid onset hypoxemia in Pressure of Arterial Oxygen to Fractional Inspired Oxygen Concentration (PaO2/FiO2) less than 200 and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates as two diagnostic criteria forwards and compared these criteria with the clinical picture of the patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) in this study. The study was prospective case series which carried out in about six months. All patients admitted to intensive care unit of Tehran Heart Center, who had undergone CABG on cardiopulmonary pump (CPB) recruited in the study. After considering inclusion criteria, age, sex, duration of intubation, arterial blood gas and chest radiography, on 24 hours and 48 hours after admission to the ICU were recorded. Then, patients with rapid onset of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200mmHg) and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and without sign or symptoms of obvious heart failure (probable positive ARDS cases) criteria were recorded and comparison between these probable positive cases with clinician`s clinical diagnosis (blinded to the study) was performed. In this study, a total of 300 patients after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were included. Postoperatively, 2 (0.66 %) in the 24 hours and 4 (1.33%) patients in 48 hours after surgery were positive for the two ARDS criteria according to the checklists, but; nobody had saved persistently ARDS criteria persistently during 48 hours after surgery. At the same time, clinician did not report any case of ARDS among 300 patients. In this study patients with ARDS criteria had no significant differences in age (P.value=0.937) and sex (P.value=0.533). Duration of intubation in patients with ARDS (14.26 ± 4.25 hours) in the first 48 hours was higher but not statistically different from the group without ARDS (11.60 ± 5.45 hours) (P.value=0.236). ARDS diagnosis based on rapid onset of hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200 mmHg) and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and without signs or symptoms of obvious heart failure criteria in patients undergoing CABG could lead to overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis in less than 24 hours follow up. We recommend following patients for more than 24 hours and revise the current ARDS criteria for CABG patients. PMID:25597606

  19. Alternative Physical Therapy Protocol Using a Cycle Ergometer During Hospital Rehabilitation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Margarete Diprat; Lopes, Diene Gomes Colvara; de Mello, Renato Gorga Bandeira; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a cycle ergometer-based exercise program to a standard protocol on the increment of the maximum distance walked during the six-minute walk test in the postoperative rehabilitation of patients submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS A controlled clinical trial pilot, blinded to the outcome, enrolled subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in a hospital from Southern Brazil. Subjects were designated for the standard physical rehabilitation protocol or to an alternative cycle ergometer-based protocol through simple random sampling. The primary outcome was the difference in the maximum distance walked in the six-minute walk test before and after the allocated intervention. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were included in the analysis, 10 in the standard protocol and 14 in the alternative protocol group. There was an increment in the maximum distance walked in both groups, and borderline superiority in the intervention group comparing to the control group (312.2 vs. 249.7; P=0.06). CONCLUSION There was an increase in the maximum distance walked in the alternative protocol compared to the standard protocol. Thus, it is postulated that the use of a cycle ergometer can be included in physical rehabilitation in the hospital phase of postoperative coronary artery bypass grafting. However, randomized studies with larger sample size should be conducted to assess the significance of these findings. PMID:26934400

  20. Correlation between Doppler, Manual Morphometry, and Histopathology Based Morphometry of Radial Artery as a Conduit in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Yadava, Om Prakash; Sharma, Vinod; Prakash, Arvind; Ahlawat, Vikas; Kundu, Anirban; Mohanty, Bikram K; Mishra, Rekha; Dinda, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term graft patency is the major factor impacting survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are superior in this regard. Radial artery is considered the second best conduit after internal mammary artery. Several studies have shown excellent radial artery patency. We evaluated the morphologic characteristics of radial artery by three modalities, (i) preoperative Doppler ultrasound, (ii) intraoperative manual morphometry, and (iii) postoperative histology-based morphometry, and compared these with the aim of validating Doppler as a noninvasive test of choice for preoperative assessment of radial artery. Methods. This was a prospective study involving 100 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in which radial artery was used. The radial artery was assessed using preoperative Doppler ultrasound studies, intraoperative morphometry, and postoperative histopathology and morphometry. The morphometric measurements included (i) luminal diameter, (ii) intimal and medial thickness, and (iii) intima-media thickness ratio. Results. Using Bland-Altman plots, there was a 95% limit of agreement between the preoperative Doppler measurements and the postoperative histopathology and morphometry. Conclusion. Doppler ultrasound is an accurate screening test for evaluation of radial artery, in terms of intimal/medial thickness and luminal diameter as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting and has been validated by both morphometric and histopathology based studies. PMID:27047699

  1. Correlation between Doppler, Manual Morphometry, and Histopathology Based Morphometry of Radial Artery as a Conduit in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Om Prakash; Sharma, Vinod; Prakash, Arvind; Ahlawat, Vikas; Mohanty, Bikram K.; Mishra, Rekha; Dinda, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term graft patency is the major factor impacting survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are superior in this regard. Radial artery is considered the second best conduit after internal mammary artery. Several studies have shown excellent radial artery patency. We evaluated the morphologic characteristics of radial artery by three modalities, (i) preoperative Doppler ultrasound, (ii) intraoperative manual morphometry, and (iii) postoperative histology-based morphometry, and compared these with the aim of validating Doppler as a noninvasive test of choice for preoperative assessment of radial artery. Methods. This was a prospective study involving 100 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in which radial artery was used. The radial artery was assessed using preoperative Doppler ultrasound studies, intraoperative morphometry, and postoperative histopathology and morphometry. The morphometric measurements included (i) luminal diameter, (ii) intimal and medial thickness, and (iii) intima-media thickness ratio. Results. Using Bland-Altman plots, there was a 95% limit of agreement between the preoperative Doppler measurements and the postoperative histopathology and morphometry. Conclusion. Doppler ultrasound is an accurate screening test for evaluation of radial artery, in terms of intimal/medial thickness and luminal diameter as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting and has been validated by both morphometric and histopathology based studies. PMID:27047699

  2. Long great saphenous vein grafting as temporary coronary bypass for extended left hepatectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Aosasa, Suefumi; Kimura, Akifumi; Nishikawa, Makoto; Noro, Takuji; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Hase, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Junji

    2015-12-01

    The right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) has been used in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as an alternative graft. In particular abdominal surgeries, surgery is required to rescue the graft flow into the coronary artery. A 77-year-old male with a history of CABG using RGEA was admitted with a diagnosis of a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occupying the whole caudate lobe. Preoperative coronary angiography indicated that the graft from the right internal mammary artery to the proximal left circumflex artery was obliterated among three branch bypasses. Following laparotomy, a great saphenous vein was harvested and delivered from the right axial artery to the RGEA graft over the thoracic wall, and the RGEA graft was ligated and divided. Subsequently, extended left hepatectomy was safely performed. Following hepatectomy, the RGEA graft was restored to the former condition, and the temporary graft was removed. After overcoming hyperbilirubinemia, the patient was discharged on postoperative day 28. This experience indicates that temporary bypass using the long great saphenous vein is effective and safe during long and invasive surgeries. PMID:26943376

  3. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on the occurrence of restenosis after elective percutaneous coronary intervention in ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Stephan; Schueller, Per O; Hennersdorf, Marcus G; Behrendt, Dominik; Strauer, Bodo E

    2008-01-01

    Rationale There is growing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with coronary artery disease. However, there are no data on the course of coronary stenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objectives To determine whether sleep apnea is associated with increased late lumen loss and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods 78 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention were divided in 2 groups: 43 patients with an apnea hypopnea – Index < 10/h (group I) and 35 pt. with obstructive sleep apnea and an AHI > 10/h (group II). Late lumen loss, a marker of restenosis, was determined using quantitative coronary angiography after 6.9 ± 3.1 months. Main results Angiographic restenosis (>50% luminal diameter), was present in 6 (14%) of group I and in 9 (25%) of group II (p = 0.11). Late lumen loss was significant higher in pt. with an AHI > 10/h (0.7 ± 0.69 mm vs. 0.38 ± 0.37 mm, p = 0.01). Among these 35 patients, 21(60%) used their CPAP devices regularly. There was a marginally lower late lumen loss in treated patients, nevertheless, this difference did not reach statistical significance (0.57 ± 0.47 mm vs. 0.99 ± 0.86 mm, p = 0.08). There was no difference in late lumen loss between treated patients and the group I (p = 0.206). Conclusion In summary, patients with OSA and coronary artery disease have a higher degree of late lumen loss, which is a marker of restenosis and vessel remodeling after elective percutaneous intervention. PMID:18522716

  4. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiac events after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be related to left ventricular (LV) function, residual coronary artery diseases (CAD), graft occlusion, and progression of CAD. This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) done 3-6 mos after CABG in risk stratification in 212 pts. There were 185 men and 27 women, aged 57 +- 8 years (mean +- SD). During a followup period of up to 4 years, (15 +- 10 months), there were 23 cardiac events; 13 pts died of cardiac causes and 20 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in: clinical presentation after CABG (most were asymptomatic), medications and ECG findings at rest and EX. The pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01); resting LV ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.002), and EX EF (40 +- 18% vs 54 +- 16%, p = 0.002). The change in EF (rest to EX) was not significantly different (l.6 +- 8.2%, vs 2.1 +- 9.2%). Survival analysis (Cox model) identified the EX EF as the best predictor of death and total events (X/sup 2/ = 4.3 and 2.4, p = 0.04 and 0.07 respectively). Actuarial life table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased when pts were grouped into EX EF greater than or equal to 50, 30-49, and <30%, (p < 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX RNA is useful in risk stratification after CABG. The EX LVEF is an important descriptor that categorizes pts into different risks groups. The pts at high risk probably require more aggressive followup and continued medical therapy.

  5. Does Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Reduce the Prevalence ofAtrial Fibrillation?

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Khosrow; Dehdilani, Marjan; Dehdilani, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine whether or not off-pump CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Reduce) reduces the incidence of AF after cardiac surgery. Methods: The study was carried out in 939 consecutive coronary artery disease patients with sinus rhythm from which 383 patients underwent off-pump CABG, and 556 patients were operated through on-pump CABG. All patients were monitored postoperatively during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Then, the incidence and predictive risk factors of post operative AF (POAF) in two groups were determined and compared with each other. Results: Overall, the mean age of the patients was 56.0±12.8 years with 234 patients (24.9%) being older than 65 years. POAF developed in 38 patients (9.9%) of the off-pump and in 93 patients (16.7%) of the on-pump CABG. There was significant difference between two groups when considering the incidence of POAF (P=0.002). Among preoperative risk factors, age>65 years had a significant association with the incidence of AF in both groups. This study also showed that most of the POAF cases converted to sinus rhythm after treatment. Moreover, these finding demonstrated that conversion to sinus rhythm is significantly more probable in off-pump group (P=0.006). Conclusion: A reduced prevalence of POAF could be observed in patients with off-pump as compared with on-pump techniques. Furthermore, conversion to sinus rhythm in off-pump group was significantly more probable than on-pump group. PMID:24251010

  6. Postoperative Complications After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chung-Han; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chu, Chin-Chen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Liao, Kuang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery disease is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies have shown that patients with COPD have a higher risk of mortality than those without COPD after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, most of the previous studies were small, single-center studies with limited case numbers (or their only focus was mortality). The aim of our study was to focus on readmission, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute respiratory failure (ARF), cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism rates after CABG in an Asian COPD population. We conducted a nationwide case–control study in Taiwan using the claims database of hospitalization between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Patients with COPD before CABG were defined as the case groups. Each case was propensity score-matched by age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease, with 2 controls selected from CABG patients without COPD. The outcomes of interest were mortality, wound infection, and the readmission rate over 30 days for the following diseases: AMI, pneumonia, ARF, cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism. There were 14,858 patients without COPD and 758 patients with COPD who underwent CABG. After propensity score matching, the 30-day mortality and 30-day readmission rates and AMI were higher in the non-COPD group. The incidences of pneumonia and ARF after CABG were higher in the COPD group. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not necessarily lead to mortality, readmission, or AMI after CABG, and the major respiratory complications associated with CABG in patients with COPD were pneumonia and ARF. PMID:26937939

  7. Intra-operative grading of coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Mirhosseini, Seyed Ali; Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Mozayan, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is one of the common causes of morbidity and mortality, in postmenopausal women. Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid product of methionine metabolism, may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between intra-operative grading of coronary artery atherosclerosis and homocysteine level in postmenopausal women who were candidates for off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 136 postmenopausal women (with the mean age of 54.9±4 years) were enrolled as candidates for elective off-pump CABG. For each patient the extent and severity of atherosclerosis was assessed by intra-operative grading (IOG) and Gensini score system. Total homocysteine was determined with ELISA method after 12 hours of fasting. The patients were classified into two groups (diffuse vs. discrete) based on intra-operative findings. Finally the relation between age, IOG, and Gensini score with homocysteine level was assessed by ANOVA, T-test, and Tukey HSD test. Results: There was a positive correlation between intra-operative grading and homocysteine level in both groups (P=0.005). The association between Gensini score and homocysteine was significant in higher levels of hyperhomocysteinemia (P<0.05). The homocysteine level also increased with age; therefore, patients were classified into two categories (<54 years and ≥54 years) by Levene test. Statistical analysis indicated no relationship between IOG, Gensini score, and homocysteine level in the patients who were younger than 54 years (P=0.3, P=0.2), but significant relation was detected between IOG, Gensini score, and homocysteine in the patients who were older than 54 years with diffuse or discrete lesions in coronary arteries (P=0.001, P=0.001). Conclusion: According to our findings, homocysteine level increases in post-menopausal women that can be an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23661876

  8. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors of Patients With Coronary Artery Diseases Undertreatment of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Drug Therapy in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, Maryam; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Falsoleiman, Homa; Mirzaie, Asadollah; Emadzadeh, Mehdi Reza; Erfanian Taghvaei, Majid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance of preventing cardiovascular diseases, determining the contributing risk factors for ischemic heart disease which leads to atherosclerotic plaque, could be effective in selecting the required interventions. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic factors in patients with Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD) in three treatment groups: Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and drug therapy. By identifying and comparing the underlying factors in treatment groups, we can gather useful information for future planning and policy making in order to reduce and eliminate the contributing factors. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 760 patients with CAD referred to cardiovascular health centers in Mashhad, Iran, including Javad-Al-Aeme Heart Hospital, Qaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Shariati educational Hospital. Samples were collected through purposive sampling from January to March 2014. Based on the experts’ opinion, the subjects were categorized into three treatment groups: CABG, PCI, and drug therapy. Results: The mean age of total patients was 58.3 ± 11.5 years (P = 0.09). The proportion of rural patients in the PCI (26.7%) and drug therapy (27.5%) groups was twice as high as the CABG group (11.7%) (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with higher educational level (higher than high school diploma) in the CABG group (35.9%) was higher than PCI and drug therapy groups (26.7%, 24.3%) (P = 0.006). Smoking, drinking and drug abuse were more common in the drug therapy group (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, and P < 0.001, respectively). One-vessel and three-vessel coronary artery diseases were more common in the drug and CABG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In total, application of therapeutic approaches in patients with CAD depends on many factors. In our study not only risk factors such as gender, lifestyle, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes and hypertension were associated with the incidence of CAD, but also they were highly correlated with the severity of the disease. PMID:26290754

  9. Potential Effect of L-Carnitine on the Prevention of Myocardial Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dastan, Farzaneh; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Abbasali; Salehiomran, Abbas; Bina, Payvand; Jalali, Arash; Aghaie, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: L-carnitine has been demonstrated to confer cardiac protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in animals. This study evaluates the effects of L-carnitine administration on cardiac biomarkers after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: One hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective CABG surgery, without a history of myocardial ischemia or previous L-carnitine treatment, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an L-carnitine group ([n = 67], 3000 mg/d, started 2 days preoperatively and continued for 2 days after surgery) or a control group (n = 67). CK-MB (creatine kinase, muscle-brain subunits) and troponin T (TnT) levels were assessed in all the patients before surgery as baseline levels and at 8 and 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Our study included 134 patients (99 [73.8%] males) at a mean ± SD age of 59.94 ± 8.61 years who were candidates for CABG and randomized them into control or L-carnitine groups. The baseline demographic characteristics, including age (60.01 ± 9.23 in the L-carnitine group vs. 59.88 ± 7.98 in the control group) and sex (54 [80.6%] in the L-carnitine group vs. 45 [67.2%] in the control group) did not show any significant differences (p value=0.93 and 0.08, respectively). Patients in the L-carnitine group had lower levels of CK-MB (mean ± SD, 25.06 ± 20.29 in the L-carnitine group vs. 24.26 ± 14.61 in the control group), but the difference was not significant (p value = 0.28). TnT levels also showed no significant differences between the two groups (399.50 ± 378.91 in the L-carnitine group vs. 391.48 ± 222.02 in the control group; p value = 0.34). Conclusion: In this population of intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery, L-carnitine did not reduce CK-MB and TnT levels. PMID:26110005

  10. Robotically assisted multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Satoru; Yasuda, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Go; Kikuchi, Yujiro; Shintani, Yoshiko; Ito, Shigeki; Tabata, Shigeki; Kawachi, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This case report presents the robotically assisted multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) technique using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries. A 54-year-old man with multivessel coronary artery disease was considered eligible for a robotically assisted myocardial revascularization. The bilateral internal thoracic arteries were harvested completely in a totally skeletonized fashion through three 1-2-cm-long incisions on the left thoracic wall. A small left anterior thoracotomy was then performed. The left internal thoracic artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery, and the composite radial artery graft from the right internal thoracic artery was sequentially anastomosed to the first diagonal branch, the obtuse marginal branch, and the distal right coronary artery on the beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. The harvesting time of the grafts was 66 min, and the total operative time was 5 h 58 min. Postoperative angiography revealed that all grafts were widely patent. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 10 days after the operation. Robotically assisted MIDCAB using the bilateral thoracic arteries is a safe and effective means of myocardial revascularization for patients with multivesssel disease. PMID:17721036

  11. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total cardiac muscle activity was observed. The NURSE ECG seems to be a promising supplementary method in medical diagnosis. In particular it can be applied for qualification of patients for CABG operation and for verification of the operation effects.

  12. Prevalence of Dysglycemia Among Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Patients with No Previous Diabetic History

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dysglycemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. In many patient populations dysglycemia is under-diagnosed. Patients with severe coronary artery disease commonly have dysglycemia and there is growing evidence that dysglycemia, irrespective of underlying history of diabetes, is associated with adverse outcome in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients, including longer hospital stay, wound infections, and higher mortality. As HbA1c is an easy and reliable way of checking for dysglycemia we routinely screen all patients undergoing CABG for elevations in HbA1c. Our hypothesis was that a substantial number of patients with dysglycemia that could be identified at the time of cardiothoracic surgery despite having no apparent history of diabetes. Methods 1045 consecutive patients undergoing CABG between 2007 and 2009 had HbA1c measured pre-operatively. The 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic guidelines were used to categorize patients with no known history of diabetes as having diabetes (HbA1c ? 6.5%) or increased risk for diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%). Results Of the 1045 patients with pre-operative HbA1c measurements, 40% (n = 415) had a known history of diabetes and 60% (n = 630) had no known history of diabetes. For the 630 patients with no known diabetic history: 207 (32.9%) had a normal HbA1c (< 5.7%); 356 (56.5%) had an HbA1c falling in the increased risk for diabetes range (5.7-6.4%); and 67 (10.6%) had an HbA1c in the diabetes range (6.5% or higher). In this study the only conventional risk factor that was predictive of high HbA1c was BMI. We also found a high HbA1c irrespective of history of DM was associated with severe coronary artery disease as indicated by the number of vessels revascularized. Conclusion Among individuals undergoing CABG with no known history of diabetes, there is a substantial amount of undiagnosed dysglycemia. Even though labeling these patients as "diabetic" or "increased risk for diabetes" remains controversial in terms of perioperative management, pre-operative screening could lead to appropriate post-operative follow up to mitigate short-term adverse outcome and provide high priority medical referrals of this at risk population. PMID:21888652

  13. Employment changes among patients following coronary bypass surgery: social, medical, and psychological correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Zyzanski, S J; Rouse, B A; Stanton, B A; Jenkins, C D

    1982-01-01

    The relations of socioeconomic and psychological factors to resumption of employment following coronary artery bypass surgery were studied using a questionnaire returned by a sample of 426 men and 70 women. The sample was drawn from the membership of Mended Hearts, Inc., a nationwide voluntary organization of persons who have had heart surgery. Preoperatively, more men (92 percent) than women (59 percent) were employed. Return to work rates were high for men (81 percent) and much lower for women (58 percent). The 395 men tended to return to work an average of 3.7 months after surgery whereas the 41 women took an average of 4.8 months. Return to work following surgery was most clearly related to socioeconomic level for both sexes. In addition, for men, those most likely to return had less postoperative morbidity and held jobs requiring little physical exertion. Patients who reported that they were forced into an early retirement represent a particularly vulnerable group in that they were more likely to experience the most postoperative morbidity. As a group, they believed that their physicians had least prepared them to return to work, and they experienced the poorest emotional adjustment. Thus, women and those forced into early retirement represent two potentially high-risk groups of patients who would seem to require additional clinical and psychological management following surgery. PMID:6983084

  14. Passion for Life: Lived Experiences of Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Abbasi, Mohammad; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Salehiomran, Abbas; Davaran, Saeid; Norouzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) improves the quality of life, increases survival, and influences the patient's mental and emotional aspects. Little information is available on the lived experience of Iranian patients after this surgery. Understanding the lived experiences of patients will help health professionals with better provision of high quality care. Methods: This hermeneutic phenomenological study aimed to understand the lived experience of patients after CABG. Van Manen's method was used to conduct the study. A semi-structured, face-to-face interview technique was employed to explore the experiences of the patients following surgery. Seven men and 4 women between 49 and 80 years old were interviewed. Results: Passion for life was the main theme extracted from the participants’ interviews. This theme comprised the three sub-themes of receiving attention from family, being hopeful, and being spiritually oriented. Conclusion: The results showed that the participants experienced passion for life after their surgery. This finding reveals that patients tend to find a new perspective on life and their health after surgery. PMID:26697085

  15. Biomarkers in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Ready for Prime Time and Outcome Prediction?

    PubMed Central

    Parolari, Alessandro; Poggio, Paolo; Myasoedova, Veronika; Songia, Paola; Bonalumi, Giorgia; Pilozzi, Alberto; Pacini, Davide; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is still one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures all over the world. The results of this procedure have been constantly improved over the years with low perioperative mortality rates, with relatively low complication rates. To further improve these outstanding results, the clinicians focused their attention at biomarkers as outcome predictors. Although biological testing for disease prediction has already been discussed many times, the role of biomarkers in outcome prediction after CABG is still controversial. In this article, we reviewed the current knowledge regarding the role of genetic and dynamic biomarkers and their possible association with the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes after CABG. We also took into consideration that the molecular pathway activation and the possible imbalance may affect hard outcomes and graft patency. We analyzed biomarkers classified in two different categories depending on their possibility to change over time: genetic markers and dynamic markers. Moreover, we evaluated these markers by dividing them, into sub-categories, such as inflammation, hemostasis, renin–angiotensin, endothelial function, and other pathways. We showed that biomarkers might be associated with unfavorable outcomes after surgery, and in some cases improved outcome prediction. However, the identification of a specific panel of biomarkers or of some algorithms including biomarkers is still in an early developmental phase. Finally, larger studies are needed to analyze broad panel of biomarkers with the specific aim to evaluate the prediction of hard outcomes and graft patency. PMID:26779491

  16. Albumin Is A Better Predictor of Outcomes Than Body Mass Index Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; LaPar, Damien J; Mehta, Gaurav S; Kern, John A; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Kron, Irving L; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2011-01-01

    Objective Body Mass Index (BMI) influences risk in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients, while albumin, is not collected by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. We postulate that preoperative albumin is a better predictor of mortality than BMI following CABG. Methods BMI from patients with serum albumin level within 6 months of isolated CABG between 1995–2010 from our institutional databases were identified. Patients were stratified by National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) BMI class, and by preoperative albumin. Regression models were used to assess predictors of morbidity and mortality. Results We analyzed 2,794 isolated CABG patients at our institution. Unadjusted mortality was highest with lowest BMI (P≤.05), and in patients with 2–3g/dL albumin (P=.02). Ejection fraction (EF) and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use were similar despite BMI; however, EF was lowest and IABP use highest in the 2–3g/dL albumin group (P<.001, respectively). Unlike BMI groups, increasing albumin was associated with lower major complication rates (P=.001). Similarly, adjusted mortality was not influenced by BMI (AOR 0.97, 95%CI 0.93–1.02), but increasing albumin levels reduced the adjusted odds of death (AOR 0.61, 95%CI 0.42–0.90). Conclusions Albumin, more than body mass index, is associated with mortality and morbidity in isolated CABG recipients and may be a better indicator for outcomes. PMID:22000173

  17. Cost and effectiveness assessment of cardiac rehabilitation for dialysis patients following coronary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijian; Zhang, Rebecca; Culler, Steven; Kutner, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis patients have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. In the general population, cardiac rehabilitation is recommended as a standard component of care and is covered by Medicare for patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Previous investigation demonstrated survival benefit of cardiac rehabilitation in dialysis patients. This study investigated its impact on Medicare expenditure and its cost effectiveness. A cohort of 4,324 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who initiated chronic hemodialysis and underwent CABG between 1998 and 2004 was selected from the United States Renal Data System. Cardiac rehabilitation was defined by Current Procedural Terminology codes for monitored and nonmonitored exercise in Medicare claims data. Medicare expenditure included inpatient and outpatient claims with cost adjusted to 1998 dollars. At 42 months of follow-up after a 6-month entry period following CABG hospitalization discharge, cardiac rehabilitation at baseline was associated with higher cumulative Medicare expenditure, incurring a statistically nonsignificant increment of $2,904 (95% CI: −7,028, 11,940). During the same period, cardiac rehabilitation was significantly associated with longer cumulative lifetime, having an incremental benefit of 76 days (95% CI: 22, 129). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $13,887 per year of life saved, suggesting that cardiac rehabilitation is highly cost-effective in ESRD patients following CABG. PMID:18650790

  18. Coronary artery bypass grafting in young patients under 36 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Basamania, C; Graeber, G M; Deshong, J L; Burge, J R

    1986-06-01

    Results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients under age 36 who were operated upon between 1970 and 1980 at two large medical centers were compared to matched control patients, age 45 to 59 years, and 60 years and over. Patient follow-up ranged from one to 13 years (average five years). Event-free survival was significantly worse in the young group (37 percent) vs the middle aged group (61 percent, p less than 0.01) and vs the elderly group (59 percent, p less than 0.02). Failure of the operation was due to failure to improve or worsening of Canadian Cardiovascular Society anginal class, need for reoperation, subsequent myocardial infarction, or death due to cardiac causes. Risk of failure of CABG surgery in young patients was increased with the presence of cardiac risk factors. Because of the high rate of long-term failure of CABG surgery in young patients, its use in this group needs to be reevaluated relative to current aggressive medical therapy for angina. PMID:3486752

  19. Early results using an ePTFE membrane for pericardial closure following coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, G; Fremes, S E; Christakis, G T; Goldman, B S

    1998-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the early efficacy and safety of the Gortex surgical membrane. Three hundred two patients (265 males, 37 females) undergoing isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomized to receive a Gortex membrane (GM = 138) or have the pericardium left open (complication [C] = 164). The groups did not differ in age, gender, urgency of procedure, length of procedure, or use of arterial grafts. Two deaths occurred in each group giving an overall mortality of 1.3%. Fifty-three (17%) patients experienced some complication (C = 34, 21%), GM = 19 (14%). Although the combined complication rate was higher in the control group, this was not statistically significant (chi2 = 2.51, p = 0.11). Postoperative ischemic events (C = 8, GM = 4) observed between the groups were not significant (chi2 = 0.05, p = 0.8), and no statistically significant difference was observed between the incidences of infections (C = 7, GM = 5) or mediastinal complications (C = 3, GM = 3). The Gortex surgical membrane can be used safely without increasing the risk of infection or mediastinal complications. The incidence of recurrent myocardial ischemia, a possible indicator of graft compression, was not higher following membrane implantation. Efficacy at injury prevention will need to be determined by a longitudinal follow-up study presently underway. PMID:10193989

  20. Emergency coronary bypass grafting for evolving myocardial infarction. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Flameng, W.; Sergeant, P.; Vanhaecke, J.; Suy, R.

    1987-07-01

    Emergency aorta-coronary bypass grafting was performed early in the course of evolving myocardial infarction in 48 patients. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion was 169 +/- 80 minutes. Quantitative assessment of postoperative thallium 201 myocardial scans in 19 patients revealed a significant salvage of myocardium after surgical reperfusion: The size of the residual infarction was less than 50% of that in a matched, medically treated, prospective control group (n = 39) (p less than 0.05). Postoperative equilibrium-gated radionuclide blood pool studies (technetium 99m) showed an enhanced recovery of regional and global ejection fraction after operation as compared to after medical treatment (p less than 0.05). Ultrastructural evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during the operation delineated subendocardial necrosis in the majority of cases (72%), but subepicardial necrosis was found in only 6% of instances. Q-wave abnormalities were observed on the postoperative electrocardiogram in 50% of cases. Operative mortality was 0% in low-risk patients (i.e., hemodynamically stable condition, n = 26) and 18% in high-risk patients (i.e., cardiogenic shock including total electromechanical dysfunction, n = 22). Survival rate at 18 months was 92% +/- 4%, and 95% +/- 4% of the survivors were event free. It is concluded that early surgical reperfusion of evolving myocardial infarction limits infarct size significantly, enhances functional recovery, and may be a lifesaving operation in patients having cardiogenic shock associated with unsuccessful resuscitation.

  1. GRK5 polymorphisms and Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Liu, Minjie; Zhang, Yanqun; Han, Xia; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a serious yet common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Previous study have identified multiple genetic susceptibility loci for POAF susceptibility after CABG, although some studies are under-powered. However, none of these studies have been conducted among Asians. In current study, we aim to systematically evaluated the previous positive findings for POAF susceptibility after CABG among Chinese population, using a large population-based, two-stage, case-cohort study. From a discovery cohort of 1,348 patients, a total of nine independent loci were evaluated. Six significant SNPs were then assessed in a separately collected validation cohort of 2,000 patients. After adjustment for clinical predictors of POAF, two variants in GRK5 gene (rs4752292, and rs11198893) were replicated with significance were replicated in the validation cohort. The ORs for each additional copy of minor allele were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.151.50, P?=?5.82??10?5) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.281.69, P?=?1.16??10?7), respectively. In this two-stage independently collected cardiac surgery cohorts, genetic variations in the GRK5 gene are independently associated with POAF risk in patients who undergo CABG surgery in Asians. PMID:26235218

  2. Convective warming combined with vasodilator therapy accelerates core rewarming after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S J; Ponte, J

    1996-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized, controlled study, we have investigated the effect of forced air warming on the rate of change of nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures in 20 patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. All patients had nasopharyngeal temperatures less than 36 degrees C on arrival in the intensive care unit and received an infusion of glyceryl trinitrate 15 mg h-1, but none received inotropes. Ten patients were warmed under an aluminized plastic "space" blanket (control group) and 10 were warmed under a "Bair Hugger" blanket connected to its power unit on "high" setting (Bair Hugger group). The rates of increase in nasopharyngeal temperature were 0.4 and 0.95 degrees C h-1, respectively, in the control and Bair Hugger groups (P < 0.01) during the first 2 h after operation. Over the same period of time, rectal temperatures increased at a rate of 0.25 and 0.75 degrees C h-1 in the control and Bair Hugger groups, respectively (P < 0.01). PMID:8652322

  3. The application of walking training in the rehabilitation of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dylewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Walking is regarded as one of the most common and utilitarian activities of everyday life. Rehabilitation programs developed on the basis of this form of activity often constitute the primary method of rehabilitating patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper provides a review of literature concerning various forms of walking training, discussing their impact on the parameters of exercise capacity and verifying the training methods with regard to the current guidelines. Attention is drawn to the diversity of the exercise protocols applied during the early and late stages of rehabilitation and pre-rehabilitation programs including: treadmill walking, walking down the corridor, treadmill walking enriched with virtual reality, and walking as an element of training sessions consisting of many different forms of activities. Exercise protocols were also analyzed in terms of their safety, especially in the case of high-intensity interval training. Despite the variety of the available rehabilitation programs, the training methodology requires constant improvement, particularly in terms of load dosage and the supervision of training sessions. PMID:26702291

  4. Comparing hospitals that perform coronary artery bypass surgery: the effect of outcome measures and data sources.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Kuhn, E M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relative quality of hospital care often is judged by comparing risk-adjusted rates of adverse outcomes. This study evaluated whether hospital quality comparisons are affected by the choice of outcome and the use of administrative data instead of clinical data. METHODS. The data were collected from 2687 coronary artery bypass surgery patients from 17 hospitals. All patients were on Medicare. For 10 hospitals with 94 to 713 patients, risk-adjusted outcomes for death, major complications, and any complications were derived from a clinically rich database and an administrative database. RESULTS. The correlations between adjusted hospital rankings derived from the clinical and administrative databases were not significant: .48 for mortality, .21 for major complications, and -.14 for any complication. When only the clinical database was used, the correlation between risk-adjusted hospital rankings for mortality and major complications was .77 (P < .01) and the correlation between major complications and any complication was -.45. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest assessing quality of care by the use of administrative data may not be adequate and that quality assessment by the use of clinical data may depend greatly on the outcome chosen. PMID:7943479

  5. Virtual coaching for the high-intensity training of a powerlifter following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; Qin, Huanying; Bilbrey, Tim; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old powerlifter in Tennessee learned about the sport-specific, high-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training available in Dallas, Texas, and contacted the staff by phone. He was recovering from quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and had completed several weeks of traditional cardiac rehabilitation in his hometown, but the exercise program no longer met his needs. He wanted help in returning both to his normal training regimen and to powerlifting competition but was unable to attend the Dallas program in person. An exercise physiologist with the program devised a virtual coaching model in which the patient was sent a wrist blood pressure cuff for self-monitoring and was advised about exercises that would not harm his healing sternum, even as the weight loads were gradually increased. After 17 weeks of symptom-limited, high-intensity training that was complemented by phone and e-mail support, the patient was lifting heavier loads than he had before CABG. At a powerlifting competition 10 months after CABG, he placed first in his age group. This case report exemplifies the need for alternative approaches to the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services. PMID:25552808

  6. Virtual coaching for the high-intensity training of a powerlifter following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard; Adams, Jenny; Qin, Huanying; Bilbrey, Tim; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old powerlifter in Tennessee learned about the sport-specific, high-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training available in Dallas, Texas, and contacted the staff by phone. He was recovering from quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and had completed several weeks of traditional cardiac rehabilitation in his hometown, but the exercise program no longer met his needs. He wanted help in returning both to his normal training regimen and to powerlifting competition but was unable to attend the Dallas program in person. An exercise physiologist with the program devised a virtual coaching model in which the patient was sent a wrist blood pressure cuff for self-monitoring and was advised about exercises that would not harm his healing sternum, even as the weight loads were gradually increased. After 17 weeks of symptom-limited, high-intensity training that was complemented by phone and e-mail support, the patient was lifting heavier loads than he had before CABG. At a powerlifting competition 10 months after CABG, he placed first in his age group. This case report exemplifies the need for alternative approaches to the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services. PMID:25552808

  7. Effect of gender and race on operative mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Benjamin; Hamman, Baron L; Sass, Danielle M; da Graca, Briget; Grayburn, Paul A; Filardo, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Studies examining outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) by gender and/or race have shown conflicting results. It remains to be determined if, or how, gender and race are independent risk factors for CABG operative mortality. Using all consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from January 2004 to October 2011, the risk-adjusted associations between gender and race, respectively, and operative mortality were estimated using a generalized propensity approach, accounting for recognized Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk factors for mortality. Women were nearly 2 times more likely to die during or within 30 days of the operation than men (odds ratio 1.96, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 2.66, p <0.0001), while no significant mortality differences were observed among races. In conclusion, these findings suggest that women face a significantly greater risk for operative death that should be taken into account during the treatment decision-making process but that race is not associated with CABG mortality and so should not be among the factors considered. PMID:25596952

  8. Study for a portable IR sensor to detect the blood temperature during coronary bypass implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Hartwig, Valentina; Francesconi, Raffaello; Landini, Luigi; Benassi, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of using an infrared prototype device for the detection of the blood temperature during a surgical operation for coronary bypass implantation. The correlation between the fluid temperature time behavior and the fluid flow rate was demonstrated. Each blood vessel acts like a thermal wave emitter, so the amount of heat is proportional to the blood flow detected by the IR sensor. The idea was to design a low cost portable device with the advantage that it can be placed near the region of interest. We chose a pyroelectric sensor for its high-quality cost ratio. Because this kind of sensor detects only a variable infrared source, we used an electromechanical chopper for modulating the radiation. It consists of an electronic shutter whose opening speed is controlled by an astable multivibrator. The output signal was analyzed using a dedicated electronic circuit including a bandpass filter and an amplifier; then an acquisition board was employed for capturing and displaying the signal using a PC. Prototype assessment was made with laboratory equipment and in vivo measurements were made during surgical operation on a small pig.

