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Sample records for elective coronary bypass

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  2. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  3. Shrunken Pore Syndrome is associated with a sharp rise in mortality in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin??C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin??C???60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin??C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin??C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin??C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin??C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin??C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0-5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957

  4. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  5. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  6. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  7. Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

    1989-06-15

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

  8. Elective minimally invasive coronary artery bypass: Shunt or tournique occlusion? Assessment of a protective role of perioperative left anterior descending shunting on myocardial damage. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine impact of intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt to prevent myocardial damage in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. Methods 38 patients were randomly assigned to external tournique occlusion (n?=?19) or intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group (n?=?19). Blood samples for cardiac troponin T were collected at 30 minutes prior to, 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results One patient in external tournique occlusion and two patients in intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group were excluded from futher analysis due to preoperative cardiac troponin T level above the 99th-percentile. Postoperatively, each six patients in external tournique occlusion (33.3%) and intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt (35.3%) group were above the 99th-percentile. Two patients from each group (external tournique occlusion group 11.1% vs. intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group 11.8%) had peak values above 10-% coeficient of variation cutoff (p?=?1). There were no significant differences in between both groups at all studied timepoints. Conclusion There was no protective effect of intraluminal shunting on myocardial damage compared to short-term tournique occlusion. It is upon the surgeon's discretion which method may preferrably be used to achieve a bloodless field in grafting of the non-occluded left anterior descending in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. PMID:22809563

  9. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... completely endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic ... scrub nurse, also a lot of experience with robotics now. And Dr. Atiq Rahman, fellow here for ...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  16. Revascularization Options: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kappetein, A Pieter; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Head, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist. PMID:26567980

  17. Assessment of coronary bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Preston, T A

    1989-01-01

    Coronary bypass surgery developed as another in a line of surgical procedures dating back more than 60 years. The medical profession at first assessed this procedure with time-honored anecdotal techniques. Gradually, for a variety of reasons, improved methods of comparisons worked their way into assessments of bypass surgery. Randomized controlled trials met resistance but have been very influential. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has benefited from the knowledge generated during the last 25 years, but clinicians have been slower to apply the most advanced techniques. PMID:10313785

  18. Pre-operative Rehabilitation for Reduction of Hospitalization After Coronary Bypass and Valvular Surgery.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Patients Waiting for Elective Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG); Patients Waiting for Aortic Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Aortic Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Mitral Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Combined CABG/Valve Procedures.

  19. Cerebral dysfunction after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoko; Maekawa, Kengo

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral dysfunction after cardiac surgery remains a devastating complication and is growing in importance with our aging populations. Neurological complications following cardiac surgery can be classified broadly as stroke, encephalopathy (including delirium), or postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). These etiologies are caused primary by cerebral emboli, hypoperfusion, or inflammation that has largely been attributed to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Preventative operative strategies, such as off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), can potentially reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications by avoiding manipulation of the ascending aorta. Although off-pump CABG is associated with reduced risk of stroke, there are no convincing differences in POCD between off-pump and on-pump CABG. Recently, the focus of postoperative neurological research has shifted from managing cardiopulmonary bypass to patient-related factors. Identifying changes in brains of aged individuals undergoing cardiac surgery may improve strategies for preventing cerebral dysfunction. Advanced age is associated with more undiagnosed cerebrovascular disease and is a major risk factor for stroke and POCD following cardiac surgery. Preoperative cerebrovascular evaluation and adaptation of surgical strategies will provide preventative approaches for cerebral dysfunction after CABG. This review focuses on recent findings of the relationship between perioperative stress and underlying fragility of the brain in cardiac surgical patients. PMID:23982856

  20. Prospective randomized clinical study of arterial pumps used for routine on pump coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Andreas; Hilker, Michael K; Diez, Claudius; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Schmid, Christof

    2011-05-01

    In a number of studies, centrifugal blood pumps--in comparison with roller pumps--have been shown to attenuate trauma to blood components. Nevertheless, the impact of these results on the postoperative course needs to be discussed controversially. In a prospective randomized study, 240 consecutive adult patients underwent elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass employing five different pumps (Roller, Avecor, Sarns, Rotaflow, Bio-Medicus). We analyzed clinical course, blood loss, damage of blood components, and impairment of the hemostatic system. The study population was homogenous with respect to age, gender, myocardial function, and operative data. No differences were found with respect to time of ventilation, duration of intensive care stay, hospitalization, and laboratory data. The choice of arterial pump during standard extracorporeal bypass for elective coronary artery bypass grafting is no matter of concern. PMID:21269302

  1. Remote ischaemic preconditioning for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Benstoem, Carina; Stoppe, Christian; Liakopoulos, Oliver J; Meybohm, Patrick; Clayton, Tim C; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of remote ischaemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, with or without valve surgery.

  2. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach). In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations. PMID:24251021

  3. The experience of totally endoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the robotic system «Da Vinci» in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, V. U.; Alsov, S. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Mikheenko, I. L.; Chernyavsky, A. M.; Malakhov, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new technology - a thoracoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the use of Da Vinci robotic system in Russia is represented by the experience of NRICP. The technology was introduced in Russia in 2011. Overall, one hundred endoscopic coronary artery bypass procedures were performed. We have compared and analyzed results of coronary artery stenting vs minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. According to the results, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting has several advantages over alternative treatment strategies.

  4. Refractory Vascular Spasm Associated with Coronary Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sam; Yoon, Yong Han; Kim, Jeoung Taek; Shinn, Helen Ki; Woo, Seong Ill; Baek, Wan Ki

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse refractory vascular spasms associated with coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) are rare but devastating. A 42-year-old male patient with a past history of stent insertion was referred for the surgical treatment of a recurrent left main coronary artery disease. A hemodynamic derangement developed during graft harvesting, necessitating a hurried initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although CABG was carried out as planned, the patient could not be weaned from the bypass. An emergency coronary angiography demonstrated a diffuse spasm of both native coronary arteries and grafts. CPB was switched to the femorofemoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Although he managed to recover from heart failure, his discharge was delayed due to the ischemic injury of the lower limb secondary to cannulation for ECMO. We reviewed the case and literature, placing emphasis on the predisposing factors and appropriate management. PMID:25346903

  5. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  6. Increased coronary artery disease severity in black women undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Anderson, Ethan J; Davies, Stephen W; Landrine, Hope; O'Neal, Jason B; Shiue, Kristin Y; Kindell, Linda C; Bruce Ferguson, T; Randolph Chitwood, W; Kypson, Alan P

    2015-02-01

    Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race-sex groups.Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group. PMID:25700324

  7. Increased Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Black Women Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Griffin, William F.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Davies, Stephen W.; Landrine, Hope; O’Neal, Jason B.; Shiue, Kristin Y.; Kindell, Linda C.; Bruce Ferguson, T.; Randolph Chitwood, W.; Kypson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran–Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend?=?0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend?=?0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race–sex groups. Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group. PMID:25700324

  8. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a Behçet's disease patient.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Mehmet; Eyileten, Zeynep; Arici, Burcu; Uysalel, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's syndrome is a chronic, multisystemic, inflammatory, vasculitic disorder characterised by oral aphta, ocular lesions, genital ulcers and the involvement of other systems. Although vascular involvement is seen frequently, coronary artery disease is extremely rare in Behçet's disease and it is generally treated with invasive or conservative procedures. In this case, we aimed to present a successful bypass grafting of three vessels using cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with Behçet's disease. PMID:25625557

  9. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Rajeeva R; Fernando, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old male, with no previous history of mental illness, was diagnosed with coronary heart disease, after which he became acutely depressed and attempted suicide by ingesting an organophosphate pesticide. He was admitted to an intensive care unit and treated with pralidoxime, atropine, and oxygen. His coronary occlusion pattern required early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. His family, apprehensive of a repeat suicidal attempt, requested surgery be performed as soon as possible. He recovered well from the OP poisoning and was mentally fit to express informed consent 2 weeks after admission. Seventeen days after poisoning, he underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and recovered uneventfully. Six years later, he remains in excellent health. We report this case because to the best of our knowledge there is no literature regarding CABG performed soon after organophosphate poisoning. PMID:26334855

  10. Platelet Hyperreactivity in Response to On- and Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bochsen, Louise; Rosengaard, Lisbeth Bredahl; Nielsen, Allan Bybeck; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A.; Johansson, Pär I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Hypercoagulability has been reported after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) compared with patients undergoing standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in platelet reactivity in response to cardiac surgery, both OPCAB and CABG. Platelet reactivity was monitored pre- and postoperatively (days 1 and 4) in elective OPCAB (n = 29) and CABG (n = 24) patients using the maximal amplitude (MA) parameter obtained with thrombelastography. Platelet reactivity was also examined at 1 month in 30 of the 53 patients. Twenty-three percent of the patients (12/53) had a preoperative MA value above normal reference value (MA > 69 mm). By postoperative day 4, 88% of the patients presented with an MA > 69 mm, and significant increases in MA were shown in both groups (p < .0001). Of the 30 patients examined at 1 month after surgery, 75% of the patients with high preoperative MA (6/8) remained at this level. In contrast, only 4.5% of patients with normal preoperative MA (1/22) presented with high MA at day 30. MA has previously been shown to correlate with the incidence of thrombotic and ischemic complications and this study identified 23% of patients needing coronary bypass surgery to be at high risk for recurrent ischemic events at 1 month after surgery, based on the MA. These results suggest that a more aggressive antithrombotic treatment might be warranted for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, both OPCAB and CABG, presenting with a high MA pre- and post-surgery. PMID:19361027

  11. Patient’s Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Kelminda Maria Bulhões; de Andrade, Tarcisio Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis), followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery.

  12. [Integrated coronary artery bypass strategy prevents urgent pump conversion during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Takase, S; Misawa, Y; Hagiwara, K; Tanji, M; Takahashi, S; Watanabe, M; Kondo, S

    2009-01-01

    Urgent pump conversion during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) results in high morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively evaluated if the peri-operative integrated strategy prevents this lethal event in our 400 consecutive OPCAB operations. The patients with preoperative cardiogenic shock and/or ventricular arrhythmias underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). All other patients (99% of total CABG) were scheduled to undergo OPCAB (n=400). Prophylactic intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was applied to the patients with critical (>95%) left main trunk stenosis or low (<0.35) left ventricular ejection fraction. All the patients received the deep pericardial suture, apex-traction device, suction-type stabilizer, test-clamp of target coronary arteries by micro bulldog clamp, and intra-coronary shunts. Intra-operative IABP was applied in the case of sustained ST-segment change and/or elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Pump conversion was indicated for the patients with ventricular fibrillation and/or cardiogenic shock. Two patients (0.5%) had pump conversion due to ventricular arrhythmia and sustained hypotension, respectively. These pump conversion did not result in hospital mortality. Three hospital deaths (0.7%) occurred due to non-cardiac causes. The integrated strategy using prophylactic or intra-operative IABP in OPCAB produce a low pump conversion rate even during an early period of surgeon's learning curve. PMID:19195183

  13. Massive intracardiac thrombosis during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Sujatha P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Essandoh, Michael K; Apostolakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is a potential life-threatening complication in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Various clinical and heritable conditions, like cancer, trauma, immobilization, the presence of factor V Leiden or prothrombin 20210A, deficiency of or resistance to the inhibitor proteins C, S, or antithrombin, elevated levels of coagulation proteins, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, pregnancy, and the use of exogenous hormones, may contribute to catastrophic thrombosis. Massive thrombi with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events develop in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). However, thrombus formation in the cardiac chambers is extremely rare. We report a case of massive intracardiac thrombosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:25810967

  14. Numerical analysis of coronary artery bypass grafts: an over view.

    PubMed

    Owida, Amal Ahmed; Do, Hung; Morsi, Yos S

    2012-11-01

    Arterial bypass grafts tend to fail after some years due to the development of intimal thickening (restenosis). Non-uniform hemodynamics following a bypass operation contributes to restenosis and bypass failure can occur due to the focal development of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia. Additionally, surgical injury aggravated by compliance mismatch between the graft and artery has been suggested as an initiating factor for progress of wall thickening along the suture line Vascular grafts that are small in diameter tend to occlude rapidly. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been effectively used to simulate the physical and geometrical parameters characterizing the hemodynamics of various arteries and bypass configurations. The effects of such changes on the pressure and flow characteristics as well as the wall shear stress during a cardiac cycle can be simulated. Recently, utilization of fluid and structure interactions have been used to determine fluid flow parameters and structure forces including stress and strains relationships under steady and transient conditions. In parallel to this, experimental diagnostics techniques such as Laser Doppler Anemometry, Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Guide wire and Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used to provide essential information and to validate the numerical results. Moreover, clinical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance or computed tomography have assisted considerably in gaining a detailed patient-specific picture of the blood flow and structure dynamics. This paper gives a review of recent numerical investigations of various configurations of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). In addition, the paper ends with a summary of the findings and the future directions. PMID:22217920

  15. Clinical Symptoms and Angiographic Findings of Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography without Prior Stress Testing

    E-print Network

    Abdallah, Mouin Sami

    2012-12-31

    Background: Many patients undergo elective coronary angiography without prior stress testing, precluding an assessment of their appropriateness for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). If, however, these patients have more severe angina...