  9. Does intermittent aortic cross clamping decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass surgery?

    PubMed

    Akgun, Serdar; Ozisik, Kanat; Kutsal, Ali; Cobanoglu, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). AF is a vexing problem that causes morbidity, prolongs hospital stay, and increases costs. Numerous factors have been suggested to play a role in the development of AF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent aortic cross clamping (IACC) compared with hypothermic cardioplegic solution (HCS) in the development of postoperative AF. We evaluated data obtained from 345 patients undergoing CABG with HCS (HCS group, n = 212) and IACC (IACC group, n = 173) between April 2004 and August 2005. Diabetes mellitus was observed more often in the HCS group (P < .05), otherwise both groups had similar preoperative characteristics including sex, age, the number of distal anastomoses, left ventricle ejection fraction, history of myocardial infarction, and use of beta-blocker medication. The only statistically significant difference between the groups was higher postoperative Ca-antagonist use in the HCS group. Rates of postoperative AF, however, were significantly lower in the IACC group (21.52%) than that in the HCS group (11.05%; P < .01). Postoperative Ca-antagonist use in the HCS group and smoking in the IACC group were independent predictors of AF after CABG. The incidence of postoperative AF after CABG with IACC was reduced compared with HCS. IACC with ventricular fibrillation may exert a counteractive effect against AF. PMID:17599884

  10. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and quantity decreases after coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Teng J.; Giberson, Tyler A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key gatekeeper enzyme in aerobic metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to determine if PDH activity is affected by major stress in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which has previously been used as a model of critical illness. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients undergoing CABG at an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included adult patients undergoing CABG with or without concomitant valve surgery. Measurements of PDH activity and quantity and thiamine were obtained prior to surgery, at the completion of surgery, and 6 hours post-surgery. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled (age: 67 ± 10 years, 21 % female). Study subjects had a mean 41.7 % (SD: 27.7) reduction in PDH activity after surgery and a mean 32.0% (SD: 31.4) reduction 6 hours after surgery (p < 0.001). Eight patients were thiamine deficient (≤ 7 nmol/L) after surgery compared to none prior to surgery (p = 0.002). Thiamine level was a significantly associated with PDH quantity at all time points (p = 0.01). Post-surgery lactate levels were inversely correlated with post-surgery thiamine levels (r = −0.58 and p = 0.04). Conclusion The stress of major surgery causes decreased PDH activity and quantity, and depletion of thiamine levels. PMID:25526377

  11. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients. PMID:26455008

  12. High-dose atorvastatin pretreatment could diminishes microvascular impairment in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    He, Gui-Xin; Tan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High-dose statins pretreatment is reasonable before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial injury. However, the mechanism underlying this protective effect has not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of high-dose atorvastatin pretreatment on microvascular function and myocardial injury after elective PCI. Methods Eighty four patients underwent elective PCI were randomly assigned to high-dose atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/d) treatment for 7 days before PCI. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured by an intracoronary ressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal hyperemia after PCI. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured before and after procedure. Troponin I levels were obtained at baseline and 20–24 h after procedure. Results IMR values were significantly lower in high-dose group when compared to low-dose group (16.5 ± 6.1 vs. 31.2 ± 16.0, P < 0.001). Pre-PCI troponin I levels between the two groups were similar (0.028 ± 0.05 vs. 0.022 ± 0.04, P = 0.55). However, post-PCI troponin I levels in high-dose group were significantly lower than low-dose group (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.16 ± 0.09, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified maximum inflation pressure > 20 atm as an independent predictor of IMR > 32 (Odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.3–8.5, P = 0.02). High-dose atorvastatin was the only independent protective factor of IMR > 32 (OR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.11–0.74, P = 0.01). Conclusions The present study confirmed that diminishing microvascular impairment is one of the mechanism underlying protecting effect of high-dose statins pretreatment from myocardial injury during PCI. These suggest that high-dose statin pretreatment is reasonable in patients undergoing elective PCI. PMID:24454329

  13. A comparison of high-dose and low-dose tranexamic acid antifibrinolytic protocols for primary coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Stephen M; Kolarczyk, Lavinia; Lang, Robert S; Wei, Lawrence M; Jose, Marquez; Subramaniam, Kathirvel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Tranexamic acid (TA) is used for prophylactic antifibrinolysis in coronary artery bypass surgeries to reduce bleeding. We evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of TA for prophylactic antifibrinolysis in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in this retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care referral centre. Methods: One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent primary CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) via sternotomy between January 2009 and June 2011 were evaluated. Pre-operative patient characteristics, intraoperative data, post-operative bleeding, transfusions, organ dysfunction and 30-day mortality were compared between high-dose TA (30 mg/kg loading dose followed by infusion of 15 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery along with 2 mg/kg priming dose in the bypass circuit) and low-dose TA (15 mg/kg loading dose followed by infusion of 6 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery along with 1 mg/kg priming dose in the bypass circuit) groups. Univariate comparative analysis of all categorical and continuous variables was performed between the two groups by appropriate statistical tests. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to control for the effect of confounding on the outcome variables. Results: Chest tube output, perioperative transfusion of blood products and incidence of re-exploration for bleeding did not differ significantly (P> 0.05) between groups. Post-operative complications and 30-day mortality were comparable between the groups. The presence of cardiogenic shock and increased pre-operative creatinine were found to be associated with increased chest tube output on the post-operative day 2 by multivariable linear regression model. Conclusions: Low-dose TA protocol is as effective as high-dose protocol for antifibrinolysis in patients undergoing primary CABG with CPB. PMID:27013747

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector - the Trinity Clip - in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model

    PubMed Central

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Noest, Jappe O.T.; Tulleken, Cornelis A.F.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    To simplify and facilitate beating heart (i.e., off-pump), minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, a new coronary anastomotic connector, the Trinity Clip, is developed based on the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis technique. The Trinity Clip connector enables simplified, sutureless, and nonocclusive connection of the graft to the coronary artery, and an excimer laser catheter laser-punches the opening of the anastomosis. Consequently, owing to the complete nonocclusive anastomosis construction, coronary conditioning (i.e., occluding or shunting) is not necessary, in contrast to the conventional anastomotic technique, hence simplifying the off-pump bypass procedure. Prior to clinical application in coronary artery bypass grafting, the safety and quality of this novel connector will be evaluated in a long-term experimental porcine off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) study. In this paper, we describe how to evaluate the coronary anastomosis in the porcine OPCAB model using various techniques to assess its quality. Representative results are summarized and visually demonstrated. PMID:25490000

  15. Pharmacokinetics of low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin during elective aortobifemoral bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kroneman, H; Eikelboom, B C; Knot, E A; de Smit, P; Groenland, T H; de Maat, M P; Van Urk, H

    1991-08-01

    Perioperative monitoring has demonstrated that administration of heparin on an empirical basis is associated with a wide variation in patient response and elimination rate. This problem may be overcome by intervention on the basis of perioperative monitoring or by using forms of heparin with different pharmacokinetic properties. When compared with unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin has a higher bioavailability after subcutaneous administration, a linear clearance mechanism with a prolonged half-life, and is at least as effective in preventing postoperative vein thrombosis. Theoretically these characteristics of low-molecular-weight heparin could lead to more predictable levels of heparin activity. In this study we compared the pharmacokinetics of low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin after an intravenous injection in patients undergoing aortic graft surgery. Heparin activity was measured before heparin administration and at 5, 20, 35, 50, 65, 80, 95, and 110 minutes after administration. The anti-Xa activity in the low-molecular-weight heparin group showed less variation and was more sustained when compared to the unfractionated heparin group. Fibrin degradation products were moderately correlated with the anti-factor Xa levels of the low-molecular-weight heparin group, but no correlation was found in the unfractionated heparin group. The anti-factor Xa activity of low-molecular-weight heparin was, in contrast to that of unfractionated heparin, not completely reversible by protamine administration. The blood loss was comparable in both groups. In contrast to what was expected, the pharmacokinetic profiles of low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin showed a similarity after intravenous injection in patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Factors that could have influenced the pharmacokinetic behavior of heparin are discussed. PMID:1650406

  16. A multicentre Spanish study for multivariate prediction of perioperative in-hospital cerebrovascular accident after coronary bypass surgery: the PACK2 score†

    PubMed Central

    Hornero, Fernando; Martín, Elio; Rodríguez, Rafael; Castellà, Manel; Porras, Carlos; Romero, Bernat; Maroto, Luis; Pérez De La Sota, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To develop a multivariate predictive risk score of perioperative in-hospital stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHOD A total of 26 347 patients were enrolled from 21 Spanish hospital databases. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk of perioperative stroke (ictus or transient ischaemic attack). The predictive scale was developed from a training set of data and validated by an independent test set, both selected randomly. The assessment of the accuracy of prediction was related to the area under the ROC curve. The variables considered were: preoperative (age, gender, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, previous stroke, cardiac failure and/or left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, non-elective priority of surgery, extracardiac arteriopathy, chronic kidney failure and/or creatininemia ≥2 mg/dl and atrial fibrillation) and intraoperative (on/off-pump). RESULTS Global perioperative stroke incidence was 1.38%. Non-elective priority of surgery (priority; OR = 2.32), vascular disease (arteriopathy; OR = 1.37), cardiac failure (cardiac; OR = 3.64) and chronic kidney failure (kidney; OR = 6.78) were found to be independent risk factors for perioperative stroke in uni- and multivariate models in the training set of data; P < 0.0001; AUC = 0.77, 95% CI 0.73–0.82. The PACK2 stroke CABG score was established with 1 point for each item, except for chronic kidney failure with 2 points (range 0–5 points); AUC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.72–0.80. In patients with PACK2 score ≥2 points, off-pump reduced perioperative stoke incidence by 2.3% when compared with on-pump CABG. CONCLUSIONS PACK2 risk scale shows good predictive accuracy in the data analysed and could be useful in clinical practice for decision making and patient selection. PMID:23628652

  17. Protective Effects of Danhong Injection against Cerebral Damage during On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xuejuan, Zhang; Jietao, Zhang; Di, Han; Yu, Zheng; Xiaozi, Guo; Yunfa, Li; Lihua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the protective effects of Danhong injection against cerebral damage during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery and its mechanism. Methods. Fifty patients scheduled for on-pump CABG surgery were randomly divided into Danhong injection group (group D) and control group (group C). Group D was given Danhong injection while group C was given the same volume of normal saline when the artery was cut open. Jugular bulb blood right before the operation began (T1), when body temperature rewarming to 36°C (T2), 30 min after the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (T3), and 6 hrs after the termination of CPB (T4) was collected. The superoxide dismutase activity by using xanthine oxidase method and concentration determination of malondialdehyde were examined. Results. In group C, SOD activity was less at T2–T4 than at T1. It was also less active comparatively in group D at T2–T4. The MDA concentration increased in both groups but was more obvious in group C. Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 increased in both groups C and D at T3 and T4, compared to T1. Conclusions. Danhong injection shows significant protective effects against cerebral damage during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:26798399

  18. Effects of potassium channel opener KRN4884 on human conduit arteries used as coronary bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhen; Floten, Storm; Furnary, Anthony; Liu, Minghui; Gately, Hugh; Swanson, Jeffrey; Ahmad, Aftab; Yim, Anthony P C; He, Guo-Wei

    2000-01-01

    Aims The effects of a new potassium channel opener KRN4884 on human arteries have not been studied. This study was designed to investigate the effects of KRN4884 on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) in order to provide information on possible clinical applications of KRN4884 for preventing and relieving vasospasm of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods IMA segments (n = 140) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery were studied in the organ chamber. Concentration-relaxation curves for KRN4884 were established in the IMA precontracted with noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), angiotensin II (ANG II), and endothelin-1 (ET-1). The effect of glibenclamide (GBC) on the KRN4884-induced relaxation was also examined in NA or 5-HT-precontracted IMA. Concentration-contraction curves for the four vasoconstrictors were constructed without/with pretreatment of KNR4884 (1 or 30 µm) for 15 min. Results KRN4884 induced less relaxation (P < 0.05) in the precontraction induced by ET-1 (72.9 ± 5.5%) than by ANG II (94.2 ± 3.2%) or NA (93.7 ± 4.1%) with lower EC50 (P < 0.05) for ANG II (−8.54 ± 0.54 log m) than that for NA (−6.14 ± 0.15 log M) or ET-1 (−6.69 ± 0.34 log m). The relaxation in the IMA pretreated with GBC was less than that in control (P < 0.05). KRN4884-pretreatment significantly reduced the contraction (P < 0.05) induced by NA (151.3 ± 18.4% vs 82.7 ± 8.7%), 5-HT (82.7 ± 12.2% vs 30.1 ± 7.3%), and ANG II (24.3 ± 6.3% vs 5.4 ± 1.6%), but did not significantly reduce the contraction induced by ET-1 (P > 0.05). Conclusion KRN4884 has marked vasorelaxant effects on the human IMA contracted by a variety of vasoconstrictors and the effect is vasoconstrictor-selective. PMID:10930967

  19. Vein Graft Preservation Solutions, Patency, and Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Alexander, John H.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Brophy, Colleen M.; Mack, Michael J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Williams, Judson B.; Gibson, C. Michael; Califf, Robert M.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Harrington, Robert A.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Lopes, Renato D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In vitro and animal model data suggest that intraoperative preservation solutions may influence endothelial function and vein graft failure (VGF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Clinical studies to validate these findings are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of vein graft preservation solutions on VGF and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data from the Project of Ex-Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) study, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 3014 patients at 107 US sites from August 1, 2002, through October 22, 2003, were used. Eligibility criteria for the trial included CABG surgery for coronary artery disease with at least 2 planned vein grafts. INTERVENTIONS Preservation of vein grafts in saline, blood, or buffered saline solutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES One-year angiographic VGF and 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction, and subsequent revascularization. RESULTS Most patients had grafts preserved in saline (1339 [44.4%]), followed by blood (971 [32.2%]) and buffered saline (507 [16.8%]). Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. One-year VGF rates were much lower in the buffered saline group than in the saline group (patient-level odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.45-0.78; P < .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001]) or the blood group (patient-level OR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.48-0.81; P < .001]). Use of buffered saline solution also tended to be associated with a lower 5-year risk for death, myocardial infarction, or subsequent revascularization compared with saline (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P = .08]) and blood (0.81 [0.63-1.03; P = .09]) solutions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients undergoing CABG whose vein grafts were preserved in a buffered saline solution had lower VGF rates and trends toward better long-term clinical outcomes compared with patients whose grafts were preserved in saline- or blood-based solutions. PMID:25073921

  20. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass for left anterior descending artery revascularization – analysis of 300 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lufeng; Cui, Zhongqi; Song, Zhiming; Yang, Hang; Fu, Yuanhao; Gong, Yichen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) grafting is performed via small, left anterolateral thoracotomy. The left internal mammary artery was grafted to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in 300 consecutive patients. Aim In-hospital results were evaluated and compared with the conventional, off-pump coronary artery bypass graft procedure. Material and methods One hundred and sixty-three (54.33%) of 300 patients underwent staged hybrid coronary revascularization, 93 (31%) were treated for a single LAD lesion, and 44 (14.67%) were treated for multi-vessel disease with reasonably incomplete revascularization. Major in-hospital cardiac adverse events and postoperative data were compared between groups. Results Preoperative data were similar between groups. However, the difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.001) was significant. No conversions to sternotomy occurred during the primary MIDCAB procedures. Shorter operation time (p < 0.001), shorter postoperative mechanical ventilation time (p < 0.001), shorter intensive care unit stay (p < 0.001), and less red blood cell transfusion (p < 0.001) were noted in the MIDCAB group. Postoperative coronary angiography conducted in the MIDCAB group within one week after the operation showed that 2 of 163 patients developed graft occlusion. These patients underwent conventional CABG and recovered well. No significant differences were observed in postoperative MI, delayed wound healing or 30-day in-hospital mortality between the two groups. Conclusions The use of a chest wall lifting system and modified stabilizer makes the MIDCAB procedure safer and easier. The MIDCAB procedure is demonstrated to be a feasible and minimally invasive alternative for patients with coronary artery disease involving LAD lesions. PMID:26865891

  1. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32 201±$23 059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  2. Charts versus Discharge ICD-10 Coding for Sternal Wound Infection Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Danielle A.; Doherty, Christopher; De Souza, Michael A.; Quan, Hude; Harrop, A. Robertson; Nickerson, Duncan; Rabi, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    Background Sternal wound infection (SWI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this work is to describe the methods used to identify cases of SWI in an administrative database and to demonstrate the effectiveness of using an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) coding algorithm for this purpose. Methods ICD-10 codes were used to identify cases of SWI within one year of CABG between April 2002 and November 2009. We randomly chose 200 charts for detailed chart review (100 from each of the groups coded as having SWI and not having SWI) to determine the utility of the ICD-10 coding algorithm. Results There were 2,820 patients undergoing CABG. Of these, 264 (9.4 percent) were coded as having SWI. Thirty-eight cases of SWI were identified by chart review. The ICD-10 coding algorithm of T81.3 or T81.4 was able to identify incident SWI with a positive predictive value of 35 percent and a negative predictive value of 97 percent. The agreement between the ICD-10 coding algorithm and presence of SWI remained fair, with an overall kappa coefficient of 0.32 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.22–0.43). The effectiveness of identifying deep SWI cases is also presented. Conclusions This article describes an effective algorithm for identifying a cohort of patients with SWI following open sternotomy in large databases using ICD-10 coding. In addition, alternative search strategies are presented to suit researchers' needs. PMID:26396556

  3. Excess short-term mortality in women after isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Filardo, Giovanni; Hamman, Baron L; Pollock, Benjamin D; da Graca, Briget; Sass, Danielle M; Phan, Teresa K; Edgerton, James; Prince, Syma L; Ring, W Steves

    2016-01-01

    Objective Female sex is considered a risk factor for adverse outcomes following isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We assessed the association between sex and short-term mortality following isolated CABG, and estimated the ‘excess’ deaths occurring in women. Methods Short-term mortality was investigated in 13 327 consecutive isolated CABG patients in North Texas between January 2008 and December 2012. The association between sex and CABG short-term mortality, and the excess deaths among women were assessed via a propensity-adjusted (by Society of Thoracic Surgeons-recognised risk factors) generalised estimating equations model approach. Results Short-term mortality was significantly higher in women than men (adjusted OR=1.39; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.86; p=0.027). This significantly greater risk translates into 35 ‘excess’ deaths among women included in this study (>10% of the total 343 deaths in the study cohort) and into 392 ‘excess’ deaths among the ∼40 000 women undergoing isolated CABG in the USA each year. Conclusions The higher risk associated with female sex lead to 35 ‘excess’ deaths in women in this study cohort (over 10% of the total deaths) and to 392 ‘excess’ deaths among women undergoing isolated CABG in the USA each year. Further research is needed to assess the causal mechanisms underlying this sex-related difference. Results of such work could inform the development and implementation of sex-specific treatment and management strategies to reduce women's mortality following CABG. Based on our results, if such work brought women's short-term mortality into line with men's, total short-term mortality could be reduced by up to 10%. PMID:27042323

  4. Triclosan-coated sutures do not reduce leg wound infections after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Bjørn Edvard; Tønnessen, Theis; Woldbaek, Per Reidar

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Leg wound infection is a common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Suture contamination has been suggested as a mechanism of surgical site infections. Vicryl Plus® is a polyglacitin suture coated with the antiseptic chemical substance Triclosan, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. The first aim of the present study was to compare Vicryl Plus with conventional Vicryl® sutures with regard to leg wound infections following CABG. The second aim was to examine patient- and operative characteristics, which are assumed to predict leg wound infections. METHODS After statistical calculations a priori, 328 CABG patients were prospectively randomized to leg wound closure with Vicryl Plus (164 patients) or conventional Vicryl sutures (164 patients). Incidences of leg wound infection and predictors of infection related to patient- and operative characteristics were examined. RESULTS The incidence of leg wound infections was 10.4% (17/163) in the Vicryl group, and 10.0% (16/160) in the Vicryl Plus group (P = 1.00). Patients with leg wound infections had increased body mass index and prolonged extracorporeal circulation and aortic clamping time compared with patients without infections. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, we report for the first time that Vicryl Plus did not reduce the incidence of leg wound infections in patients undergoing CABG. Obesity and prolonged time of extracorporeal circulation were both associated with the increased risk of infections. Currently, the clinical role and indication for the use of Vicryl Plus have yet to be defined. PMID:22691378

  5. Coronary artery bypass grafting in Canada: What is its rate of use? Which rate is right?

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, C D; Ugnat, A M; Weinkauf, D; Anderson, G M; Wielgosz, A

    1992-01-01

    We reviewed recent reports from administrative databases and clinical registries addressing the utilization of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Canada. The Canadian CABG rate per 100,000 people increased from 31.1 to 43.2 between 1981-82 and 1986-87. Between 1981 and 1986 the rate in the United States increased from 69.9 to 95.3 per 100,000, consistently about two times the Canadian rate. Provincial data have shown particular growth in utilization among elderly people. However, in the United States the 1985 CABG rate was twice as high as the aggregated age-specific rates for Ontario and Manitoba among people 65 to 74 years of age and four times higher among those 75 years or more. Limited registry data suggest that the Canadian CABG case mix is similar to the case mix in major US centres and that, utilization growth notwithstanding, the procedure is largely applied to patients who should, in theory, benefit (i.e., those with severe angina, impaired left ventricular function and left main-stem or triple-vessel disease). However, chart audits and registry evaluations using explicit criteria are needed to compare the use of CABG in Canada and the United States. In addition, Canadian data show moderate regional and municipal variations, the 1986-87 rates per 100,000 population in major census metropolitan areas varying from 19.5 to 46.9. Areas with consistently low rates raise particular concerns about impaired access to CABG. Reasons for variations should therefore be a research priority. PMID:1544075

  6. Impact of intraoperative hyperglycaemia on renal dysfunction after off-pump coronary artery bypass

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jong Wook; Shim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Oh, Se Young; Kwak, Young Lan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequently occurring complications after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB). Hyperglycaemia is a major, potentially modifiable risk factor of adverse outcome after cardiac surgery known to aggravate organ damage. The aim of this study was to address the association between intraoperative glucose concentration and postoperative AKI in patients who underwent OPCAB. METHODS The medical records of 880 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups according to the time-weighted average of intraoperative glucose concentrations (<110, 110–150 and >150 mg/dl), and the incidence of AKI (increase of serum creatinine to >2.0 mg/dl and 2 × most recent preoperative value or a new requirement for dialysis) was compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative AKI. RESULTS The incidence of AKI was higher in patients with a glucose level >150 mg/dl than in patients with a glucose level = 110–150 mg/dl [8% (20 of 251) vs 3% (14 of 453), P = 0.004]. On multivariate analysis, glucose >150 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–6.86, P = 0.027), coefficient of variation of glucose (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07, P = 0.027) and preoperative serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl (OR, 8.81; 95% CI, 3.90–19.9, P < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative AKI. CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative glucose concentration >150 mg/dl and increased variability of glucose were independently associated with AKI after OPCAB. Tight intraoperative glycaemic control (<110 mg/dl) does not seem to provide additional benefit in terms of AKI. PMID:23690431

  7. Electrophysiological Changes Preceding the Onset of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Feng; Yin, Yalin; Dubé, Bruno; Pagé, Pierre; Vinet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of Post-CABG atrial fibrillation (AF) lies between 25% and 40%. It worsens morbidity and raises post-operative costs. Detection of incoming AF soon enough for prophylactic intervention would be helpful. The study is to investigate the electrophysiological changes preceding the onset of AF and their relationship to the preoperative risk. Methods and Results Patients were recorded continuously for the first four days after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) with three unipolar electrodes sutured to the atria (AEG). The patients experiencing an AF lasting more than 10 minutes were selected and the two hours before the onset were analyzed. Four variables were found to show significant changes in the two hours prior to the first prolonged AF: increasing rate of premature atrial activation, increasing incidence of short transient arrhythmias, acceleration of heart rate, and rise of low frequency content of heart rate. The main contrast was between the first and last hour before AF onset. Preoperative risk was not predictive of the onset time of AF and did not correlate with the amplitude of changes prior to AF. Conclusions Post-CABG AF were preceded by electrophysiological changes occurring in the last hour before the onset of the arrhythmia, whereas none of these changes was found to occur in all AF patients. The risk was a weighted sum of factors related to the density of premature activations and the state of atrial substrate reflected by the sinus rhythm and its frequency content prior to AF. Preoperative risk score seems unhelpful in setting a detection threshold for the AF onset. PMID:25247814

  8. Coronary artery bypass grafting in Canada: national and provincial mortality trends, 1992-1995

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, W A; Quan, H; Brant, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a body of research on outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Canada, little is known about Canada-wide outcome trends and interregional differences in outcome. The objectives of this study were to examine Canadian trends in rates of in-hospital death after CABG and to compare provincial risk-adjusted death rates. METHODS: Hospital discharge data were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information and were used to identify complete cohorts of patients who underwent CABG in 8 provinces in fiscal years 1992/93 through 1995/96. Data from Quebec hospitals were not available. A logistic regression model was used to calculate risk-adjusted death rates by year, province, and province and year. RESULTS: A total of 50,357 CABG cases were studied, with an overall death rate of 3.6%. A national trend of decreasing mortality was found, with a risk-adjusted death rate of 3.8% in 1992/93 versus 3.2% in 1995/96 (relative decrease of 17%) (p < 0.001 for difference across years). Some provinces (e.g., Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario) achieved overall declines in death rates over the study period, whereas others (e.g., British Columbia and Saskatchewan) did not. The average severity of illness of patients who underwent CABG differed considerably across provinces. Despite risk adjustment for these differences, provincial death rates varied significantly (p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Rates of death after CABG in Canada decreased significantly in a relatively short period. Despite this encouraging finding, there were interprovincial differences in severity of illness and risk-adjusted death rates. This finding raises the possibility of unequal access to CABG and variable quality of care for patients undergoing the surgery across Canadian provinces. PMID:9679483

  9. Green Tea Gargling Effect on Cough & Hoarseness After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Aryaeefar, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Hedayat; Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Soleimani, Aria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Endotracheal intubation is a method necessary for controlling and maintaining airway during general anesthesia. Cough and hoarseness are common complications after endotracheal intubation. Inflammation has an important role in postoperative cough and hoarseness outbreak. Also it has been stated that green tea has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the current study has been conducted to investigate green tea gargling solution effect on cough and hoarseness after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: In this single-blind, randomized, & controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 121 patients undergoing CABG admitted to the ICU. The intervention group participants were asked to gargle 30 cc of green tea solution. The control group patients gargled 30 cc of distilled water. An hour after extubation, the intervention group patients were asked to gargle 30 cc of green tea and the control group patients were required to gargle 30 cc of distilled water every 6 hour up to 24 hour (each patient for 4 times). Moreover, the cough and hoarseness questionnaire was also filled in 6, 12, and 24 hours after endotracheal extubation. Results: The results showed no significant differences among the patients in both groups regarding age, gender, body mass index, smoking history, and anesthesia duration. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of cough 12 hours after removing the endotracheal tube. At other times, there was no significant difference between the two groups considering cough and hoarseness. Conclusion: The present study results showed that green tea gargling does not decrease hoarseness. Though, cough occurrence was less in the intervention group than the other group. PMID:26156921

  10. Optimal Anticoagulation during Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass in Patients Recently Exposed to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young; Song, Jong Wook; Shim, Jae Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to find an optimal range of activated clotting time (ACT) during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) yielding ischemic protection without the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients with recent exposure to dual antiplatelet therapy. Materials and Methods Three hundred and five patients who received aspirin and clopidogrel within 7 days of isolated multi-vessel OPCAB were retrospectively studied. Combined hemorrhagic and ischemic outcome was defined as the occurrence of 1 of the following: significant perioperative bleeding (>30% of estimated blood volume), transfusion of packed red blood cell (pRBC) ≥2 U, or myocardial infarction (MI). This was compared in relation to the tertile distribution of the time-weighted average ACT-212-291 sec (first tertile), 292-334 sec (second tertile), 335-485 sec (third tertile). Results The amount of perioperative blood loss was 937±313 mL, 1014±340 mL, and 1076±383 mL, respectively (p=0.022). Significantly more patients in the third tertile developed MI (4%, 4%, and 12%, respectively, p=0.034). The incidence of significant perioperative blood loss and transfusion of pRBC ≥2 U were lower in the first tertile than those of other tertiles without statistical significance. In the multivariate analysis, the first tertile was associated with a 52% risk reduction of combined hemorrhagic and ischemic outcomes (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.92, p=0.027). Conclusion A lower degree of anticoagulation with a reduced initial heparin loading dose should be carefully considered for patients undergoing OPCAB who have recently been exposed to clopidogrel. PMID:23918560

  11. Using Biomarkers to Improve the Preoperative Prediction of Death in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Leavitt, Bruce J.; Braxton, John H.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; Helm, Robert E.; Klemperer, John D.; Frumiento, Carmine; Sardella, Gerald L.; Ross, Cathy S.; O’Connor, Gerald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The current risk prediction models for mortality following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have been developed on patient and disease characteristics alone. Improvements to these models potentially may be made through the analysis of biomarkers of unmeasured risk. We hypothesize that preoperative biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction are associated with an increased risk of mortality following CABG surgery and the use of biomarkers associated with these injuries will improve the Northern New England (NNE) CABG mortality risk prediction model. We prospectively followed 1731 isolated CABG patients with preoperative blood collection at eight medical centers in Northern New England for a nested case-control study from 2003–2007. Preoperative blood samples were drawn at the center and then stored at a central facility. Frozen serum was analyzed at a central laboratory on an Elecsys 2010, at the same time for Cardiac Troponin T, N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide, high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and blood glucose. We compared the strength of the prediction model for mortality using multivariable logistic regression, goodness of fit and tested the equality of the receiving operating characteristic curve (ROC) area. There were 33 cases (dead at discharge) and 66 randomly matched controls (alive at discharge). The ROC for the preoperative mortality model was improved from .83 (95% confidence interval: .74–.92) to .87 (95% confidence interval: .80–.94) with biomarkers (p-value for equality of ROC areas .09). The addition of biomarkers to the NNE preoperative risk prediction model did not significantly improve the prediction of mortality over patient and disease characteristics alone. The added measurement of multiple biomarkers outside of preoperative risk factors may be an unnecessary use of health care resources with little added benefit for predicting in-hospital mortality. PMID:21313927

  12. Center-level Variation in Infection Rates after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Terry; Zhang, Min; Kommareddi, Mallika; Boeve, Theodore J.; Harrington, Steven D.; Holmes, Robert J.; Roth, Gary; Theurer, Patricia F.; Prager, Richard L.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Prior work has identified a number of patient-related risk factors associated with HAIs. We hypothesized that rates of HAIs would differ across institutions, in part attributed to differences in case mix. Methods and Results We analyzed 20,896 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery at 33 medical centers in Michigan between 1/1/2009–6/30/2012. Overall HAIs included pneumonia, sepsis/septicemia, and surgical site infections, including deep sternal wound, thoracotomy, and harvest/cannulation site infections. We excluded patients presenting with endocarditis. Predicted rates of HAIs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Overall rate of HAI was 5.1% (1,071 of 20,896) [isolated pneumonia: 3.1% (n=644), isolated sepsis/septicemia: 0.5% (n=99), isolated deep sternal wound infection: 0.5% (n=96), isolated harvest/cannulation site: 0.5% (n=97), isolated thoracotomy: 0.02% (n=5), multiple infections: 0.6% (n=130)]. HAI subtypes differed across strata of center-level HAI rates. While predicted risk of HAI differed in absolute terms by 2.8% across centers (3.9%–6.7%, min:max), observed rates varied 18.2% (0.9%–19.1%). Conclusions There was an 18.2% difference in observed HAI rates across medical centers among patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery. This variability could not be explained by patient case mix. Future work should focus on the impact of other factors (e.g. organizational and systems of clinical care) on risk of HAIs. PMID:24987052

  13. Early Rehabilitation Therapy Is Beneficial for Patients With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zehua; Yu, Bangxu; Zhang, Quanfang; Pei, Haitao; Xing, Jinyan; Fang, Wei; Sun, Yunbo; Song, Zhen

    2016-03-22

    We investigated the effects of early rehabilitation therapy on prolonged mechanically ventilated patients after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).A total of 106 patients who underwent CABG between June 2012 and May 2015 were enrolled and randomly assigned into an early rehabilitation group (53 cases) and a control group (53 cases). The rehabilitation therapy consisted of 6 steps including head up, transferring from supination to sitting, sitting on the edge of bed, sitting in a chair, transferring from sitting to standing, and walking along a bed. The patients received rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) after CABG in the early rehabilitation group. The control group patients received rehabilitation therapy after leaving the ICU.The results showed that the early rehabilitation therapy could significantly decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation (early rehabilitation group: 8.1 ± 3.3 days; control group: 13.9 ± 4.1 days, P < 0.01), hospital stay (early rehabilitation group: 22.0 ± 3.8 days; control group: 29.1 ± 4.6 days, P < 0.01), and ICU stay (early rehabilitation group: 11.7 ± 3.2 days; control group: 18.3 ± 4.2 days, P < 0.01) for patients requiring more than 72 hours prolonged mechanical ventilation. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the proportions of patients remaining on mechanical ventilation in the early rehabilitation group were larger than that in the control group after 7 days of rehabilitation therapy (logrank test: P < 0.01).The results provide evidence for supporting the application of early rehabilitation therapy in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation after CABG. PMID:26973269

  14. Insurance type and choice of hospital for coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Chernew, M; Scanlon, D; Hayward, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of insurance type on the relationship between hospital attributes and patient flows, with particular attention to whether HMO enrollees are more or less likely than other patients to receive care at high-quality hospitals and whether HMO enrollees travel farther to receive care. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data on patient flows, taken from discharge abstracts compiled by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Our sample consists of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in 1991 who resided in three California markets. Only patients under the age of 65 and insured by HMOs, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, or other commercial insurance were included. Hospital quality is based on hospital-specific measures of excess mortality from CABG. Other hospital attributes were taken from American Hospital Association survey data. STUDY DESIGN: Conditional-choice models were used to estimate the probability that patients would receive care at any given hospital as a function of their insurance type and the hospital's attributes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients were more likely to receive care from hospitals closer to their residence. However, HMO patient flows were less sensitive to proximity. In general, the likelihood that an HMO enrollee received care at a given hospital was positively related to hospital quality. Moreover, quality had a greater effect on patient flows for HMO enrollees than for non-HMO enrollees. However, the evidence suggests that the effect of quality on patient flows is neither uniform across markets nor across HMOs. CONCLUSIONS: HMOs do not appear to direct patients to low-quality hospitals. However, heterogeneity among HMOs and across markets suggests that buyers must recognize that choosing an HMO involves greater scrutiny than simply picking a plan labeled "HMO." PMID:9685117

  15. Long-term pulmonary functional status following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Parnia; Sedehi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The present study aimed to describe the long-term alterations of pulmonary function and also to describe its association with post-operative pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS In this prospective study, thirty non-smoker male patients undergoing isolated on-pump CABG were consecutively included in this study. Pulmonary function measurements were performed, in a sitting position, preoperatively, a week postoperatively, and 6 months after the surgery using a Medical Graphics PF/Dx pulmonary function system. Pain was determined by using visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores with a standardized questionnaire’s. RESULTS Regarding functional class, all patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II to III. A week after operation, a severe restrictive pulmonary impairment was revealed with a mean decrease in VC to 60.9 ± 9.2% and in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to 64.6 ± 12.2% of pre-operative values (P < 0.001). Regarding sternotomy related pain, the mean pain VAS score was preoperatively 3.3 ± 1.5 that reached to 6.2 ± 2.5 and 4.8 ± 2.2 1 week and 6 months after the operation (P < 0.001). The trend of the changes in pain score within 6 months of operation was significantly similar to the trend of the changes in some pulmonary function indices such as FEV% and residual volume (RV). CONCLUSION A significant reduction is expected in most pulmonary functional parameters following CABG despite normal pulmonary function state preoperatively. Severe pain originated from sternotomy may be an important factor related to pulmonary dysfunction following CABG. PMID:26405447

  16. Association of Hospital Prices for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Hospital Quality and Reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Giacomino, Bria D; Cram, Peter; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Zhou, Yunshu; Girotra, Saket

    2016-04-01

    Although prices for medical services are known to vary markedly between hospitals, it remains unknown whether variation in hospital prices is explained by differences in hospital quality or reimbursement from major insurers. We obtained "out-of-pocket" price estimates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from a random sample of US hospitals for a hypothetical patient without medical insurance. We compared hospital CABG price to (1) "fair price" estimate from Healthcare Bluebook data using each hospital's zip code and (2) Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite CABG quality score and risk-adjusted mortality rate. Of 101 study hospitals, 53 (52.5%) were able to provide a complete price estimate for CABG. The mean price for CABG was $151,271 and ranged from $44,824 to $448,038. Except for geographic census region, which was weakly associated with price, hospital CABG price was not associated with other structural characteristics or CABG volume (p >0.10 for all). Likewise, there was no association between a hospital's price for CABG with average reimbursement from major insurers within the same zip code (ρ = 0.07, p value = 0.6), Society of Thoracic Surgeoncomposite quality score (ρ = 0.08, p value = 0.71), or risk-adjusted CABG mortality (ρ = -0.03 p value = 0.89). In conclusion, the price of CABG varied more than 10-fold across US hospitals. There was no correlation between price information obtained from hospitals and the average reimbursement from major insurers in the same market. We also found no evidence to suggest that hospitals that charge higher prices provide better quality of care. PMID:26993975

  17. The improving outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Ontario, 1981 to 1995

    PubMed Central

    Tu, J V; Wu, K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is continuing uncertainty over the relative contribution of outcomes monitoring to changes in surgical outcomes over time. The authors studied temporal trends in the clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Ontario before and after the implementation, in 1993, of a province-wide program to provide feedback on cardiac surgery outcomes. METHODS: The authors analysed data from hospital discharge abstracts on the clinical characteristics and in-hospital death rates of all 67,784 patients who underwent isolated CABG in Ontario between Apr. 1, 1981, and Mar. 31, 1996. RESULTS: Death rates were relatively stable during the first half of the 1980s, then declined gradually in the second half of the decade; this decline continued into the first half of the 1990s. In the 1990s patients were older than those in the 1980s, and a higher proportion had coexisting diseases. Between 1986/87 and 1995/96 the unadjusted death rate decreased by 52% (5.0% v. 2.4%) (p < 0.001). The annual relative rate of decline was approximately 6% (95% confidence interval 5% to 7%) in the period before the outcomes feedback program was implemented and about 9% (95% confidence interval 7% to 11%) in the period after implementation. INTERPRETATION: Rates of death after CABG have been declining steadily in Ontario since the mid-1980s. Outcomes-based quality improvement interventions may facilitate; but are not a prerequisite for, improvements in the quality of surgical care. PMID:9724975

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge ... You had minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery on one ... an artery from your chest to create a detour, or bypass, around ...

  19. Mid-Term Patency in Radial Artery and Saphenous Vein After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Asymptomatic Patients Using 128-Slice CT Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghpour, Ali; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Zavareian, Somayeh; Amirahmadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patency of the revascularization conduit is an essential predictor of long-standing survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Objectives: We have conducted this study to compare the mid-term patency rates of radial artery (RA), left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and also saphenous vein (SV) grafts in asymptomatic patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) undergoing total IV anesthesia. Patients and Methods: In this study, 30 three-vessel disease patients with 104 RA, LITA, and SV grafts used concomitantly for primary isolated non-emergent CABG surgery were assessed. The primary end point was CT angiographic graft patency rate. After 53.5 (24-97) months’ follow-up, graft patency was assessed using 128-slice CT coronary angiography. Logistic regression analysis was used to detect the independent predictors of graft failure. Results: A total of 104 grafts, including 30 LITA, 44 SV, and 30 RA grafts, were studied. Cumulative graft patency rates were 93.3% in LITA, 83.3% in RA, and 70.5% in SV grafts. Statistically significant difference was found between the LITA and the SV graft patency rates (P = 0.019), whereas the difference between the RA conduit patency and the LITA or SV graft patency rates did not have any statistical significance (P = 0.424 and P = 0.273, respectively). Independent predictors of RA grafts occlusion were native coronary stenosis < 70% and female gender. Conclusions: In our patients, the RA grafts had an acceptable patency rate in 2 to 5 years’ follow-up. Although the SV grafts had a relatively higher patency rate than RA grafts in our asymptomatic patients, the patency rates in RA and SV grafts were close to each other. The RA graft function was poor in the patients with a higher number of risk factors and in the females. PMID:25789243

  20. Validation of EuroSCORE II risk model for coronary artery bypass surgery in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Adademir, Taylan; Tasar, Mehmet; Ecevit, Ata Niyazi; Karaca, Okay Guven; Salihi, Salih; Buyukbayrak, Fuat; Ozkokeli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Determining operative mortality risk is mandatory for adult cardiac surgery. Patients should be informed about the operative risk before surgery. There are some risk scoring systems that compare and standardize the results of the operations. These scoring systems needed to be updated recently, which resulted in the development of EuroSCORE II. In this study, we aimed to validate EuroSCORE II by comparing it with the original EuroSCORE risk scoring system in a group of high-risk octogenarian patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Material and methods The present study included only high-risk octogenarian patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in our center between January 2000 and January 2010. Redo procedures and concomitant procedures were excluded. We compared observed mortality with expected mortality predicted by EuroSCORE (logistic) and EuroSCORE II scoring systems. Results We considered 105 CABG operations performed in octogenarian patients between January 2000 and January 2010. The mean age of the patients was 81.43 ± 2.21 years (80-89 years). Thirty-nine (37.1%) of them were female. The two scales showed good discriminative capacity in the global patient sample, with the AUC (area under the curve) being higher for EuroSCORE II (AUC 0.772, 95% CI: 0.673-0.872). The goodness of fit was good for both scales. Conclusions We conclude that EuroSCORE II has better AUC (area under the ROC curve) compared to the original EuroSCORE, but both scales showed good discriminative capacity and goodness of fit in octogenarian patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:26336431

  1. Differences Among Body Mass Index (BMI) Groups in Patients Undergoing First Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Leonard; Shirka, Ervina; Hasimi, Endri; Kabili, Suerta; Goda, Artan

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be an independent risk factor for hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and various cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate the differences among BMI groups in patients undergoing first elective PCI. Methods: 781 consecutive patients who underwent their first-time elective PCI from September 2011 to December 2013 in the Department of Cardiology were enrolled in the study. The patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 or > 50 kg/m2 and those who had previously undergone revascularization were excluded from the study. Patients were categorized according to their BMI groups. BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2 normal group, 25 - 29.9 kg/m2 overweight group and > 30 kg/m2 obese group. We studied the demographic, angiographic, and interventional differences between BMI groups. Results: Compared with normal weight individuals, those obese were younger (61.9 ±10.34 vs. 58.41 ± 8.01 p = 0.0006), had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (46.4% vs. 26.6% p = 0.0001), dyslipidemia (77.5% vs. 65.4% p=0.0134) and hypertension (1.3% vs. 81.3% p=0.0067). There was a greater use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and Angiotensin Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs)/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) in obese individuals but it was not statistically significant. Obese individuals were associated with higher risk anatomy (3-Vessel CAD or LM) compared to normal individuals but not statistically significant (18.8% vs. 14.2% p=0.25). Obese patients were associated with a higher length of stents/person used (36.7 ± 22.02 vs. 31.7 ± 17.48 p=0.016) and also a larger diameter of stents/person used (3.14 ± 0.4 vs. 2.98 ± 0.33 p=0.0001) compared to normal individuals. Conclusions: Patients with a higher BMI are younger and have diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia more frequently. Patients with a higher BMI have a higher length and larger diameter of stents/person used, probably related to a more extensive coronary artery disease. PMID:26843733

  2. Long-term patency (9 1/2 years) and atherosclerosis of a polytetrafluoroethylene (Gortex) coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Vlay, S C; Malik, A Z

    1998-01-01

    The patency of a polytetrafluoroethylene (Gortex) graft 9 1/2 years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is demonstrated. While this material is not commonly used as a conduit because of limited success in the past, this case demonstrates that, given the right circumstances, long-term patency is possible. Since available conduits for CABG are quite often limited, viable alternatives may be lifesaving and require further evaluation. In addition to mechanical considerations such as size, length, and material, anticoagulation and strict management of hyperlipidemia may be critical. PMID:9474468

  3. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is more helpful in detecting peri-operative myocardial injury and apoptosis during coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Emel Fatma; Altuntas, Irfan; Kocak, Cengiz; Aksoy, Ahmet; Ozdomanic, Ibrahim Fevzi; Isiklar, Ozden Ozben; Akcilar, Raziye; Unsal, Cevher; Celenk, Merve

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine whether there is a correlation between cardiac markers and peri-operative myocardial injury (PMI) and apoptosis in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and to compare the efficacy of cardiac markers to detect PMI. Methods The study population consisted of 37 patients (24 male, 13 female, mean age 63.4 ± 8.9 years) undergoing elective CABG. Arterial and coronary sinus blood samples were collected just before aortic cross-clamping (pre-ACC) and after aortic declamping (post-ACC). Creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme mass (CK-MB mass) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were measured in blood samples. Myocardial injury and apoptosis were examined in atrial biopsies. Results CABG caused PMI and apoptosis in all cases. Concentrations and net releases of cardiac markers significantly increased after aortic declamping (p < 0.001 for CK-MB and CK-MB mass, p < 0.01 for cTnI, p < 0.05 for hs-cTnT). A positive correlation was found between apoptotic index (r = 0.611, p < 0.001 for cTnI; r = 0.806, p < 0.001 for hs-cTnT), myocardial injury score (r = 0.544, p < 0.001 for cTnI; r = 0.719, p < 0.001 for hs-cTnT) and cTnI and hs-cTnT values in the post-ACC period. A positive correlation was found between apoptotic index (r = 0.507, p < 0.001), myocardial injury score (r = 0.416, p = 0.010) and net release of hs-cTnT. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between aortic cross-clamp (ACC) time (r = 0.448, p = 0.007), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (r = 0.342, p = 0.047) and net release of hs-cTnT. Conclusion Although both cTnI and hs-cTnT may be specific and efficacious markers of myocardial apoptosis and injury occurring during CABG with CPB, hs-cTnT may be a more useful marker than cTnI to detect peri-operative myocardial apoptosis and injury. PMID:26212819

  4. Anesthetic management of a patient with polycythemia vera undergoing emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyeongwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera is a chronic progressive myeloproliferative disease characterized by increased circulating red blood cells, and the hyperviscosity of the blood can lead to an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. In a previous survey regarding postoperative outcomes in polycythemia vera patients, an increased risk of both vascular occlusive and hemorrhagic complications have been reported. Aortic surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with the development of a coagulopathy, and as a result, the occurrence of thrombotic complications should be avoided after coronary anastomosis. Thus, optimizing the hemostatic balance is an important concern for anesthesiologists. However, only a few cases of anesthetic management in polycythemia vera patients undergoing concomitant aorta and coronary arterial bypass surgery have ever been reported. Here, we experience a polycythemia vera patient who underwent an emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26634086

  5. Anesthetic management of a patient with polycythemia vera undergoing emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyeongwoo; Min, Jeong Jin; Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Polycythemia vera is a chronic progressive myeloproliferative disease characterized by increased circulating red blood cells, and the hyperviscosity of the blood can lead to an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. In a previous survey regarding postoperative outcomes in polycythemia vera patients, an increased risk of both vascular occlusive and hemorrhagic complications have been reported. Aortic surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with the development of a coagulopathy, and as a result, the occurrence of thrombotic complications should be avoided after coronary anastomosis. Thus, optimizing the hemostatic balance is an important concern for anesthesiologists. However, only a few cases of anesthetic management in polycythemia vera patients undergoing concomitant aorta and coronary arterial bypass surgery have ever been reported. Here, we experience a polycythemia vera patient who underwent an emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26634086

  6. Heart bypass surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or heart bypass surgery is recommended when one or more coronary arteries are seriously blocked and blood supply to the heart muscle is insufficient. Several tests are ...

  7. The role of radionuclide angiocardiography in the preoperative prediction of pain relief and prolonged survival following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R H; Floyd, R D; Austin, E H; Sabiston, D C

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) provides noninvasive measurements of left ventricular function during rest and exercise, which appear to reflect the magnitude of fibrosis and ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. This investigation evaluated the usefulness of these measurements for providing prognostic information, useful in selecting therapy. The RNA study group included 278 patients with a low resting ejection fraction and coronary artery disease documented by angiography. Patients were followed for up to three years to define survival and incidence of complete pain relief. The 172 patients treated medically had less favorable survival and pain relief than the 106 surgically treated patients. In the medically treated patients, a positive RNA defined a subgroup of 113 patients, with a 20% lower 3-year survival than the 59 patients with a negative RNA. Moreover, comparison of patients receiving medical and surgical therapy following a positive RNA documented a clear improvement in both survival and pain relief for those who showed significant ischemia during exercise and subsequently underwent coronary bypass procedures. In patients with a negative RNA, medical and surgical therapy resulted in a similar survival rate and little difference in pain relief. Calculations comparing the maximal potential increase in survival and complete pain relief, using multiple criteria known to provide prognostic information, identified the exercise response on RNA as the single most important variable for selection of therapy. Therefore, the left ventricular response to exercise provides important prognostic information in patients with low resting ejection fractions, and the results of this procedure can be used to define subgroups of patients who will and will not benefit from coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:6602596

  8. Coronary vascular resistance increases under full bypass support of centrifugal pumps--relation between myocardial perfusion and ventricular workload during pump support.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Coronary circulation is closely linked to myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO(2)), and previous reports have suggested decreased coronary flow (CoF) under left ventricular assist device support. Decreased CoF itself under support is not unfavorable because the native heart can be well unloaded and myocardial oxygen demand is also decreased. There should be an autoregulatory system that would maintain optimal CoF according to oxygen demand; however, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of centrifugal pumps on CoF under varied bypass rates in relation to left ventricle workload. A centrifugal pump, EVAHEART (Sun Medical Technology Research Corporation, Nagano, Japan), was installed in an adult goat (n = 10, 61.3 ± 6.5 kg). We set up the following conditions, including Circuit-Clamp (i.e., no pump support), 50% bypass, and 100% bypass. In these settings, CoF, MVO(2), pressure-volume area (PVA), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were measured. In 100% bypass, CoF, MVO(2), and PVA were all decreased significantly from clamp. While in 50% bypass, CoF and MVO(2) decreased from clamp, but not PVA. There was a significant 40% increase in CVR in 100% bypass from clamp. This CVR increase in 100% bypass was possibly due to mechanical collapse of coronary vascular bed itself by pump support or increased vascular tone through autoregulatory system. In clinical settings, we should adjust optimal pump speed so as not to cause this vascular collapse. However, to clarify autoregulatory system of the coronary perfusion, further investigation is ongoing in ischemic and heart failure models. PMID:21848933

  9. Hemodynamics of left internal mammary artery bypass graft: Effect of anastomotic geometry, coronary artery stenosis, and postoperative time.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Lu, Yuan; Gao, Yan; Meng, Jie; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-03-21

    Although the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) bypass graft is the best choice for surgical revascularization, its hemodynamics are still complex and can result in long-term graft failure. Here, we performed a hemodynamic analysis of the LIMA-coronary artery with end-to-side/side-to-side anastomoses based on 15 patient-specific CTA images at various postoperative periods. We hypothesize that hemodynamic patterns are determined by the interplay of LIMA geometry, anastomotic configuration, and severity of native coronary artery stenosis, which are strongly affected by the postoperative time. A 3D finite volume method with the inlet pressure wave and outlet resistance boundary conditions was used to compute the distribution of pressure and flow, from which the time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillation shear index (OSI), time-averaged WSS gradient (TAWSSG), and transverse WSS (transWSS) were determined. To characterize the hemodynamic environment, we defined surface area ratios of low TAWSS (≤4dynes/cm(2)), high OSI (≥0.15), TAWSSG (≥500dynes/cm(3)), and transWSS (≥6dynes/cm(2)) in the LIMA graft and at the anastomosis between LIMA graft and coronary artery. These ratios were determined by the interplay of multiple morphometric parameters in the LIMA-coronary artery, but increased with postoperative time. These findings have significant implications for understanding LIMA graft patency. PMID:26900034

  10. Increased Expression of Phosphorylated Polo-Like Kinase 1 and Histone in Bypass Vein Graft and Coronary Arteries following Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Swastika; Swier, Vicki J.; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Interventional procedures, including percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to re-vascularize occluded coronary arteries, injure the vascular wall and cause endothelial denudation and medial vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) metaplasia. Proliferation of the phenotypically altered SMCs is the key event in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia (IH). Several kinases and phosphatases regulate cell cycle in SMC proliferation. It is our hypothesis that increased expression and activity of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) in SMCs, following PTCA and CABG, contributes to greater SMC proliferation in the injured than uninjured blood vessels. Using immunofluorescence (IF), we assessed the expression of PLK1 and phosphorylated-PLK1 (pPLK1) in post-PTCA coronary arteries, and superficial epigastric vein grafts (SEV) and compared it with those in the corresponding uninjured vessels. We also compared the expressions of mitotic marker phospho-histone, synthetic-SMC marker, contractile SMC marker, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT-3 in the post-PTCA arteries, SEV-grafts, and the uninjured vessels. Immunostaining demonstrated an increase in the number of cells expressing PLK1 and pPLK1 in the neointima of post PTCA-coronary arteries and SEV-grafts compared to their uninjured counterparts. VSMCs in the neointima showed an increased expression of phospho-histone, synthetic and contractile SMC markers, IFN-γ and phosphorylated STAT-3. However, VSMCs of uninjured coronaries and SEV had no significant expression of the aforementioned proteins. These data suggest that PLK1 might play a critical role in VSMC mitosis in hyperplastic intima of the injured vessels. Thus, novel therapies to inhibit PLK1 could be developed to inhibit the mitogenesis of VSMCs and control neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:26820885

  11. Coronary artery bypass grafting in high-RISk patients randomised to off- or on-Pump surgery: a randomised controlled trial (the CRISP trial).

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Chris A; Pike, Katie; Campbell, Helen; Reeves, Barnaby C; Angelini, Gianni D; Gray, Alastair; Altman, Doug G; Miller, Helen; Wells, Sian; Taggart, David P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the treatment of choice for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in low-risk populations shows that 'off-pump' CABG is at least as safe as 'on-pump' CABG, but high-quality trial data in high-risk populations are lacking. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that, in high-risk patients, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) reduces mortality and morbidity without causing a higher risk of reintervention compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (ONCABG). DESIGN Open parallel-group RCT with a 1 : 1 allocation ratio and expertise-based randomisation. SETTING Eight specialist cardiac surgery centres in the UK and one specialist centre in Kolkata, India. PARTICIPANTS Patients with an additive European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation score (EuroSCORE) of ≥ 5, undergoing non-emergency isolated CABG via a median sternotomy. INTERVENTIONS CABG without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), i.e. OPCABG on the beating heart, or CABG with CPB, i.e. ONCABG on a chemically arrested heart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary outcome - a composite of death or serious morbidity [all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, prolonged initial ventilation, sternal wound dehiscence] within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes - quality of life (QoL) [Rose Angina Questionnaire, Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) angina class, European QoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), Coronary Revascularisation Outcome Questionnaire (CROQ)] and resource utilisation. RESULTS The organisation of a tertiary cardiac surgery service in the UK presented several barriers to recruitment. Referral information was often inadequate to confirm eligibility. Limited surgeon participation at a centre, the need to meet referral-to-treatment performance targets and complex referral pathways did not support an expertise-based allocation. Urgent patients waiting for surgery in local 'feeder' hospitals were often not transferred until late the night before surgery, which limited the time available to take consent and organise the surgery on an expertise basis. Several elective patients declined to take part because they wanted the surgeon they had met when the surgery was first discussed in clinic to operate. Several initiatives were explored to boost recruitment. After 10 months of recruitment, the trial design was modified to permit both within-surgeon and expertise-based randomisation within a centre. However, this did not have sufficient impact and the trial was stopped on the grounds of futility after 106 patients (< 2% of the target sample size) had been recruited in 18 months. Ninety-eight patients were included in the trial analyses, six patients were withdrawn and two died before surgery. In both groups, 6% of patients experienced the primary outcome [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (OPCABG to ONCABG) 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 4.14]. QoL scores at 4-8 weeks post surgery were similar in the two groups. Patients randomised to OPCABG had a shorter stay in the intensive care unit and in hospital after surgery (median 26.0 vs. 27.7 hours in intensive care and 7 vs. 8 days in hospital). CONCLUSIONS The Coronary artery bypass grafting in high-RISk patients randomised to off- or on-Pump surgery (CRISP) trial was not successful for a range of logistical reasons. However, the experience gained is of value for the design and conduct of future trials. The surgical community have polarised views. A qualitative evaluation of the reasons behind the views held by the advocates of the two techniques is an area for future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29161170. FUNDING This project was funded by the Medical Research Council/National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 44. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:25023641

  12. [Flowmetric assessment of coronary bypass grafts in the conditions of artificial circulation and on the beating heart].

    PubMed

    Bazylev, V V; Nemchenko, E V; Karnakhin, V A; Pavlov, A A; Mikulyak, A I

    2016-01-01

    Advantages and shortcomings of aortocoronary bypass grafting on the beating heart and in the conditions of artificial circulation (AC) have long been discussed. The data on patency of bypass grafts in the remote period are indicative of comparable results of operations with and without AC or advantages of using AC. In order to determine benefits of each method it is necessary to reveal intraoperative predictors of bypass grafts occlusion in the remote period. We analyzed the results of ultrasound flowmetry of the blood flow through the left internal thoracic artery during bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery with the use of AC and on the beating heart. A retrospective study included a total of 352 patients subdivided into 2 groups: Group One was composed of 120 patients undergoing surgery in the conditions of AC and Group Two comprised 232 patients subjected to similar operations on the beating heart. Blood flow was measured with the help of flowmeter VeryQ MediStim® after termination of AC and inactivation of heparin by protamine, with systolic pressure of 100-110 mm Hg. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups by the diameter and degree of stenosis of the anterior descending artery, diameter of the left internal thoracic artery. The mean volumetric blood flow velocity (Qmean) along the shunts in Group One was higher (p=0.01). No statistically significant differences by the pulsatility index (PI) between the groups were revealed (p=0.2). A conclusion was drawn that coronary bypass grafting of the anterior descending artery by the left internal thoracic artery in the conditions of artificial circulation made it possible to achieve higher volumetric velocity of blood flow through the conduit as compared with operations on the beating heart, with similar resistance index. The immediate results of the operations with the use of the both techniques did not differ. PMID:27100540

  13. Protocol for the PREHAB study—Pre-operative Rehabilitation for reduction of Hospitalization After coronary Bypass and valvular surgery: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stammers, Andrew N; Kehler, D Scott; Afilalo, Jonathan; Avery, Lorraine J; Bagshaw, Sean M; Grocott, Hilary P; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Metge, Colleen; Nguyen, Thang; Rockwood, Kenneth; Sareen, Jitender; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann; Tangri, Navdeep; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Hassan, Ansar; Duhamel, Todd A; Arora, Rakesh C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterised by reductions in muscle mass, strength, endurance and activity level. The frailty syndrome, prevalent in 25–50% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, is associated with increased rates of mortality and major morbidity as well as function decline postoperatively. This trial will compare a preoperative, interdisciplinary exercise and health promotion intervention to current standard of care (StanC) for elective coronary artery bypass and valvular surgery patients for the purpose of determining if the intervention improves 3-month and 12-month clinical outcomes among a population of frail patients waiting for elective cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, randomised, open end point, controlled trial using assessor blinding and intent-to-treat analysis. Two-hundred and forty-four elective cardiac surgical patients will be recruited and randomised to receive either StanC or StanC plus an 8-week exercise and education intervention at a certified medical fitness facility. Patients will attend two weekly sessions and aerobic exercise will be prescribed at 40–60% of heart rate reserve. Data collection will occur at baseline, 1–2 weeks preoperatively, and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of patients requiring a hospital length of stay greater than 7 days. Potential impact of study The healthcare team is faced with an increasingly complex older adult patient population. As such, this trial aims to provide novel evidence supporting a health intervention to ensure that frail, older adult patients thrive after undergoing cardiac surgery. Ethics and dissemination Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international scientific meetings. The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board has approved the study protocol V.1.3, dated 11 August 2014 (H2014:208). Trial registration number The trial has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a registry and results database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies (NCT02219815). PMID:25753362

  14. Time on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery in British Columbia, Canada, 1991 – 2000

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Adrian R; Sobolev, Boris G; Hayden, Robert; Kiely, Michael; FitzGerald, J Mark; Schechter, Martin T

    2005-01-01

    Background In British Columbia, Canada, all necessary medical services are funded publicly. Concerned with growing wait lists in the mid-1990s, the provincial government started providing extra funding for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations annually. Although aimed at improving access, it is not known whether supplementary funding changed the time that patients spent on wait lists for CABG. We sought to determine whether the period of registration on wait lists had an effect on time to isolated CABG and whether the period effect was similar across priority groups. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we studied the wait-list time before and after supplementary funding became available. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of patients in synthetic cohorts defined by five registration periods in the 1990s. Results Overall, 9,231 patients spent a total of 137,126 person-weeks on the wait lists. The time to surgery increased by the middle of the decade, and decreased toward the end of the decade. Relative to the 1991–92 registration period, the conditional weekly probabilities of undergoing surgery were 30% lower among patients registered on the wait lists in 1995–96, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70 (0.65–0.76), and 23% lower in 1997–98 patients, HR = 0.77 (0.71–0.83), while there were no differences with 1999–2000 patients, HR = 0.94 (0.88–1.02), after adjusting for priority group at registration, comorbidity, age and sex. We found that the effect of registration period was different across priority groups. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that time to CABG shortened after supplementary funding was provided on an annual basis to tertiary care hospitals within a single publicly funded health system. One plausible explanation is that these hospitals had capacity to increase the number of operations. At the same time, the effect was not uniform across priority groups indicating that changes in clinical practice should be considered when adding extra funding to reduce wait lists. PMID:15766381

  15. Association of Pre-Operative Albuminuria with Post-Operative Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    George, Lekha K.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Lu, Jun L.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Koshy, Santhosh K. G.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect on post-operative outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft(CABG) surgery is not clear. Among 17,812 patients who underwent CABG during October 1,2006-September 28,2012 in any Department of US Veterans Affairs(VA) hospital, we identified 5,968 with available preoperative urine albumin-creatinine ratio(UACR) measurements. We examined the association of UACR<30, 30–299 and >=300 mg/g with 30/90/180/365-day and overall all-cause mortality, and hospitalization length >10 days, and with acute kidney injury(AKI). Mean ± SD baseline age and eGFR were 66 ± 8 years and 77 ± 19 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. 788 patients(13.2%) died during a median follow-up of 3.2 years, and 26.8% patients developed AKI(23.1%-Stage 1; 2.9%-Stage 2; 0.8%-Stage 3) within 30 days of CABG. The median lengths of stay were 8 days(IQR: 6–13 days), 10 days(IQR: 7–14 days) and 12 days(IQR: 8–19 days) for groups with UACR < 30 mg/g, 30–299 mg/g and ≥300 mg/g, respectively. Higher UACR conferred 72 to 85% higher 90-, 180-, and 365-day mortality compared to UACR<30 mg/g (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for UACR≥300 vs. <30 mg/g: 1.72(1.01–2.95); 1.85(1.14–3.01); 1.74(1.15–2.61), respectively). Higher UACR was also associated with significantly longer hospitalizations and higher incidence of all stages of AKI. Higher UACR is associated with significantly higher odds of mortality, longer post-CABG hospitalization, and higher AKI incidence. PMID:26548590

  16. Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Ding, WenJun; Ji, Qiang; Shi, YunQing; Ma, RunHua

    2015-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is one of the most important complications following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and results in higher morbidity and mortality. However, few reports have focused on the predictors of LCOS following CABG. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of LCOS following isolated CABG through the review of 1524 consecutive well-documented patients in a single center, retrospective trial.The relevant preoperative and intraoperative data of patients with complete information from medical records undergoing isolated CABG from January 2010 to December 2013 in our center were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. LCOS was considered when the following criteria were met: signs of impairment of body perfusion and need for inotropic support with vasoactive drugs or mechanical circulatory support with an intra-aortic balloon pump to maintain systolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg.LCOS developed in 205 patients following CABG, accounting for 13.5% of the total population. The in-hospital mortality in the LCOS group was significantly higher than that in the non-LCOS group (25.4% versus 1.8%, P < 0.0001). In addition to the length of ICU stay and postoperative hospital stay, LCOS was correlated with negative cerebral, respiratory and renal outcomes. Through univariate analysis and then logistic regression analysis, the predictors of LCOS following CABG included older age (age > 65 years) (OR = 1.85, 95%CI 1.27-3.76), impaired left ventricular function (OR = 2.05, 95%CI 1.53-4.54), on-pump CABG (OR = 2.16, 95%CI 1.53-4.86), emergent CPB (OR = 9.15, 95%CI 3.84-16.49), and incomplete revascularization (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.79-5.15).LCOS following isolated CABG caused higher mortality, higher rates of morbidity, and longer ICU and postoperative hospital stays. Older age, impaired left ventricular function, on-pump CABG, emergent CPB, and incomplete revascularization were identified as 5 predictors of LCOS following isolated CABG surgery. PMID:25740396

  17. Use of blood products and risk of stroke after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mikkola, Reija; Gunn, Jarmo; Heikkinen, Jouni; Wistbacka, Jan-Ola; Teittinen, Kari; Kuttila, Kari; Lahtinen, Jarmo; Juvonen, Tatu; Airaksinen, Juhani KE; Biancari, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of blood transfusion on the development of post-operative stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is not well established. We, therefore, investigated this issue. Materials and methods. Complete data on peri-operative blood transfusion were available for 2,226 patients who underwent CABG in three Finnish hospitals. Results Stroke occurred post-operatively in 53 patients (2.4%). Logistic regression showed that pre-operative creatinine (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.000–1.006), extracardiac arteriopathy (OR 2.344, 95% CI 1.133–4.847), pre-operative atrial fibrillation (OR 2.409, 95% CI 1.149–5.052), and the number of packed red blood cell units transfused (OR 1.121, 95% CI 1.065–1.180) were significantly associated with post-operative stroke. When the various blood product transfusions instead of transfused units were included in the multivariable analysis, solvent/detergent treated plasma (Octaplas®) transfusion (OR 2.149, 95% CI 1.141–4.047), but not red blood cell transfusion, was significantly associated with postoperative stroke. Use of blood products ranging from no transfusion (stroke rate 1.6%) to combined transfusion of red blood cells, platelets and Octaplas® was associated with a significant increase in post-operative stroke incidence (6.6%, adjusted analysis: OR 1.727, 95% 1.350–2.209). Patients who received >2 units of red blood cells, >4 units of Octaplas® units and >8 units of platelets had the highest stroke rate of 21%. CART analysis showed that increasing amount of transfused Octaplas®, platelets and history of extracardiac arteriopathy were significantly associated with post-operative stroke. Conclusions Transfusion of blood products after CABG has a strong, dose-dependent association with the risk of stroke. The use of Octaplas® and platelet transfusions seem to have an even larger impact on the development of stroke than red blood cell transfusions. PMID:22395355

  18. Prediction and monitoring of fluid responsiveness after coronary bypass surgery using the Initial Systolic Time Interval: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorenberg, A.; Lust, E. J.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Groeneveld, A. B. J.; Meijer, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a non-invasive method to optimize the assessment of cardiac preload and therapeutic fluid administration after coronary artery bypass surgery. Previous studies have reported that the pre-ejection period (PEP), obtained from the electro-cardiogram (ECG) and from the invasively measured arterial pressure Pa, can be used for this assessment as it is dependent on the cardiac preload. The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained non-invasively by simultaneous measurement of the Electro-CardioGram (ECG) and Impedance CardioGram (ICG), is expected to depend on the cardiac preload as well. 16 patients, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after coronary artery bypass surgery and presumably hypovolaemic, were measured during administration of 2×250 ml of an isosmotic colloidal fluid solution. The parameters PEP and ISTI were determined before and after the administrations and compared with the change in cardiac output (CO), obtained by a thermodilution technique. Preliminary results show significant relationships between ISTI and CO and between changes in both of these variables before and after fluid administration.