  16. Cardiac Compression of Lung Lower Lobes after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Flávio H.; Carmona, Maria J.; Auler, José O. C.; Rodrigues, Roseny R.; Rouby, Jean Jacques; Malbouisson, Luiz M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atelectasis is a major cause of hypoxemia after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is commonly ascribed to general anesthesia, high inspiratory oxygen concentration and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of heart-induced pulmonary compression after CABG with CPB. Methods Seventeen patients without pre-operative cardiac failure who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft underwent pre- and postoperative thoracic computed tomography. The cardiac mass, the pressure exerted on the lungs by the right and left heart and the fraction of collapsed lower lobe segments below and outside of the heart limits were evaluated on a computed tomography section 1 cm above the diaphragmatic cupola. Results In the postoperative period, cardiac mass increased by 32% (117±31 g versus 155±35 g, p<0.001), leading to an increase in the pressure that was exerted on the lungs by the right (2.2±0.6 g.cm?2 versus 3.2±1.2 g.cm?2, p<0.05) and left heart (2.4±0.7 g.cm?2 versus 4.2±1.8 g.cm?2, p<0.001). The proportion of collapsed lung segments beneath the heart markedly increased [from 6.7% to 32.9% on the right side (p<0.001) and from 6.2% to 29% on the left side (p<0.001)], whereas the proportion of collapsed lung segments outside of the heart limits slightly increased [from 0.7% to 10.8% on the right side (p<0.001) and from 1.5% to 12.6% on the left side (p<0.001)]. Conclusion The pressure that is exerted by the heart on the lungs increased postoperatively and contributed to the collapse of subjacent pulmonary segments. PMID:24244331

  17. Conservative Management of Chylothorax after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pulathan, Zerrin; Kutanis, Dilek; Hemsinli, Dogus; Erturk, Engin; Civelek, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare sequela to cardiac surgery, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are various medical and surgical options for its management. We describe 2 cases of chylothorax that developed after coronary artery bypass grafting and were managed successfully with medical therapy alone. Conservative treatment such as we describe aims to reduce chyle flow, to drain the pleural cavity in an effective manner, and to prevent chronic sequelae. Optimal conservative treatment, consisting of nothing by mouth and the administration of a pleurodetic agent, should be started immediately upon diagnosis. In most cases, it reduces the need for reoperation and long-term hospitalization. Prospective randomized controlled trials are nonetheless needed to confirm these assumptions. PMID:25873827

  18. Evaluation of olfactory memory after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yurttas, Veysel; Bilgi, Murat; Dem?rhan, Abdullah; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bugra, Onursal; Daglar, Bahadir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study determined whether coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery has any effect on olfactory function, employing the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). Material and methods All the participants were informed preoperatively about the B-SIT test and the mode of its application. The test was performed by each patient preoperatively (d0) as well as 1 (d1) and 3 (d3) days following the surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded at the same time as the smell test. Results This prospective study included 45 patients. The mean age was 67 ± 7.55, and the group was 29% male. The mean durations of cross clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass were 54 ± 32 min and 62.5 ± 37.0 min, respectively. Eleven different odors were tested. Significant differences were observed for several odors: leather between d0 and d3, pine between d0 and d3, onion between d0 and d1, onion between d0 and d3, and soap between d0 and d1. The postoperative CRP levels were significantly higher than the preoperative levels. The correlation analysis determined that the postoperative CRP levels were negatively correlated with the B-SIT score (r = –0.48, p = 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients after CABG are prone to develop olfactory dysfunction in the early postoperative period and that olfactory dysfunction is associated with postoperative CRP levels. PMID:26336453

  19. Is totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass safe, feasible and effective?

    PubMed

    Acharya, Metesh Nalin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Athanasiou, Thanos; Casula, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is safe, effective and feasible. A total of 171 papers were found, of which eight represented the best evidence. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. The da Vinci robotic system was utilized in seven retrospective studies and one multicentre prospective trial, comprising 724 patients undergoing TECAB. Patient-related outcomes, including the incidence of major adverse cardiac events, graft patency and survival, were investigated. From the studies evaluated, TECAB appears to be safe operation with low complication rates and excellent early- and mid-term graft patencies. The incidence of internal thoracic artery injury was documented in four studies and ranged from 0 to 10%. Re-exploration for bleeding was necessary in 1-15% of patients. Conversion to open techniques was performed in 0-24% of cases. There was no in-hospital mortality in the majority of studies, but this reached 2.1% in a large series of 228 patients. Target-vessel reintervention rates varied between 0 and 12.1% according to the institutional experience. Pre- and post-discharge graft patencies were excellent at 93-100 and 92-100%, respectively. Intraoperative variables, such as time taken for internal thoracic artery harvest, anastomosis, cross-clamp, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the overall operation were as follows: internal thoracic artery harvest time (range 5-187 min), anastomosis time (range 6-82 min), cross-clamp time (range 30-223 min), CPB time (range 41-268 min) and operative time (range 84-600 min). TECAB is a technically demanding and time-consuming procedure associated with a significant learning curve. Proctoring and structured training programmes are currently supported by European and international societies to encourage wider uptake of the procedure. In conclusion, TECAB represents a feasible alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass in selected patients. It is associated with low morbidity and excellent mid-term graft patency. Larger, prospective and multicentre trials are required to assess the long-term and patient-reported outcomes of TECAB. PMID:22976997

  20. Secondary prevention following coronary artery bypass surgery: a pilot study for improved patient education

    E-print Network

    Kramer, Jeffrey B.; Howard, Patricia A.; Barnes, Brian Joseph; Ababneh, Bashar; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Biria, Mazda; Muehlebach, Gregory F.; Daon, Emmanuel; Zorn, George L.; Reed, William A.; Vacek, James

    2012-07-01

    of statin induced rhabdomyolysis ? Severe co-morbid illness /end of life status Box 1. Indications and contraindications to secondary pre- vention medications after coronary artery bypass graft sur- gery (CABG). 100 to obtain a survey score for both...

  1. Outcome in Patients Having Salvage Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Santarpino, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Vito G; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Bounader, Karl; Beghi, Cesare; Fischlein, Theodor; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; De Feo, Marisa; Bancone, Ciro; Perrotti, Andrea; Chocron, Sidney; Dalen, Magnus; Svenarud, Peter; Rubino, Antonino S; Mignosa, Carmelo; Gherli, Riccardo; Musumeci, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Biancari, Fausto

    2015-10-15

    Salvage coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is often performed for cardiogenic shock on compassionate basis without clinical data justifying this aggressive approach. The aim of this study was to analyze early and intermediate outcomes after salvage CABG. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 85 patients who underwent salvage CABG at 11 European cardiac surgery centers. Salvage CABG was defined according to the EuroSCORE criteria, that is, a procedure performed in patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (external cardiac massage) en route to the operating theater or before induction of anesthesia. A percutaneous coronary intervention procedure preceded salvage CABG in 55 patients (64.7%). Thirty patients (35.3%) died during the inhospital stay. The mean EuroSCORE II was 32.0% and the observed-to-expected ratio was 1.08. Salvage CABG was associated with high rates of postoperative stroke (9.4%), resternotomy for bleeding (23.5%), resternotomy for hemodynamic instability (15.3%), dialysis (18.8%), severe gastrointestinal complications (12.9%), and deep sternal wound infection (10.6%). Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 58.6%, 49.8%, and 40.9%, respectively. Twenty patients (23.5%) were postoperatively treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The rates of adverse events after ECMO were particularly high (stroke 40%, resternotomy for bleeding 60%, dialysis 35%, gastrointestinal complications 30%, and deep sternal wound infection 30%). Of patients treated with ECMO, 8 (40%) survived to discharge, and 1-year survival was 29.2%. Salvage CABG is associated with high risk of immediate mortality and severe adverse events. However, the observed immediate and intermediate outcome justify coronary surgery in these critically ill patients. A number of these patients are currently treated by ECMO, and its results are encouraging. PMID:26303635

  2. Superior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysm- a rare complication of chest drain insertion in coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Umar; Jah, Asif; Ward, Nick; Gaunt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Although chest drain insertion during coronary artery bypass grafting is a fairly standard procedure, however it may result in extremely rare complications. Case presentation This is the first case being reported that demonstrates a pseudoaneurysm of superior epigastric artery resulting from chest drain insertion following coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion Adequate caution should be used along with good understanding of the anatomical landmarks during apparently simple and standard operative procedures. PMID:17459158

  3. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil for coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Monk, C R; Bolsin, S N; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-06-01

    The haemodynamic effects of total i.v. anaesthesia with a combination of propofol and alfentanil infusions were studied in eight patients with good left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Haemodynamic indices were measured before anaesthesia and at specified intervals before cardiopulmonary bypass. The technique resulted in haemodynamic changes comparable to those reported with opioid-based anaesthesia for coronary artery surgery, and has potential advantages. PMID:2064887

  4. The Sexual Adjustment of Coronary Bypass Surgery Patients: A 4-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurer, Shari; Thurer, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Measured the sexual adjustment of 14 individuals before coronary bypass surgery and both four months and four years afterwards. Results showed that sexual adjustment worsened with the onset of symptomatic coronary artery disease and did not improve at either follow-up interval. (LLL)

  5. Factors predicts skin ulcer following coronary artery bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, F; Faraji, R

    2014-01-01

    The number of off-pump coronary artery surgery procedures in high-risk patients such as renal failure, hepatic failure and in anticoagulant drug using patients is increasing. The associated co morbidity and repeated use of electrocautery in postoperative bleeding, caused a susceptibility of patients to pressure or electrocautery ulcers. During a period of three years, 1400 off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were performed in our center. Of these patients, 20 (A group) suffered from electrocautery sore (ES) and 40 (B group) had pressure sore (PS). These patients were compared with respect to variables such as age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, operating time, smoking, opium using, diabetes, weight, sex, respiratory failure, renal failure, and cerebrovascular accident, intra aortic balloon pump using, inotropic drug using by x2 or t test, according to categorical or continuous variables consequently. Electrocautery sore and pressure ulcer as dependence variables and others variables with p value less than 0.1 entered a multivariable logistic regression model and odd ratio of significant variables were obtained. These two groups of patients were different with respect to variables such as age, sex, respiratory failure and cerebrovascular accident and, in the logistic regression model, two factors predicted pressure sore, respiratory failure and cerebrovascular accident, but the only factor that was significant in predicting electrocautery sore in multiple logistic regression analysis was postoperative bleeding. Results of this study revealed that pressure sore is a patient dependent complication in contrast with the electrocautery sore, which is related to technical or device faults and to experience and care of operating room staff. Abbreviations: electrocautery sore = ES, pressure sore = PS, electrocautery ulcer = EU, pressure ulcer = PU, activated clotting time = ACT PMID:25870669

  6. Left Subclavian Artery Revascularization in Preparation for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Saum A; Shah, Noor; Labinskyy, Volodymyr; Lee, Leonard Y

    2016-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare but important condition that occurs after a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to coronary artery bypass in the setting of a stenotic left subclavian artery. The lack of blood flow through the subclavian artery causes the reversal of flow in the LIMA so that it essentially steals blood from the myocardium. In order to avoid this complication, many surgeons now opt to either revascularize the stenotic subclavian artery prior to coronary artery bypass grafting or to use an alternate vessel as the bypass graft. Here, we present the case of an asymptomatic patient with poor exercise tolerance who was recently diagnosed with both triple-vessel coronary disease and peripheral arterial disease, which was most notably characterized by occlusion of the left subclavian artery. This case demonstrates the surgical management of this complex clinical entity. PMID:26613584