  19. Beneficial effect of the addition of nitroglycerin to the cardioplegic solution on lipid peroxidation during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Turhan; Altuntas, Irfan; Odabasi, Dolunay; Delibas, Namik; Ocal, Ahmet; Ibrisim, Erdogan; Kutsal, Ali

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the addition of a nitric oxide (NO) donor to the cardioplegic solution on reperfusion injury and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are not known. Therefore, this work was conducted to determine the possible effects of nitroglycerin on LPO and reperfusion injury as a result of CABG. A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 30 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 3 microg/kg of nitroglycerin added to the cardioplegic solution (NTG group) or 3 microg/kg of placebo added to the cardioplegic solution (placebo group). MDA increased significantly in the placebo group compared to the NTG group during the ischemic (P < 0.01) and reperfusion periods (P < 0.01). The level of troponin I decreased significantly in the NTG group compared to the placebo group during the ischemic and reperfusion periods (P < 0.001). The level of NO increased significantly in the NTG group compared to the placebo group during the ischemic and reperfusion periods (P < 0.01). LPO was increased in response to CPB during CABG, together with simultaneous decreases in serum nitric oxide levels, whereas LPO was significantly decreased in response to CPB with nitroglycerin, together with simultaneous increases in the levels of serum nitric oxide. PMID:15858936

  20. Numerical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow and wall shear stress in realistic single, double and triple aorto-coronary bypasses.

    PubMed

    Vimmr, J; Jonášová, A; Bublík, O

    2013-10-01

    Considering the fact that hemodynamics plays an important role in the patency and overall performance of implanted bypass grafts, this work presents a numerical investigation of pulsatile non-Newtonian blood flow in three different patient-specific aorto-coronary bypasses. The three bypass models are distinguished from each other by the number of distal side-to-side and end-to-side anastomoses and denoted as single, double and triple bypasses. The mathematical model in the form of time-dependent nonlinear system of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is coupled with the Carreau-Yasuda model describing the shear-thinning property of human blood and numerically solved using the principle of the SIMPLE algorithm and cell-centred finite volume method formulated for hybrid unstructured tetrahedral grids. The numerical results computed for non-Newtonian and Newtonian blood flow in the three aorto-coronary bypasses are compared and analysed with emphasis placed on the distribution of cycle-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. As shown in this study, the non-Newtonian blood flow in all of the considered bypass models does not significantly differ from the Newtonian one. Our observations further suggest that, especially in the case of sequential grafts, the resulting flow field and shear stimulation are strongly influenced by the diameter of the vessels involved in the bypassing. PMID:23733715

  1. The influence of coronary bypass graft surgery on the marital relationship and family functioning of the patient.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, Alette; Greeff, Abraham P

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of coronary bypass graft surgery on certain aspects of the marital relationship and on family functioning of patients. The secondary aim was to determine which coping strategies families used postoperatively. An experimental pre- and posttest research design was used. We collected data using the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness Scale, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II, and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. The results indicated that bypass surgery had a negative effect on the patients' marital satisfaction, communication, and attitudes toward the division of roles in the marriage and family. Bypass surgery had a further negative influence on the emotional bonding of the patients and their spouses with other members of the family. The patients' adaptability regarding new challenges facing the family was also affected negatively. The patients who were still working also showed a greater decline in some of the measured variables than the retired patients. The coping strategies used most often by the families were the seeking of spiritual support and the reframing of the problem. The results also indicated that if passive appraisal was used as a coping strategy, the patients' marital satisfaction would decrease, and if reframing of the problem was used, the patients' adaptability regarding new challenges facing the family would increase. PMID:12519669

  2. Study of lipoprotein particles LpAI and LpAI:AII in patients before coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Coste-Burel, M; Mainard, F; Chivot, L; Auget, J L; Madec, Y

    1990-11-01

    Lipids, apolipoproteins, and LpAI and LpAI:AII particles were studied in 43 men (mean age 51, SD 7, years) 24 h before their coronary bypass surgery and in 54 control men (mean age 46 SD 9, years). LpAI and LpAI:AII were analyzed by electroimmunodiffusion and by a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunoassay, respectively. Concentrations of LpAI and LpAI:AII in the bypass patients were significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than those in the controls. Apolipoprotein AI was significantly correlated with LpAI (P less than 0.001) and LpAI:AII (P less than 0.01) in controls, but only with LpAI:AII (P less than 0.001) in bypass patients. Discriminant analysis between controls and patients showed apolipoprotein AI to be the most powerful discriminant factor; the addition of LpAI and LpAI:AII did not improve discriminant power. We conclude that the determination of LpAI and LpAI:AII particles reflects metabolic disorders in patients but does not significantly influence the discrimination of such patients into risk groups. PMID:2242564

  3. [Follow-up study of coronary artery bypass grafting after Kawasaki disease--early and late postoperative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohara, K; Yagihara, T; Kishimoto, H; Isobe, F; Yamamoto, F; Nabuchi, A; Kito, Y; Fujita, T; Suzuki, A; Kamiya, T

    1989-01-01

    In our hospital, 22 patients with severe coronary arterial lesion after Kawasaki disease underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) since 1982. The age of the cases at surgery ranged from 1 year to 19 years. Mean age was 8.3 years. Fifteen cases were bypassed using internal mammary artery (IMA) and 5 cases using IMA and autologous saphenous vein (SVG). Two cases were bypassed using only SVG. They have been examined until now by catheterization, by Treadmill test, and by Tl-201 myocardial imaging, around 1 month (Study 1) and around 1 year (Study 2) after surgery for the evaluation of results of CABG. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction 3 months after surgery and one patient shows return of anginal attack due to graft stenosis. Other patients are almost uneventful. In the study 1,20 (100%) IMA were patent, and 7 (88%) SVG were patent. In the study 2, 11 (92%) IMA and 6 (67%) SVG remained patent. Development of left anterior descending artery distal to IMA anastomosis was shown in 8 cases in the study 2. On the follow-up study with TI-201 myocardial imaging, disappearance or decrease of perfusion defect was seen in 7 cases (59%) in the study 1 and 9 cases (75%) in the study 2. On the Treadmill test, disappearance or improvement of ischemic change was seen in 15 cases (88%) in the study 1 and 10 cases (84%) in the study 2. These results suggest that IMA is more preferable for than SVG for young children who has an indication of CABG after Kawasaki disease. PMID:2786537

  4. Comparison of costs of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery for patients with angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, M; van Halem, C; van den Brink, F; de Feyter, P; Serruys, P; Suryapranata, H; Meeter, K; Bos, E; van Dalen, F J

    1990-08-01

    To determine the costs of a procedure, the total costs of the department that provides the service must be considered and, in addition, the direct cost of the specific procedure. Applying this principle to the cost accounting of angioplasty and bypass surgery results in a direct, i.e. procedural, cost, including the initial hospital stay, of respectively 8694 Dfl and 20,987 Dfl. A review of the follow-up data for the first year after the original intervention revealed a 2% reintervention rate for bypass surgery, while this percentage was 29% for angioplasty. Adding the first year costs involved with reinterventions to the procedural costs results in a 1-year cost of angioplasty and bypass operation of 13,625 Dfl and 21,363 Dfl, respectively. It is concluded that because of reinterventions in the first year, a mark up of 57% on the procedural cost of angioplasty must be added to cover 1-year costs, while for bypass surgery this is only 1%. Nevertheless, the 1-year cost for angioplasty is still 36% less than for bypass surgery. As reinterventions after PTCA may stay considerably higher than for CABG for several years, the mark-up percentages will be substantially higher for longer time spans. This may tend to equalize the total costs of PTCA and CABG over time spans of perhaps 5-8 years. Sufficient data are not available to verify this statement. Clinicians must realize that choosing the most appropriate procedure is not only a matter of medical assessment but also a matter of cost effectiveness. CABG can be seen as an 'investment decision' while PTCA tends to become a decision with characteristics of 'maintenance planning'! PMID:2118854

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial and cerebral blood flow in patients with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Vesnina, Zh V; Efimova, I Iu; Kozlov, B N; Efimova, N Iu; Lishmanov, Iu B

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a comparative scintigraphic evaluation of the changes that occur in coronary and cerebral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under conditions of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or beating heart. Twenty-nine CAD patients who underwent CPB were examined. Of these, 14 patients were operated on using CPB (the first group) and 15 patients on the beating heart using the myocardial "stabilizer" Octopus (the 2nd group). The patient groups matched in terms of the age, sex, the clinical and angiographic factors. Perfusion scintigraphy of the heart and brain by means of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the neurologic evaluation were performed twice in all the patients: before and 2-4 weeks after CABG. The second group patients demonstrated a significant lowering of the mean magnitude of stable defects (SD) of myocardial perfusion. The lowering or disappearance of SD was observed in a greater percentage of cases versus the first group. All the patients were found to have areas of hypokinesis in the SD projection. Also, the second group showed a significant rise of the mean magnitude of left ventricle ejection fraction. Operations with CPB were associated with a 5% decrease of cerebral blood flow in the frontal and temporal lobes of the right hemisphere. No significant deterioration of brain perfusion was observed in patients (on the whole in the group) operated on without heart arrest. It is noteworthy that there was a significant improvement of the average group indicators of cerebral perfusion in the right occipital and posterior segments of the temporal lobes. The changes in cerebral perfusion were in agreement with the course of changes in the cognitive status. Thus, CABG on the resting heart in CAD patients favours a more remarkable restoration of perfusion and contractility of the hibernated myocardium versus revascularization performed under CPB and exerts, as a result, a beneficial effect on cerebral circulation and the neuropsychological status of the patients. PMID:15163987

  6. Gender as a Moderator between Having an Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery (CABG) Outcomes in Rural Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Voelkel, Emily; Presley, Sherine; Doss, Brendel; Huddleston, Cashuna; Gopaldas, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines gender as a moderating variable between having an anxiety disorder diagnosis and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) outcomes in rural patients. Methods: Using the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, 17,885 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery were identified.

  7. Gender as a Moderator between Having an Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery (CABG) Outcomes in Rural Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Voelkel, Emily; Presley, Sherine; Doss, Brendel; Huddleston, Cashuna; Gopaldas, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines gender as a moderating variable between having an anxiety disorder diagnosis and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) outcomes in rural patients. Methods: Using the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, 17,885 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery were identified.…

  8. Coronary flow and reactivity, but not arrhythmia vulnerability, are affected by cardioplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity in both pediatric and adult patients but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Abnormalities in coronary flow and function have been suggested to play an important role. Prior studies suggest protective effects on coronary and myocardial function by short intravenous (i.v.) infusion of cyclosporine A before CPB. Methods Barrier-bred piglets (10–12 kg, n=20) underwent CPB for 45 min, with or without antegrade administration of cardioplegic solution. Prior to CPB, half of the animals in each group received an i.v. infusion of 100 mg/kg cyclosporine A. The left anterior descending coronary flow velocity responses to adenosine, serotonin, and atrial pacing, as well as left ventricular function and postsurgical vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (Afib) were assessed by intracoronary Doppler, epicardial echocardiography, and in vivo electrophysiological study, before and 8 hours after surgery. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen were measured at both time-points. Results Cyclosporine infusion did not influence any of the studied variables (p>0.4). Coronary peak flow velocity (cPFV) rose significantly after surgery especially in the cardioplegia group (p<0.01 vs. non-cardioplegia group and pre-surgery). cPFV responses to adenosine, but not to serotonin, tended to decrease (p=0.06) after surgery only in cardioplegia group (p=0.06; p=0.8 in non-cardioplegia group vs pre-surgery). Also, cPFV response to atrial pacing was lower in the cardioplegia than in the non-cardioplegia group (p=0.02). Neither vulnerability nor duration of induced Afib after CPB differed between groups (Chi-square p=0.4). Cyclosporine had no significant effect on coronary indexes or arrhythmia vulnerability (p>0.4). There was no difference in systolic myocardial function between groups at any time point. Conclusion In piglets, CPB with cardioplegia was associated with profound abnormalities in coronary vasomotor tone and receptor-related flow regulation, whereas arrhythmia vulnerability appeared to be comparable with that in non-cardioplegia group. In this study, preconditioning with cyclosporine had no detectable protective effect on coronary circulation or arrhythmia vulnerability after CPB. PMID:23777554

  9. Does Early Post-operative Administration of Aspirin Influence the Risk of Bleeding After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery? A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouraei, Seyed Mahmood; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin has a proven role in preventing thrombotic diseases. However, given its anti-platelet activity, it is often assumed that its early post-operative administration significantly increase the amount of post-operative bleeding. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether early post-operative administration of aspirin influence the risk of bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: In a prospective observational study, 100 consecutive patients undergoing first time elective CABG surgery were include in the study. Patients received a low dose of aspirin (75-150 mg per day) either 1 hours (the early aspirin group; n=43) or 6 hours after surgery (the late aspirin group; n=57). Total mediastinal blood drainage, blood drainage after 6 hours, incidences of re-operation for the control of bleeding and transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) and blood products were recorded and followed until chest tube removal. Results: The groups were found to be matched for the confounding variables and no significant differences were found between post-aspirin bleeding (p=0.37), RBCs and blood product usage (p=0.90) or incidences of re-operation for control of bleeding (p=1.00) between the two groups. Conclusions: Early administration (1 hour after surgery) of aspirin did not appear to increase the risk of post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing CABG. Thereby, its early administration in such cases may be considered. Although further well-designed randomized controlled trials to confirm the safety and efficacy of early administration of aspirin after CABG surgery are warranted. PMID:26843729

  10. Thoracic epidural analgesia in obese patients with body mass index of more than 30 kg/m2 for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish; Mehta, Yatin; Sawhney, Ravinder; Vats, Mayank; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Perioperative Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is an important part of a multimodal approach to improve analgesia and patient outcome after cardiac and thoracic surgery. This is particularly important for obese patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). We conducted a randomized clinical trial at tertiary care cardiac institute to compare the effect of TEA and conventional opioid based analgesia on perioperative lung functions and pain scores in obese patients undergoing OPCAB. Sixty obese patients with body mass index >30 kg/m2 for elective OPCAB were randomized into two groups (n=30 each). Patients in both the groups received general anesthesia but in group 1, TEA was also administered. We performed spirometry as preoperative assessment and at six hours, 24 hours, second, third, fourth and fifth day after extubation, along with arterial blood gases analysis. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was recorded to assess the degree of analgesia. The other parameters observed were: time to endotracheal extubation, oxygen withdrawal time and intensive care unit length of stay. On statistical analysis there was a significant difference in Vital Capacity at six hours, 24 hours, second and third day postextubation. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second followed the same pattern for first four postoperative days and peak expiratory flow rate remained statistically high till second postoperative day. ABG values and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were statistically higher in the study group up to five days. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was significantly lower till fourth and third postoperative day respectively. Tracheal extubation time, oxygen withdrawal time and ICU stay were significantly less in group 1. The use of TEA resulted in better analgesia, early tracheal extubation and shorter ICU stay and should be considered for obese patients undergoing OPCAB. PMID:20075532

  11. A comparison of off-pump and on-pump coronary bypass surgery in patients with low EuroSCORE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare postoperative short-term, mid-term and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with a low European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score. Methods A retrospective analysis of 478 consecutive low risk patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery between January 2002 and December 2007 was performed. Of these patients, 83 cases had undergone on-pump and 395 cases had undergone off-pump coronary bypass surgery. The patients were assessed in terms peri-operative complications, survival, mortality due to cardiac events, need for rehospitalization and repeated coronary revascularization. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of preoperative characteristics, except for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The number of distal anastomosis per patient was significantly lower in the off-pump group than in the on-pump group (2.66 ± 0.74 vs. 3.21 ± 0.85, p < 0.001). Early mortality rates were similar in both groups (1.01% for the off-pump group and 1.2% for the on-pump group, p = 0.687). Neurological complications were significantly lower in the off-pump group than in the on-pump group (1.1% vs. 6%, p = 0.01). The mean follow-up period was 80 ± 19.1 months (range, 3–112 months). The need for revascularization during long-term follow-up was 10.1% in the off-pump group and 7.2% in the on-pump group (p = 0.416). The 5-year survival was 95.2 ± 1.1% and 95.5 ± 2.7% in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively (p = 0.8), whereas the 7-year survival was 91.9 ± 1.6% and 84.7 ± 6.8% in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively (p = 0.274). The 5-year revascularization-free period was 89.5 ± 1.6% and 89.7 ± 3.5% in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively (p = 0.785). The 7-year revascularization-free period was 71.1 ± 3.1% and 73.5 ± 7.3% in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively (p = 0.075). The 7-year event-free survival was 80.1 ± 2.2% and 73.4 ± 7.3% in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively (p = 0.377). Conclusions The present study demonstrated that off-pump cardiac surgery had advantages over on-pump cardiac surgery in the short term; however, both interventions had similar mid-term and long-term outcomes, when performed in low-risk patient. PMID:24942178

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Left Ventricular Wall Motion in Patient with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using Magnetic Resonance Tagging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Tadashi; Nakano, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Shingo; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Tokuda, Masataka

    Left ventricular wall motions during systole were investigated from a mechanical perspective by using a magnetic resonance tagging technique. Subjects were 7 patients with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). First, by analyzing strain in the left ventricular wall, cardiac contractility was evaluated in the patients with CABG. Next, by calculating displacement in the myocardial wall, paradoxical movements following CABG were quantitatively evaluated. Strain analysis showed local decreases in circumferential strain in 4 of 7 subjects. The results of displacement analysis clarified that following CABG, the degree of radial displacement was small in the septal wall and large in the lateral wall, and circumferential displacement towards the septal wall occurred in the anterior and posterior walls. Since this behavior was seen in both reduced and normal cardiac contractility groups, paradoxical movements in the present patients were not caused by reduced cardiac contractility, but rather by rigid-body motion of the entire heart.

  13. The Effect of High Dose Cilostazol and Rosuvastatin on Periprocedural Myocardial Injury in Patients with Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    H., Ari; N., Emlek; S., Ari; S., Coşar; K., Doğanay; C., Aydin; E., Tenekecioğlu; A., Tütüncü; O.C., Yontar; M., Gürdoğan; T., Bozat; M., Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to assess the effect of pretreatment with cilostazol and rosuvastatin combination before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on peri-procedural myocardial injury (PPMIJ). Methods We randomly assigned 172 patients with stable angina pectoris scheduled for elective PCI to pre- treatment with Cilostazol 200mg and Rosuvastatin 40 mg (group 1), or to pretreatment with Rosuvastatin 40 mg group (group 2). The primary end-point was the occurrence of PPMIJ defined as any cardiac troponin I (Tn I) level elevated above the upper normal limit (UNL). The occurrence of peri-procedural myocardial infarction (PPMIN) was defined as a post-procedural increase in cTnI level ≥ 5 times above the UNL. Results There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between group 1 (n = 86) and group 2 (n = 86). The rate of PPMIJ (21% vs. 24%, p = 0.58) and PPMIN (2.3% vs. 7%, p = 0.27) were similar between the two study groups. Subgroup analysis performed on those patients without statin therapy before PCI (53 patients in group 1 and 50 patients in group 2) showed that the incidence of PPMIJ was significantly lower in the group 1 patients without chronic statin treatment [17% (9/53) versus 34% (17/50); p = 0.04], but the rate of PPMIN was similar between the two groups for those patients without chronic statin treatment [1.9% (1/53) versus 10% (5/50); p = 0.07]. Conclusions We found that adjunct cilostazol and rosuvastatin pre-treatment did not significantly reduce PPMIJ after elective PCI in patients with stable angina pectoris. However, adjunct cilostazol pre-treatment could reduce PPMIJ in patients without chronic statin therapy before elective PCI. PMID:27122885

  14. Assessment of the Risk Factors and Outcomes for Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Patients Undergoing Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lai, Ching-Huang; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lee, Chung-Yi; Ke, Hung-Yen; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recognizing patients at high risk for developing postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) may help identify those who could benefit from strategies to prevent POAF. This study was conducted to delineate outcomes and to assess risk factors for POAF among Taiwanese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods From January 2009 until February 2012, this prospective study included 266 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital with coronary artery disease. All patients underwent isolated CABG. Patients with preoperative permanent atrial fibrillation and concomitant surgery were excluded. Multiple risk factors associated with the incidence of POAF were collected and evaluated. Results POAF occurred in 126 of 226 patients (47.37%). Univariate analysis revealed that significant risk factors for the condition were age, gender, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, impaired renal function, impaired cardiac function, and increased serum electrolytes. Multivariate analysis showed dyslipidemia [hazard ratio (HR): 0.418; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.190-0.915, p = 0.029], impaired renal function as indicated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (HR: 3.174; 95% CI: 1.432-7.037, p = 0.004), and serum sodium (HR: 1.112; 95% Cl: 1.047-1.182, p = 0.001) prior to cardiopulmonary bypass as significant. Moreover, POAF was associated with lower 30-day, 1- and 3-year cumulative survival rates and higher early postoperative complications. Conclusions Patients with isolated CABG who were administered β-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers treatment, and lipid therapy before CABG were associated with reduced POAF, while those with impaired renal function and higher serum sodium before CABG predisposed POAF in a Taiwanese population. PMID:27122903

  15. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Torabipour, Amin; Arab, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Rashidian, Arash; Sari, Ali Akbari; Sarzaiem, Mahmuod Reza

    2016-02-01

    Length of hospital stay (LOS) is a key indicator for hospital management. Reducing hospital stay is a priority for all health systems. We aimed to determine the length of hospital stay following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG) based on its clinical and non-clinical factors. A cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Shariati university hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Data was analyzed by using non-parametric univariate tests and multiple linier regression models. Thirty seven independent variables including pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative variables were analyzed. Finally, an appropriate model was constructed based on the associated factors. The results showed that 70.3% of the patients were male, and the mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The Mean (±SD) and median of the LOS were 11.7 ± 7.1 and 9 days, respectively. Of 37 investigated variables, 24 qualitative and quantitative variables were significantly associated with length of stay (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that independent variables including age, medical insurance type, body mass index, and prior myocardial infarction; admission day, admission season, Cross-clamp time, pump usage, admission type, the number of laboratory tests and the number of specialty consultation had more effect on the hospital stay. We concluded that some significant factors influencing hospital stay after CABG were predictable and modifiable by hospital managers and decision makers to manage hospital beds. PMID:26997600

  16. Genome-wide association study of acute kidney injury after coronary bypass graft surgery identifies susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Smith, Mark; Li, Yi-Ju; Mathew, Joseph P; Li, Yen-Wei; Ji, Yunqi; Phillips-Bute, Barbara G; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F; Kraus, William E; Kertai, Miklos D; Shah, Svati H; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, serious complication of cardiac surgery. Since prior studies have supported a genetic basis for postoperative AKI, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for AKI following coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The discovery data set consisted of 873 nonemergent CABG surgery patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (PEGASUS), while a replication data set had 380 cardiac surgical patients (CATHGEN). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were based on Illumina Human610-Quad (PEGASUS) and OMNI1-Quad (CATHGEN) BeadChips. We used linear regression with adjustment for a clinical AKI risk score to test SNP associations with the postoperative peak rise relative to preoperative serum creatinine concentration as a quantitative AKI trait. Nine SNPs meeting significance in the discovery set were detected. The rs13317787 in GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 intergenic region (3p21.6) and rs10262995 in BBS9 (7p14.3) were replicated with significance in the CATHGEN data set and exhibited significantly strong overall association following meta-analysis. Additional fine mapping using imputed SNPs across these two regions and meta-analysis found genome-wide significance at the GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 locus and a significantly strong association at BBS9. Thus, through an unbiased GWAS approach, we found two new loci associated with post-CABG AKI providing new insights into the pathogenesis of perioperative AKI. PMID:26083657

  17. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) Levels Are Associated with Cardiac and Renal Injury in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kahli, Abdelkader; Guenancia, Charles; Zeller, Marianne; Grosjean, Sandrine; Stamboul, Karim; Rochette, Luc; Girard, Claude; Vergely, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been identified as a strong marker of cardiovascular disease; however, no data are available concerning the role of GDF-15 in the occurrence of organ dysfunction during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Five arterial blood samples were taken sequentially in 34 patients from anesthesia induction (IND) until 24 h after arrival at the intensive care unit (ICU). Plasma levels of GDF-15, follistatin-like 1 (FLST1), myeloperoxidases (MPO), hydroperoxides and plasma antioxidant status (PAS) were measured at each time-point. Markers of cardiac (cardiac-troponin I, cTnI) and renal dysfunction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and other classical biological factors and clinical data were measured. Results Plasma GDF-15 levels increased gradually during and after surgery, reaching nearly three times the IND levels in the ICU (3,075±284 ng/L vs. 1,061±90 ng/L, p<0.001). Plasma MPO levels increased dramatically during surgery, attaining their highest level after unclamping (UNCLAMP) (49±11 ng/mL vs. 1,679±153 ng/mL, p<0.001) while PAS significantly decreased between IND and UNCLAMP (p<0.05), confirming the high oxidative status induced by this surgical procedure. ICU levels of GDF-15 correlated positively with cTnI and NGAL (p = 0.006 and p = 0.036, respectively), and also with hemoglobin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Among all the post-operative biomarkers available, only eGFR, NGAL and GDF-15 measured at ICU arrival were significantly associated with the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with a EuroSCORE >3 were shown to have higher GDF-15 levels. Conclusions During cardiac surgery associated with CPB, GDF-15 levels increased substantially and were associated with markers of cardiac injury and renal dysfunction. PMID:25171167

  18. Fistulous connection between internal mammary graft and pulmonary vasculature after coronary artery bypass grafting: a rare cause of continuous murmur.

    PubMed

    Guray, Umit; Guray, Yesim; Ozbakir, Cemal; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Sasmaz, Hatice; Korkmaz, Sule

    2004-09-01

    A 58-year-old male who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using left internal mammary artery and a sequential saphenous vein graft 2 years ago presented with new onset angina. His initial physical examination revealed an unexpected continuous murmur over the left sternal border, and two-dimensional echocardiography has failed to identy the cause. Cardiac catheterization then performed and revealed patent left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts. Besides, selective injection of the left internal mammary artery graft also showed a fistula formation between left internal mammary artery graft and pulmonary vasculature of the left upper lobe. He was managed conservatively because of the severely diseased left anterior descending artery distal to internal mammary artery anastomosis and low pulmonary artery pressure. The development of fistulous connection between internal mammary artery and pulmonary vasculature is an extremely rare complication following CABG. Patients with such fistulae usually present with chest pain due to coronary steal syndrome. A new heart sound, especially a continuous murmur, may be detected during physical examination. Surgical correction is indicated in the event of refractory angina, growing fistula causing heart failure or endarteritis. Otherwise, a conservative approach with instruction of the patient for prophylactic precautions of subacute bacterial endocarditis may be recommended for asymptomatic patients. PMID:15301909

  19. Increased Perioperative B-type Natriuretic Peptide Associates with Heart Failure Hospitalization or Heart Failure Death after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Amanda A.; Nascimben, Luigino; Body, Simon C.; Collard, Charles D.; Mitani, Aya A.; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Shernan, Stanton K.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an established diagnostic and prognostic ambulatory HF biomarker. We hypothesized that increased perioperative BNP independently associates with HF hospitalization or HF death up to 5 yr after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods The authors conducted a two-institution, prospective, observational study of 1,025 subjects (mean age = 64 ± 10 yr SD) undergoing isolated primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Plasma BNP was measured preoperatively and on postoperative days 1–5. The study outcome was hospitalization or death from HF, with HF events confirmed by reviewing hospital and death records. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed with multivariable adjustments for clinical risk factors. Preoperative and peak postoperative BNP were added to the multivariable clinical model in order to assess additional predictive benefit. Results One hundred five subjects experienced an HF event (median time to first event = 1.1 yr). Median follow-up for subjects who did not have an HF event = 4.2 yr. When individually added to the multivariable clinical model, higher preoperative and peak postoperative BNP concentrations each, independently associated with the HF outcome (log10 preoperative BNP hazard ratio = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.30–2.88; P = 0.001; log10 peak postoperative BNP hazard ratio = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.45–7.65; P = 0.003). Conclusions Increased perioperative BNP concentrations independently associate with HF hospitalization or HF death during the 5 yr after primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Clinical trials may be warranted to assess whether medical management focused on reducing preoperative and longitudinal postoperative BNP concentrations associates with decreased HF after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:23695172

  20. Comparison of Economic and Patient Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Versus Traditional Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Robert S.; Tran, Richard; Collins, Michael; Reynolds, Marty; Connerney, Ingrid; Reicher, Barry; Zimrin, David; Griffith, Bartley P.; Bartlett, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (miniCABG) decreases in-hospital morbidity versus traditional sternotomy CABG. We performed a prospective cohort study (NCT00481806) to assess the impact of miniCABG on costs and metrics that influence quality of life after hospital discharge. Methods One hundred consecutive miniCABG cases performed using IMA grafting ± coronary stenting were compared with a matched group of 100 sternotomy CABG patients using IMA and saphenous veins, both treating equivalent number of target coronaries (2.7 vs. 2.9), off-pump. We compared perioperative costs, time to return to work/normal activity, and risk of major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 1 year: myocardial infarction (elevated troponin or EKG changes), target vessel occlusion (CT angiography at 1 year), stroke, or death. Results For miniCABG, robotic instruments and stents increased intraoperative costs; postoperative costs were decreased from significantly less intubation time (4.80 ± 6.35 vs. 12.24 ± 6.24 hours), hospital stay (3.77 ± 1.51 vs. 6.38 ± 2.23 days), and transfusion (0.16 ± 0.37 vs. 1.37 ± 1.35 U) leading to no significant differences in total costs. Undergoing miniCABG independently predicted earlier return to work after adjusting for confounders (t = − 2.15; P = 0.04), whereas sternotomy CABG increased MACCE (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 –7.6), largely from lower target-vessel patency. Conclusions MiniCABG shortens patient recovery time, minimizes MACCE risk at 1 year, and showed superior quality and outcome metrics versus standard-of-care CABG. These findings occurred without increasing costs and with superior target vessel graft patency. PMID:18936577

  1. Bleeding-associated outcomes with preoperative clopidogrel use in on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jeffrey S; Herout, Peter M; Harshaw, Qing; Steinhubl, Steven R; Frye, Carla B; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Clopidogrel use prior to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes is associated with a greater incidence of procedural related morbidity. We studied the impact of clopidogrel pre-treatment in patients undergoing off-pump versus on-pump coronary revascularization. This report describes a post hoc analysis of 431 on-pump and 165 off-pump cases from a retrospective multicenter study of the impact of preoperative (within 5 days) clopidogrel use on bleeding related outcomes and surgical reintervention. Logistic regression was used to analyze the outcomes with respect to surgery type and clopidogrel exposure while using a propensity score risk adjustment for off-pump surgery. The hospital length of stay (9.3 ± 5.4 days vs. 8.9 ± 5.3 days, p = 0.35), major bleeding (21% vs. 20%, p = 0.74) and reoperation (3.7% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.53) were similar between on-pump and off-pump, respectively. In both surgical cohorts, recent clopidogrel use was associated with a greater incidence of major bleeding, reoperation, and transfusion. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio of major bleeding (1.76, 95% confidence interval 0.88-3.52 on-pump; 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.06-5.30 off-pump) and reoperation (4.52, 95% confidence interval 0.58-36.6 in on-pump; 7.05, 95% confidence interval 0.82-60.5 in off-pump) was increased in clopidogrel-treated patients compared to no clopidogrel. Major bleeding and reoperation did not differ significantly between patients undergoing on- or off-pump surgery. Clopidogrel treatment within 5 days prior to surgery increased the risk of bleeding and reoperation in all CABG patients irrespective of whether surgery was performed on- or off-pump. PMID:22350624

  2. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting versus optimal medical therapy alone: effectiveness of incomplete revascularization in high risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Prestipino, Filippo; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nenna, Antonio; Sutherland, Fraser WH; Beattie, Gwyn W; Lusini, Mario; Nappi, Francesco; Chello, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Geriatric patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) are a challenging group to treat; these cases elicit discussion within heart teams regarding the actual benefit of undertaking major surgery on these patients and often lead to abandon the surgical option. Percutaneous procedures represent an important option, but coronary anatomy may be unfavorable. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) provides good quality graft on left anterior descending (LAD) without exposing the patient to cardiopulmonary bypass, and might be the ideal choice in patients with multiple comorbidities, not eligible to percutaneous or on-pump procedures. The objective of this study was to compare survival during a mid-term follow-up in high-risk patients with no percutaneous alternative, either treated with OPCAB or discharged in medical therapy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated from June 2008 to June 2013, 83 high-risk patients with multivessel CAD were included: 42 were treated with incomplete off-pump revascularization using left internal mammary artery (LIMA) on LAD; 41 were discharged in optimal medical therapy (OMT), having refused surgery. Follow-up ended in March 2015, with a telephonic interview. Primary endpoint was survival from all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints were survival from cardiac-related mortality and freedom from non-fatal major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Results During follow up, 11 deaths in OPCAB group and 27 deaths in OMT group occurred. Death was due to cardiac factors in 6 and 15 patients, respectively. MACEs were observed in 6 patients in OPCAB group and in 4 patients in OMT group. With regards to survival from all-cause mortality, patients who underwent OPCAB survived more than those discharged in OMT (Log Rank < 0.001), and OMT group carries a propensity score-adjusted hazard ratio of 3.862 (P < 0.001). With regards to survival from cardiac-related events, patients who underwent OPCAB survived more than those discharged in OMT (Log Rank = 0.002), and OMT group carries a propensity score-adjusted hazard ratio of 3.663 (P = 0.010). There is no statistically significant difference concerning freedom from MACEs (Log Rank = 0.273). Conclusions For high-risk patients with multivessel CAD, not eligible to on-pump complete revascularization surgery or percutaneous procedures, incomplete revascularization with OPCAB LIMA-on-LAD offers benefits in survival when compared to OMT alone. PMID:26918009

  3. [Scintigraphic comparison of graft patency between the left internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein graft after coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakano, H; Shimakura, T; Katsumata, T; Shimamura, Y; Hoshino, K; Harada, T; Maejima, F; Kohno, H; Asakawa, K; Shichikawa, H

    1993-07-01

    Graft patency after coronary bypass surgery (CABG) was evaluated with stress 201-thallium scintigraphy (stress 201Tl) in 26 cases, including 13 cases using the left internal thoracic artery (LITA group) in situ and 13 cases with saphenous vein graft (SVG group). All of them had effort or unstable angina caused by LAD lesion without apparent infarction. Stress 201Tl using a symptom-limited, graded bicycle exercise test was performed before CABG and 1 month, 6 months to 1 year, 1 year to 1.5 years after surgery. Five tomographic images including the apical side of the area fed by the bypass anastomosed to LAD in short axial sections were picked out and piled up. Fan-shaped ROI was made on this area and % Tl uptake was calculated using the following formula. 201Tl counts in ROI--Background counts/Maximum counts--Background counts x 100 (%) The normal % Tl uptake calculated in the control group (n = 11) in this ROI was 68.2 +/- 4.8%. Preoperative % Tl uptake showed 49.3 +/- 0.2% in the LITA group and 54.3 +/- 13.2% in the SVG group. % Tl uptake of the SVG group 1 month after CABG was slightly higher than that of the LITA group, (62.0 +/- 7.0% vs. 56.3 +/- 7.6%). However 6 months to 1 year after, % Tl uptake of the LITA group increased to 60.8 +/- 6.4%, inspite of a tendency on the decrease of that in the SVG group, (59.0 +/- 8.5%), and further more, 1 year to 1.5 years after CABG, increased to 62.3 +/- 5.1% near the normal % Tl uptake of the control group and the SVG group decreased to 58.8 +/- 6.8%. This result suggested that arterial in situ bypass graft might have an auto-regulation and "growing property" corresponding to flow demand, and this helps the excellent long-term patency of arterial bypass grafts. PMID:8336431

  4. Complete translocation of the aortic root and coronary bypass grafting with a microporous polyurethane (Mitrathane) composite valved graft in the treatment of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mestres, C A; Ninot, S; Pomar, J L

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 20-year-old male patient, with a history of addiction to parenteral heroin and recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis, is presented. In this case the final procedure consisted of a complete translocation of the aortic root and coronary bypass grafting with a composite graft made from a microporous polyurethane (Mitrathane) cardiac patch, a prosthetic valve and two Mitrathane vascular grafts for the coronaries. This is a complex operation, only indicated in cases of extensive destruction of the aortic root due to recurrent endocarditis. To our knowledge, it is the first case of this type performed using Mitrathane. PMID:3494169

  5. Myocardial Viability and Impact of Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction on Outcomes of Patients with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Results of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Thomas A.; Bonow, Robert O.; Arnold, J. Malcolm O.; Oh, Jae K.; Varadarajan, Padmini; Pohost, Gerald M.; Haddad, Haissam; Jones, Robert H.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Asch, Federico M.; Malinowski, Marcin; Barretto, Rodrigo; Kalil, Renato A.K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Lee, Kerry L.; Panza, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial, surgical ventricular reconstruction plus coronary artery bypass surgery was not associated with a reduction in the rate of death or cardiac hospitalization compared to bypass alone. We hypothesized that the absence of viable myocardium identifies patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who have a greater benefit with coronary artery bypass graft surgery and surgical ventricular reconstruction compared to bypass alone. Methods Myocardial viability was assessed by single photon computed tomography in 267 of the 1,000 patients randomized to bypass or bypass plus surgical ventricular reconstruction in STICH. Myocardial viability was assessed on a per patient basis as well as regionally based on pre-specified criteria. Results At 3 years, there was no difference in mortality or the combined outcome of death or cardiac hospitalization between those with and those without viability, and there was no significant interaction between the type of surgery and global viability status with respect to mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization. Furthermore, there was no difference in mortality or death plus cardiac hospitalization between those with and without anterior wall or apical scar, and no significant interaction between the presence of scar in these regions and the type of surgery with respect to mortality. Conclusion In patients with coronary artery disease and severe regional left ventricular dysfunction, assessment of myocardial viability does not identify patients who will derive a mortality benefit from adding surgical ventricular reconstruction to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:25152476

  6. Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Observations from a 20-Year Registry in a Middle-Eastern Country

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeedi, Rafid; Asaad, Nidal; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Singh, Rajvir; Al Binali, Hajar A.; Mulla, Abdul Wahid Al; Suwaidi, Jassim Al

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Clinical characteristics and trends in the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes in patients presented with ACS with or without a history of prior CABG over 2 decades. Methods Data were derived from hospital-based study for collected data from 1991 through 2010 of patients hospitalized with ACS in Doha, Qatar. Data were analyzed according to their history of prior CABG. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcome were compared. Results A total 16,750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied, of which 693 (4.1%) had prior CABG. Patients with prior CABG were older (mean 60.5±11 vs. 53±12 years; P = 0.001), more likely to be females and have more cardiovascular risk factors than the non-CABG group. Prior CABG patients had larger infarct size, were less likely to receive reperfusion therapy, early invasive therapy and more likely to receive evidence-based therapies when compared to non-CABG patients. In-hospital mortality and stroke rates were comparable between the 2 groups. Over 2 decades, there was reduction in the in-hospital mortality rates and stroke rates in both groups (CABG, death; 13.2% to 4%, stroke; 1.9% to 0.0%, non-CABG, death; 10% to 3.2%, stroke 1.0% to 0.1%; all, p = 0.001). Conclusion Significant reduction in-hospital morbidity and mortality among ACS patients with prior CABG over a 20-year period. PMID:22815766

  7. Does prior coronary artery bypass surgery alter the gender gap in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome? A 20-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Singh, Rajvir; Al Binali, Hajar A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies demonstrated women presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have poor outcomes when compared with men ‘the gender gap phenomenon’. The impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) on women presenting with ACS is unknown. We hypothesised that the gender gap is altered in ACS patients with prior CABG. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients presenting with ACS according to their gender and history of prior CABG. Design Retrospective, observational (cohort) study. Setting Data were collected from hospital-based registry of patients hospitalised with ACS in Doha, Qatar, from 1991 through 2010. The data were analysed according to their gender and history of prior CABG. Participants A total of 16 750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied. In total, 693 (4.3%) patients had prior CABG; among them 125 (18%) patients were women. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparisons of clinical characteristics, inhospital treatment, and outcomes, including inhospital mortality and stroke were made. Results Women with or without prior CABG were older, less likely to be smokers, but more likely to have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and renal impairment than men (p=0.001). Women were less likely to receive reperfusion and early invasive therapies. When compared with men, women without prior CABG carried higher inhospital mortality (11% vs 4.9%; p=0.001) and stroke rates (0.9% vs 0.3%; p=0.001). Female gender was independent predictor of poor outcome. Among prior CABG patients, despite the fact that women had worse baseline characteristics and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy, there were no significant differences in mortality or stroke rates between the two groups. Conclusions Consistent with the world literature, women presenting with ACS and without prior CABG had higher death rates compared with men. Patients with prior CABG had comparable death rates regardless of the gender status. PMID:23194954

  8. An L-Shaped Incision for an Extensive Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Coronary Artery Bypass Using the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomonobu; Suenaga, Hiroto; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Usui, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    An L-shaped incision combining an upper half mid-sternotomy and a left antero-lateral thoracotomy at the fourth intercostal space has been proposed by several authors for extensive aneurysms involving the aortic arch and the proximal thoracic descending aorta. This approach usually requires the division of the left internal thoracic artery at its mid position, thus making it unusable for coronary artery bypass. We herein report a modified surgical approach for simultaneous extensive arch and proximal thoracic descending aorta replacement and coronary artery bypass using the left internal thoracic artery combining a left antero-lateral thoracotomy at the sixth intercostal space and upper mid-sternotomy. The visualization of the whole diseased aorta down to the level below the hilum of the left lung was good, and the integrity of the left internal thoracic artery graft was preserved by early heparin administration before sternotomy. PMID:26798763

  9. Rare case-series of electrocautery burn following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Niazi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: With an increasing number of off-pump coronary artery surgery procedures in high-risk patients with coagulopathy, including renal failure, hepatic failure and anticoagulant drug-using patients, the frequency of related complications such as repeated exploration for bleeding is also increasing. The associated co-morbidity and repeated use of electrocautery in postoperative bleeding leaves patients susceptible to electrocautery ulcers. In this case series, rare cases of cautery burn with unique causative mechanisms are described. PMID:23669602

  10. Simultaneous removal of a tumour of the right atrium and inferior vena cava and coronary bypass-grafting in a patient with recurrent clear renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzyk, Edward; Głuszek, Stanisław; Michta, Kamil; Kot, Marta; Wożakowska-Kapłon, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cardiac tumours are the most common malignant cardiac tumours. In the early stages they are usually asymptomatic, but their consequences can be very serious, and the prognosis is poor. We present a patient with recurrent renal cell carcinoma as a tumour of the right atrium and the vena cava inferior in whom cancerous masses were removed with simultaneously coronary artery bypass-grafting. PMID:26855653

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kertai, Miklos D.; Li, Yi-Ju; Ji, Yunqi; Qi, Wenjing; Lombard, Frederick W.; Shah, Svati H.; Kraus, William E.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Newman, Mark F.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Waldron, Nathan; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.; Mathew, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is a potentially life-threatening complication after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Genetic predisposition may predict risk for developing postoperative AF. METHODS Study subjects underwent CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at Duke University Medical Center. In a discovery cohort of 877 individuals from the Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a logistic regression model with a covariate adjustment for AF risk index. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met a P<5×10−5 were further tested using a replication dataset of 304 individuals from the CATHeterization GENetics (CATHGEN) biorepository, followed by meta-analysis. Potential pathways related to postoperative AF were identified through gene enrichment analysis using the top GWAS SNPs (P<10−4). RESULTS Nineteen SNPs met the a priori defined discovery threshold for replication, but only 3 met nominal significance (P<0.05) in the CATHGEN group, with only one – rs10504554, in the intronic region in lymphocyte antigen 96 (LY96) – showing the same direction of the effect for postoperative AF (odds ratio [OR]=0.48; 95% CI: 0.34–0.68, P=2.9×10−5 vs OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.31–0.99, P=0.046), and strong overall association by meta-analysis (meta-P=4.0×10−6). Gene enrichment analysis highlighted the role of LY96 in pathways of biologic relevance to activation and modulation of innate immune responses. Our analysis also showed potential association between LY96 and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B interaction, and postoperative AF through their relevance to inflammatory signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing CABG surgery, we found genetic polymorphisms in LY96 associated with decreased risk for postoperative AF. PMID:26385043

  12. A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Stein, Traci R; Olivo, Erin L; Grand, Sandy Hermele; Namerow, Pearila B; Costa, Joseph; Oz, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events and death in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These risks persist even several months after the procedure. Guided imagery has been used with cardiac surgery patients for some time and with numerous anecdotal reports of considerable benefit. In addition, this therapy is low-cost and easy to implement, and the literature holds ample evidence for its efficacy in symptom reduction in various patient populations. It was thus hypothesized that preoperative use of guided imagery would reduce postoperative distress in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Fifty-six patients scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass graft at Columbia University Medical Center were randomized into 3 groups: guided imagery, music therapy, and standard care control. Patients in the imagery and music groups listened to audiotapes preoperatively and intraoperatively. All patients completed psychological, complementary medicine therapies use, and other assessments preoperatively and at 1 week and 6 months postoperatively. Only preoperative distress was predictive of postoperative distress at follow-up. Use of complementary medicine therapies was high in all groups and this fact, in addition to the small sample size, may have accounted for the lack of significant relationship between imagery and postoperative distress. Regardless, this complementary and alternative medicine therapy remains palatable to patients. Given its efficacy in other patient populations, it is worth exploring its potential utility for this population with a larger sample. PMID:20588130

  13. Comparing the effects of adaptive support ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on intubation duration and hospital stay after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Zarei, Hadi; Massoumi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different modes of mechanical ventilation are used for respiratory support after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study aimed to compare the effect(s) of using adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) on the length of mechanical ventilation (intubation duration) and hospital stay after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial, 64 patients were ventilated with ASV as the experiment group or with SIMV as the control group after CABG surgery in Chamran Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The time of tracheal intubation and the length of hospital stay were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed and described using statistical analysis (independent t-test). Results: The mean time of intubation duration was significantly lower in ASV group compared with SIMV group. (4.83 h vs 6.71 h, P < 0.001). The lengths of hospital stay in the ASV and the SIMV groups were 140.6 h and 145.1 h, respectively. This difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.006). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, using ASV mode for mechanical ventilation after CABG led to a decrease in intubation duration and also hospital stay in comparison with the SIMV group. It is recommended to use ASV mode on ventilators for respiratory support of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:27095997

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Medical Therapy on Short and Long Term Outcomes in Octogenarian Patients With Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alizadehasl, Azin; Sohrabi, Bahram; Panjavi, Laleh; Sadeghpour, Anita; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Zolfaghari, Reza; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Appropriate treatment methods lead to a reduced rate of mortality and morbidity, and an improved quality of life, in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Objectives: In this study, we compared short and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus medical therapy in patients 80 years of age and older with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD). Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 50 octogenarian patients with MVCAD who underwent CABG were compared with 50 patients in the same condition who were treated with medical therapy during the same time. The primary objective was to compare mortality and morbidity rates, as well as other factors such as the occurrence of chest pain, deterioration of the NYHA functional class, and re-hospitalization, between the two groups. The comparison was made using medical records from the five years post-treatment. Results: After five years, the overall mortality rate included 11 patients (22%) in the CABG group versus 18 patients (36%) in the medical therapy group; this difference was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.186). Regarding short-term outcomes, in the CABG group, cardiogenic shock occurred in 9 patients (18%), renal failure in 13 patients (26%), pulmonary complications in 9 patients (18%) and neurologic complications in 3 patients (6%); in the medical therapy group, these same complications occurred, respectively, in 6 patients (12%), 7 patients (14%), 10 patients (20%) and 1 patient (2%). In addition to these factors, freedom from chest pain and improvement in the functional class among the CABG group was significantly higher than among the medical therapy group (P = <0.001). Conclusions: CABG may be the superior form of treatment for long-term outcomes in terms of the relief of chest pain, improvement of the functional class, reduced need for re-admission, and later death for octogenarians. However, short-term morbidity may be higher among the CABG group, but the mortality rate after 30 days is quite similar. PMID:26889460

  15. Expression profile analysis based on DNA microarray for patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YUNPENG; GAO, YONGSHENG; SUN, JINGNAN; LIU, XUGUANG; MA, DASHI; MA, CHUNYE; WANG, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery is the most effective treatment for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of OPCAB on the basis of the associated molecular mechanisms. GSE12486 expression profiles downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted based on the expression profiles of DEGs. Function and pathway enrichment of upregulated DEGs was performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used for miRNA enrichment analysis based on expression profiles and prediction of their association with the disease. Cytoscape was applied to construct miRNA regulatory networks of DEGs. In total 64 DEGs were identified, including 63 upregulated and 1 downregulated gene. The first principal component in the PCA analysis was able to distinguish between pre- and post-OPCAB samples. Upregulated DEGs mainly enriched 20 Gene Ontology terms, such as chemokine activity, and 5 pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. The constructed PPI network contained 234 edges and 55 nodes, and 10 upregulated hub nodes, including FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), were screened. A total of 36 miRNAs, including MIR-224 and MIR-7, were screened by GSEA enrichment analysis. A miRNA regulatory network including 176 edges and 97 nodes was constructed, showing the regulatory relationships between miRNAs and DEGs. For example, early growth response 2 (EGR2) was regulated by 8 miRNAs including MIR-150, MIR-142-3P, MIR-367 and MIR-224. The identified DEGs might play important roles in patients pre- and post-OPCAB surgery via the regulation of associated genes. PMID:26998004

  16. The effects of discharge training and counseling on post-discharge problems in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Masoumeh; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advances in coronary artery surgery have reduced morbidity, mortality, and rates of graft occlusion. Discharge programs are important services for the continuity of treatment and must encompass physical, psychological, and social aspects of individual patient care. This study aimed at investigating the effect of planned discharge training and counseling on the problems experienced by patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study was performed on 100 patients undergoing CABG surgery in the surgery department. During a period of 9 months from January to September 2013, the patients in the intervention group were provided with adequate discharge training and counseling with a booklet before surgery and counseling until 6 weeks after discharge, while the control group patients received only routine clinical procedures, i.e. prescribing medicine, controlling vital signs, and wound dressing. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23. Frequency and distribution were used to describe the data, and paired sample t-test, variance analysis, Fisher's exact test, and Chi-squared tests were also used. Results: The reported problems for both groups had a descending pattern during the three follow-ups. However, this pattern had a greater slope in the intervention group compared to the control one. As a result of these education programs, problems were fewer in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Discharge training and counseling given to the intervention group had a positive impact on decreasing the problems that the patients had. Therefore, the institutions may be recommended to support multidisciplinary patient training and counseling activities using the methods described in this study. PMID:26257798

  17. A propensity matched comparison of return to work and quality of life after stenting or coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maznyczka, Annette M; Howard, James P; Banning, Amerjeet S; Gershlick, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine (1) return to work (RTW) rates, (2) long-term employment (>12 months postprocedure), (3) time taken to RTW, and (4) quality of life (QoL), in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Questionnaires regarding RTW were sent to 689 PCI and 169 CABG patients who underwent PCI or CABG at University Hospitals of Leicester Trust, UK, from May 2012 to May 2013. QoL was also measured using the European QoL 5-dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Responses from patients employed preprocedure were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Propensity score-matching was further used to compare similar patient populations receiving PCI or CABG. Results The response rate was 38% (235 PCI and 88 CABG patients). 241 respondents (75%) were employed preprocedure. Of these 162 (93%) PCI and 51 (77%) CABG patients returned to work, whereas 147 (85%) PCI and 41 (62%) CABG patients were still employed at >12 months postprocedure. After propensity analysis, there was no significant difference between PCI and CABG patients in RTW, long-term employment, nor QoL. The median time taken to RTW was 6 weeks after PCI and 13 weeks after CABG (p=0.001). The effect remained significant after multivariate analysis (p=0.001) and propensity analysis (p=0.001). Conclusions In this first propensity score-matched study comparing RTW and QoL after PCI or CABG strict propensity matching indicates that RTW or QoL, is similar for PCI or CABG, albeit the number of matched pairs was small. There are differences, however, in delay in RTW. PMID:26835141

  18. Evaluation of the post-coronary artery bypass patient by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Engelstad, B.L.; Wagner, S.; Herfkens, R.; Botvinick, E.; Brundage, B.; Lipton, M.

    1983-09-01

    The clinical utility of /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy and of computed tomography for the noninvasive assessment of graft patency and regional myocardial perfusion was evaluated in 24 patients who had undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery. Perfusion defects on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy (reversible or new, fixed) correlated (100% sensitivity, 78% specificity) with occlusion or stenosis of a graft or significant new native vessel disease. Graft occlusion was accurately demonstrated by dynamic computed tomography (100% sensitivity, 96% specificity) but did not uniformly correlate with regional perfusion. Perfusion defects in the distribution of patent grafts resulted from progressive native vessel disease or graft stenosis without complete occlusion. The absence of exercise-induced perfusion defects in regions of occluded grafts was attributed to suboptimal exercise, collateralization, or noncritical native vessel stenosis. The two studies provide complementary anatomic and physiologic information in the evaluation of the postbypass patient.

  19. Elimination of routine chest radiographs following off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized controlled trial study

    PubMed Central

    Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Sarvi, Ali; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post cardiac surgery routine chest radiographs (CXRs), ordered without any clinical and laboratory indications, is a standard obligatory practice in many cardiothoracic centers. Routine CXRs incur cost, manpower, and radiation. The objective of this study is to assess early outcome in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) patients with postoperative routine versus clinically indicated CXR protocols. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial conducted on 231 OPCAB candidates in Afshar Cardiac Center, Yazd, Iran. Patients were categorized into two groups. All 118 patients in group A had routine postoperative CXRs. The 113 patients in group B were selectively exposed to CXR only on clinical indications. All patients were postoperatively followed up for 30 days. Data gathered from both groups were statistically analyzed. Results: Routine postoperative CXRs obtained in 118 OPCAB group A candidates showed abnormal findings in 20 patients that did not require new intervention. One month follow-up of these patients showed no complications. In 113 OPCAB candidates of group B, 7 on-demand CXRs were obtained on clinical evaluation that required added intervention. In a 1-month follow-up of this group, five patients presented with symptomatic complaints. On re-examination, none needed readmission, intervention, or paraclinical evaluation. No complications were observed due to CXR elimination. Conclusion: The study suggests that postoperative CXR selected on clinical grounds in place of routine CXR does not change early postoperative outcome of OPCAB procedure. PMID:26682202

  20. Comparison between transesophageal Doppler echocardiography and nuclear cardioangiography for the evaluation of left ventricular filling during coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, S; Brodin, L A; Broman, M; Owall, A; Settergren, G

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the relative contribution of early (E) and atrial (A) filling of the left ventricle. Ten patients were studied under anesthesia before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using measurements of the mitral velocity-time integral (VTI) with transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography and nuclear angiocardiography simultaneously. Thermodilution cardiac output measurements were made simultaneously in order to express the E and A filling in quantitative terms. The mean difference between methods in estimating E filling was -1.0 mL and the figures for the mean +/- 2 SD were 5.7 and -7.8 mL, r = 0.98 using regression analysis. The mean difference during A filling was 0.9 mL and the corresponding figures for the mean +/- 2 SD were 7.9 and -6.1 mL, r = 0.88. There was a reduction in the volume entering the left ventricle during the E filling (42-26 mL) and in the A phase (27-22 mL) from before surgery in comparison to after CABG. There was good agreement between transesophageal Doppler echocardiographic and nuclear angiocardiographic methods concerning the volume contribution during E and A phases of left ventricular filling. PMID:7802298

  1. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saeide; Babaii, Atye; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Shamali, Mahdi; Abbasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P < 0.037) while it did not significantly change in the control group. However, there were no significant differences regarding the cardiovascular indices in the three consecutive measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG. PMID:26835471

  2. Accuracy of cardiac output measurements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: according to the vessel anastomosis sites

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Dae Hee; Joe, Han Bum; Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Soo; Kang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background During beating heart surgery, the accuracy of cardiac output (CO) measurement techniques may be influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical agreement among stat CO mode (SCO), continuous CO mode (CCO), arterial pressure waveform-based CO estimation (APCO), and transesophageal Doppler ultrasound technique (UCCO) according to the vessel anastomosis sites. Methods This study was prospectively performed in 25 patients who would be undergoing elective OPCAB. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at the following time points: during left anterior descending (LAD) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min; during obtuse marginal (OM) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min: and during right coronary artery (RCA) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min. The variables measured including the SCO, CCO, APCO, and UCCO. Results CO measurement techniques showed different correlations according to vessel anastomosis site. However, the percent error observed was higher than the value of 30% postulated by the criteria of Critchley and Critchley during all study periods for all CO measurement techniques. Conclusions In the beating heart procedure, SCO, CCO and APCO showed different correlations according to the vessel anastomosis sites and did not agree with UCCO. CO values from the various measurement techniques should be interpreted with caution during OPCAB. PMID:22679538

  3. Changes in Heart Rate Variability Parameters after Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Abrootan, Saeed; Yazdankhah, Saeed; Payami, Babak; Alasti, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic stable angina often have a state of sympathetic hyperactivity. It is considered associated with myocardial ischemia and disappears after ischemia elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in heart rate variability parameters, a noninvasive technique for the evaluation of the autonomic nervous system activity, after successful revascularization in these patients to evaluate this theory. Methods: The patients were enrolled among those who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Short-term heart rate variability analyses of all the patients were obtained, and time-domain indices (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of differences of successive R-R intervals [SDSD], root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals [rMSSD], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 10 ms from the preceding one [PNN10], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 20 ms from the preceding one [PNN20], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 30 ms from the preceding one [PNN30], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 40 ms from the preceding one [PNN40], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 50 ms from the preceding one [PNN50], percentage of R-R intervals differing > 60 ms from the preceding one [PNN60], and percentage of R-R intervals differing > 70 ms from the preceding one [PNN70]) were analyzed. All the measurements were made before and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Results: This study included 64 patients, comprising 27 men and 37 women at a mean age of 56.8 ± 9.1 years. There was a significant difference only between pre- and post-revascularization SDNN (27.5 ± 19.72 vs. 41 ± 41.4; p value = 0.013). The other parameters showed no significant differences after successful coronary intervention. Conclusion : Our data indicate that the increase in SDNN in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention seems to be prominent. PMID:26110006

  4. Perioperative indocyanine green clearance is predictive for prolonged intensive care unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting - an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction During cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) haemodilution occurs. Hepatic dysfunction after CPB is a rare, but serious, complication. Clinical data have validated the plasma-disappearance rate of indocyanine green (PDR ICG) as a marker of hepatic function and perfusion. Primary objective of this analysis was to investigate the impact of haemodilutional anaemia on hepatic function and perfusion by the time course of PDR ICG and liver enzymes in elective CABG surgery. Secondary objective was to define predictors of prolonged ICU treatment like decreased PDR ICG after surgery. Methods 60 Patients were subjected to normothermic CPB with predefined levels of haemodilution anaemia (haemotacrit (Hct) of 25% versus 20% during CPB). Hepatic function and perfusion was assessed by PDR ICG, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and ?-GST. Prolonged ICU treatment was defined as treatment ? 48 hours. Results Logistic regression analysis showed that all postoperative measurements of PDR ICG (P < 0.01), and the late postoperative ASAT (P < 0.01) measurement were independent risk factors for prolonged ICU treatment. The predictive capacity for prolonged ICU treatment was best of the PDR ICG one hour after admission to the ICU. Furthermore, the time course of PDR ICG as well as ASAT and ?-GST did not differ between groups of haemodilutional anaemia. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that impaired PDR ICG as a marker of hepatic dysfunction and hypoperfusion may be a valid marker of prolonged ICU treatment. Additionally this study provides evidence that haemodilutional anaemia to a Hct of 20% does not impair hepatic function and perfusion. Trial registration [ISRCTN35655335] PMID:19747406

  5. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion abnormalities for long-term prognosis in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Milvidaite, Irena; Kulakiene, Ilona; Vencloviene, Jone; Kinduris, Sarunas; Jurkiene, Nemira; Grizas, Vytautas; Navickas, Ramunas; Slapikas, Rimvydas

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to evaluate the prognostic value of exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Subjects and Methods: A retrospective, one-center study of 361 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease was carried out. All the patients underwent MPS after CABG due to worsened health status. MPS was performed at 4.5 years standard deviation (SD: 0.2), based on symptoms. MPS was carried out using Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and following a 1-day protocol (stress-rest). The end points were analyzed at 6.5 years (SD: 3.3) after MPS, on the average. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software for Windows, version 13.0. The t-test or the ?2-test was used. Survival times were calculated. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was developed. Results: During the follow-up, death occurred in 54 patients, and 37 patients experienced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). In the multivariate analysis, advanced age hazard ratio (HR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42.02; P = 0.027), previous myocardial infarction (HR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.228.2; P = 0.018), left ventricular ejection fraction of <40% (HR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.23.89; P = 0.01), and the summed stress score (SSS) of ?4 (HR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.023.41; P = 0.04) were independent predictors of all-cause death. The summed difference score (SDS) was the only independent predictor of MACE (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.061.48; P = 0.034). Conclusions: The parameters of MPS were found to have prognostic value in the long-term period after CABG. Advanced age, previous myocardial infarction, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, and the abnormal SSS were associated with an increased risk of all-cause death. The SDS was found to be the only significant risk factor for MACE. PMID:25400360

  6. Hand Grip Strength and Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Index among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sokran, Siti Nur Baait Biniti Mohd; Mohan, Vikram; Kamaruddin, Kamaria; Sulaiman, Mohd Daud; Awang, Yahya; Othman, Ida Rosmini Binti; Victor, Smiley Jesu Priya

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand grip strength (HGS) is a reliable indicator of peripheral muscle strength. Although, numerous studies have investigated the strength of hand grip; little attention has been given to coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, exploring the relationship between HGS and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) index. The current study aimed to evaluate the interaction between HGS and MVO2 index findings before and after cardiac surgery. Methods Twenty-seven patients with CAD had HGS were assessed using handheld dynamometer. HGS for each hand were documented. MVO2 index was assessed using rate pressure product (RPP), which is the product of the heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Repeated measures MANOVA were carried out to estimate the interaction between both hands HGS and MVO2 index before and after surgery. Results There was significant interactions (P<0.001) for both HGS dominant and non-dominant with large effect sizes (HGS dominant×MVO2 index: hp2=0.44; HGS dominant×RPP: hp2=0.49). This signifies that peripheral muscle strength of the upper limb (HGS dominant and non-dominant) had different effects on MVO2 index before and after surgery. The interaction graph shows that the increase in MVO2 index after surgery was significantly greater for peripheral muscle strength of the dominant hand when compared to non-dominant.  Conclusion Patients with CAD had interactions between HGS and oxygen consumption before and after surgery. Hence, HGS might be used as a predictor to assess oxygen consumption among cardiac patients. PMID:26170520

  7. Effects of high thoracic epidural anesthesia on mixed venous oxygen saturation in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gurses, Ercan; Berk, Dervi?; Sungurtekin, Hlya; Mete, Asli; Serin, Simay

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate possible effects of high thoracic epidural anesthesia (HTEA) on mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABGS). Material/Methods Sixty-four patients scheduled for CABGS were randomly assigned to either test (HTEA) or control group. Standard balanced general anesthesia was applied in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), pulmonary compliance (C), bispectral index (BIS), body temperature, SvO2, hematocrit values were recorded before induction. Postoperative hemodynamic changes, inotropic agent, need for vasodilatation, transfusion and additional analgesics, recovery score, extubation time, visual analogue scale (VAS) values, duration of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital were recorded. Results Study groups were similar in SpO2, CVP, PCWP, PAP, C, body temperature, BIS values, development of intraoperative bradycardia. In HTEA group, intraoperative MAP, SVR, PVR, need for transfusion were lower, whereas CO, CI, SvO2, hematocrit values were higher (p<0.05). Postoperative MAP, HR, hypertension development, need for vasodilatator, transfusion, analgesics, extubation time, recovery data, duration of stay in ICU, hospital were lower in HTEA group (p<0.05). VAS score decreased in 30 minutes and 12 hours following extubation in HTEA and control group, respectively. Conclusions HTEA may improve balance between oxygen presentation and usage by suppressing neuroendocrin stress response; provide efficient postoperative analgesia, more stabile hemodynamic, respiratory conditions, lower duration of stay in ICU, hospital. PMID:23531633

  8. Relationship between high on aspirin platelet reactivity and oxidative stress in coronary artery by-pass grafted patients.