  7. Augmented reality image guidance for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Hawkes, David; Casula, Roberto; Hu, Mingxing; Pedro, Ose; Zhang, Dong Ping; Penney, Graeme; Bello, Fernando; Edwards, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We propose a novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB). A key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilization of the heart, thus the most dominant source of non-rigid deformation is the motion of the beating heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle. We can then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo-endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot using 2D-3D registration methods. We are investigating robust feature tracking and intensity-based methods for this purpose. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of Poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate) in Primary Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Vang, See N.; Brady, Chad P.; Christensen, Kevin A.; Isler, Jack R.; Allen, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: In an attempt to make cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) less traumatic for patients undergoing cardiac surgery, extracorporeal circuits (ECC) have been modified to achieve this goal. Poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate) (PMEA, X-coating™) is a new polymer coating used in the ECC. PMEA studies have shown excellent biocompatibility with the components of blood. In this evaluation, PMEA-coated ECC were compared with control (CTR) circuits with emphasis on hematological parameters, perioperative homologous blood product usage, and clinical outcomes. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to either a PMEA group (n = 30) or a CTR group (n = 30). Extracorporeal circuit components in the PMEA group were coated except for the cardioplegia delivery device and cannulas. Patients in the CTR group had just the arterial line filter coated. The following hematological parameters were measured: platelet count (PLT), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), and hematocrit (Hct). Blood product usage was observed along with clinical outcomes for the following parameters: ventilation time, mediastinal tube output, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay. The preoperative patient profiles were comparable between the two groups. The PMEA group had marginally higher CPB times (134 ± 31.9 vs. 118 ± 33.7 minutes) and cross clamp times (83.9 ± 21.3 vs. 73.7 ± 21.6 minutes), however no significant differences were reached. Platelet count, RBC, and Hct levels were also comparable between groups with no significant differences. However, there was a significant difference in WBC between groups (p = 0.041). Less platelets were administered both intraoperatively and 48 hours postoperatively in the PMEA group. The authors evaluated PMEA-coating by measuring clinical outcomes, such as ventilation time, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and homologous blood utilization. PMEA patients trended towards less homologous blood transfusions, which helped save an average of $83.41 per patient. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of this new polymer coating. PMID:15804153

  9. Prevalence of Delirium in Opium Users after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Fard, Masoud Mozhdehi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, especially delirium commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. Clinical evidences suggest an increase in delirium in opium abusers after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. In this study, the prevalence of delirium in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients after CABG were compared. Methods: In a cross-sectional study after obtaining institutional approval and informed consent, 325 patients candidate for elective CABG were included in the study. All patients with history of opium abuse met the criteria for opioid dependence using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition definitions. Delirium after CABG was assessed in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients up to a maximum of 5 days after surgery with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Results: A total of 325 patients were evaluated (208 without and 117 with a history of opium abuse). Postoperative delirium occurred within 72 h after surgery in 44.31% of all patients. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of postoperative delirium between the opium users (80.7%) and nonaddict patients (25%) in the intensive care unit (P < 0.001). Opium addiction was a risk factor for postoperative delirium after CABG Surgery. Conclusions: Delirium after CABG surgery is more prevalent in opium users compared with nonaddict patients. Therefore, opium abuse is a possible risk factor for postoperative delirium in cardiac surgical patients. PMID:25105003

  10. Percutaneous Closure of a Coronary Artery-to-Vein Graft Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome after Recent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh; Gupta, Kamal; Wiley, Mark; Parashara, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm formation has been reported in degenerated coronary artery saphenous vein bypass grafts, as well as in native coronary arteries after interventional procedures or blunt trauma. In contrast, pseudoaneurysm formation arising from the anastomotic site of native coronary vessels soon after coronary artery bypass grafting is rare, and neither the clinical presentation of this phenomenon nor its treatment is well described. We present the case of a 63-year-old man, a recent coronary artery bypass grafting patient, who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to a large and expanding pseudoaneurysm of the saphenous vein-to-ramus intermedius artery graft anastomosis. After several attempts, we successfully treated the pseudoaneurysm by means of percutaneous coil embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute coronary syndrome secondary to a pseudoaneurysm at the coronary artery–saphenous vein graft anastomosis. In addition, this appears to be the first report of the percutaneous treatment of such a pseudoaneurysm by means of coil embolization. PMID:26175645

  11. Image guidance for robotic minimally invasive coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Hawkes, David; Casula, Roberto; Hu, Mingxing; Pedro, Ose; Zhang, Dong Ping; Penney, Graeme; Bello, Fernando; Edwards, Philip

    2010-01-01

    A novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is presented. Key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilisation of the heart, when the most dominant source of misregistration is the deformation and non-rigid motion of the heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle, as well as the heart and respiratory frequencies. We then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot resp. of a validation system using photo-consistency. To take advantage of the fact that there is a whole image sequence available for registration, we use the different phases together to get the registration. We found the similarity function to be much smoother when using more phases. This also showed promising behaviour in convergence tests. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures. PMID:19773147

  12. Previous percutaneous coronary intervention increases morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Gaurav S.; LaPar, Damien J.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the incidence of previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing and that prior PCI influences patient morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods A total of 34,316 patients underwent isolated CABG operations at 16 different statewide, institutions from 2001 to 2008. Patients were stratified into prior PCI (n = 4346; 12.7%) and no prior PCI (n = 29,970). Patient risk factors, intraoperative variables, and outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The incidence of prior PCI in CABG has risen from <1% to 22.0% from 2001 to 2008 (P < .001). Prior PCI patients were younger (P < .001) and more commonly had previous myocardial infarction (P < .001), but less commonly had heart failure (P < .001). The operative mortality was similar between groups (2.3% vs 1.9%; P = .13). Prior PCI patients had more major complications (15.0% vs 12.0%; P < .001), longer hospitalization (P = .01), and higher readmission rates (P = .01). Importantly, by multivariate analyses, prior PCI was not associated with mortality, but was an independent predictor of major complications after CABG (odds ratio, 1.15; P = .01). Conclusion The incidence of prior PCI in patients undergoing CABG is increasing. Previous PCI is associated with a higher risk of major complications, greater hospital length of stay, and higher readmission rates after CABG. PMID:22503323

  13. History and current status of robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeffrey D; Srivastava, Mukta; Bonatti, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical approach using the daVinci robotic telemanipulation system to perform coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested or beating heart. It is a procedure that can be a useful alternative to the classic open procedure performed through sternotomy. After extensive modeling in cadavers, the first clinical case was performed in June 1998 placing a left internal thoracic artery graft (LITA) to the left anterior descending artery completely robotically on the arrested heart. During the early and late 2000s, international groups have adopted this evolving technology, which has included iterations such as beating-heart TECAB, use of bilateral ITA grafting and radial artery grafting, as well as 3- and 4-vessel TECAB. TECAB is combined with percutaneous coronary intervention in hybrid procedures. Despite increasing complexity of endoscopic coronary bypass surgery, conversion rates to open bypass surgery have dropped significantly and operative times have decreased. Published major morbidities and mortality rates in arrested-and beating-heart TECAB have been cumulatively in the 0-2% range and are considered well within the expected range for these highly complex surgical procedures. Long-term survival and freedom from major adverse events also meet the standards of open bypass surgery. PMID:22893280

  14. Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Clinical Importance of These Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lakusic, Nenad; Mahovic, Darija; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Novak, Miroslav; Cerovec, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a physiological feature indicating the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate. Association of the reduced heart rate variability due to myocardial infarction and the increased postinfarction mortality was first described more than thirty years ago. Many studies have unequivocally demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting surgery generally leads to significant reduction in heart rate variability, which is even more pronounced than after myocardial infarction. Pathophysiologically, however, the mechanisms of heart rate variability reduction associated with acute myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting are different. Generally, heart rate variability gradually recovers to the preoperative values within six months of the procedure. Unlike the reduced heart rate variability in patients having sustained myocardial infarction, a finding of reduced heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass surgery is not considered relevant in predicting mortality. Current knowledge about changes in heart rate variability in coronary patients and clinical relevance of such a finding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are presented. PMID:26078960

  15. Comparing cardiovascular factors in opium abusers and non-users candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aghadavoudi, Omid; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some opinions, opium consumption has traditionally been considered to be a means to lower blood lipids and to put off heart diseases. In this study, the relationship between opium consumption and risk factors of coronary artery diseases, hemodynamic factors and cardiac related functions before and after surgery was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study 325 patient's candidate for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled in a period of 6 months. Opium addicted patients were recognized based on taking history from the patients by an anaesthesiologist. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study. Frequency and distribution of coronary artery diseases were assessed according to the pre-operative coronary angiography. Results: From 325 patients, 117 patients were opium abusers and 208 patients were not. Mean duration of opium abuse was 12.6 ± 7.7 years. Mean total serum cholesterol levels were not significantly different in abusers and non-users patients (185 ± 47 vs. 190 ± 49, P > 0.05). Mean level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher in addicted group (121 ± 27 vs. 81 ± 22, P < 0.05). Mean triglyceride level was also higher in addicted patients (203 ± 114 vs. 162 ± 98, P < 0.05). The prevalence of diabetes and glucose levels was considerably lower in opium addicted cases. Mean body mass index was also lower in addicted patients significantly (25.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.5 ± 4.1, P < 0.05). Conclusion: There may be a relationship between opium abuse and aggravating lipid profile and hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease. PMID:25625118

  16. Percutaneous coronary intervention strategies and prognosis for graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YIN; ZHOU, XIUJUN; JIANG, HUA; GAO, MINGDONG; WANG, LIN; SHI, YUTIAN; GAO, JING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prognosis of graft-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and native vessel (NV)-PCI, drug-eluting stents (DESs) and bare-metal stents (BMSs) for the treatment of graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to determine the risk factors for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). A total of 289 patients who underwent PCI following CABG between August 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The effects on survival were compared among patients who underwent NV- and graft-PCI, and DES and BMS implantation. Additionally, the risk factors for MACEs following PCI for graft lesions were analyzed. The findings showed that MACE-free and revascularization-free survival rates were significantly higher in the NV-PCI group compared with those in the graft-PCI group. There were 63 cases (29.0%) of MACEs in the DES group and 25 cases (52.1%) in the BMS group. In patients undergoing NV-PCI, the DES group had significantly fewer MACEs and less target vessel revascularization (TVR) than the BMS group. In patients undergoing graft-PCI, the DES group showed a tendency for fewer MACEs and a lower incidence of cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction and TVR compared with the BMS group. Diabetes, an age of >70 years and graft-PCI were independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-PCI. It is concluded that NV-PCI has superior long-term outcomes compared with graft-PCI, and should therefore be considered as the first-line treatment for graft disease following CABG. Despite this, graft-PCI remains a viable option. DESs are the first choice for graft-PCI due to their safety and efficacy and their association with reduced mortality and MACE rate. Diabetes, older age and graft-PCI are independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-CABG who are undergoing revascularization. PMID:26136874

  17. Depression and Geographic Status as Predictors for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Chu, Danny; Springer, Justin; Hiatt, Emily; Nguyen, Quang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationships between depression, geographic status, and clinical outcomes following a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: Using the 2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we identified 63,061 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery (urban 57,247 and rural 5,814). We…

  18. Implantation of transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis through the ascending aorta concomitant with coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Leal, João Carlos Ferreira; Avanci, Luis Ernesto; Abelaira Filho, Achilles; Almeida, Thiago Faria; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Introdution The transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the treatment of high-risk symptomatic aortic stenosis has increased the number of implants every year. The learning curve for transcatheter aortic valve implantation has improved since the last 12 years, allowing access alternatives. Objective The aim of this study is to approach the implantation of transcatheter aortic valve through transaortic via associated with off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in a 67-year-old man, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension and kidney transplant. Methods Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery was performed and the valve in the aortic position was released successfully. Results There were no complications in the intraoperative and postoperative period. Gradient reduction, effective orifice increasing of the prosthesis and absence of valvular regurgitation after implantation were observed by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusion Procedural success demonstrates that implantation of transcatheter aortic valve through the ascending aorta associated with coronary artery bypass surgery without CPB is a new option for these patients. PMID:25714221

  19. What to Expect during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... support from an anesthesiologist, perfusionist (heart-lung bypass machine specialist), other surgeons, and nurses. There are several ... The tube will connect to a ventilator (a machine that supports breathing). The surgeon will make an ...