    PubMed

    Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Golanski, Ryszard; Bijak, Michal; Boryczka, Katarzyna; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Watala, Cezary; Golanski, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the responsiveness of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with relation to oxidative and antioxidative plasma status. The study included 37 patients treated with the CABG procedure. During the first 24 h after CABG patients were given 300 mg of ASA with the following dose of 150 mg daily. The blood was collected before the procedure and 10 days after. Whole blood platelet aggregation induced with arachidonic acid, collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was performed together with whole blood generation of thromboxane B2 (TxB2). Oxidative stress was measured before and 10 days after CABG with total oxidative plasma status (TOS) and total antioxidative status of the plasma (TAS). TOS/TAS index was calculated. We observed a significant increase in the TOS and TOS/TAS index and ADP-induced aggregation 10 days after CABG in comparison with its level before operation. There was a significant decrease in the arachidonic acid-induced aggregation and serum TxB2 level. Patients with ADP-induced and collagen-induced aggregation in the upper quartile had significantly higher TOS and TOS/TAS index before (ADP) and after the operation (ADP and collagen). There were 19 patients (51%) with high on aspirin platelet reactivity after CABG who had also higher TOS and TOS/TAS index and lower TAS value in comparison with aspirin responders. Despite ASA use, increased oxidative stress after CABG can overcome its antiplatelet effect and increase platelet activation through other pathways. PMID:26523914

  9. Coronary artery bypass grafts and diagnosis related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 10 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prospective reimbursement of hospitals through the grouping of patients into a finite number of categories (Diagnosis Related Groups, DRGs), is common to many European countries. However, the specific categories used vary greatly across countries, using different characteristics to define group boundaries and thus those characteristics which result in different payments for treatment. In order to assist in the construction and modification of national DRG systems, this study analyses the DRG systems of 10 European countries. Aims To compare the characteristics used to categorise patients receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery into DRGs. Further, to compare the structure into which DRGs are placed and the relative price paid for patients across Europe. Method Patients with a procedure of CABG surgery are analysed from Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain and Sweden. Diagrammatic algorithms of DRG structures are presented for each country. The price in Euros of seven typical case vignettes, each made up of a set of a hypothetical patient’s characteristics, is also analysed for each country. In order to enable comparisons across countries the simplest case (index vignette) is taken as baseline and relative price levels are calculated for the other six vignettes, each representing patients with different combinations of procedures and comorbidities. Results European DRG payment structures for CABG surgery vary in terms of the number of different DRGs used and the types of distinctions which define patient categorisation. Based on the payments given to hospitals in different countries, the most resource intensive patient, relative to the index vignette, ranges in magnitude from 1.37 in Poland to 2.82 in Ireland. There is also considerable variation in how much different systems pay for particular circumstances, such as the occurrence of catheterisation or presence of comorbidity. Conclusion Past experience of the construction of DRG systems for CABG patients demonstrates the variety of options available. It also highlights the importance of updating systems as frequently as possible, to incentivise best practice. PMID:24949279

  10. Effect of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Men Eligible for Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Kairav; Florea, Viorel; Koene, Ryan; Kealhofer, Jessica Voight; Anand, Inderjit; Adabag, Selcuk

    2016-03-15

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death is not routinely recommended within 90 days of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because of the possibility of an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) to>35% after revascularization. We sought to determine the incidence and predictors of EF improvement to >35% after isolated CABG in patients who had a preoperative EF ≤35%. We studied 375 patients who underwent CABG at a tertiary institution and had an echocardiogram preoperatively and postoperatively. Of these, 74 patients (20%) with a preoperative EF ≤35% were included in this analysis. Improvement in EF was defined as postoperative EF >35%. In the overall study population (n = 74), mean EF improved from 28 ± 6% preoperatively to 36 ± 12% postoperatively (p <0.0001). A total of 38 patients (51%) had postoperative improvement in EF to >35% (mean EF in these patients increased from 30 ± 5% to 46 ± 8%; p <0.0001). Patients with EF improvement had a higher preoperative EF than those with no improvement (30 ± 5% vs 26 ± 7%, p <0.005). Improvement in EF was 5 times more likely in patients with preoperative EF 26% to 35% (odds ratio 4.95, 95% CI 1.73 to 14.1; p = 0.003) than those with preoperative EF ≤25%. Other clinical characteristics were not significantly different between patients with versus without EF improvement. In conclusion, more than half of the ICD-eligible patients who underwent CABG improved their EF to >35% after surgery and became ineligible for a primary prevention ICD. EF improvement was unlikely in patients with preoperative EF <25%. PMID:26803382

  11. Pleiotropic effect of lovastatin, with and without cholestyramine, in the post coronary artery bypass graft (Post CABG) trial.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Michael; Tian, Xin; Fleg, Jerome; Coady, Sean; Gosen, Christine; Kirby, Ruth; Sachdev, Vandana; Knatterud, Genell; Braunwald, Eugene

    2008-10-15

    This study evaluated patients in the Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (Post CABG) trial for evidence of statin pleiotropic effects in preventing atherosclerotic progression in saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). We studied 1,116 of the 1,351 patients in the Post CABG trial who were randomized to aggressive (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol target <85 mg/dl) or moderate (target LDL cholesterol <140 mg/dl) lovastatin treatment and who had sufficient data available. The generalized estimating equation models, adjusting for important covariates, were applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and probability of substantial atherosclerotic SVG progression (decrease in lumen diameter >or=0.6 mm) and the difference in minimum lumen diameter change between treatment groups. Aggressive lovastatin treatment compared with moderate treatment was associated with a significant decrease in risk of significant SVG atherosclerotic progression after adjustment for baseline cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol on treatment, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride changes on treatment and other independent predictors (OR 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.94, p = 0.019). Results were similar when the change or percent change from baseline of LDL cholesterol level on treatment was adjusted for rather than on-treatment LDL cholesterol and in the subset achieving a year-1 LDL cholesterol level from 90 to 135 mg/dl (OR 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.98, p = 0.042). Mean decrease in minimum lumen diameter was also significantly smaller in the aggressive than the moderate treatment arm (-0.256 vs -0.343 mm, p = 0.042). In conclusion, aggressive versus moderate lovastatin treatment appeared therapeutic in slowing the atherosclerotic process in SVGs from Post CABG patients, independent of its greater LDL cholesterol-lowering effect. PMID:18929703

  12. Sevoflurane exerts a more marked influence compared with propofol on gene expression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUA; CANG, JING; ZHANG, XIAOGUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of the anesthetics propofol and sevoflurane on gene expression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and to provide a basis for the selection of the appropriate anesthetic. The gene expression profiles of patients receiving one of the two anesthetics were analyzed prior to and following the induction of anesthesia. GSE4386 microarray data obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by significance analysis of the microarray. The data set contained data regarding atrial tissue samples from 40 patients that underwent CABG, and that received either propofol (n=10) or sevoflurane (n=10) or were control subjects (n=20). The 20 control samples comprised the same patients prior to undergoing CABG. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment Analysis was applied to the DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery functional annotation bioinformatics microarray tool. A total of 242 and 560 DEGs were identified in the human atrial samples treated with propofol and sevoflurane, respectively. Among these, 116 upregulated DEGs and no downregulated DEGs were found to be unique to sevoflurane, while 10 upregulated and 212 downregulated DEGs were unique to propofol. The majority of the pathways that were significantly over-represented among the upregulated DEGs were associated with the immune response, such as Toll- and NOD-like receptors and Jak-STAT signaling pathways. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the downregulated DEGs unique to sevoflurane treatment were involved in the immune response and glucose metabolism, while the upregulated DEGs were associated with cellular ion homeostasis and epithelial cell development. Compared with propofol, sevoflurane appeared to exert a more marked effect on biological pathways, such as drug metabolism, glycolysis, cellular ion homeostasis and epithelial cell development. PMID:26893629

  13. Predictors of poor mid-term health related quality of life after primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruzzeh, S; Athanasiou, T; Mangoush, O; Wray, J; Modine, T; George, S; Amrani, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the determinants of poor mid-term health related quality of life (HRQoL) at one year after primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: 463 patients who underwent primary isolated CABG for multivessel disease and came for their annual follow up at the outpatient clinic during one year at Harefield Hospital, Middlesex, were approached to participate in the present study. Prospective clinical data were collected as part of the clinical care of the patients and were retrospectively analysed when the patients consented to participate in the study at their outpatient visit. After their consent they were given three HRQoL assessment questionnaires. Scores, together with clinical data, were analysed by both univariate and multivariate analyses with regard to poor HRQoL outcome. Results: 437 (94.4%) patients consented to participate in the study and filled in the HRQoL questionnaires. Ten variables were identified in the univariate analysis as potential predictors of poor scores of the physical element of HRQoL; however, only three variables—gastrointestinal problems, congestive heart failure, and type D personality trait—predicted poor physical scores independently. Eleven variables were identified in the univariate analysis as potential predictors of poor scores of the mental element of HRQoL; however, only three variables—peripheral vascular disease, infective complications, and type D personality trait—predicted poor physical scores independently. Conclusion: Preoperative gastrointestinal problems, preoperative congestive heart failure, and type D personality trait were independent predictors of the poor physical component of HRQoL. Peripheral vascular disease, infective complications, and type D personality trait were independent predictors of the poor mental component of HRQoL. Interestingly, patients with type D personality were more than twice as likely to have poor physical HRQoL and more than five times as likely to have poor mental HRQoL. PMID:16287740

  14. Five-Year Outcome after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Mosorin, Matti-Aleksi; Lantos, Maté; Juvonen, Tatu; Biancari, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: The immediate and 5-year outcome after CABG of a consecutive series of 48 patients who survived OHCA was compared with those of control patients having had a recent myocardial infarction without ventricular arrhythmias. Results: All OHCA patients were found to have suffered myocardial infarction-related cardiac arrest. The mean delay from OHCA to CABG was 10.3 ± 13.0 days. Despite not statistically significant, the risk of 30-day postoperative mortality was higher among OHCA patients than control patients (6.3 vs. 0%, p = 0.24, propensity score adjusted analysis: p = 1.00). Cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in two patients who were alive 3.8 and 4.4 years after CABG, respectively. At 5-year, the overall survival rate was 80.7% in OHCA patients and 84.5% in control patients (p = 0.98, propensity score adjusted analysis: p = 0.87), and survival freedom from fatal cardiac event was 86.1% in OHCA patients and 86.5% in control patients (p = 0.61; propensity score adjusted analysis: p = 0.90). Conclusions: Early and 5-year survival rates after CABG in OHCA patients are excellent even when cardioverter defibrillator is very selectively implanted. The early and intermediate results CABG suggest a confident approach toward surgical revascularization in this critically ill patient population. PMID:25654081

  15. Poor Sleep Quality in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: An Intervention Study Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbaran, Soheila; Dehdari, Tahereh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Majdabadi, Mahmood Mahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Poor sleep quality (SQ) is common among patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). This study attempted to determine the status of SQ following an intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model in patients with poor SQ after CABG. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, including 100 patients referred to the Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinic of Tehran Heart Center, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of exercise and lifestyle training plus designed intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model) or to the control group (recipient of exercise and lifestyle training). Eight training sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for the intervention group. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors as well as social support and SQ were measured in the intervention group before and one month after the intervention and compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Results: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (24% women) and control (24% women) groups was 59.3 ± 7.3 and 59.5 ± 9.3 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of SQ (p value < 0.001), knowledge (p value < 0.001), beliefs (p value < 0.001), sleep self-efficacy (p value < 0.001), enabling factors (p value < 0.001), reinforcing factors (p value < 0.001), and social support (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Adding an intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to the cardiac rehabilitation program may further improve the SQ of patients. PMID:26157457

  16. [Off-pump coronary artery bypass for old myocardial infarction associated with jejunotomy for obstructive ileus due to gall bladder stone; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Fujimatsu, T; Suzuki, H; Kitanaka, Y; Osawa, H; Odagiri, N; Tauchi, K; Koike, H; Aruga, M; Sakurai, S; Yorita, K; Kumazaki, S

    2005-09-01

    In non-cardiac operative cases with inflammatory digestive organ disease, bacterial translocation (BT) often results from non-enteral nutrition postoperatively. If coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed in the case having old myocardial infarction (OMI) and inflammatory digestive organ disease at first before non-cardiac operation, he seems vulnerable to have severe complications such as multiple organ failure due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and preexisting BT postoperatively. We performed a off-pump CABG (OPCAB) for OMI associated with jejunotomy for obstructive ileus due to gall bladder stone. No complication was found in the postoperative course. We conclude that combined operation, non-cardiac surgery after OPCAB is worth considering in those cases. And we think OPCAB is better than conventional CABG in such cases, because cardiopulmonary bypass is known to ponder comparable damages to immune system, coagulation system and others. PMID:16167822

  17. The relationship between HbA1c & atrial fibrillation after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Surer, Suleyman; Seren, Mustafa; Saydam, Onur; Bulut, Ali; Kiziltepe, Ugursay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a risk factor for mortality and morbidity after coronary bypass grafting. We aimed to determine the association between preoperative hemoglobin HbA1c and AF after isolated off-pump coronary bypass grafting (OPCAB). Methods: The seventy-two diabetic patients undergoing isolated off-pump coronary bypass grafting were retrospectively analyzed for AF. They were divided into; Low (4.8–5.4%), Medium (5.5–8%) and High (8.1–11.5%) groups. The three groups were compared with respect to demographic, echocardiographic, intraoperative and postoperative clinical characteristics correlation. Results: Three patients died during postoperative period. AF occurred in 12 patients (16.6%) after surgery. The incidence of postoperative AF was 15.3% in the lower, 4.4% middle and 57.1% upper group. There was statistically significant correlation between preoperative HbA1C and preoperative stroke, preoperative MI history, Left atrial (LA) size, preoperative levosimendan, preoperative clopidogrel, postoperative AF, postoperative dopamine and dobutamine use, IABP, duration of extubation time, 24-hour chest tube drainage, duration of ICU and hospital mortality. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed significant correlation between postoperative AF and variables like preoperative HbA1c levels, LVEF<30%, history of preoperative MI, preoperative use of levosimendan, preoperative use of clopidogrel, postoperative dopamine, dobutamine adrenaline use, left atrium size, 24-hour chest tube drainage and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: Preoperative HbA1c levels could predict the occurrence of postoperative AF in diabetic patients and may entail to administer protective strategies.

  18. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... having coronary bypass surgery include: Infection, including chest wound infection, which is more likely to happen if you are obese, have diabetes, or have already had this surgery Heart attack ...

  19. Effects of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Mediastinal Drainage and the Use of Blood Products in the Intensive Care Unit in 60- to 80-Year-Old Patients Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Aygün, Fatih; Özülkü, Mehmet; Günday, Murat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study consisted of patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and off-pump CABG and investigated effect of using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the amount of postoperative drainage and blood products, red blood cell (RBC), free frozen plasma (FFP) given in the intensive care unit in 60-80-year-old patients who underwent CABG. METHODS The present study comprises a total of 174 patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (off-pump or on-pump CABG) surgery in our clinic in between 2012-2015 year. RESULTS It was observed that the amount of drainage in the first 24 postoperative hours was lower in the on-pump CABG group (Group 1) when compared to off-pump group (Group 2) (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 703.5±253.8 ml vs. 719.6±209.4 ml; P =0.716). However, the amount of drainage in the second 24 hours was statistically significantly lower in the off-pump CABG group (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 259.8±170.6 ml vs. 190.1±129.1 ml; P =0.016). With regard to the amount of overall drainage, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Group 1 needed RBC transfusion higher than Group 2 (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 2.2±1.3 bag vs. 1.2±0.9 bag; P <0.001). CONCLUSION We can say that CPB influences the amount of second 24-hour drainage which indexed body surface area. In addition, CPB decreases hct, hb, thrombocyte count in ICU arrived, after 24 hours in postoperative period. Reduced thrombocyte counting effect can be appeared after 48 hours in the postoperative period of CPB. PMID:26934397

  20. Sleep Quality and Emotional Correlates in Taiwanese Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients 1 Week and 1 Month after Hospital Discharge: A Repeated Descriptive Correlational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Lin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality is a common health problem for coronary artery bypass graft patients, however few studies have evaluated sleep quality during the period immediately following hospital discharge. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate changes in sleep quality and emotional correlates in coronary artery bypass graft patients in Taiwan at 1 week and 1 month after hospital discharge. Methods We used a descriptive correlational design for this study. One week after discharge, 87 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery completed two structured questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Three weeks later (1 month after discharge) the patients completed the surveys again. Pearson correlations, t-tests, ANOVA and linear multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results A majority of the participants had poor sleep quality at 1 week (82.8%) and 1 month (66.7%) post-hospitalization, based on the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Despite poor sleep quality at both time-points the sleep quality at 1 month was significantly better than at 1-week post hospitalization. Poorer sleep quality correlated with older age, poorer heart function, anxiety and depression. The majority of participants had normal levels of anxiety at 1 week (69.0%) and 1 month (88.5%) as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. However, some level of depression was seen at 1 week (78.1%) and 1 month (59.7%). Depression was a significant predictor of sleep quality at 1 week; at 1 month after hospital discharge both anxiety and depression were significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Sleep quality, anxiety and depression all significantly improved 1 month after hospital discharge. However, more than half of the participants continued to have poor sleep quality and some level of depression. Health care personnel should be encouraged to assess sleep and emotional status in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery and offer them appropriate management strategies to improve sleep and reduce anxiety and depression. PMID:26291524

  1. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning in the elderly patients with coronary artery disease with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yujie; Luo, Shengjie; Zhang, Weijun; Zhao, Yingxin; Yu, Miao; Ma, Qian; Gao, Fei; Shen, Hua; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we prospectively enrolled elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing elective drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. They were randomized to receive RIPC within 2 hours before PCI (n = 102) or not (controls, n = 98). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Despite a trend toward decline, the median high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI) level (P = .256) and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) type 4a (P = .106) in the RIPC group 16 hours after PCI procedure was not significantly different from the control group. The RIPC could attenuate the release of a myocardial biomarker but failed to show a significant effect on hscTnI level or MI type 4a incidence after PCI procedure in elderly patients with CHD having DM undergoing elective DES implantation. PMID:24163121

  2. [Is aortocoronary bypass indicated in patients with lesions of the common trunk of the left coronary artery incapable of complete revascularization?].

    PubMed

    Barboso, G; Saccani, S; Busi, M; Fesani, F

    1980-01-01

    Obstructive lesions of the left common coronary trunk need surgery if our operability criteria: possibility of at least making a by-pass on the left descending anterior coronary branch and a not seriously compromised miocardial contractility exist. Of the 25 patients operated, there was a mortality of 8% and 3 intra-and post-operatory infarcts; two other patients died after some time (one for extracardiac causes). Other infarcts were not observed. 48% of the patients had incomplete riva-scolarization which after some time had an effect on the objective state of the patients but not on their survival. The authors conclude their studies by affirming that total surgical correction is indicated even on non susceptible patients on the basis of coronarography. PMID:6971115

  3. Successful use of the Impella Recover LP 5.0 device for circulatory support during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Paolo; Coronella, Germano; Oliviero, Piermario; Monaco, Mario; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Finizio, Filippo; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Giordano, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Surgical coronary revascularization is being performed with ever increasing frequency in patients at high surgical risk. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) is particularly appealing in such subjects, but may limit the options for concomitant mechanical circulatory support. PRESENTATION OF CASE We hereby report an original case of mechanical circulatory support with the Impella Recover LP 5.0 device during OPCABG in a 61-year-old gentleman with multiple comorbidities and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Specifically, the soft tipped device did not impede surgical manipulation of the heart during the surgical procedure, providing uninterrupted circulatory support to the patient. DISCUSSION This clinical vignette supports the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the Impella Recover LP 5.0 device in patients undergoing OPCABG. CONCLUSION Pending further studies, use of the Impella Recover LP 5.0 device can be envisioned safely for OPCABG. PMID:25305600

  4. Outcome after Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Depends on Age in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease – An Analysis of Relative Survival in a Multicenter Cohort and an OCT Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Christian; Gangl, Clemens; Dalos, Daniel; Krenn, Lisa; Scherzer, Sabine; Gerken, Anna; Reinwein, Martin; Zhang, Chao; Hagmann, Michael; Wrba, Thomas; Delle-Karth, Georg; Neunteufl, Thomas; Maurer, Gerald; Vock, Paul; Mayr, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Age is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. In elder patients with increasing co-morbidities percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with more complications and worse outcome. The calculation of relative survival rates adjusts for the “background” mortality in the general population by correcting for age and gender. We analyzed if elder patients after elective PCI have a worse relative survival compared to younger patient groups. Methods A total of 8,342 patients who underwent elective PCI at two high volume centers between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. Results The survival of our patients after PCI (observed survival) was slightly lower compared to the general population (expected survival) resulting in a slightly decreasing relative survival curve. In a multivariate Cox regression model age amongst others was a strong predictor of survival. Stratifying patients according to their age the relative survival curves of younger patients (Quartile 1: <58 years; 2,046 patients), elder patients (Quartile 3: 66–73 years; 2,090 patients) and very old patients (Quartile 4: >73 years; 2,307 patients) were similar. The relative survival of mid-aged patients (Quartile 2: 58–65 years; 1,899 patients) was better than that of all other patient groups. The profile of cardiovascular risk factors differs between the various groups resulting in different composition and burden of coronary plaques in an optical coherence tomography sub-study. Conclusion Patients after elective PCI have a slightly worse long-term survival compared to the age- and sex-matched general population. This is also true for different groups of age except for mid-aged patients between 58 and 63 years. Elder patients between 66 and 73 years and above 73 years have a similar relative survival compared to younger patients below 58 years, and might therefore have similar benefit from elective PCI. PMID:27105207

  5. Preoperative Prophylactic Intraaortic Balloon Pump Reduces the Incidence of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury and Short-Term Death of High-Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Meta-Analysis of 17 Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the effects of preoperative prophylactic intraaortic balloon pump placement on postoperative renal function and short-term death of high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We found that preoperative prophylactic intraaortic balloon pump support reduced the incidence of coronary artery bypass grafting-associated acute kidney injury and short-term death and dramatically decreased the incidence of postoperative renal replacement therapy by 82% compared with high-risk patients without the procedure. This is the first meta-analysis to demonstrate significant beneficial effects of preoperative prophylactic intraaortic balloon pump on renal function in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:27045229

  6. Mitral Valve Replacement via Anterolateral Right Thoracotomy without Cross-Clamping in a Patient with Fungal Infective Endocarditis and Functioning Internal Mammary Artery after Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Dillon, Jeswant; Yakub, Mohd Azhari

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man developed severe mitral regurgitation with persistent fungal infective endocarditis 8 months after coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery and 2 saphenous veins, as well as mitral valve repair with a prosthetic ring. Echocardiography demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation and a valvular vegetation. Computed tomography coronary arteriography indicated that all grafts were patent and located intimately close to the sternum. Median resternotomy was not attempted due to the risk of injury to the bypass grafts, and therefore, a right anterolateral thoracotomy approach was utilized. Mitral valve replacement was performed with the patient under deep hypothermia and ventricular fibrillation without aortic cross-clamping. The patient`s postoperative course was uneventful. Thus, right anterolateral thoracotomy may be a superior approach to mitral valve surgery in patients who have undergone prior coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:26913683

  7. Sequential Vein Bypass Grafting is Not Associated with an Increase of Either In-hospital or Mid-term Adverse Events in Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fucheng; Wang, Jian; Wu, Hengchao; Sun, Hansong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of sequential vein bypass grafting on clinical outcomes is less known in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We aimed to evaluate the effects of sequential vein bypass grafting on clinical outcomes in off-pump CABG. Methods: From October 2009 to September 2013 at the Fuwai Hospital, 127 patients with at least one sequential venous graft were matched with 127 patients of individual venous grafts only, using propensity score matching method to obtain risk-adjusted outcome comparison. In-hospital measurement was composite outcome of in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, requirement for intra-aortic ballon pump (IABP) assistance and prolonged ventilation. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs: Death, MI or repeat revascularization) and angina recurrence were considered as mid-term endpoints. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups in baseline characteristics. Intraoperative mean blood flow per vein graft was 40.4 ml in individual venous grafts groups versus 59.5 ml in sequential venous grafts groups (P < 0.001). There were no differences between individual and sequential venous grafts groups with regard to composite outcome of in-hospital mortality, MI, stroke, IABP assistance and prolonged ventilation (11.0% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.45). Individual in-hospital measurement also did not differ significantly between the two groups. At about four years follow-up, the survival estimates free from MACEs (92.5% vs. 97.3%, P = 0.36) and survival rates free of angina recurrence (80.9% vs. 85.5%, P = 0.48) were similar among individual and sequential venous grafts groups with a mean follow-up of 22.5 months. In the Cox regression analysis, sequential vein bypass grafting was not identified as an independent predictor of both MACEs and angina recurrence. Conclusions: Compared to individual vein bypass grafting, sequential vein bypass grafting was not associated with an increase of either in-hospital or mid-term adverse events in patients undergoing off-pump CABG. PMID:25563315

  8. Comparison of 30-day and 5-year outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients aged≤50 years (the Coronary aRtery diseAse in younG adultS Study).

    PubMed

    Biancari, Fausto; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Heikkinen, Jouni; Anttila, Vesa; Mäkikallio, Timo; Jeppsson, Anders; Thimour-Bergström, Linda; Mignosa, Carmelo; Rubino, Antonino S; Kuttila, Kari; Gunn, Jarmo; Wistbacka, Jan-Ola; Teittinen, Kari; Korpilahti, Kari; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Vinco, Giulia; Vassanelli, Corrado; Ribichini, Flavio; Juvonen, Tatu; Axelsson, Tomas A; Sigurdsson, Axel F; Karjalainen, Pasi P; Mennander, Ari; Kajander, Olli; Eskola, Markku; Ilveskoski, Erkki; D'Oria, Veronica; De Feo, Marisa; Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2014-07-15

    Data on the outcome of young patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are scarce. Data on 2,209 consecutive patients aged≤50 years who underwent CABG or PCI were retrospectively collected from 15 European institutions. PCI and CABG had similar 30-day mortality rates (0.8% vs 1.4%, p=0.27), late survival (at 5 years, 97.8% vs 94.9%, p=0.082), and freedom from stroke (at 5 years, 98.0% and 98.0%, p=0.731). PCI was associated with significantly lower freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (at 5 years, 73.9% vs 85.0%, p<0.0001), repeat revascularization (at 5 years, 77.6% vs 92.5%, p<0.0001), and myocardial infarction (at 5 years, 89.9% vs 96.6%, p<0.0001) compared with CABG. These findings were confirmed in propensity score-adjusted and matched analyses. Freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after PCI was particularly low in diabetics (at 5 years, 58.0% vs 75.9%, p<0.0001) and in patients with multivessel disease (at 5 years, 63.6% vs 85.1%, p<0.0001). PCI in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction was associated with significantly better 5-year survival (97.5% vs 88.8%, p=0.001), which was driven by its lower 30-day mortality rate (1.5% vs 6.0%, p=0.017). In conclusion, patients aged≤50 years have an excellent immediate outcome after either PCI or CABG with similar long-term survival when used according to the current clinical practice. PCI was associated with significantly lower freedom from myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization. PMID:24878127

  9. Perioperative elafin for ischaemia-reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S R; Lewis, S C; Zamvar, V; Pessotto, R; Dweck, M R; Krishan, A; Goodman, K; Oatey, K; Harkess, R; Milne, L; Thomas, S; Mills, N M; Moore, C; Semple, S; Wiedow, O; Stirrat, C; Mirsadraee, S; Newby, D E; Henriksen, P A

    2015-01-01

    Background Elafin is a potent endogenous neutrophil elastase inhibitor that protects against myocardial inflammation and injury in preclinical models of ischaemic-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether elafin could inhibit myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods and results In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial, 87 patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomised 1:1 to intravenous elafin 200 mg or saline placebo administered after induction of anaesthesia and prior to sternotomy. Myocardial injury was measured as cardiac troponin I release over 48 h (area under the curve (AUC)) and myocardial infarction identified with MRI. Postischaemic inflammation was measured by plasma markers including AUC high-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Elafin infusion was safe and resulted in >3000-fold increase in plasma elafin concentrations and >50% inhibition of elastase activity in the first 24 h. This did not reduce myocardial injury over 48 h (ratio of geometric means (elafin/placebo) of AUC troponin I 0.74 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.15, p=0.18)) although post hoc analysis of the high-sensitive assay revealed lower troponin I concentrations at 6 h in elafin-treated patients (median 2.4 vs 4.1 μg/L, p=0.035). Elafin had no effect on myocardial infarction (elafin, 7/34 vs placebo, 5/35 patients) or on markers of inflammation: mean differences for AUC hs-CRP of 499 mg/L/48 h (95% CI −207 to 1205, p=0.16), and AUC MPO of 238 ng/mL/48 h (95% CI −235 to 711, p=0.320). Conclusions There was no strong evidence that neutrophil elastase inhibition with a single-dose elafin treatment reduced myocardial injury and inflammation following CABG-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Trial registration number (EudraCT 2010-019527-58, ISRCTN82061264). PMID:26310261

  10. Clinicopathological comparisons of open vein harvesting and endoscopic vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting patients in Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Teshnisi, Mohamad Abbassi; Zirak, Nahid; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Alizadeh, Behzad; Moeinipour, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Harvesting of the greater saphenous vein is almost an inevitable part of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations, and it is done by two main techniques, i.e., conventional or open vein harvesting (OVH) and the minimally-invasive endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH). This study aimed to compare these two techniques in off-pump CABG procedures with respect to clinical and pathological outcomes. Methods This cohort study was conducted on CABG candidates during a one-year period from October 2013 through September 2014 in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Eighty-seven patients voluntarily underwent EVH, and another 86 patients matched for age, gender, and other cardiovascular risk factors were selected for OVH. They were followed up for six weeks, and the main outcome measures were infections of the wound, pain, duration of hospital stay, and the costs of hospitalization. Paired sample t-test, independent t-test, or their non-parametric equivalents and the chi-squared test were used by SPSS version 17.0 for data analysis. Results The mean duration of time for vein harvesting was shorter in the EVH group (p < 0.001), and the pain score was lower (p = 0.04). No infections occurred at the site of the wound. The length of hospital stay was not significantly different for the two groups (OVH versus EVH: 8.5 ± 3.3 versus 8.4 ± 3.2 days; p-value: 0.08). Hospitalization costs were significantly higher in the EVH group (OVH versus EVH: 5.8 ± 4.7 versus 7.3 ± 2.0 million Tomman; p-value: 0.008), yet no difference was diagnosed with respect to endothelial damage in the vein grafts harvested by the EVH and OVH techniques. Conclusion EVH is considered as a minimally invasive and safe vein harvesting technique in our Center, and it can reduce the harvesting time and post-operative pain. In addition, its efficiency was similar to that of OVH. PMID:26955438

  11. Female Gender and Differences in Outcome after Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Does Age Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Rawa; Farag, Mina; Gertner, Victor; Szabó, Gabor; Weymann, Alexander; Veres, Gabor; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Bruckner, Tom; Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus; Beller, Carsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female gender is a known risk factor for early and late mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Higher age of women at operation may influence outcome, since age per se is also an important risk factor. The purpose of our study was to analyze possible gender differences in outcome after isolated CABG in different age groups to delineate the impact of female gender and age. Methods All patients over 60 years of age undergoing isolated CABG at our department during 2001 and 2011 were included and categorized by age into sexagenarians (2266, 16.6% women), septuagenarians (2332, 25.4% women) and octogenarians (374, 32% women) and assessed by gender for 30-day and 180-day mortality. Results Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in women only amongst septuagenarians (7.1 vs. 4.7%, p = 0.033). Same differences apply for 180-day mortality (12.3 vs. 8.2%, p = 0.033) and estimated one-year survival (81.6 ± 4.2 vs. 86.9 ± 2.2%, p = 0.001). Predictive factors for 30-day mortality of septuagenarian were logistic EuroSCORE (ES) (p = 0.003), perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) (p<0.001), pneumonia (p<0.001), abnormal LV-function (p<0.04) and use of LIMA graft (p<0.001), but not female gender. However, female gender was found to be an independent predictor for 180-day mortality (HR 1.632, p = 0.001) in addition to ES, use of LIMA graft, perioperative MI, pneumonia and abnormal LV function (HR 1.013, p = 0.004; HR 0.523, p<0.001; HR 2.710, p<0.001; HR 3.238, p<0.001; HR 2.013, p<0.001). Conclusion Women have a higher observed probability of early death after CABG in septuagenarians. However, female gender was not found to be an independent risk factor for 30-day, but for 180-day survival. Therefore, reduction of high impact risk factors such as perioperative MI and enhancement of LIMA use should be future goals. In view of our findings, decision for surgical revascularization should not be based on gender. PMID:26845158

  12. Effects of single antegrade hot shot in comparison with no hot shot administration during coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadsadeghi, Pouya; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Superior results will be achieved from cardiac surgery by minimizing the effect of ischemia/reperfusion injury during cross-clamping of the aorta. Different cardioplegia solutions have been introduced, but the optimum one is still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of single antegrade hot shot terminal warm blood cardioplegia (TWBC) on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS In total, 2488 patients who had CABG surgery in Sina Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-control study. They were divided into two groups, those who received cold cardioplegia only and those who received a hot shot following cold cardioplegia. Demographics, and clinical data, such as; premature atrial contraction (PAC) arrhythmia, diabetes treatment, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), were collected and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS There were significant differences found between subjects receiving antegrade hot shot based on direct current (DC) shocks, with regard to; female, EF levels, diabetes treatment (P < 0.050). Those who did not receive the hot shot and were not diabetic received more DC shock (P = 0.019). The prevalence of subjects who did no need DC shock was significantly higher among male subjects who had good EF and acceptable diabetic treatment. Multiple logistic regression showed that PAC arrhythmia did not have a significant effect on receiving DC shock during CAGB [0.84 (0.25, 2.85), (P = 0.780)]. Having poor EF increased the risk of receiving DC shock among subjects by 2.81 [(1.69, 4.69), (P ≤ 0.001)] (P < 0.001). Among the diabetic subjects, receiving insulin decreased the risk of receiving DC shock by 0.54 (0.29, 0.98) (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION It was concluded that single antegrade hot shot following cold cardioplegia was not particularly effective in the CABG group. TWBC will decrease the need for DC shock. PMID:26405451

  13. Predicting target vessel location on robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft using CT to ultrasound registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Daniel S.; Linte, Cristian; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Barron, John; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Although robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG) has gained more acceptance worldwide, its success still depends on the surgeon's experience and expertise, and the conversion rate to full sternotomy is in the order of 15%-25%. One of the reasons for conversion is poor pre-operative planning, which is based solely on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) images. In this paper, the authors propose a technique to estimate the global peri-operative displacement of the heart and to predict the intra-operative target vessel location, validated via both an in vitro and a clinical study. Methods: As the peri-operative heart migration during RA-CABG has never been reported in the literatures, a simple in vitro validation study was conducted using a heart phantom. To mimic the clinical workflow, a pre-operative CT as well as peri-operative ultrasound images at three different stages in the procedure (Stage{sub 0}--following intubation; Stage{sub 1}--following lung deflation; and Stage{sub 2}--following thoracic insufflation) were acquired during the experiment. Following image acquisition, a rigid-body registration using iterative closest point algorithm with the robust estimator was employed to map the pre-operative stage to each of the peri-operative ones, to estimate the heart migration and predict the peri-operative target vessel location. Moreover, a clinical validation of this technique was conducted using offline patient data, where a Monte Carlo simulation was used to overcome the limitations arising due to the invisibility of the target vessel in the peri-operative ultrasound images. Results: For the in vitro study, the computed target registration error (TRE) at Stage{sub 0}, Stage{sub 1}, and Stage{sub 2} was 2.1, 3.3, and 2.6 mm, respectively. According to the offline clinical validation study, the maximum TRE at the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was 4.1 mm at Stage{sub 0}, 5.1 mm at Stage{sub 1}, and 3.4 mm at Stage{sub 2}. Conclusions: The authors proposed a method to measure and validate peri-operative shifts of the heart during RA-CABG. In vitro and clinical validation studies were conducted and yielded a TRE in the order of 5 mm for all cases. As the desired clinical accuracy imposed by this procedure is on the order of one intercostal space (10-15 mm), our technique suits the clinical requirements. The authors therefore believe this technique has the potential to improve the pre-operative planning by updating peri-operative migration patterns of the heart and, consequently, will lead to reduced conversion to conventional open thoracic procedures.