  20. Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass: A Beating Heart Procedure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... We have to look at this as avoiding risk factors. And the cardiopulmonary machine, or the bypass ... without this machine, one can only imagine the risk factor that we have just eliminated. How does ...

  1. Association of pre and intraoperative variables with postoperative complications in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Camila; Barrile, Silvia Regina; Martinelli, Bruno; Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Arca, Eduardo Aguilar; Gimenes, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Okoshi, Katashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To associate the pre- and intraoperative variables with postoperative complications of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods The pre- and intraoperative risk factors of individuals of both genders with diagnosis of coronary insufficiency undergoing coronary artery bypass graft have been studied. Results Fifty-eight individuals with median age 62 ± 10 year-old were included in the study, 67% of whom were male. Fourteen (24.1%) patients were smokers, 39 (67.2%) had previous myocardial infarction history, 11 (19%) had undergone coronary angioplasty, 74% had hypertension, 27% had diabetes mellitus, 64% had dyslipidemia and 15.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eighteen (31%) patients presented postoperative complications, most frequent being: infection in surgical incision, difficulties in deambulation, dyspnea, urinary infection and generalized weakness. Male patients had fewer complications than females (P=0.005). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remained hospitalized for longer time periods (P=0.019). Postoperative complications occurred in 50% of the patients with creatinine increased, while only 27.1% of the patients with normal value of creatinine had complications (P=0.049). In addition, complications occurred in 50% of the patients with diabetes mellitus, while only 23.8% of patients without diabetes mellitus had complications (P=0.032). The intraoperative factors showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion The preoperative factors are associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:24598958

  2. Robotic totally endoscopic multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting: procedure development, challenges, results.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Lee, Jeffrey D; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Schachner, Thomas; Lehr, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Closed-chest totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) is feasible using robotic technology. During the early phases, TECAB was restricted to single bypass grafts to the left anterior descending artery system. Because most patients referred for coronary artery bypass surgery have multivessel disease, development of endoscopic multiple bypass grafting is mandatory. Experimental work on multivessel TECAB was carried out in the early 2000s, and first clinical cases were already performed. With further technological development of operating robots, double, triple, and quadruple TECAB has become feasible both on the arrested heart and on the beating heart. To date, 161 cases of multivessel TECAB using the da Vinci telemanipulation systems are published in the literature. The main advances enabling multivessel TECAB were the availability of a robotic endostabilizer for beating heart procedures and increased surgeon skills using remote access heart-lung machine perfusion and endo-cardioplegia. Both internal mammary arteries can be harvested and both radial artery and vein graft can be used in multivessel TECAB. Y-grafting and sequential grafting are feasible. Multivessel endoscopic surgical revascularization can be combined with percutaneous coronary interventions in advanced hybrid coronary revascularization. Time requirements for multivessel TECAB are significant, and conversion rates to larger thoracic incisions are higher than those observed for single-vessel TECAB. Clinical short- and long-term outcomes, however, seem to meet the standards of open coronary bypass surgery through sternotomy. The main advantages of multivessel TECAB are a completely preserved sternum, use of double internal mammary artery even in risk groups, and a remarkably short recovery time. PMID:22576029

  3. Hemodynamic Responses to Two Different Anesthesia Regimens in Compromised Left Ventricular Function Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Etomidate-Midazolam Versus Propofol-Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Aghdaii, Nahid; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Faritus, Seyedeh Zahra; Azarfarin, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various methods have been suggested to prevent hemodynamic instability caused by propofol and adverse effects caused by etomidate induction. The current study evaluated hemodynamic effects of propofol-ketamine mixture in comparison to etomidate-midazolam mixture during anesthesia induction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of etomidate-midazolam by comparing it with propofol-ketamine for the induction of anesthesia in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients aged between 40 and 65 with coronary artery disease and low ejection fraction scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery participated in this study. The patients were randomly allotted to one of the two groups to receive either propofol-ketamine or etomidate-midazolam combination. Two groups were compared for pain on injection and myoclonus, Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Cardiac Index (CI) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR), before and one minute after induction of anesthesia, and one, three and five minutes after intubation. Results: Incidence of pain on injection (2 - 4%) and myoclonus (10%) was less in both groups. The hemodynamic response was similar in the two groups for all variables over the time interval, except for CI at one and three minutes after intubation (P = 0.024 and P = 0.048, respectively), and SVR in five minutes after intubation (P = 0.009), with differences being statistically significant. Conclusions: Both anesthetic regimens were acceptable for induction in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:26161330

  4. Thoracic epidural analgesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Yatin; Vats, Mayank; Sharma, Munish; Arora, Reetesh; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thoracic epidural analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are well documented. However, the literature available on the role of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery is scarce. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to establish whether HTEA is beneficial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing elective OPCAB surgery. After institutional ethics board approval and informed consent, 62 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB were randomly grouped into two (n = 31 each). Both groups received general anesthesia (GA), but in the HTEA group patients, TEA was also administered. Standardized surgical and anesthetic techniques were used for both the groups. Pulmonary function tests were performed pre-operatively, 6 h and 24 h post-extubation and on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 along with arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) analysis. Time for extubation (h) and time for oxygen withdrawal (h) were recorded. Pain score was assessed by the 10-cm visual analogue scale. All hemodynamic/oxygenation parameters were noted. Any complications related to the TEA were also recorded. Patients in the HTEA group were extubated earlier (10.8 h vs. 13.5 h, P < 0.01) and their oxygen withdrawal time was also significantly lower (26.26 h vs. 29.87 h, P < 0.01). The VAS score, both at rest and on coughing, was significantly lower in the HTEA group at all times, post-operatively (P < 0.01). The forced vital capacity improved significantly at 6 h post-operatively in the HTEA group (P = 0.026) and remained significantly higher thereafter. A similar trend was observed in forced expiratory volume in the first second on day 2 in the HTEA group (P = 0.024). We did not observe any significant side-effects/mortality in either group. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing elective OPCAB surgery, HTEA is a good adjunct to GA for early extubation, faster recovery of pulmonary function and better analgesia. PMID:20826963

  5. Atrioventricular block in coronary artery bypass surgery: perioperative predictors and impact on mortality

    PubMed Central

    Piantá, Ricardo Medeiros; Ferrari, Andres Di Leoni; Heck, Aline Almeida; Ferreira, Débora Klein; Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; Petracco, João Batista

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system are frequent in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery. They are mostly reversible and associated with some injury of the conduction tissue, caused by the ischemic heart disease itself or by perioperative factors. Objective Primary: investigate the association between perioperative factors and the emergence of atrioventricular block in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery. Secondary: determine the need for temporary pacing and of a permanent pacemaker in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery and the impact on hospital stay and hospital mortality. Methods Analysis of a retrospective cohort of patients submitted to coronary artery bypass surgery from the database of the Postoperative Heart Surgery Unit of the Sao Lucas Hospital of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, using the logistic regression method. Results In the period from January 1996 to December 2012, 3532 coronary artery bypass surgery were carried out. Two hundred and eighty-eight (8.15% of the total sample) patients had atrioventricular block during the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery, requiring temporary pacing. Eight of those who had atrioventricular block progressed to implantation of a permanent pacemaker (0.23% of the total sample). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association of atrioventricular block with age above 60 years (OR=2.34; CI 95% 1.75-3.12; P<0.0001), female gender (OR=1.37; CI 95% 1.06-1.77; P=0.015), chronic kidney disease (OR=2.05; CI 95% 1.49-2.81; P<0.0001), atrial fibrillation (OR=2.06; CI 95% 1.16-3.66; P=0.014), functional class III and IV of the New York Heart Association (OR=1.43; CI 95% 1.03-1.98; P=0.031), perioperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=1.70; CI 95% 1.26-2.29; P<0.0001) and with the use of the intra-aortic balloon in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR=1.92; CI 95% 1.21-3.05; P=0.006). The presence of atrioventricular block resulted in a significant increase in mortality (17.9% vs. 7.3% in those who did not develop atrioventricular block) (OR=2.09; CI 95% 1.46-2.99; P<0.0001) and a longer hospital stay (12.75 days x 10.53 days for those who didn't develop atrioventricular block) (OR=1.01; CI 95% 1.00-1.02; P=0.01). Conclusions In most cases, atrioventricular block in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery is transient and associated with several perioperative factors: age above 60 years, female sex, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, perioperative acute myocardial infarction and use of an intra-aortic balloon. Its occurrence prolongs hospitalization and, above all, doubles the risk of mortality. PMID:26107447

  6. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparin–platelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  7. Outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary bypass grafting for patients with low left ventricular ejection fractions, unstable angina pectoris, and risk factors for adverse outcomes with bypass (the AWESOME Randomized Trial and Registry).

    PubMed

    Sedlis, Steven P; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B; Morrison, Douglass A; Sethi, Gulshan; Sacks, Jerome; Henderson, William

    2004-07-01

    The recently concluded Angina With Extremely Serious Operative Mortality Evaluation (AWESOME) was a randomized clinical trial of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary bypass graft surgery among patients with medically refractory ischemia who were at high risk for coronary bypass graft surgery because of > or =1 risk factors that included severely reduced left ventricular (LV) function, defined as LV ejection fraction <35%. This study reports the outcome of patients with LV ejection fraction <35% in the randomized clinical trial and the physician-directed and patient choice registries of the AWESOME study. PMID:15219521

  8. Subclinical embolism in patients undergoing cardiac valve implantation and coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Grosset, D G; Georgiadis, D; Stirling, S; Cowburn, P; Kelman, A W; Faichney, A; Lees, K R

    1994-01-01

    Patients undergoing prosthetic valve insertion and coronary artery bypass surgery were examined with transcranial Doppler ultrasound, recently shown to be capable of detecting continuing subclinical emboli in patients with embolic sources. In 30 patients examined at least 1 year after valve surgery, and in whom warfarinisation was stable within defined limits, 20 of 24 patients (83%) with mechanical valves and 3 of 6 patients (50%) with porcine valves had embolic signals. In a serial preoperative and postoperative study in a further 30 patients, of whom 29 had native or bioprosthetic valves, only the one patient with a previous mechanical mitral valve prosthesis had embolic signals preoperatively. The incidence of embolic signals increased to 9 (30%) on the first postoperative day, and 20 (67%) on day 5. In a similar serial study in 25 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, 8 (32%) had preoperative embolic signals, which were explicable by cardiac and/or carotid disease in 6 cases. The embolus signal incidence and count did not increase postoperatively in this group. No embolic signals were found in 15 volunteer controls. The results indicate that prosthetic valves cause continuing microembolisation, detectable by transcranial Doppler; coronary artery bypass cases may have incidental embolic signals which are unaffected by cardiac surgery. This new application of Doppler ultrasound may improve the clinical assessment of embolic risk of new prosthetic valve types and deserves further examination. PMID:7909671

  9. Molecular pathways activation in coronary artery bypass surgery: which role for pump avoidance?

    PubMed

    Parolari, Alessandro; Poggio, Paolo; Myasoedova, Veronika; Songia, Paola; Pilozzi, Alberto; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we review current knowledge regarding molecular pathways activation and their possible mechanisms in the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We also highlight the role of off-pump CABG as a possible way to better understand these biological changes.We show that, after both on-pump and off-pump CABG, there is a marked and protracted activation of several molecular pathways indicating increased inflammatory status, haemostasis activation, as well as increased oxidative stress and unfavourable endothelial milieu. These changes persist for days and even weeks after surgery. Interestingly, a relatively limited number of these pathways show a more pronounced activation in case of cardiopulmonary bypass use, and these markers are mainly associated with oxidative stress activation; on the contrary, the vast majority of the pathways has a similar course both in on and off-pump procedures. Surgical stress accounts for more protracted and marked molecular pathway perturbations overall, being the effect of cardiopulmonary, if any, limited to the very early hours after surgery. The near future of the translational research in coronary bypass surgery is to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing this response, that is largely unrelated to cardiopulmonary bypass use, in order to reduce perioperative complications and to speed up patients' recovery. PMID:26418473

  10. Short- and Long-Term Patient Outcomes From Combined Coronary Endarterectomy and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayang; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Yu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This meta-analysis aimed to compare the short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing combined coronary endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting (CE + CABG) versus isolated CABG, and particularly to examine subgroup patients with high-risk profile and patients with diffuse disease in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Studies published between January 1, 1970 and May 31, 2015 were searched in the literature databases, including Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 30 eligible studies including 63,730 patients were analyzed. Five authors extracted data from the included studies independently. Meta-analysis on the total patients revealed that CE + CABG was associated with significantly increased 30-day postoperative all-cause mortality compared with isolated CABG (OR?=?1.86, 95% CI: 1.66–2.08, z?=?10.99, P?