  14. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfelder, Thomas; Boutsianis, Evangelos; Schertler, Thomas; Husmann, Lars; Leschka, Sebastian; Poulikakos, Dimos; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS), in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT). Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis warranting further systematic application of the presented methodology on multiple patient datasets. PMID:17897460

  15. The Effects of Propofol Cardioplegia on Blood and Myocardial Biomarkers of Stress and Injury in Patients With Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting or Aortic Valve Replacement Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Protocol for a Single-Center Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Zoe E; Baos, Sarah; Rogers, Chris A; Suleiman, M-Saadeh; Bryan, Alan J; Angelini, Gianni D; Hillier, James; Downes, Richard; Nicholson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite improved myocardial protection strategies, cardioplegic arrest and ischemia still result in reperfusion injury. We have previously published a study describing the effects of propofol (an anesthetic agent commonly used in cardiac surgery) on metabolic stress, cardiac function, and injury in a clinically relevant animal model. We concluded that cardioplegia supplementation with propofol at a concentration relevant to the human clinical setting resulted in improved hemodynamic function, reduced oxidative stress, and reduced reperfusion injury when compared to standard cardioplegia. Objective The Propofol cardioplegia for Myocardial Protection Trial (ProMPT) aims to translate the successful animal intervention to the human clinical setting. We aim to test the hypothesis that supplementation of the cardioplegic solution with propofol will be cardioprotective for patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft or aortic valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods The trial is a single-center, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with blinding of participants, health care staff, and the research team. Patients aged between 18 and 80 years undergoing nonemergency isolated coronary artery bypass graft or aortic valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Bristol Heart Institute are being invited to participate. Participants are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either cardioplegia supplementation with propofol (intervention) or cardioplegia supplementation with intralipid (placebo) using a secure, concealed, Internet-based randomization system. Randomization is stratified by operation type and minimized by diabetes mellitus status. Biomarkers of cardiac injury and metabolism are being assessed to investigate any cardioprotection conferred. The primary outcome is myocardial injury, studied by measuring myocardial troponin T. The trial is designed to test hypotheses about the superiority of the intervention within each surgical stratum. The sample size of 96 participants has been chosen to achieve 80% power to detect standardized differences of 0.5 at a significance level of 5% (2-tailed) assuming equal numbers in each surgical stratum. Results A total of 96 patients have been successfully recruited over a 2-year period. Results are to be published in late 2014. Conclusions Designing a practicable method for delivering a potentially protective dose of propofol to the heart during cardiac surgery was challenging. If our approach confirms the potential of propofol to reduce damage during cardiac surgery, we plan to design a larger multicenter trial to detect differences in clinical outcomes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 84968882; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN84968882/ProMPT (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Qi8A51BS). PMID:25004932

  16. Bivalirudin Anticoagulation for Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Nicolas; Velissaris, Theodore; Ohri, Sunil K.

    2007-01-01

    The standard agent used for systemic anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass is heparin. Alternative methods of anticoagulation are required for patients with heparin hypersensitivity. We present the case of a patient with heparin hypersensitivity who was anticoagulated with bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting. This presented unusual challenges surrounding the monitoring of anticoagulation and the method of myocardial protection. PMID:17420808

  17. The monitoring of antiaggregation effect of acetylsalicylic acid therapy by measuring serum thromboxane B2 in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Klasic, Anita; Lakusic, Nenad; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular patients take acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for preventing myocardial infarction and other thromboembolic complications. It is already known that in some patients this therapy is not effective. The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of ASA resistance on the sample of patients with coronary artery bypass grafting. Our study included 105 patients with coronary artery bypass grafting treated with ASA 150 mg/day or lesser. Platelet aggregation was measured by serum thromboxane B2 level as well as impedance aggregometry from whole blood to determine ASA antiaggregation effect. The percentage of ASA resistance was 41.9% with impedance aggregometry, and after determining the serum thromboxane B2 level this percentage was only 8.6%. The correlation between these two methods was weak (r = 0.443; P < 0.0001). Thromboembolic complications still occur in ASA-treated patients because some patients are resistant to ASA therapy. It would be useful to monitor the effectiveness of ASA therapy and give another antiaggregation drug to these patients to reduce adverse events. The problem is which test is ideal because different tests show different percentages of ASA resistance. PMID:26575493

  18. Measuring spatial effects in time to event data: a case study using months from angiography to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).

    PubMed

    Crook, Angela M; Knorr-Held, Leonhard; Hemingway, Harry

    2003-09-30

    The application of Bayesian hierarchical models to measure spatial effects in time to event data has not been widely reported. This case study aims to estimate the effect of area of residence on waiting times to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and to assess the role of important individual specific covariates (age, sex and disease severity). The data involved all patients with definite coronary artery disease who were referred to one cardiothoracic unit from five contiguous health authorities covering 488 electoral wards (areas). Time to event was the waiting time in months from angiography (diagnosis) to CABG (event). A number of discrete time survival models were fitted to the data. A discrete baseline hazard was estimated by fitting waiting time non-parametrically into the models. Ward was fitted as a spatial effect using a Gaussian Markov random field prior. Individual specific covariates considered were age, sex and number of diseased vessels. The recently proposed DIC criteria was used for comparing models. Results showed a marked spatial effect on time to bypass surgery after including age, sex and disease severity in the model. Notably this spatial effect was not apparent when these covariates were not included in the model. The observed small area spatial variation in time to CABG warrants further investigation. PMID:12953290

  19. Very Long-term Outcomes and Predictors of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-eluting Stents Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Patients with Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Peng; Wu, Chang-Yan; Ren, Xue-Jun; Yuan, Fei; Song, Xian-Tao; Luo, Ya-Wei; He, Ji-Qiang; Gao, Yue-Chun; Huang, Fang-Jiong; Gu, Cheng-Xiong; Sun, Li-Zhong; Lyu, Shu-Zheng; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on longer-term outcomes (>5 years) for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stents (DES) era. This study aimed at comparing the long-term (>5 years) outcomes of patients with ULMCA disease underwent PCI with DES and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the predictors of adverse events. Methods: All consecutive patients with ULMCA disease treated with DES implantation versus CABG in our center, between January 2003 and July 2009, were screened for analyzing. A propensity score analysis was carried out to adjust for potential confounding between the two groups. Results: Nine hundred and twenty-two patients with ULMCA disease were enrolled for the analyses (DES = 465 vs. CABG = 457). During the median follow-up of 7.1 years (interquartile range 5.3–8.2 years), no difference was found between PCI and CABG in the occurrence of death (P = 0.282) and the composite endpoint of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke (P = 0.294). Rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were significantly higher in the PCI group (P = 0.014) in large part because of the significantly higher rate of repeat revascularization (P < 0.001). PCI was correlated with the lower occurrence of stroke (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.012), creatinine (P = 0.016), and prior stroke (P = 0.031) were independent predictors of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, and stroke in the DES group, while age (P = 0.026) and EF (P = 0.002) were independent predictors in the CABG group. Conclusions: During a median follow-up of 7.1 years, there was no difference in the rate of death between PCI with DES implantation and CABG in ULMCA lesions in the patient cohort. CABG group was observed to have significantly lower rates of repeat revascularization but higher stroke rates compared with PCI. EF, creatinine, and prior stroke were independent predictors of the composite endpoint of cardiac death, MI, and stroke in the DES group, while age and EF were independent predictors in the CABG group. PMID:26996469

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Anesthesia With Midazolam-Fentanyl Versus Propofol-Remifentanil on Bispectral Index in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Naser; Zokaei, Abdol Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anesthesia with midazolam-fentanyl versus propofol-remifentanil on the BIS (bispectral index) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Sixty-four patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: midazolam-fentanyl (MF, N= 32) or propofol-remifentanil (PR, N= 32). The BIS was measured before induction of anesthesia, five minutes after induction of anesthesia, at skin incision, sternotomy, pericardiotomy, aorta cannulation, onset of cardiopulmonary bypass, during rewarming, five minutes after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass, at thorax closure, and at the end of the surgery. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to age and gender. The difference in mean BIS between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05) at all times, except before induction, five minutes after induction, at skin incision and on rewarming. Changes in the BIS were lower in the PR group than in the MF group. Both techniques can provide adequate anesthesia in patients undergoing CABG. However, the probability of awareness during anesthesia is lower with propofol-remifentanil than with midazolam-fentanyl. PMID:26156911

  1. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  2. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  3. Radionuclide angiographic assessment of global and segmental left ventricular function at rest and during exercise after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Y.L.; Kalff, V.; Kelly, M.J.; Mason, P.J.; Currie, P.J.; Harper, R.W.; Anderson, S.T.; Federman, J.; Stirling, G.R.; Pitt, A.

    1982-11-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured by radionuclide angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise before and 3 months after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in 20 patients with chronic stable angina. The right anterior oblique gated first-pass technique was used to assess LVEF response to maximal exercise (Wmax), while the left anterior oblique equilibrium-gated technique was used to assess LVEF and relative LV volume changes during graded submaximal execise. The five subjects in whom LVEF decreased significantly during exercise postoperatively all had one or more blocked or stenosed grafts. This study documents, by two independent radionuclide techniques, an improved LVEF during exercise at an increased maximal work capacity and rate-pressure product 3 months after successful CABG. (JMT)

  4. Health-related personal control predicts depression symptoms and quality of life but not health behaviour following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between health-related control beliefs, quality of life (QOL), depression symptoms, and health behaviours in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients 6-8 weeks following surgery. 149 patients who were undergoing planned CABG surgery were recruited. Patients completed questionnaires measuring health related personal control, treatment control, depression symptoms, QOL, and health behaviours prior to and 6-8 weeks after surgery. Higher levels of health-related personal control predicted better QOL, and lower levels of depression symptoms, but not adherence to medication, cardiac rehabilitation attendance, or physical activity. These results were independent of demographic, behavioural, and clinical covariates. Treatment control was not associated with any outcome. These results suggest that perceived health-related personal control is associated with key aspects of short-term recovery from CABG surgery. Targeted interventions aimed at improving perceptions of health-related personal control may improve health outcomes in this cardiac population. PMID:26341356

  5. Intravenous levosimendan-norepinephrine combination during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a hemodialysis patient with severe myocardial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This the case of a 63 year-old man with end-stage renal disease (on chronic hemodialysis), unstable angina and significantly impaired myocardial contractility with low left ventricular ejection fraction, who underwent off-pump one vessel coronary bypass surgery. Combined continuous levosimendan and norepinephrine infusion (at 0.07 μg/kg/min and 0.05 μg/kg/min respectively) started immediately after anesthesia induction and continued for 24 hours. The levosimendan/norepinephrine combination helped maintain an appropriate hemodynamic profile, thereby contributing to uneventful completion of surgery and postoperative hemodynamic stability. Although levosimendan is considered contraindicated in ESRD patients, this case report suggests that combined perioperative levosimendan/norepinephrine administration can be useful in carefully selected hemodialysis patients with impaired myocardial contractility and ongoing myocardial ischemia, who undergo off-pump myocardial revascularization surgery. PMID:20196861

  6. Effect of novel modified bipolar radiofrequency ablation for preoperative atrial fibrillation combined with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhaolei; Ma, Nan; Tang, Min; Liu, Hao; Ding, Fangbao; Yin, Hang; Mei, Ju

    2015-11-01

    We described a novel modified bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation for preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) combined with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) for patients with AF and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this novel procedure and to determine whether it can eliminate AF for CAD patients. From January 2007 to June 2013, 45 patients (26 male patients) with AF (9 paroxysmal, 17 persistent, and 19 long-standing persistent) and CAD underwent the novel modified bipolar RF ablation combined with OPCABG in our department. After median sternotomy, the modified bipolar RF ablation and OPCABG were performed on beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. Pulmonary vein isolation and left atrium ablation were achieved using a bipolar RF champ. Mitral annular lesion and ganglionic plexus were ablated with a bipolar RF pen. The left atrial appendage was excluded using a surgical stapler. 24 h holter monitoring and echocardiography were performed at discharge and 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively as well as every year thereafter. The modified bipolar RF ablation and OPCABG were performed successfully in all patients. Mean AF ablation time was 33.6 ± 4.2 min, and mean OPCABG time was 87.6 ± 13.3 min. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 12.6 ± 5.5 days. The maintenance of sinus rhythm was 95.6 % (43/45) at discharge. There was no early death and permanent pacemaker implantation in perioperation. At a mean follow-up of 29.8 ± 10.2 months, 38 of 45 (84.4 %) patients were in sinus rhythm. Follow-up TTE at 6 months postoperatively showed that left atrial diameter was significantly reduced and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly increased. The novel modified bipolar RF ablation procedure was safe, feasible and effective. It may be useful in selecting the best ablation approaches for patients with AF and CAD. PMID:24820449

  7. Comparison Between Effects of Home Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Versus Usual Care on the Patients’ Health Related Quality of Life After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Salavati, Mohsen; Falahinia, Gholamhossein; Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Rafiei, Hossein; Moosavi, Saeid; Torkamani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: To compare home-based cardiac rehabilitation with usual care on the patients’ Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) after coronary artery bypass graft in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical conducted from March 2013 to June 2013, 110 patients with CABG surgery were randomly assigned into two groups. While patients in group I, were received usual care and patients in group II, in addition to the usual care were received home-based cardiac rehabilitation programs. The 27-item MacNew Heart Disease HRQoL questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient’s HRQoL under and over 2 months after intervention. Results: At the time of 0, mean score of HRQoL was 67.86±7.5 and 64.76±8.4 in patients in group I and group II, respectively (P> 0.05). Although mean score of HRQoL in all patients in both groups increased two month after intervention, but this increase in patients in group II were higher than patients in group I (154.93±4.6 vs 134.20±8.2). This difference were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Quality of Life (QoL) can be considered as a quality indicator of health care systems. Results of present study showed that home-based cardiac rehabilitation program improved patients HRQoL after CABG surgery. PMID:26573042

  8. Preoperative atrial fibrillation is an independent risk factor for mid-term mortality after concomitant aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Akshat; Dinh, Diem; Dimitriou, Jim; Reid, Christopher; Smith, Julian; Shardey, Gilbert; Newcomb, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Preoperative atrial fibrillation (PAF) has been associated with poorer early and mid-term outcomes after isolated valvular or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Few studies, however, have evaluated the impact of PAF on early and mid-term outcomes after concomitant aortic valve replacement and coronary aortic bypass graft (AVR-CABG) surgery. METHODS Data obtained prospectively between June 2001 and December 2009 by the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Surgery Database Program was retrospectively analysed. Patients who underwent concomitant atrial arrhythmia surgery/ablation were excluded. Demographic and operative data were compared between patients undergoing concomitant AVR-CABG who presented with PAF and those who did not using chi-square and t-tests. The independent impact of PAF on 12 short-term complications and mid-term mortality was determined using binary logistic and Cox regression, respectively. RESULTS Concomitant AVR-CABG surgery was performed in 2563 patients; 322 (12.6%) presented with PAF. PAF patients were generally older (mean age 76 vs 74 years; P < 0.001) and presented more often with comorbidities including congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease (all P < 0.05). PAF was associated with 30-day mortality on univariate analysis (P = 0.019) but not multivariate analysis (P = 0.53). The incidence of early complications was not significantly higher in the PAF group. PAF was independently associated with reduced mid-term survival (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.14–2.19; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS PAF is associated with reduced mid-term survival after concomitant AVR-CABG surgery. Patients with PAF undergoing AVR-CABG should be considered for a concomitant surgical ablation procedure. PMID:23287590

  9. Frequency Rate of Atelectasis in Patients Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Its Associated Factors at Mazandaran Heart Center in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Neshat Hasan Niyayeh; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Mousavinasab, Seyed Nouraddin; Ghafari, Rahman; Soleimani, Aria; Esmaeili, Ravanbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As the most common postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery, atelectasis is one of the most important and serious early postoperative complications and one of the most important causes of prolonged hospitalization, increased costs, and mortality rise. Therefore, the present study was aimed at specifying the frequency of atelectasis in patients following coronary artery bypass graft and its associated factors in Mazandaran Heart Center in 2013-2014. Materials: The present investigation was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which sequential sampling was used. It was conducted on 375 patients whose coronary artery bypass graft had been performed by the same surgeon and anesthesiologist. For data collection, first the patients’ demographic variables and the information of their surgery were retrieved through their profiles, direct observation, patient inquiry, and the collected data were recorded in the data collection forms. Then, atelectasis was measured before the surgery and on the first and second days after it by taking CXR whose results were checked by two radiologists who were not aware of the previous observations. Data were analyzed through t-test, Pearson test, and Chi-square test using SPSS 16.0. Results: The results of the present study indicated that, 123 out of 375 patients (32.8%) were diagnosed with at least one type of tattletales during the first three days after the surgery. The mean age of the patients who were diagnosed with atelectasis was 62.9 and most of them were female. The results also showed that there was a significant relationship between postoperative frequency of atelectasis and the patients’ pulmonary diseases and underlying diseases like diabetes and hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol use before the surgery, and transfusion of 4 units of packed red blood cells during the surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion: Atelectasis is the most common postoperative complication which emerges more in patients with pulmonary and underlying diseases than other patients. PMID:26153209

  10. Balancing benefit against risk in the choice of therapy for coronary artery disease. Lesson from prospective, randomized, clinical trials of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Sacks, J

    2003-10-01

    The ageing world population faces a coming pandemic of high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD have 3 therapeutic options, which are based on objective clinical outcome: medical therapy and risk factor modification (Medicine), and 2 forms of revascularization, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). More than 50 large (>100 patients), multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trials (RCT) have compared these treatment options in terms of clinical benefits and patient risks. The randomized trials which demonstrated hard outcome (survival, myocardial infarction, stroke) benefits from statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and thienopyridines have all been completed subsequent to the publication of most Medicine versus revascularization trials. These medical therapies, plus aspirin, beta-blockers, and risk factor modification, should be made available to patients regardless of the decision to revascularize, or the decision by what means (CABG or PCI). This review integrates the information from these trials, comparing the clinical benefits against the risks inherent in the 3 therapeutic options. The results of our review show that: trials of medicine versus revascularization (either CABG or PCI) support the revascularization paradox, in that the patients at highest risk of adverse outcome, from myocardial ischemia, have a hard outcome benefit (survival, MI, or stroke) from revascularization. This paradox, first seen in the Medicine versus CABG trials of the 1970s, is evident in the trials comparing fibrinolysis and other medicines, with primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The paradox is evident in the conservative versus invasive strategy trials of non-ST-elevation MI and unstable angina, where the benefit of revascularization occurs only in high-risk subsets. The paradox often results in sicker patients, who have more to gain from revascularization, being denied it because of the elevated perception of risk (comparable to a reperfusion paradox in ST-elevation MI, where patients most likely to benefit from thrombolytics are denied them because of the perception of risk). Trials that compared medicine with revascularization for the treatment of acute MI support the use of PCI as the preferred early stabilization strategy (90% of all PAMI trial patients). The majority of the PCI versus CABG trials enrolled populations that were at relatively low risk for ischemic clinical events. These trials demonstrated few hard outcome (survival, MI, or stroke) differences between CABG and PCI. On the basis of the results obtained the following conclusions may be drawn: medicines are the primary options for stable, low-risk CAD, and should be given to all CAD patients. Medically refractory is a useful high-risk marker of potential benefit from revascularization. CABG continues to be the complete revascularization option for patients with multivessel, multi-lesion CAD, in part because of its application to chronic occlusions. PCI is the acute stabilization method of choice for patients with on-going ischemia and acute MI, especially among patients with hemodynamic compromise, and/or major comorbidity. PMID:14551526

  11. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and may eliminate the need for coronary artery bypass surgery. The outcome is relief from chest pain symptoms ... narrowing is not accomplished, heart surgery (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, also called a CABG) may be recommended.

  12. A review with meta-analysis of observational studies for survival following off-pump coronary artery bypass versus drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Watanabe, Taku; Mizuno, Yusuke; Kawai, Norikazu; Umemoto, Takuya

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) improves survival over drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, we performed a review with meta-analysis of exclusive OPCAB versus DES. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through October 2013 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Studies that met the following criteria were considered for inclusion: the design was a randomized controlled trial or observational comparative study; the study population was patients with any coronary artery disease; patients were assigned to OPCAB versus DES and outcomes included all-cause mortality at ?1 years. Our exhaustive search identified no randomized trial and 10 observational studies of OPCAB versus DES. A pooled analysis demonstrated no statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality between OPCAB and DES (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.15; P = 0.55). In general, exclusion of any single study from the analysis did not substantially alter the overall result of our analysis. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. In conclusion, OPCAB may not improve survival over DES despite greater number of treated vessels in OPCAB than in DES or greater number of distal anastomosis in OPCAB than that of implanted stents in DES. PMID:24591399

  13. Concomitant off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and total thyroidectomy for a large retrosternal goitre: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Man Chi; Mhandu, Peter; Parissis, Haralabos

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old male presented with angina and a large retrosternal goitre causing marked dyspnoea. Coronary angiography revealed triple vessel disease and moderately impaired left ventricular function. CT imaging demonstrated a substantial multinodular goitre extending into the posterior mediastinum to the level of the carina, with associated compression of the trachea and oesophagus. Preoperative thyroid function tests showed euthyroid state. The patient subsequently underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) ×2 with concomitant total thyroidectomy. A thyroid mass of dimensions 19 cm × 16 cm × 5.5 cm and weight 439 g was confirmed to be a multinodular goitre. Postoperative complications included bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve damage, hypocalcaemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The patient was discharged 36 days postoperatively and remained asymptomatic at 1 year follow up. This case provides further evidence that concomitant OPCABG and thyroidectomy for the treatment of large retrosternal goitre can be safely and effectively performed, provided that perioperative levels of thyroid hormones are maintained at euthyroid or hypothyroid levels. PMID:27162701

  14. Does the Type of Anesthetic Technique Affect In-Hospital and One-Year Outcomes after Off-Pump Coronary Arterial Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Hong, Kwan Young; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young-Tak

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous previous studies, there is little data on the effects of anesthetics on clinical outcome after off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCAB). Therefore, we retrospectively compared the effects of anesthetic choice on in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs) and one-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCEs) in patients undergoing OPCAB. Electronic medical records were reviewed in 192 patients who received propofol-remifenanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and propensity score-matched 662 patients who received isoflurane anesthesia. The primary endpoints were in-hospital MAEs and one-year MACCEs. The components of in-hospital MAEs were in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, stroke, renal failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation longer than 72 h, and postoperative new cardiac arrhythmia requiring treatment. One-year MACCEs was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, MI, coronary revascularization, and stroke. There was no significant difference in risk of in-hospital MAEs (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.88–1.88, P = 0.20) or one-year MACCEs (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.46–1.42, P = 0.46) between the groups. The risk of postoperative new arrhythmia including new atrial fibrillation significantly increased in the TIVA group compared to the isoflurane anesthesia group (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12–2.63, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the choice between propofol-remifentanil TIVA and isoflurane anesthesia did not show differences in incidence of in-hospital MAEs or one-year MACCEs in patients undergoing OPCAB. However, further studies on the effects of anesthetics on development of in-hospital new arrhythmia will be needed. PMID:27054364

  15. The importance of depression and alcohol use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: risk factors for delirium and poorer quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Joanne M; Denson, Linley A; Baker, Robert A; Tully, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether depression, anxiety and stress increase the risk for delirium and poor quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Methods A total of 180 CABG patients (mean age of 63.5 ± 10.1 years, 82.2% males) completed baseline and postoperative self-report questionnaires to assess distress and QOL. Incident delirium was diagnosed postoperatively with a structured clinical interview and patients were monitored every day post-operatively for confusion and disturbance in consciousness. Results Delirium developed in 63 persons (35% of sample). After adjustment for covariates, delirium was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.13, P = 0.003], anxiety (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13, P = 0.01) and stress (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.09, P = 0.03). Preoperative depression scores were associated with poorer QOL including bodily pain (β = −0.39, P = 0.013), vitality (β = −0.32, P = 0.020), social functioning (β = −0.51, P ≤ 0.001), emotional role function (β = −0.44, P = 0.003) and general health (β = −0.33, P = 0.038). Among the covariates, harmful levels of alcohol use was consistently associated with poorer QOL. Conclusions Depression and harmful levels of alcohol use were consistently associated with poorer QOL whereas depression, anxiety and stress were associated with delirium risk. These findings point to further research examining depression and harmful levels of alcohol use in coronary heart disease populations undergoing coronary revascularization. PMID:26918013

  16. Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Daniel B.; Knight, J. David; Velazquez, Eric J.; Wasilewski, Jaroslaw; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Smith, Peter K.; Spertus, John A.; Rajda, Miroslaw; Yadav, Rakesh; Hamman, Baron L.; Malinowski, Marcin; Naik, Ajay; Rankin, Gena; Harding, Tina M.; Drew, Laura A.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Anstrom, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial compared a strategy of routine coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with guideline-based medical therapy for patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Objective: To describe treatment-related quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes, a major prespecified secondary end point in the STICH trial. Design: Randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00023595) Setting: 99 clinical sites in 22 countries. Patients: 1212 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.35 or less and coronary artery disease. Intervention: Random assignment to medical therapy alone (602 patients) or medical therapy plus CABG (610 patients). Measurements: A battery of QOL instruments at baseline (98.9% complete) and 4, 12, 24, and 36 months after randomization (collection rates were 80% to 89% of those eligible). The principal prespecified QOL measure was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, which assesses the effect of heart failure on patients’ symptoms, physical function, social limitations, and QOL. Results: The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score was consistently higher (more favorable) in the CABG group than in the medical therapy group by 4.4 points (95% CI, 1.8 to 7.0 points) at 4 months, 5.8 points (CI, 3.1 to 8.6 points) at 12 months, 4.1 points (CI, 1.2 to 7.1 points) at 24 months, and 3.2 points (CI, 0.2 to 6.3 points) at 36 months. Sensitivity analyses to account for the effect of mortality on follow-up QOL measurement were consistent with the primary findings. Limitation: Therapy was not masked. Conclusion: In this cohort of symptomatic high-risk patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and multivessel coronary artery disease, CABG plus medical therapy produced clinically important improvements in several health status domains compared with medical therapy alone over 36 months. Primary Funding Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. PMID:25222386

  17. Three-Year Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes After Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation in Patients With a History of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Takamura, Shintaro; Kyono, Hiroyuki; Kozuma, Ken

    2016-03-22

    The clinical and angiographic outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation in patients with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have yet to be fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate 3-year clinical outcomes after EES implantation in patients with a history of CABG.We retrospectively enrolled 176 consecutive patients who had undergone EES implantation. Three-year clinical follow-up data were obtained from all patients. Follow-up angiograms and serial quantitative coronary angiography analysis (QCA) were performed for 139 (79.0%) patients. Patients from the prior CABG (+) group (n = 17; 9.7%) had higher incidences of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 41.2% versus 3.8%, P < 0.001) and major adverse cardiac events (47.1% versus 15.1%, P = 0.004). A landmark analysis conducted 1 year into our study showed a higher incidence of TLR in the prior CABG (+) group (20.0% versus 3.0%, P = 0.017).The reason for EES implantation in the prior CABG (+) group was saphenous vein graft (SVG) failure in 19 (79.2%) lesions, although the target vessel was the SVG in 8 (33.3%) lesions. There were no significant differences in clinical and follow-up QCA data between the native vessel and SVG PCI groups.This study revealed that a history of CABG was a risk factor for TLR after EES implantation. The major reason for PCI after CABG was SVG failure; both native vessel and SVG PCI showed poor outcomes. Further investigations may be warranted to determine which interventions are most effective in this high-risk subset. PMID:26973268

  18. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  19. Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiromi; Kaikita, Koichi; Ono, Takamichi; Iwashita, Satomi; Nakayama, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Horio, Eiji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kojima, Sunao; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    Peri-procedural myocardial damage (MD) is associated with increased risk of major in-hospital complications and adverse clinical events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation and CYP2C19-reduced-function gene variants on elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related MD. We measured changes in serum high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) levels, CYP2C19 genotype, and on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation (PA) using VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 system in 91 patients who received stent implantation (stent group). The control group comprised 30 patients who did not receive PCI. Blood samples were obtained before and 24 h after PCI or coronary angiography (CAG). Patients of the stent group were divided into high and low MD groups based on the median value of hs-TnT level at 24 h after PCI. Serum hs-TnT levels were significantly higher 24 h after PCI (86.8 ± 121.5 pg/ml) compared with before PCI (9.4 ± 5.3, p < 0.001), whereas the levels were identical before and 24 h after CAG in the control group. Simple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MD correlated with age (p = 0.014), estimated GFR (p = 0.003), hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.015), baseline serum hs-TnT (p = 0.049), and stent length (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified old age, high hemoglobin A1c level, and long stent, but not CYP2C19 reduced-function allele or high on-clopidogrel PA, as independent predictors of elective PCI-related MD. The present study demonstrated no significant relation between peri-procedural MD and high on-clopidgrel PA associated with CYP2C19 reduced-function allele in patients undergoing elective PCI. PMID:24781308

  20. [Recurrent angina due to high grade re-stenosis of the left subclavian artery after coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, B; Furukawa, S; Tsushimi, T; Takahashi, T; Fukuda, S; Kawamura, A; Imai, T; Ono, S; Yorozu, T; Oda, T; Zempo, N; Esato, K

    2001-08-01

    A 49-year-old woman on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure was admitted to our hospital with chest pain. She had undergone quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) including a left internal thoracic to left anterior descending coronary artery anastomosis 9 months earlier. The blood flow through the left internal thoracic artery had decreased due to high grade stenosis at the proximal portion of the left subclavian artery, and recurrent angina had developed. She was treated by the placement of Palmaz biliary stents in the left subclavian artery, but re-stenosis occurred after 9 months, causing recurrent angina again. There fore, an operation was proposed and bypass grafting from the descending aorta to the left subclavian artery was successfully performed, resulting in complete resolution of her recurrent angina. This case serves to reinforce that patients on dialysis must be carefully followed up after CABG. PMID:11517551

  1. Monitoring changes in heart tissue temperature and evaluation of graft function after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Lekas, Raimundas; Jakuska, Povilas; Krisciukaitis, Algimantas; Veikutis, Vincentas; Dzemyda, Gintautas; Mickevicius, Tomas; Morkūnaite, Kristina; Vilke, Alina; Treigys, Povilas; Civinskiene, Genuvaite; Andriuskevicius, Jonas; Vanagas, Tomas; Skauminas, Kestutis; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2009-01-01

    Thermography is a relatively new contact-free method used in experimental and clinical studies and in cardiovascular surgery to investigate the myocardium and coronary artery function. Objects of complex study included mongrel dogs and patients with coronary artery disease who underwent cardiac surgery. For active dynamic thermography, we used a thermovision camera "A20V" (FLIR Systems, USA). Our data indicate that both experimental and clinical study performed on beating hearts could be an important approach to interoperation inspection of autovenous graft function. An infrared camera also can be successfully used to determine the extent of ischemic damage to the myocardium, heart, and blood vessels during surgery as a significant prognostic tool for evaluating outcome after cardiac operation. PMID:19357452

  2. Remote preconditioning and cardiac surgery: regrouping after Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) and Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cherry X; Healy, Donagh A; Walsh, Stewart R

    2016-03-01

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an attractive cardioprotective strategy. Although results from animal studies and phase II study on humans are convincing, it cannot have a role in clinical practice until benefits in clinical outcomes are proven in phase III study. Two phase III studies were recently published [Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) and Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA)] and this article discusses their design, results and implications. PMID:27076969

  3. The effects of tranexamic acid and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution (130/0.4) on postoperative bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yanartas, M; Baysal, A; Ayd?n, C; Ay, Y; Kara, ?; Ayd?n, E; Cevirme, D; Kksal, C; Sunar, H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The addition of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) into Ringer lactate priming solution may have adverse effects on hemostasis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with or without the use of tranexamic acid. Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 132 patients were assigned to receive 20 ml/kg of Ringer priming solution with or without tranexamic acid (TA) (Group RS-TA, n=34 and Group RS-noTA, n=32) or 10 ml/kg of 6% HES plus 10 ml/kg of RS priming solution with or without intravenous tranexamic acid (Group HES-TA, n=35 and Group HES-noTA, n=31). Estimated blood loss, chest tube drainage, amount of blood products, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet and coagulation parameters were examined before and 24 hour after surgery. Results: For Group HES with tranexamic acid, when compared to other groups, estimated blood loss, postoperative 24 hour drainage loss and blood product transfusions were less (P=0.023; P=0.003; P=0.001; respectively) and hemoglobin, hematocrit values at 12 and 24 hours after surgery increased in comparison to other groups (P=0.041, P=0.034, P=0.004, P=0.001; respectively). Platelet concentrations were similar between groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: In CABG, the administration of tranexamic acid in HES 130/0.4 prime solution study group decreased estimated blood loss and chest tube drainage in comparison to patients receving Ringer prime solution with or without tranexamic acid postoperatively however, no effects on renal functions or postoperative complications were shown. PMID:26131192