  11. Particles deposition induced by the magnetic field in the coronary bypass graft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, Sandor I.; Totorean, Alin F.; Vekas, Ladislau

    2016-03-01

    Bypass graft failures is a complex process starting with intimal hyperplasia development which involve many hemodynamic and biological factors. This work presents experimental results regarding the possibility to use magnetic drug delivery to prevent the development of the intimal hyperplasia using a simplified but intuitive model. The primary goal is to understand the magnetic particle deposition in the anastomosis region of the bypass graft taking into account the complex flow field created in this area which involves recirculation region, flow mixing and presence of particles with high residence time. The three-dimensional geometry model was used to simulate the motion and accumulation of the particles under the magnetic field influence in anastomotic region of the coronary bypass graft. The flow patterns are evaluated both numerically and experimentally and show a good correlation in term of flow parameters like vortex length and flow stagnation point positions. Particle depositions are strongly dependent on the magnet position and consequently of the magnetic field intensity and field gradient. Increased magnetic field controlled by the magnet position induces increased particle depositions in the bypass graft anastomosis. The result shows that particle depositions depend on the bypass graft angle, and the deposition shape and particle accumulation respectively, depend by the flow pattern in the anastomosis region.

  12. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  13. Depression, C-reactive protein and length of post-operative hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in mediating the association between greater pre-operative depression symptoms and longer post-operative length of stay in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We used a sample of 145 elective CABG patients and measured depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) prior to surgery and collected baseline measures of CRP. Participants were followed up during their in-hospital stay to measure early (1-3 days post-surgery) and persistent (4-8 days post-surgery) CRP responses to surgery. We found that compared with participants with low depression symptoms, those with elevated depression symptoms (BDI>10) prior to CABG were at increased odds of a hospital stay of greater than one week (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.415-8.693, p=0.007) and that greater persistent CRP responses mediated this association. Further work is needed to explore the exact physiological pathways through which depression and CRP interact to affect recovery in CABG patients. PMID:24239712

  14. Multiscale modeling and simulation of blood flow in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Kahn, Andy; Marsden, Alison

    2011-11-01

    We present a computational framework for modeling and simulation of blood flow in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. We evaluate the influence of shape on the homeostatic state, cardiac output, and other quantities of interest. We present a case study on a patient with multiple CABG. We build a patient-specific model of the blood vessels comprised of the aorta, vessels branching from the top of the aorta (brachiocephalic artery and carotids) and the coronary arteries, in addition to bypass grafts. The rest of the circulatory system is modeled using lumped parameter 0D models comprised of resistances, compliances, inertances and elastance. An algorithm is presented that computes these parameters automatically given constraints on the flow. A Finite element framework is used to compute blood flow and pressure in the 3D model to which the 0D code is coupled at the model inlets and outlets. An adaptive closed loop BC is used to capture the coupling of the various outlets of the model with inlets, and is compared with a model with fixed inlet BC. We compare and contrast the pressure, flowrate, coronary perfusion, and PV curves obtained in the different cases. Further, we compare and contrast quantities of interest such as wall shear stress, wall shear stress gradients and oscillatory shear index for different surgical geometries and discuss implications of patient-specific optimization. I would like to acknowlege AHA for funding this work.

  15. Should high risk patients receive clopidogrel as well as aspirin post coronary arterial bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Kunadian, Babu; Thornley, Andrew R; Babu, Thotala N; Dunning, Joel

    2006-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether clopidogrel should be given in addition to aspirin in high risk patients after coronary bypass surgery to reduce thrombotic complications. High risk patients would include patients recently post MI or patients with a patent stent in situ. Altogether 511 papers were identified using the below mentioned search and all major international guidelines were included. Eleven presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group, relevant outcomes and weaknesses were tabulated. The 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines recommend 9-12 months of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin for patients undergoing coronary arterial bypass grafting (CABG) for non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (grade 1C). This is based on subanalyses of the CURE and CAPRIE studies that showed significant reductions in the incidence of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in patients who had CABG during these trials. A randomised trial is currently underway to investigate this further. Thus, patients post CABG who have had a recent NSTEMI or have a stent not covered by a graft should have clopidogrel in addition to aspirin for 9-12 months. PMID:17670706

  16. Transradial Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Unprotected Left Main and/or Multivessel Disease in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhi Jian; Yan, Zhen Xian; Liu, Xiao Li; Shen, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The overall safety and efficacy of transradial coronary intervention (TRI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with unprotected left main (UPLM) disease and/or multivessel coronary disease (MVD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been established. Consecutive patients with ACS undergoing TRI with drug-eluting stent (n = 1431) or CABG (n = 651) for UPLM and/or MVD were included. A propensity-score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 cohorts, yielding 524 pairs of matched patients. Median clinical follow-up was 32 months. After propensity-score adjustment, no significant difference was observed between the TRI and CABG groups in all-cause mortality (4.0% vs 5.2%; P = .375). Transradial coronary intervention was favored by a significant increase in the incidence of stroke in the CABG group (0.4% vs 1.9%; P = .020), whereas a significantly increased target vessel revascularization rate (16.8% vs 6.3%; P < .0001) observed in the TRI group favored CABG. Composite outcome (death/myocardial infarction/stroke) was comparable between the TRI and the CABG groups (8.0% vs 11.5%; P = .061). Clinical outcomes of TRI on UPLM and/or MVD for patients with ACS are comparable to CABG in composite safety outcomes with the advantage to TRI for avoiding a stroke. PMID:25818105

  17. Should computed tomography angiography supersede invasive coronary angiography for the evaluation of graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph; Klimach, Stefan; Lang, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David

    2015-08-01

    Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) has long been the established gold standard in assessing graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Over the past decade or so however, improvements in computed tomography angiography (CTA) technology have allowed its emergence as a useful clinical tool in graft assessment. The recent introduction of 64-slice and now 128-slice scanners into widespread distribution, and the development of 320-detector row technology allowing volumetric imaging of the entire heart at single points in time within one cardiac cycle, has increased the potential of CTA to supersede ICA in this capacity. This study sought to examine the evidence surrounding this potential. A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery] is [computed tomography angiography or invasive coronary angiography] superior in terms of [graft patency assessment, stenosis detection, radiation exposure and complication rate]? Four hundred and twenty-four articles were identified from the search strategy. Four additional articles were identified from references of key articles. Seventeen articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. The reliability of CTA as a tool in the detection of graft patency and stenosis has continued to improve with each successive generation of multislice technology. The latest 64- and 128-slice CTA techniques are able to detect graft patency and stenosis with very high sensitivities and specificities comparable with ICA, while remaining non-invasive procedures associated with fewer complications (ICA carries a 0.08% risk of myocardial infarction and 0.7% risk of minor complications in clinically stable patients). Present limitations of the technology include the accurate visualization of distal anastomoses and clip artefacts. In addition, the capacity of diagnostic ICA to be combined simultaneously with percutaneous coronary interventions is an important advantage and a further limitation of CTA alone. Recent developments, however, including the derivation of fractional flow reserve and perfusion assessment from CTA as functional measures of stenosis severity have given CTA at present the capacity to become a first-line tool in the assessment of patients with suspected graft dysfunction. Novel computer-automated diagnostic software, though currently in infancy, has shown promise in facilitating and speeding image interpretation. With further improvements in scanning technologies, CTA is likely to supersede ICA for graft assessment in the near future. PMID:25924868

  18. Intraoperative Assessment and Quantification of Coronary Artery Graft Patency Performed on or off Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Eric D.; Leach, Christopher; Barnes, Terry; Driscoll, Kurt; Strutz, Kurt; Holt, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Within the last 10 years, the incorporation of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) into many surgical practices has grown. OPCAB requires the surgeon to operate on a beating heart, and it is generally accepted that OPCAB procedures are more technically demanding. Concerns of possible incomplete revascularizations and decreased graft patency have been noted in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare on-pump and off-pump intraoperative coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow parameters. Intraoperative flow studies conducted with the Butterfly (Medi-Stim Norge AS, Oslo, Norway) flow meter were analyzed retrospectively on 74 patients. Comparisons were completed between patient groups having had their revascularizations performed on or off cardiopulmonary bypass. Our study revealed significant differences in the mean flow rate through saphenous vein grafts (SVG) to the obtuse marginal artery (OM; p = .014), to the diagonal artery (Diag; p = .003), to the right coronary artery (RCA; p = .001), and to the posterior descending artery (PDA; p = .001). Total blood product use showed significantly increased use of both platelets (PLTs) and cryoprecipitate (Cryo) in the on-pump group (p = .027 and .012, respectively). No differences were found for transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Additional findings showed a significantly decreased median length of stay (LOS) for the off-pump group. The on-pump patients had a median hospital stay of 7 days (range, 4–24 days), whereas the off-pump patients had a median stay of 6 days (range, 3–22 days; p = .049). Although we were able to show some significance in the mean flow data supporting increased graft flow with the on-pump technique, we were not able to show an overall increase in all recorded flow characteristics to support one method over another. PMID:17672187

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future of Myocardial Revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the heart-lung machine ushered in the era of modern cardiac surgery. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains the most common operation performed by cardiac surgeons today. From its infancy in the 1950s till today, CABG has undergone many developments both technically and clinically. Improvements in intraoperative technique and perioperative care have led to CABG being offered to a more broad patient profile with less complications and adverse events. Our review outlines the rich history and promising future of myocardial revascularization. PMID:25374960

  20. A serious game for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery procedure training.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Brent; Sabri, Hamed; Kapralos, Bill; Moussa, Fuad; Cristancho, Sayra; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We have begun development of an interactive, multi-player serious game for the purpose of training cardiac surgeons, fellows, and residents the series of steps comprising the Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass grafting (OPCAB) surgical procedure. It is hypothesized that by learning the OPCAB procedure in a "first-person-shooter gaming environment", trainees will have a much better understanding of the procedure than by traditional learning modalities. The serious game will allow for simulation parameters related to levels of fidelity to be easily adjusted so that the effect of fidelity on knowledge transfer can be examined. PMID:21335779

  1. Moderate Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Clinical Update for the Perioperative Echocardiographer.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Yasdet; Singh, Saket; Augoustides, John G; MacKnight, Brenda; Zhou, Elizabeth; Gutsche, Jacob T; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-10-01

    Incidental aortic stenosis in the setting of coronary artery bypass surgery may be a perioperative challenge. The accurate assessment of the degree of aortic stenosis remains an important determinant. Although severe aortic stenosis is an indication for valve replacement, current guidelines advise a balanced approach to the management of moderate aortic stenosis in this setting. Multiple factors should be considered in a team discussion to balance risks versus benefits for the various management options in the given patient. The rapid progress in aortic valve technologies also offer alternatives for definitive management of moderate aortic stenosis in this setting that will likely become even safer in the near future. PMID:26275517

  2. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A.; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A.; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Methods Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ? 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7–6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ?30 kg/m2; triglycerides ? 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ? 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ? 85 mmHg; and A1c ? 5.7% or on therapy]. Results Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m2 and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Conclusion Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. PMID:25728823

  3. Combined elective percutaneous coronary intervention and transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pasic, Miralem; Dreysse, Stephan; Unbehaun, Axel; Buz, Semih; Drews, Thorsten; Klein, Christoph; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Hetzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    There is no established strategy of how and when to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Simultaneous, single-stage treatment of both pathologies is a possible solution. We report our initial results of simultaneously performed transapical TAVI and elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Between April 2008 and July 2011, a total of 419 patients underwent transapical TAVI. Combined elective PCI and TAVI were performed in 46 (11%) patients. Only the most significant coronary lesion or lesions were treated. Technical success of the combined approach was 100%. The mean count of implanted stents per patient was 1.6 ± 1.0 (range, 1–5 stents). The 30-day mortality rates in the PCI and TAVI group was 4.3%. Survival at 12, 24 and 36 months of the PCI and TAVI group 87.1 ± 5.5, 69.7 ± 10.3 and 69.7 ± 10.3%, respectively. The results showed that the single-stage approach with combined elective PCI and TAVI is feasible and safe. It has become our primary choice for treatment of high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and CAD. PMID:22232234