  4. Predicting reintubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation and death in post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a comparison between artificial neural networks and logistic regression models

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Renata G.; de Souza, César R.; Machado, Maurício N.; Correa, Paulo R.; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Pizzolato, Ednaldo B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, the common complications are the need for reintubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and death. Thus, a reliable model for the prognostic evaluation of those particular outcomes is a worthwhile pursuit. The existence of such a system would lead to better resource planning, cost reductions and an increased ability to guide preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to compare different methods – logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) – in accomplishing this goal. Material and methods Subjects undergoing CABG (n = 1315) were divided into training (n = 1053) and validation (n = 262) groups. The set of independent variables consisted of age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, diabetes, creatinine level, cardiopulmonary bypass, presence of preserved ventricular function, moderate and severe ventricular dysfunction and total number of grafts. The PMV was also an input for the prediction of death. The ability of ANN to discriminate outcomes was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the results were compared using a multivariate LR. Results The ROC curve areas for LR and ANN models, respectively, were: for reintubation 0.62 (CI: 0.50–0.75) and 0.65 (CI: 0.53–0.77); for PMV 0.67 (CI: 0.57–0.78) and 0.72 (CI: 0.64–0.81); and for death 0.86 (CI: 0.79–0.93) and 0.85 (CI: 0.80–0.91). No differences were observed between models. Conclusions The ANN has similar discriminating power in predicting reintubation, PMV and death outcomes. Thus, both models may be applicable as a predictor for these outcomes in subjects undergoing CABG. PMID:26322087

  5. Radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency?

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert A; Hamza, Mustafa; Tsakok, Teresa M; Tsakok, Maria T

    2013-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'in coronary artery bypass grafting using radial artery grafts, does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency'. Altogether >183 papers were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Radial artery grafts typically have a narrower lumen than vein grafts, and as such there is some concern that anastomosing them directly to the aorta during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may impair graft patency. As such, some surgeons prefer to anastomose radial artery grafts to a second-order vessel such as the left internal mammary artery (LIMA). We sought to assess the evidence for this. A handful of papers directly addressing the issue of the effect of the site of proximal anastomosis on graft patency were found, with three showing no significant difference. One such study reported an insignificant difference in angiographic patency at 32 months postoperatively, with 94.1% of off-aorta grafts remaining patent vs 87.2% of off-LIMA grafts (p = 0.123). However, a large-scale well-designed study was able to demonstrate a statistically significant difference at five years postoperatively, with 74.3% of off-aorta grafts patent, compared with 65.2% of off-LIMA (p = 0.004). Nonetheless, a number of papers that report patency for either off-aorta or off-LIMA grafts give comparable figures for each technique. Additionally, different centres and investigators report very different patency results for grafts that have the same site of proximal anastomosis. One centre was able to achieve patency rates for off-LIMA grafts of 88% up to a mean of 7.7 years postoperatively while another centre reported a patency rate of only 78.6% at three years. Given this, and the plethora of other factors influencing graft patency, we conclude that the best evidence suggests that the site of proximal anastomosis has little or no effect on radial artery graft patency following CABG. PMID:23975715

  6. Predicting emergency coronary artery bypass graft following PCI: application of a computational model to refer patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgical backup

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zeeshan; Moscucci, Mauro; Share, David; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical tools to stratify patients for emergency coronary artery bypass graft (ECABG) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) create the opportunity to selectively assign patients undergoing procedures to hospitals with and without onsite surgical facilities for dealing with potential complications while balancing load across providers. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of a computational model directly optimised for cohort-level performance to predict ECABG in PCI patients for this application. Methods Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium registry data with 69 pre-procedural and angiographic risk variables from 68 022 PCI procedures in 2004–2007 were used to develop a support vector machine (SVM) model for ECABG. The SVM model was optimised for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) at the level of the training cohort and validated on 42 310 PCI procedures performed in 2008–2009. Results There were 87 cases of ECABG (0.21%) in the validation cohort. The SVM model achieved an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.86). Patients in the predicted top decile were at a significantly increased risk relative to the remaining patients (OR 9.74, 95% CI 6.39 to 14.85, p<0.001) for ECABG. The SVM model optimised for the AUROC on the training cohort significantly improved discrimination, net reclassification and calibration over logistic regression and traditional SVM classification optimised for univariate performance. Conclusions Computational risk stratification directly optimising cohort-level performance holds the potential of high levels of discrimination for ECABG following PCI. This approach has value in selectively referring PCI patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgery. PMID:26688738

  7. Preventive Use of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingchao; Lang, Yan; Guo, Longhui; Song, Xiaodong; Shu, Liliang; Su, Gang; Liu, Hai; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an important therapeutic measure for CHD patients. The patients who score more than 12 EuroSCORE points cannot achieve good results because of their low cardiac output and delicate left ventricular function. Therefore, use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is essential for coronary surgical patients in the peri-operative period. At present, there is no unified standard about when to insert an IABP. This study aimed to compare the short-term clinical outcomes of the IABP inserted in the preoperative condition with its use in the emergency condition for extremely high-risk patients. Material/Methods IABP support time, respirator support time, and ICU stay time were significantly shorter (all p<0.05) in the preoperative IABP group compared to the emergency IABP group, and the rates of low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS), acute myocardial infarction, and acute kidney injury in the preoperative group were also significantly lower in the preoperative IABP group (all p<0.05). There were no significant differences in IABP-related complications and the mortality (p=0.106) between two groups. Results Compared to the emergency IABP group, the IABP support time, respirator support time and ICU stay time were significantly lower in the preoperative IABP group (all p<0.05), and the rates of LCOS, acute myocardial infarction, and acute kidney injury in the preoperative group were also significantly lower (all p<0.05). There were no significant differences in IABP-related complications and the mortality (p=0.106) between the 2 groups. Conclusions For high-risk patients with CABG, preoperative IABP insertion is a safe and effective measure. PMID:25797193

  8. Syphilitic aortitis causing bilateral coronary ostial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hosoba, Soh; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Koizumi, Yusuke; Asai, Tohru

    2011-02-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis in otherwise normal coronary vessels is a rare complication of syphilitic aortitis. A 47-year-old man with no coronary risk factors developed severe isolated ostial stenosis in the left main coronary artery and right coronary artery. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries and gastroepiploic artery and recovered uneventfully. PMID:21345777

  9. Perioperative infusion of low- dose of vasopressin for prevention and management of vasodilatory vasoplegic syndrome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-A double-blind randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative medication by inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in coronary artery patients predisposes to vasoplegic shock early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Although in the majority of the cases this shock is mild, in some of them it appears as a situation, "intractable" to high-catecholamine dose medication. In this study we examined the possible role of prophylactic infusion of low-dose vasopressin, during and for the four hours post-bypass after cardiopulmonary bypass, in an effort to prevent this syndrome. In addition, we studied the influence of infused vasopressin on the hemodynamics of the patients, as well as on the postoperative urine-output and blood-loss. In our study 50 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a blind-randomized basis. Two main criteria were used for the eligibility of patients for coronary artery bypass grafting: ejection fraction between 30-40%, and patients receiving ACE inhibitors, at least for four weeks preoperatively. The patients were randomly divided in two groups, the group A who were infused with 0.03 IU/min vasopressin and the group B who were infused with normal saline intraoperativelly and for the 4 postoperative hours. Measurements of mean artery pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), ejection fracture (EF), heart rate (HR), mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were performed before, during, and after the operation. The requirements of catecholamine support, the urine-output, the blood-loss, and the requirements in blood, plasma and platelets for the first 24 hours were included in the data collected. The incidence of vasodilatory shock was significantly lower (8% vs 20%) in group A and B respectively (p = 0,042). Generally, the mortality was 12%, exclusively deriving from group B. Postoperatively, significant higher values of MAP, CVP, SVR and EF were recorded in the patients of group A, compared to those of group B. In group A norepinephrine was necessary in fewer patients (p = 0.002) and with a lower mean dose (p = 0.0001), additive infusion of epinephrine was needed in fewer patients (p = 0.001), while both were infused for a significant shorter infusion-period (p = 0.0001). Vasopressin administration (for group A) was associated with a higher 24 hour diuresis) (0.0001). In conclusion, low-dose of infused vasopressin during cardiopulmonary bypass and for the next 4 hours is beneficial for its postoperative hemodynamic profile, reduces the doses of requirements of catecholamines and contributes to prevention of the postcardiotomy vasoplegic shock in the patient with low ejection fraction who is receiving ACE preoperatively. PMID:20346182

  10. Implantation of a Novel Allogeneic Mesenchymal Precursor Cell Type in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: an Open Label Phase IIa Trial.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Kyriakos; Antonitsis, Polychronis; Westaby, Stephen; Reginald, Ajan; Sultan, Sabena; Doumas, Argirios; Efthimiadis, George; Evans, Martin John

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure is a life-limiting condition affecting over 40 million patients worldwide. Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is the most common cause. This study investigates in situ cardiac regeneration utilizing precision delivery of a novel mesenchymal precursor cell type (iMP) during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF < 40 %). The phase IIa safety study was designed to enroll 11 patients. Preoperative scintigraphy imaging (SPECT) was used to identify hibernating myocardium not suitable for conventional myocardial revascularization for iMP implantation. iMP cells were implanted intramyocardially in predefined viable peri-infarct areas that showed poor perfusion, which could not be grafted due to poor target vessel quality. Postoperatively, SPECT was then used to identify changes in scar area. Intramyocardial implantation of iMP cells with CABG was safe with preliminary evidence of efficacy of improved myocardial contractility and perfusion of nonrevascularized territories resulting in a significant reduction in left ventricular scar area at 12 months after treatment. Clinical improvement was associated with a significant improvement in quality of life at 6 months posttreatment in all patients. The results suggest the potential for in situ myocardial regeneration in ischemic heart failure by delivery of iMP cells. PMID:27037806

  11. [Ultrafast-track Anesthesia (UFTA) in the Operating Room and the Anesthetic Management for Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass (OPCAB)].

    PubMed

    Shimosaka, Mika; Inoue, Motoki; Takahashi, Hisato; Takahashi, Masao; Miyajima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Toshihiro; Hatada, Kazuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Currently, the immediate extubation in the operating room is necessary for the patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). To achieve UFTA, anesthesiologists should control general anesthesia. We report the case series of UFTA for the patients undergone OPCAB at our hospital. Forty patients receiving OPCAB between April 2012 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We divided the patients into those extubated in the operating room (Extubation group) and those not (Intubation group). The extubation criteria included adequate revascularization, adequate hemostasis, ratio between Pa(O2) and FI(O2) more than 250, body temperature above 36 degrees C, stable hemodynamics without noradrenaline, without IABP, and normal postoperative chest X-ray. Twenty-three patients (70% of the scheduled and 20% of the emergency patients) were included in our criteria and could be extubated in the operating room. One patient was re-intubated due to asthma attack following extubation in the operating room. The sucess rate of immediate extubation was 95.7% by our criteria. There were no significant differences in age, sex, BMI, duration of anesthesia, and amount of hemorrhage between the 2 groups. We believe that UFTA for OPCAB patients may be possible under carefull decision by extubation criteria. PMID:27188100

  12. A meta-analysis of randomized trials for repeat revascularization following off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Mizuno, Yusuke; Niwa, Masao; Goto, Shin-nosuke; Umemoto, Takuya

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether repeat revascularization rates are increased following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of off-pump vs on-pump CABG. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through March 2013 using web-based search engines (PubMed, OVID). Studies considered for inclusion met the following criteria: the design was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial; the study population was patients undergoing CABG; patients were randomly assigned to off-pump vs on-pump CABG and outcomes included repeat revascularization rates at ?1 year. Our exhaustive search identified 12 prospective randomized controlled trials of off-pump vs on-pump CABG. Pooled analysis demonstrated a statistically significant 38% increase in repeat revascularization rates with off-pump relative to on-pump CABG in the fixed-effects model (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.76; P = 0.008). In general, exclusion of any single trial from the analysis did not substantively alter the overall result of our analysis. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. The results of our analysis suggest that off-pump CABG may increase repeat revascularization rates by 38% over on-pump CABG. PMID:23876842

  13. A meta-analysis of adjusted risk estimates for survival from observational studies of complete versus incomplete revascularization in patients with multivessel disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Watanabe, Taku; Mizuno, Yusuke; Kawai, Norikazu; Umemoto, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with complete revascularization improves survival in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) over CABG with incomplete revascularization, we performed a meta-analysis of adjusted (but not unadjusted) risk estimates from observational studies. Databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through October 2013 using Web-based search engines (PubMed, OVID). Eligible studies were observational studies of complete- versus incomplete-revascularization CABG enrolling ? 100 patients with MVD in each treatment arm and reporting an adjusted hazard ratio for follow-up mortality. Mixed-effects meta-regression analyses were performed to determine whether the effects of complete-revascularization CABG on survival were modulated by the prespecified factors. Fourteen observational studies enrolling 30 389 patients were identified and included. A pooled analysis demonstrated a statistically significant 37% reduction in follow-up mortality with complete- relative to incomplete-revascularization CABG (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.75; P < 0.00001). Although meta-regression coefficients were not statistically significant for mean follow-up duration and age and proportion of men and patients undergoing off-pump CABG, that for proportion of patients with diabetes was significantly negative (P = 0.03), which would indicate that as patients with diabetes increase, complete-revascularization CABG is more beneficial for survival. In conclusion, complete-revascularization CABG appears to improve survival over incomplete-revascularization CABG in patients with MVD. PMID:24532310

  14. Fast simulations of patient-specific haemodynamics of coronary artery bypass grafts based on a POD-Galerkin method and a vascular shape parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, Francesco; Faggiano, Elena; Ippolito, Sonia; Manzoni, Andrea; Quarteroni, Alfio; Rozza, Gianluigi; Scrofani, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    In this work a reduced-order computational framework for the study of haemodynamics in three-dimensional patient-specific configurations of coronary artery bypass grafts dealing with a wide range of scenarios is proposed. We combine several efficient algorithms to face at the same time both the geometrical complexity involved in the description of the vascular network and the huge computational cost entailed by time dependent patient-specific flow simulations. Medical imaging procedures allow to reconstruct patient-specific configurations from clinical data. A centerlines-based parametrization is proposed to efficiently handle geometrical variations. POD-Galerkin reduced-order models are employed to cut down large computational costs. This computational framework allows to characterize blood flows for different physical and geometrical variations relevant in the clinical practice, such as stenosis factors and anastomosis variations, in a rapid and reliable way. Several numerical results are discussed, highlighting the computational performance of the proposed framework, as well as its capability to carry out sensitivity analysis studies, so far out of reach. In particular, a reduced-order simulation takes only a few minutes to run, resulting in computational savings of 99% of CPU time with respect to the full-order discretization. Moreover, the error between full-order and reduced-order solutions is also studied, and it is numerically found to be less than 1% for reduced-order solutions obtained with just O(100) online degrees of freedom.

  15. Comparison of ventilatory and haemodynamic effects of BIPAP and S-IMV/PSV for postoperative short-term ventilation in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kazmaier, S; Rathgeber, J; Buhre, W; Buscher, H; Busch, T; Mensching, K; Sonntag, H

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the present multiple cross-over study was to compare the effects of biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) ventilation with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation combined with pressure support ventilation (S-IMV/PSV) in sedated and awake patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Twenty-four patients with no evidence of preoperative respiratory dysfunction and an uncomplicated intraoperative course were investigated. The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups starting with either BIPAP or S-IMV/PSV mode. Haemodynamic measurements and blood gas analyses were performed during sedation with 2.0 mg kg(-1) h(-1) propofol in the primary mode, after switching to the alternative ventilatory mode, and in the primary mode again. The same sequence of measurements was repeated in awake patients who had reached extubation criteria. In awake patients, PSV was performed instead of S-IMV. Statistical analysis of data was performed using non-parametric tests. Inspiratory peak pressure increased significantly during S-IMV/PSV in sedated patients in both groups. Other ventilatory parameters did not differ significantly between BIPAP and S-IMV/PSV in both groups. Similarly, haemodynamic parameters and blood-gas analyses did not vary with the ventilatory mode. Our results demonstrate that BIPAP ventilation has comparable effects on haemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange compared with S-IMV/PSV and PSV when used for short-term ventilatory support in patients after cardiac surgery. PMID:11050517

  16. Investigation of the effects of chest physiotherapy in different positions on the heart and the respiratory system after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Guner, Sukriye Ilkay; Korkmaz, Fatma Demir

    2015-07-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of chest physiotherapy in different positions on the heart and the respiratory system after coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients are divided into two groups of 30 patients each in the study. To the patients in the first group (30 patients), percussion-vibration was performed in the 45 supine position, while slightly laterally lying and endotracheal aspiration was performed in the supine position. To the patients in the second group (30 patients), percussion-vibration was performed in the 0 supine position, while slightly laterally lying and endotracheal aspiration was performed in the supine position. The procedures are repeated two times for all patients and their means were taken. The pre- and postapplication values of patients were measured from central venous and arterial catheters and the values of patient monitors were recorded. Comparison of the two groups in terms of respiratory values did not reveal a significant difference, but chest physiotherapy with the head of the bed at 0 was determined to improve cardiac functions. Evaluation of the groups in terms of pre- and postphysiotherapy applications showed a significant increase in mixed venous oxygen saturation in both groups. Chest physiotherapy with the head of the bed elevated to 45 may be recommended in patients who carry a risk of pulmonary complications and who are candidates for chest physiotherapy at an early stage. PMID:23470692

  17. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tarbiat, Masoud; Manafi, Babak; Davoudi, Maryam; Totonchi, Ziae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides. Results: On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. Overall 177 catheterizations (91.7%) were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1%) on the right side and 72 (91.1%) on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6%) was significantly more than the left side (0%) (P= 0.003). The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides. PMID:25320661

  18. The new method of time-lag ligation for portosystemic shunt using coronary artery bypass graft occluder for adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kokai, H; Sato, Y; Yamamoto, S; Oya, H; Nakatsuka, H; Kobayashi, T; Watanabe, T; Takizawa, K; Hatakeyama, K

    2009-12-01

    We performed a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for a 57-year-old man who had end-stage liver failure with portal hypertension and an inferior mesenteric vein-left testicular vein (IMV-LTV) shunt. At operation, we did not clamp the shunt but encircled it with a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) occluder (Sumitomo Bakelite K.K., Japan), which was passed outside the body through the abdominal wall to time-lag ligation (TLL). On postoperative day (POD) 5, we observed decreased portal flow. We performed TLL of the shunt using the CABG occluder without re-laparotomy. The portal flow increased, while the portal vein pressure increased slightly. In LDLT, portosystemic shunt has been reported to be a cause of portal thrombus formation or graft liver atrophy due to decreased PV flow in the mid postoperative period. However, perioperative ligation of a portosystemic shunt may prevent regeneration of the grafted liver because of excessive portal hypertension. Therefore the technique of time-lag ligation of a portosystemic shunt using a CABG occluder may be a minimally invasive, useful method to achieve physiological liver graft regeneration. PMID:20005380

  19. Has the difference in mortality between percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting in people with heart disease and diabetes changed over the years? A systematic review and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Herbison, Peter; Wong, Cheuk-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the difference in outcome between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), to see if it has changed over the years in diabetics deemed eligible for both treatments; and to contrast the long-term mortality findings with those in non-diabetics. Design Meta-analyses using data from randomised controlled trials found by searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, from their inception until March 2015. Setting Studies had to be randomised controlled trials comparing PCI with CABG. Participants Those taking part in the studies had to have multivessel cardiac or left main artery cardiac disease and be deemed eligible for both treatments. Interventions PCI or CABG. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was all cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were a composite of mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction; cardiovascular death; and MACCE (Major Adverse Cardiac or Cerebrovascular Event). The longest follow-up was used in the analysis. Results Among 14 studies (4868 diabetics) reported over three decades, meta-regression shows no relationship between the year of publication and the difference in long term all cause mortality between PCI and CABG. CABG has maintained an approximately 30% mortality advantage compared to PCI. The other outcomes used showed the same lack of change over the years. These findings held true among insulin-requiring and non-insulin-requiring diabetics. However, among non-diabetics included in the 14 studies, there was no difference in mortality outcome between PCI and CABG. Conclusions The difference in outcome between PCI and CABG in diabetics has not narrowed from the beginning—with balloon angioplasty to current PCI—with the second generation of drug eluting stents. In contrast to the non-diabetics, there is a persistent 30% benefit in all cause mortality favouring CABG in diabetics, and this should be a major factor in treatment recommendation. PMID:26719324

  20. Non-invasive versus invasive management in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery with a non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: study design of the pilot randomised controlled trial and registry (CABG-ACS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew M Y; Petrie, Mark C; Rocchiccioli, Paul; Simpson, Joanne; Jackson, Colette; Brown, Ammani; Corcoran, David; Mangion, Kenneth; McEntegart, Margaret; Shaukat, Aadil; Rae, Alan; Hood, Stuart; Peat, Eileen; Findlay, Iain; Murphy, Clare; Cormack, Alistair; Bukov, Nikolay; Balachandran, Kanarath; Papworth, Richard; Ford, Ian; Briggs, Andrew; Berry, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an evidence gap about how to best treat patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) presenting with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) because historically, these patients were excluded from pivotal randomised trials. We aim to undertake a pilot trial of routine non-invasive management versus routine invasive management in patients with NSTE-ACS with prior CABG and optimal medical therapy during routine clinical care. Our trial is a proof-of-concept study for feasibility, safety, potential efficacy and health economic modelling. We hypothesise that a routine invasive approach in patients with NSTE-ACS with prior CABG is not superior to a non-invasive approach with optimal medical therapy. Methods and analysis 60 patients will be enrolled in a randomised clinical trial in 4 hospitals. A screening log will be prospectively completed. Patients not randomised due to lack of eligibility criteria and/or patient or physician preference and who give consent will be included in a registry. We will gather information about screening, enrolment, eligibility, randomisation, patient characteristics and adverse events (including post-discharge). The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause mortality, rehospitalisation for refractory ischaemia/angina, myocardial infarction and hospitalisation for heart failure. The primary safety outcome is the composite of bleeding, stroke, procedure-related myocardial infarction and worsening renal function. Health status will be assessed using EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) assessed at baseline and 6 monthly intervals, for at least 18 months. Trial registration number NCT01895751 (ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:27110377

  1. Rise of serum troponin levels following uncomplicated elective percutaneous coronary interventions in patients without clinical and procedural signs suggestive of myocardial necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Surgit, Ozgur; Demir, Ali Rıza; Karakurt, Huseyin; Erturk, Mehmet; Yazıcı, Selcuk; Serteser, Mustafa; Norgaz, Tugrul; Gorgulu, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The new definition of periprocedural myocardial infarction (type 4a MI) excludes patients without angina and electrocardiographic or echocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia even though significant serum troponin elevations occur following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Aim To evaluate the incidence and predictors of serum troponin rise following elective PCI in patients without clinical and procedural signs suggestive of myocardial necrosis by using a high-sensitivite troponin assay (hsTnT). Material and methods Three hundred and four patients (mean age: 60.8 ±8.8 years, 204 male) undergoing elective PCI were enrolled. Patients with periprocedural angina, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic signs indicating myocardial ischemia or a visible procedural complication such as dissection or side branch occlusion were excluded. Mild-moderate periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) and severe PMI were defined as post-PCI (12 h later) elevation of serum hsTnT concentrations to the range of 14–70 ng/l and > 70 ng/l, respectively. Results The median pre-procedural hsTnT level was 9.7 ng/l (interquartile range: 7.1–12.2 ng/l). Serum hsTnT concentration elevated (p < 0.001) to 19.4 ng/l (IQR: 12.0–38.8 ng/l) 12 h after PCI. Mild-moderate PMI and severe PMI were detected in 49.3% and 12.2% of patients, respectively. Post-procedural hsTnT levels were significantly higher in multivessel PCI, overlapping stenting, predilatation and postdilatation subgroups. In addition, post-procedural hsTnT levels were correlated (r = 0.340; p < 0.001) with the stent lengths. Conclusions High-sensitivite troponin measurements indicate a high incidence of PMI even though no clinical or procedural signs suggestive of myocardial ischemia exist. Multivessel PCI, overlapping stenting, predilatation, postdilatation and longer stent length are associated with PMI following elective PCI. PMID:26966448

  2. Air removal efficiency of a venous bubble trap in a minimal extracorporeal circuit during coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Roosenhoff, Tamara P A; Stehouwer, Marco C; De Vroege, Roel; Butter, René P; Van Boven, Wim-Jan; Bruins, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The use of minimized extracorporeal circuits (MECC) in cardiac surgery is expanding. These circuits eliminate volume storage and bubble trap reservoirs to minimize the circuit. However, this may increase the risk of gaseous micro emboli (GME). To reduce this risk, a venous bubble trap was designed. This study was performed to evaluate if incorporation of a venous bubble trap in a MECC system as compared to our standard minimized extracorporeal circuit without venous bubble trap reduces gaseous micro emboli during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Forty patients were randomly assigned to be perfused either with or without an integrated venous bubble trap. After preliminary evaluation of the data of 23 patients, the study was terminated prior to study completion. The quantity and volume of GME were significantly lower in patients perfused with a venous bubble trap compared to patients perfused without a venous bubble trap. The present study demonstrates that a MECC system with a venous bubble trap significantly reduces the volume of GME and strongly reduces the quantity of large GME (>500 µm). Therefore, the use of a venous bubble trap in a MECC system is warranted. PMID:20545664

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug Eluting Stents versus Bypass Surgery for Patients with Diabetes and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the FREEDOM Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin; Wang, Kaijun; Vilain, Katherine; Li, Haiyan; Appelwick, Jaime; Muratov, Victoria; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Boineau, Robin; Abdallah, Mouin; Cohen, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies from the balloon angioplasty and bare metal stent eras have demonstrated that CABG is cost-effective compared with PCI for patients undergoing multivessel coronary revascularization—particularly among patients with complex CAD or diabetes. Whether these results apply in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era is unknown. Methods and Results Between 2005 and 2010, 1900 patients with diabetes and multivessel CAD were randomized to PCI with DES (DES-PCI; n=953) or CABG (n=947). Costs were assessed from the perspective of the U.S. health care system. Health state utilities were assessed using the EuroQOL. A patient-level microsimulation model based on U.S. life-tables and in-trial results was used to estimate lifetime cost-effectiveness. Although initial procedural costs were lower for CABG, total costs for the index hospitalization were $8,622/patient higher. Over the next 5 years, follow-up costs were higher with PCI, owing to more frequent repeat revascularization and higher outpatient medication costs. Nonetheless, cumulative 5-year costs remained $3,641/patient higher with CABG. Although there were only modest gains in survival with CABG during the trial period, when the in-trial results were extended to a lifetime horizon, CABG was projected to be economically attractive relative to DES-PCI, with substantial gains in both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$10,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained across a broad range of assumptions regarding the effect of CABG on post-trial survival and costs. Conclusions Despite higher initial costs, CABG is a highly cost-effective revascularization strategy compared with DES-PCI for patients with diabetes and multivessel CAD. PMID:23277307

  4. Associations between disease severity, coping and dimensions of health-related quality of life in patients admitted for elective coronary angiography – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulvik, Bjørg; Nygård, Ottar; Hanestad, Berit R; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Wahl, Astrid K

    2008-01-01

    Background In patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), the overall aim was to analyse the relationships between disease severity and both mental and physical dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) using a modified version of the Wilson and Cleary model. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 753 patients (74% men), mean age 62 years, referred for elective cardiac catheterisation were included. The measures included 1) physiological factors 2) symptoms (disease severity, self-reported symptoms, anxiety and depression 3) self-reported functional status, 4) coping, 5) perceived disease burden, 6) general health perception and 7) overall quality of life. To analyse relationships, we performed linear and ordinal logistic regressions. Results CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly associated with symptoms of angina pectoris and dyspnea. CAD was not related to symptoms of anxiety and depression, but less depression was found in patients with low LVEF. Angina pectoris and dyspnea were both associated with impaired physical function, and dyspnea was also negatively related to social function. Overall, less perceived burden and better overall QOL were observed in patients using more confronting coping strategy. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that data from cardiac patients to a large extent support the suggested model by Wilson and Cleary. PMID:18510727

  5. Gene signatures of postoperative atrial fibrillation in atrial tissue after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients receiving β-blockers.

    PubMed

    Kertai, Miklos D; Qi, Wenjing; Li, Yi-Ju; Lombard, Frederick W; Liu, Yutao; Smith, Michael P; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Newman, Mark F; Milano, Carmelo A; Mathew, Joseph P; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2016-03-01

    Atrial tissue gene expression profiling may help to determine how differentially expressed genes in the human atrium before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are related to subsequent biologic pathway activation patterns, and whether specific expression profiles are associated with an increased risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) or altered response to β-blocker (BB) therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Right atrial appendage (RAA) samples were collected from 45 patients who were receiving perioperative BB treatment, and underwent CABG surgery. The isolated RNA samples were used for microarray gene expression analysis, to identify probes that were expressed differently in patients with and without postoperative AF. Gene expression analysis was performed to identify probes that were expressed differently in patients with and without postoperative AF. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to determine how sets of genes might be systematically altered in patients with postoperative AF. Of the 45 patients studied, genomic DNA from 42 patients was used for target sequencing of 66 candidate genes potentially associated with AF, and 2,144 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. We then performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis to determine the correlation between SNPs identified in the genotyped patients, and RAA expression. Probes that met a false discovery rate<0.25 were selected for eQTL analysis. Of the 17,678 gene expression probes analyzed, 2 probes met our prespecified significance threshold of false discovery rate<0.25. The most significant probe corresponded to vesicular overexpressed in cancer - prosurvival protein 1 gene (VOPP1; 1.83 fold change; P=3.47×10(-7)), and was up-regulated in patients with postoperative AF, whereas the second most significant probe, which corresponded to the LOC389286 gene (0.49 fold change; P=1.54×10(-5)), was down-regulated in patients with postoperative AF. GSEA highlighted the role of VOPP1 in pathways with biologic relevance to myocardial homeostasis, and oxidative stress and redox modulation. Candidate gene eQTL showed a trans-acting association between variants of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene, previously linked to altered BB response, and high expression of VOPP1. In patients undergoing CABG surgery, RAA gene expression profiling, and pathway and eQTL analysis suggested that VOPP1 plays a novel etiological role in postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy. PMID:26860460

  6. Large-dose propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass decreases biochemical markers of myocardial injury in coronary surgery patients: a comparison with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengyuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Ansley, David M

    2006-09-01

    We investigated if increasing propofol's dosage to augment its antioxidant capacity during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) could confer cardiac protection. Fifty-four coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients were randomly assigned to small-dose propofol (Group P; n = 18), large-dose propofol (Group HiP; n = 18), or isoflurane Group (Group I; n = 18). After the induction, anesthesia was maintained with an inspired concentration of isoflurane 1%-3.5% (Group I) or a continuous infusion of propofol 60 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (Group P) throughout the surgery. In Group HiP, this dose of propofol was increased to 120 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 10 min before the onset of CPB until 15 min after aortic unclamping and then decreased to 60 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) until the end of surgery. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 83 +/- 24, 88 +/- 22, and 81 +/- 20 min in Group P, Group HiP, and Group I, respectively (P > 0.1). Plasma malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, was significantly lower at 8 h after CPB, and Troponin I was lower at 24 h after CPB in Group HiP compared with Group P and Group I (P < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in inotropic requirements for separation from CPB in Group HiP compared with Group I. Postoperative systemic vascular resistance was significantly reduced in Group HiP as compared with Group I. Mean cardiac index was significantly higher at 24 h after CPB in Group HiP compared with Group P and Group I (P < 0.05) (Group I, 2.2 +/- 0.1; Group P, 2.3 +/- 0.2; and Group HiP, 2.8 +/- 0.3 L x min(-1) x m(-2), respectively). The duration of intensive care unit stay was significantly shorter in Group Hi-P compared with Group I. We conclude that administration of a large dose of propofol during CPB attenuates postoperative myocardial cellular damage as compared with isoflurane or small-dose propofol anesthesia. PMID:16931656

  7. Mini-extracorporeal circulation minimizes coagulation abnormalities and ameliorates pulmonary outcome in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Zeitani, J; Buccisano, F; Nardella, S; Flaminio, M; Prati, P; Chiariello, G; Venditti, A; Chiariello, L

    2013-07-01

    Hemostasis is impaired during CABG and coagulation abnormalities often result in clinically relevant organ dysfunctions, eventually increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Fifteen consecutive patients with coronary artery disease submitted to conventional extracorporeal circulation (cECC) have been compared with 15 matched patients, using mini-ECC (MECC). Postoperative lung function was evaluated according to gas exchange, intubation time and lung injury score. In the MECC group, thrombin-antithrombin complex levels (TaTc), prothrombin fragments (PF1+2) formation and thromboelastography (TEG) clotting times were lower compared to the cECC group (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively) whereas postoperative blood loss was higher in the cECC group (p=0.030) and more patients required blood transfusion (p=0.020). In the MECC group, postoperative gas exchange values were better, intubation time shorter and lung injury score lower (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Our study suggests that MECC induces less coagulation disorders, leading to lower postoperative blood loss and better postoperative lung function. This approach may be advantageous in high-risk patients. PMID:23411504

  8. Should dialysis-dependent patients with upper limb arterio-venous fistulae undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting avoid having ipsilateral in situ mammary artery grafts?

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Gary A; Kirmani, Bilal H; Muir, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether dialysis-dependent patients with upper limb arterio-venous fistulae (AVFs) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should avoid having ipsilateral in situ internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts. A literature search performed yielded 28 peer reviewed articles, of which 21 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The papers identified included 478 patients, of whom 219 had in situ IMA grafts with ipsilateral upper limb arterio-venous fistulae. There was a substantial variation between the papers, from single case reports to small retrospective cohort studies, but no randomized, controlled trials. The largest retrospective study included 155 patients and followed up for up to 5 years. Methods used to determine coronary steal i