  4. Myocardial conditioning techniques in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Moscarelli, Marco; Punjabi, Prakash P; Miroslav, Gamov I; Del Sarto, Paolo; Fiorentino, Francesca; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery by avoiding cardioplegic arrest seems to reduce the risk of ischemic myocardial injury. However, even short-term regional ischemic periods, hemodynamic instability and arrhythmias associated with the procedure can be responsible for myocardial damage. Conditioning, a potential cardio-protective tool during on-pump cardiac surgery, has hardly been investigated in the context of off-pump surgery. There are virtually no large trials on remote ischemic preconditioning and the majority of reports have focused on central ischemic conditioning. Similarly, volatile anesthetic agents with conditioning effect like ischemic preconditioning have been shown to reduce cardiac injury during on-pump procedures but have not been validated in the off-pump scenario. Here, we review the available evidence on myocardial conditioning, either with ischemia/reperfusion or volatile anesthetic agents in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery surgery. PMID:25599579

  5. Tungsten-rhenium suture needles with improved properties for coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Frank R; Maurer, Robert E; Bar, S Neil

    2010-08-01

    Suture needles are essential instruments for performing blood vessel anastomosis in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. Exceptional needle performance is needed now as never before because of the increasing prevalence of elderly patients with advanced stages of coronary disease and calcified tissue. The various properties that affect the performance of suture needles used in CABG surgery are reviewed and recent progress towards improving needle performance through the use of tungsten-rhenium alloys and novel lubricous needle coatings is presented. Substantial enhancement of properties beyond those exhibited by commercially available stainless steel suture needles has been made, including an approximate 40% increase in strength, 100% increase in stiffness, and superior multiple pass penetration performance in both synthetic rubber media and human cadaver carotid arteries (p < 0.01). PMID:20574974

  6. The impact of avoiding cardiopulmonary by-pass during coronary artery bypass surgery in elderly patients: the Danish On-pump Off-pump Randomisation Study (DOORS)

    PubMed Central

    Houlind, Kim; Kjeldsen, Bo Juul; Madsen, Susanne Nørgaard; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Holme, Susanne Juel; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Haahr, Poul Erik; Mortensen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation for ischemic heart disease provides improved quality of life and, in some patients, prolonged survival. Concern has, however, been raised about complications that may be related to the use of cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamping. It has been hypothesized that when coronary artery by-pass grafting is performed without the use of CPB, the rate of serious complications is reduced. Methods/Design The trial is designed as an open, randomized, controlled, clinical trial with blinded assessment of end-points. Patients at or above 70 years of age, referred for surgical myocardial revascularisation, are included and randomised to receive coronary artery by-pass grafting either with or without the use of CPB and aortic cross-clamping. Follow-up is performed by clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic data that are evaluated by independent committees that are blinded with respect to the result of the randomisation. End points include mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, graft patency, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. The trial is performed in four different Danish, cardiac surgery centres. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00123981 PMID:19575814

  7. The effectiveness of lavender essence on strernotomy related pain intensity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Ashrastaghi, Om Golsum; Habibi, Valiollah; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ayasi, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the side effects of pharmacological methods, there has been a suggestion to use nonpharmacological methods such Aromatherapy following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of lavender 2% aromatherapy on sternotomy pain intensity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients who have undergone surgery. Materials and Methods: During this clinical trial, 50 patients who were candidates for CABG, were randomly divided into two equal groups, that is, the control group (n = 25) and the case group (n = 25). Following CABG, the case group received two drops of 2% lavender oil every 15 minutes with supplemental oxygen and the control group received only supplemental oxygen through a face mask. The data collection tools comprised of the demographic check list and visual analog scale (VAS) for evaluating the pain intensity. The pain intensity were assessed pre- and five, 30, and 60 minutes post aromatherapy. The final data were analyzed by the t-test and chi-squared test. Results: The findings showed that the pain perception intensity in the case group was lower than that in the control group at the 30- and 60-minute phases after intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The result indicated that aromatherapy can be used as a complementary method in postoperative pain reduction, as it reduced pain. The patients require two sedative drugs, and moreover, it avoids expenses of treatment. PMID:26261829

  8. Saphenous vein graft vs. radial artery graft searching for the best second coronary artery bypass graft

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al Kindi, Adil; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Hinai, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was first used in the late 1960s. This revolutionary procedure created hope among ischemic heart disease patients. Multiple conduits are used and the golden standard is the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. Although all approaches were advocated by doctors, the use of saphenous vein grafts became the leading approach used by the majority of cardiac surgeons in the 1970s. The radial artery graft was introduced at the same time but was not as prevalent due to complications. It was reintroduced into clinical practice in 1989. The procedure was not well received initially but it has since shown superiority in patency as well as long-term survival after CABG. This review provides a summary of characteristics, technical features and patency rates of the radial artery graft in comparison with venous conduits. Current studies and research into radial artery grafts and saphenous vein grafts for CABG are explored. However, more studies are required to verify the various findings of the positive effects of coronary artery bypass grafting with the help of radial arteries on mortality and long-lasting patency. PMID:24198449

  9. Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on Mortality and Morbidity After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshiri, Maryam; Faritus, Zahra; Ojaghi-Haghighi, Zahra; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Kargar, Faranak; Aghili, Rokhsareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increased in Asian countries. It represents a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, lipid abnormality and hypertension. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MetS and outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed on patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). All the patients were followed up in hospital and three months afterward. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years or had severe comorbidities, a history of valvular heart disease, and low ejection fraction. Results: A total of 235 patients (135 women) with a mean age of 59 ± 9.3 years were included. MetS was more prevalent in women (P < 0.001). The most prevalent complications were bleeding [20 (8.5%)] and dysrhythmia [18 (7.7%)]. At three months follow-up, the frequency rates of readmission [24 (10.2%)] and mediastinitis [9 (3.8%)] were higher than other complications. Diabetes and MetS were risk factors for a long ICU stay (> 5 days) and atelectasia (P < 0.05). Significant associations were observed between diabetes and pulmonary embolism (P = 0.025) and mediastinitis (P = 0.051). Conclusions: Identification of MetS before CABG can predict the surgery outcome. Patients with MetS have increased risks for longer ICU stay and atelectasia. PMID:25478548

  10. Frequency of myocardial indium-111 antimyosin uptake after uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; van Royen, E.A.; Visser, C.A.; Meyne, N.G.; van Buul, M.M.; Peters, R.J.; Dunning, A.J. )

    1990-11-15

    The reported incidence of myocardial damage after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is highly related to the methods used. Since indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibody scintigraphy has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive for myocardial necrosis, even in small lesions, uptake of this radiotracer was evaluated after CABG. In 23 consecutive patients without previous myocardial infarction who underwent CABG for stable angina, 80 MBq indium-111 antimyosin was injected on the third postoperative day. Planar images were obtained 48 hours later and analyzed for myocardial uptake of indium-111 antimyosin. Scintigraphic results were related to creatine kinase MB levels, duration of both aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, and electrocardiographic changes. In all patients surgical procedure and postoperative course was uncomplicated. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was present in 19 of 23 patients (82%). It was diffused in 7 patients and localized in 12. No pathologic Q waves occurred postoperatively. Fourteen patients exhibited ST-segment changes. No good relation was found among indium-111 antimyosin uptake and creatine kinase MB levels, duration of cross-clamping or bypass, and ST-T changes. It is concluded that some degree of myocardial damage, though silent, is common after CABG.

  11. Effects of topical hypothermia on postoperative inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, Murat; Erol, Gokhan; Savas Oz, Bilgehan; Arslan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to examine the effects of topical hypothermia on inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods Fifty patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were included the study. They were randomised to two groups. Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (28–32°C) was performed on both groups using standardised anaesthesiology and surgical techniques. Furthermore, topical cooling with 4°C saline was performed on patients in group I. We recorded peri-operative and intra-operative results of blood samples, pre-operative and postoperative outcomes of electrocardiography and echocardiography, diaphragm levels on X-ray, and the necessity of positive inotropic medication and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). Results Time-dependent changes in blood samples were compared between the two groups. The changes on complement 3 (C3) and TNF-? levels were more significant in group I than group II (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Spontaneous restoration rate of sinus rhythm was higher in group II than group I (80 vs 32%, p < 0.01). Atrial fibrillation was seen in six patients in group I and one patient in group II (p < 0.05). IABP was performed on four patients (16%) in group I (p < 0.05). Diaphragmatic paralysis was seen in seven patients in group I but not in group II (p < 0.01). Partial pericardiotomy rates were compared within the groups but there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). One patient in group I died on the 18th postoperative day, but operative mortality rate was not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Topical hypothermia had a negative impact on inflammatory markers and postoperative morbidities. PMID:24844551

  12. The clopidogrel after surgery for coronary artery disease (CASCADE) randomized controlled trial: clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone after coronary bypass surgery [NCT00228423

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Alexander; Le May, Michel; Wells, George A; Mesana, Thierry G; Ruel, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Background Saphenous vein graft disease remains a major limitation of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The process of saphenous vein intimal hyperplasia begins just days after surgical revascularization, setting the stage for graft atherosclerotic disease and its sequalae. Clopidogrel improves outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic disease, and is effective at reducing intimal hyperplasia in animal models of thrombosis. Therefore, the goal of this study will be to evaluate the efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin therapy versus aspirin alone in the prevention of saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia following coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods Patients undergoing multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting and in whom at least two saphenous vein grafts will be used are eligible for the study. Patients will be randomized to receive daily clopidogrel 75 mg or placebo, in addition to daily aspirin 162 mg, for a one year duration starting on the day of surgery (as soon as postoperative bleeding has been excluded). At the end of one year, all patients will undergo coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound assessment of one saphenous vein graft as selected by randomization. The trial will be powered to test the hypothesis that clopidogrel and aspirin will reduce vein graft intimal hyperplasia by 20% compared to aspirin alone at one year following bypass surgery. Discussion This trial is the first prospective human study that will address the question of whether clopidogrel therapy improves outcomes and reduces saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia following cardiac surgery. Should the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin reduce the process of vein graft intimal hyperplasia, the results of this study will help redefine modern antiplatelet management of coronary artery bypass patients. PMID:16219100

  13. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  14. Patient Specific Multiscale Simulations of Blood Flow in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalore Ramachandra, Abhay; Sankaran, Sethuraman; Kahn, Andrew M.; Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-11-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to revascularize blocked coronary arteries in roughly 400,000 patients per year in the US.While arterial grafts offer superior patency, vein grafts are used in more than 70% of procedures, as most patients require multiple grafts. Vein graft failure (approx. 50% within 10 years) remains a major clinical issue. Mounting evidence suggests that hemodynamics plays a key role as a mechano-biological stimulus contributing to graft failure. However, quantifying relevant hemodynamic quantities (e.g. wall shear stress) invivo is not possible directly using clinical imaging techniques. We numerically compute graft hemodynamics in a cohort of 3-D patient specific models using a stabilized finite element method. The 3D flow domain is coupled to a 0D lumped parameter circulatory model. Boundary conditions are tuned to match patient specific blood pressures, stroke volumes & heart rates. Results reproduce clinically observed coronary flow waveforms. We quantify differences in multiple hemodynamic quantities between arterial & venous grafts & discuss possible correlations between graft hemodynamics & clinically observed graft failure.Such correlations will provide further insight into mechanisms of graft failure and may lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  15. Coronary artery disease performance measures and statin use in patients with recent percutaneous coronary intervention or recent coronary artery bypass grafting (from the NCDR PINNACLE registry).

    PubMed

    Bandeali, Salman J; Gosch, Kensey; Alam, Mahboob; Kayani, Waleed T; Jneid, Hani; Fiocchi, Fran; Wilson, James M; Chan, Paul S; Deswal, Anita; Maddox, Thomas M; Virani, Salim S

    2015-04-15

    The association between coronary revascularization strategy (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] or coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]) and compliance with coronary artery disease (CAD) performance measures is not well studied. Our analysis studied patients enrolled in the Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence registry, who underwent coronary revascularization using PCI or CABG in the 12 months before their most recent outpatient visit in 2011. We compared the attainment of CAD performance measures and statin use in eligible patients with PCI and CABG using hierarchical logistic regression models. Our study cohort consisted of 112,969 patients (80,753 with PCI and 32,216 with CABG). After adjustment for site and patient characteristics, performance measure compliance for tobacco use query (odds ratio [OR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 0.86), antiplatelet therapy (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.94) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.94) was lower in CABG compared with patients with PCI. Patients who underwent recent CABG had higher rates of ?-blocker (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.33) and statin treatment (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43) compared with patients with PCI. Of the 79 practice sites, 15 (19%) had ?75% of their patients with CAD (CABG or PCI) meeting 75% to 100% of all eligible CAD performance measures. In conclusion, gaps persist in compliance with specific CAD performance measures in patients with recent PCI or CABG, and 1 in 5 practices had ?75% compliance of eligible CAD performance measures in the most of their patients. PMID:25721483

  16. Clinical comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with domestic drug-eluting stents versus off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Xin, Xingli; Geng, Tao; Xu, Zesheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with domestic drug-eluting stents (DES) and off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: A total of 227 patients with ULMCA disease and underwent revascularization was included. One hundred and six patients were treated with PCI with domestic DES implantation and 121 patients with off pump CABG. Clinical outcomes with respect to the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including death any cause, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and target vessel revascularization (TVR) during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the domestic DES and off pump CABG groups in the risk of death, non-fatal MI, stroke, and TVR during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up. Overall in-hospital MACCE in PCI versus CABG was 0.94% versus 5.78% (P<0.05). The overall MACCE at 12-month follow up in PCI versus CABG was in 3.77% versus 3.31% (P>0.05). Conclusions: Domestic DES is feasible and safety in the treatment of ULMCA lesions. When compared with off-pump CABG, domestic DES achieved similar completeness of revascularization, similar in-hospital and 12-month follow-up outcomes. A longer follow-up is needed. PMID:26550424

  17. Influence of Intraoperative Fluid Volume on Cardiopulmonary Bypass Hematocrit and Blood Transfusions in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jeffrey A.; Holt, David W.; Shostrom, Valerie K.; Durham, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: A hematocrit (Hct) of less than 25% during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and transfusion of homologous packed red blood cells (PRBC) are each associated with an increased probability of adverse events in cardiac surgery. Although the CPB circuit is a major contributor to hemodilution intravenous (IV) fluid volume may also significantly influence the level of hemodilution. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of asanguinous IV fluid volume on CPB Hct and intraoperative PRBC transfusion. After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective chart review of 90 adult patients that had undergone an elective, isolated CABG with CPB was conducted. Regression analysis was used to determine if pre-CPB fluid volume was associated with the lowest CPB Hct and the incidence of an intraoperative PRBC transfusion. In separate multivariate analyses, higher pre-CPB fluid volume was associated with lower minimum CPB Hct (p < .0001), and higher minimum CPB Hct was associated with a decreased probability of PRBC transfusion (p < .0001). Compared to patients that received <1600 mL (n = 55) of pre-CPB fluid, those that received >1600 mL (n = 35) had a decreased mean low CPB Hct (22.4% vs 25.6%, p < .0001), an increased incidence of a CPB Hct <25% (74% vs. 38%, p = .0008) and PRBC transfusion (60% vs. 16%, p < .0001), and increased median PRBC units transfused (2.0 vs 1.0, p = .1446) despite no significant difference in gender, age, patient size, baseline Hct, or CPB prime volume. Patients that received a PRBC transfusion (n = 30) received a significantly higher volume of pre-CPB fluid than nontransfused patients (1800 vs. 1350 mL, p = .0039). These findings suggest that pre-CPB fluid volume can significantly contribute to hemodilutional anemia in cardiac surgery. Optimizing pre-CPB volume may preserve baseline Hct and help limit intraoperative hemodilution. PMID:18705545

  18. Myasthenia gravis: a careful perioperative anesthetic management of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Micha?; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Stachurska, Katarzyna; Fija?kowska, Anna; St??ka, Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, even hazardous cardiac surgery can be performed on patients with autoimmune diseases like myasthenia gravis. It requires a sensitive perioperative anesthetic approach especially in relation to nondepolarizing muscle relaxant administration. Myasthenic patients produce antibodies against the end-plate acetylcholine receptors causing muscle weakness and sensitivity to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants that could lead to respiratory failure. Perioperative nurse care is critical for uncomplicated course of treatment; therefore, apprehension of surgical procedure should be helpful on an everyday basis. We describe successful management without any pulmonary complications of two patients with myasthenia gravis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. In addition, antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies concentrations were evaluated during treatment time. In conclusion, we have found that reduced titrated doses of cisatracurium may be safely used in patients with myasthenia gravis undergoing cardiac surgery without anesthesia and respiratory-related complications. PMID:25943997

  19. Randomized trial of the effects of exercise training after coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Sullivan, M.

    1985-04-01

    Fifty-three male volunteers who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to a medically supervised exercise program (N = 28) or to usual community care (N = 25). They were tested initially and at one year with exercise tests for thallium scintigraphy, maximal oxygen uptake, and electrocardiography. Approximately one third of the patients had signs and/or symptoms of ischemia consistent with incomplete or unsuccessful revascularization. Over the year there were five dropouts, but no major complications occurred. The exercisers attended an average of 82% of the sessions (three times a week) and trained at 80% of their maximal heart rate. Both the exercisers with and those without angina had significant increases in estimated and measured oxygen uptake and significant declines in submaximal and resting heart rate. There was a trend toward improved thallium scans in the exercised patients with angina.

  20. Factors associated with extubation time in coronary artery bypass grafting patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Maghsoudi, Behzad; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Bagheri, Zahra; Sajedianfard, Javad; Gerami, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, with coronary artery disease being the most common. With increasing numbers of patients, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) has become the most common operation in the world. Respiratory disorder is one of the most prevalent complications of CABG. Thus, weaning off the mechanical ventilation and extubation are of great clinical importance for these patients. Some post-operative problems also relate to the tracheal tube and mechanical ventilation. Therefore, an increase in this leads to an increase in the number of complications, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Since a large number of factors affect the post-operative period, the present study aims to identify the predictors of extubation time in CABG patients using casualty network analysis. Method. This longitudinal study was conducted on 800 over 18 year old patients who had undergone CABG surgery in three treatment centers affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The patients’ information, including pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative variables, was retrospectively extracted from their medical records. Then, the data was comprehensively analyzed through path analysis using MPLUS-7.1 software. Results. The mean of extubation time was 10.27 + 4.39 h. Moreover, extubation time was significantly affected by packed cells during the Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB), packed cells after CPB, inotrope use on arrival at ICU, mean arterial pressure 1st ICU, packed cells 1st ICU, platelets 1st ICU, Blood Urea Nitrogen 1st ICU, and hematocrit 1st ICU. Conclusion. Considering all of the factors under investigation, some peri-operative and post-operative factors had significant effects. Therefore, considering the post-operative factors is important for designing a treatment plan and evaluating patients’ prognosis. PMID:26644972

  1. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Do?an, Pinar; Davarc?, Isil; Özsöyler, ?brahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  2. Impact of body mass index on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vinícius Eduardo Araújo; Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; dos Reis, Tâmara Oliveira; Rabello, Renato Rocha; Rocha, Eduardo Augusto Victor; Couto, Célia Maria Ferreira; Couto, José Carlos Ferreira; Bento, Alduir

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze the impact of body mass index on outcomes of 101 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined valve/ coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in a private hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery from May 2009 to December 2012. All patients were followed up from the first day of admission until discharge or death. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The main outcome measure was the association between BMI and postoperative morbidities and mortality. Results Multivariate analysis identified obesity as an independent predictor of increased risk of surgical reintervention (odds ratio [OR] 13.6; 95%CI 1.1 - 162.9; P=0.046) and reduced risk of bleeding (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.69; P=0.025). Univariate analysis showed that obesity was associated with increased frequency of wound dehiscence (P=0.021). There was no association between BMI and other complications or mortality in univariate analysis. There was also no association between body mass index and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit or hospital stay. Conclusion Obese individuals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined surgery have a higher postoperative risk of surgical reintervention and lower chances of bleeding. PMID:26313724

  3. Preoperative factors affecting cost and length of stay for isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: hierarchical linear model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of preoperative patient and hospital factors on resource use, cost and length of stay (LOS) among patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Design Observational retrospective study. Settings Data from the Japanese Administrative Database. Participants Patients who underwent isolated, elective OPCAB between April 2011 and March 2012. Primary outcome measures The primary outcomes of this study were inpatient cost and LOS associated with OPCAB. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to examine the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on inpatient costs and LOS. The independent variables were patient and hospital factors. Results We identified 2491 patients who underwent OPCAB at 268 hospitals. The mean cost of OPCAB was $40?665 ±7774, and the mean LOS was 23.4±8.2?days. The study found that select patient factors and certain comorbidities were associated with a high cost and long LOS. A high hospital OPCAB volume was associated with a low cost (?6.6%; p=0.024) as well as a short LOS (?17.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions The hospital OPCAB volume is associated with efficient resource use. The findings of the present study indicate the need to focus on hospital elective OPCAB volume in Japan in order to improve cost and LOS. PMID:26576810

  4. Coronary stenting versus coronary bypass surgery in patients with multiple vessel disease and significant proximal LAD stenosis: results from the ERACI II study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, A; Rodríguez Alemparte, M; Baldi, J; Navia, J; Delacasa, A; Vogel, D; Oliveri, R; Fernández Pereira, C; Bernardi, V; O’Neill, W; Palacios, I F

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using stent implantation versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with multiple vessel disease with involvement of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Methods: 230 patients with multiple vessel disease and severe stenosis of the proximal LAD (113 with PCI, 117 with CABG). They were a cohort of patients from the randomised ERACI (Argentine randomized trial of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass surgery in multivessel disease) II study. Results: Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in 30 day major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat procedures) between the strategies (PCI 2.7% v CABG 7.6%, p = 0.18). There were no significant differences in survival (PCI 96.4% v CABG 95%, p = 0.98) and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction (PCI 92% v CABG 89%, p = 0.94) at 41.5 (6) months’ follow up. However, freedom from new revascularisation procedures (CABG 96.6% v PCI 73%, p = 0.0002) and frequency of angina (CABG 9.4% v PCI 22%, p = 0.025) were superior in the CABG group. Conclusion: Patients with multivessel disease and significant disease of the proximal LAD randomly assigned in the ERACI II trial to PCI or CABG had similar survival and survival with freedom from myocardial infarction at long term follow up. Repeat revascularisation procedures were higher in the PCI group. PMID:12527674

  5. Effects of antiplatelet therapy with indobufen or aspirin-dipyridamole on graft patency one year after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Rajah, S M; Nair, U; Rees, M; Saunders, N; Walker, D; Williams, G; Critchley, A; Beton, D; Campbell, C; Lawson, R A

    1994-04-01

    Saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft patency can be increased by antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin plus dipyridamole are effective but are associated with tolerability problems. Indobufen is a possible alternative antiplatelet agent that may be better tolerated. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of indobufen 200 mg twice daily with aspirin 300 mg thrice daily plus dipyridamole 75 mg thrice daily in preventing occlusion of autologous saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts. A total of 803 patients were randomized in the study, of whom 552 had a follow-up coronary angiogram approximately 1 year after operation. All anastomoses were patent in 56% of indobufen-treated patients and 59% of aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.384). The percentage of all anastomoses patent was 82% in the indobufen group and 83% in the aspirin-dipyridamole group (p = 0.297). Mean postoperative blood loss was significantly less in the indobufen group (p = 0.043). Patients who received indobufen also had significantly fewer adverse events considered to be treatment-related compared with aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.02). At the doses tested indobufen was as effective as aspirin plus dipyridamole in preventing occlusion of saphenous vein grafts and was better tolerated. Because indobufen was associated with less postoperative blood loss it may be used before operation in coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:8159037

  6. Single vs double antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome: Predictors of bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Tarzia, Vincenzo; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Buratto, Edward; Paolini, Carla; Dal Lin, Carlo; Rizzoli, Giulio; Bottio, Tomaso; Gerosa, Gino

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of anti-platelet therapy and derangements of pre-operative classical coagulation and thromboelastometry parameters to major bleeding post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Two groups of CABG patients were studied: Group A, treated with aspirin alone (n = 50), and Group B treated with aspirin and clopidogrel (n = 50). Both had similar preoperative, clinical, biologic characteristics and operative management. Classic coagulation parameters and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) profiles were determined preoperatively for both groups and the same heparin treatment was administered. ROTEM profiles (INTEM and EXTEM assays) were analyzed, both for traditional parameters, and thrombin generation potential, expressed by area-under-curve (AUC). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between rates of major bleeding between patients treated with aspirin alone, compared with those treated with aspirin and clopidogrel (12% vs 16%, P = 0.77). In the 14 cases of major bleeding, pre-operative classic coagulation and traditional ROTEM parameters were comparable. Conversely we observed that the AUC in the EXTEM test was significantly lower in bleeders (5030 ± 1115 Ohm*min) than non-bleeders (6568 ± 548 Ohm*min) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We observed that patients with a low AUC value were at a significantly higher risk of bleeding compared to patients with higher AUC, regardless of antiplatelet treatment. This suggests that thrombin generation potential, irrespective of the degree of platelet inhibition, correlates with surgical bleeding. PMID:26413234

  7. TLR4 Expression Is Associated with Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Avlas, Orna; Bragg, Arieh; Fuks, Avi; Nicholson, James D.; Farkash, Ariel; Porat, Eyal; Aravot, Dan; Levy-Drummer, Rachel S.; Cohen, Cyrille; Shainberg, Asher; Arad, Michael; Hochhauser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune receptor expressed in immune cells and the heart. Activation of the immune system following myocardial ischemia causes the release of proinflammatory mediators that may negatively influence heart function. Aim The aim of this study is to determine whether TLR4 is activated in peripheral monocytes and heart tissue taken from patients with varying degrees of myocardial dysfunction caused by coronary artery diseases and scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before 12 months following operation. Methods and Results Patients (n = 44) undergoing CABG surgery having left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45% (‘reduced EF’, n = 20) were compared to patients with preserved EF >45% (‘preserved EF’ group, n = 24). ‘Reduced EF’ patients exhibited increased TLR4 expression in monocytes (2.78±0.49 vs. 1.76±0.07 rMFI, p = 0.03). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, microRNA miR-320a, brain natriuretic peptide (pro BNP) and NADPH oxidase (NOX4) were also significantly different between the ‘preserved EF’ and ‘reduced EF’groups. Elevated TLR4 gene expression levels in the right auricle correlated with those of EF (p<0.008), NOX4 (p<0.008) and miR320, (p<0.04). In contrast, no differences were observed in peripheral monocyte TLR2 expression. After CABG surgery, monocyte TLR4 expression decreased in all patients, reaching statistical significance in the ‘reduced EF’ group. Conclusion TLR4 is activated in peripheral monocytes and heart tissue obtained from patients with ischemic heart disease and reduced left ventricular function. Coronary revascularization decreases TLR4 expression. We therefore propose that TLR4 plays a pathogenic role and may serve as an additional marker of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26030867

  8. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors of Patients With Coronary Artery Diseases Undertreatment of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Drug Therapy in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, Maryam; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Falsoleiman, Homa; Mirzaie, Asadollah; Emadzadeh, Mehdi Reza; Erfanian Taghvaei, Majid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance of preventing cardiovascular diseases, determining the contributing risk factors for ischemic heart disease which leads to atherosclerotic plaque, could be effective in selecting the required interventions. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic factors in patients with Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD) in three treatment groups: Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and drug therapy. By identifying and comparing the underlying factors in treatment groups, we can gather useful information for future planning and policy making in order to reduce and eliminate the contributing factors. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 760 patients with CAD referred to cardiovascular health centers in Mashhad, Iran, including Javad-Al-Aeme Heart Hospital, Qaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Shariati educational Hospital. Samples were collected through purposive sampling from January to March 2014. Based on the experts’ opinion, the subjects were categorized into three treatment groups: CABG, PCI, and drug therapy. Results: The mean age of total patients was 58.3 ± 11.5 years (P = 0.09). The proportion of rural patients in the PCI (26.7%) and drug therapy (27.5%) groups was twice as high as the CABG group (11.7%) (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with higher educational level (higher than high school diploma) in the CABG group (35.9%) was higher than PCI and drug therapy groups (26.7%, 24.3%) (P = 0.006). Smoking, drinking and drug abuse were more common in the drug therapy group (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, and P < 0.001, respectively). One-vessel and three-vessel coronary artery diseases were more common in the drug and CABG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In total, application of therapeutic approaches in patients with CAD depends on many factors. In our study not only risk factors such as gender, lifestyle, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes and hypertension were associated with the incidence of CAD, but also they were highly correlated with the severity of the disease. PMID:26290754

  9. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiac events after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be related to left ventricular (LV) function, residual coronary artery diseases (CAD), graft occlusion, and progression of CAD. This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) done 3-6 mos after CABG in risk stratification in 212 pts. There were 185 men and 27 women, aged 57 +- 8 years (mean +- SD). During a followup period of up to 4 years, (15 +- 10 months), there were 23 cardiac events; 13 pts died of cardiac causes and 20 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in: clinical presentation after CABG (most were asymptomatic), medications and ECG findings at rest and EX. The pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01); resting LV ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.002), and EX EF (40 +- 18% vs 54 +- 16%, p = 0.002). The change in EF (rest to EX) was not significantly different (l.6 +- 8.2%, vs 2.1 +- 9.2%). Survival analysis (Cox model) identified the EX EF as the best predictor of death and total events (X/sup 2/ = 4.3 and 2.4, p = 0.04 and 0.07 respectively). Actuarial life table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased when pts were grouped into EX EF greater than or equal to 50, 30-49, and <30%, (p < 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX RNA is useful in risk stratification after CABG. The EX LVEF is an important descriptor that categorizes pts into different risks groups. The pts at high risk probably require more aggressive followup and continued medical therapy.

  10. Prevalence and Outcome of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Post-coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Aljarallah, Badr; Wong, Winnie; Modry, Dennis; Fedorak, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), a potentially fatal occurrence, can sometimes follow coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, little has been published about its prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes. Aim: This study aimed to determine the rate, etiologies, predisposing factors, and outcomes of UGIB following CABG. Method: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all UGIBs which followed CABGs performed at the University of Alberta Hospital from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. Results: During the study period, 4,502 CABGs were performed at the UAH. Eighteen patients (0.4%) had a documented major UGIB (defined as evidence of melena, red or coffee-grounds emesis, blood per NG tube, or a decrease of Hgb by > 20 g/l and requiring a confirmation by endoscopy or radiological study). Two of these 18 patients (11%) had a past history of peptic ulcer disease, and one of these patients had had previous UGIB. Three patients (17%) had been taking proton pump inhibitors (PPI) before the UGIB occurred. At the time of UGIB, PPIs were prescribed for 16 patients (89%), and the PPIs achieved effective hemostasis as a single agent for 10 (62.5%). Of the 18 patients, 16 (89%) underwent upper GI endoscopy. Bleeding was found to be due to duodenal ulceration in 9 (56%), esophagitis in 4 (22%) and gastritis in 6 cases (33%); fifty percent of these patients had multiple sites of bleeding. Endoscopic therapeutic intervention was needed by 6 patients (37.5%), and successful hemostasis was achieved for 5 of these patients (83%). One patient had a recurrence of bleeding and required surgery. One patient underwent surgery as the primary hemostatic therapy after a diagnostic endoscopy. The overall surgical rate was 11.1% for this patient cohort. In this cohort, three patients died, two from multi-organ failure, and the third, a surgically managed patient, had a cardiac arrest 72 hours post-surgery. The number of complication increased as both cardiopulmonary bypass and cross clamp time increased. There were no endoscopy-related complications. Conclusions: UGI bleeding following CABGs is relatively infrequent, occurring at a rate of 0.4% in this study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding post-CABG is most frequently related to a duodenal ulcer, though 50% of the patients had multiple bleeding sites. prolonged bypass and cross clamp time associated with more complications. PMID:21475474

  11. Potential Effect of L-Carnitine on the Prevention of Myocardial Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dastan, Farzaneh; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Abbasali; Salehiomran, Abbas; Bina, Payvand; Jalali, Arash; Aghaie, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: L-carnitine has been demonstrated to confer cardiac protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in animals. This study evaluates the effects of L-carnitine administration on cardiac biomarkers after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: One hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective CABG surgery, without a history of myocardial ischemia or previous L-carnitine treatment, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an L-carnitine group ([n = 67], 3000 mg/d, started 2 days preoperatively and continued for 2 days after surgery) or a control group (n = 67). CK-MB (creatine kinase, muscle-brain subunits) and troponin T (TnT) levels were assessed in all the patients before surgery as baseline levels and at 8 and 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Our study included 134 patients (99 [73.8%] males) at a mean ± SD age of 59.94 ± 8.61 years who were candidates for CABG and randomized them into control or L-carnitine groups. The baseline demographic characteristics, including age (60.01 ± 9.23 in the L-carnitine group vs. 59.88 ± 7.98 in the control group) and sex (54 [80.6%] in the L-carnitine group vs. 45 [67.2%] in the control group) did not show any significant differences (p value=0.93 and 0.08, respectively). Patients in the L-carnitine group had lower levels of CK-MB (mean ± SD, 25.06 ± 20.29 in the L-carnitine group vs. 24.26 ± 14.61 in the control group), but the difference was not significant (p value = 0.28). TnT levels also showed no significant differences between the two groups (399.50 ± 378.91 in the L-carnitine group vs. 391.48 ± 222.02 in the control group; p value = 0.34). Conclusion: In this population of intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery, L-carnitine did not reduce CK-MB and TnT levels. PMID:26110005

  12. Virtual coaching for the high-intensity training of a powerlifter following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; Qin, Huanying; Bilbrey, Tim; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old powerlifter in Tennessee learned about the sport-specific, high-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training available in Dallas, Texas, and contacted the staff by phone. He was recovering from quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and had completed several weeks of traditional cardiac rehabilitation in his hometown, but the exercise program no longer met his needs. He wanted help in returning both to his normal training regimen and to powerlifting competition but was unable to attend the Dallas program in person. An exercise physiologist with the program devised a virtual coaching model in which the patient was sent a wrist blood pressure cuff for self-monitoring and was advised about exercises that would not harm his healing sternum, even as the weight loads were gradually increased. After 17 weeks of symptom-limited, high-intensity training that was complemented by phone and e-mail support, the patient was lifting heavier loads than he had before CABG. At a powerlifting competition 10 months after CABG, he placed first in his age group. This case report exemplifies the need for alternative approaches to the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services. PMID:25552808

  13. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients. PMID:26455008

  14. Emergency coronary bypass grafting for evolving myocardial infarction. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Flameng, W.; Sergeant, P.; Vanhaecke, J.; Suy, R.

    1987-07-01

    Emergency aorta-coronary bypass grafting was performed early in the course of evolving myocardial infarction in 48 patients. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion was 169 +/- 80 minutes. Quantitative assessment of postoperative thallium 201 myocardial scans in 19 patients revealed a significant salvage of myocardium after surgical reperfusion: The size of the residual infarction was less than 50% of that in a matched, medically treated, prospective control group (n = 39) (p less than 0.05). Postoperative equilibrium-gated radionuclide blood pool studies (technetium 99m) showed an enhanced recovery of regional and global ejection fraction after operation as compared to after medical treatment (p less than 0.05). Ultrastructural evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during the operation delineated subendocardial necrosis in the majority of cases (72%), but subepicardial necrosis was found in only 6% of instances. Q-wave abnormalities were observed on the postoperative electrocardiogram in 50% of cases. Operative mortality was 0% in low-risk patients (i.e., hemodynamically stable condition, n = 26) and 18% in high-risk patients (i.e., cardiogenic shock including total electromechanical dysfunction, n = 22). Survival rate at 18 months was 92% +/- 4%, and 95% +/- 4% of the survivors were event free. It is concluded that early surgical reperfusion of evolving myocardial infarction limits infarct size significantly, enhances functional recovery, and may be a lifesaving operation in patients having cardiogenic shock associated with unsuccessful resuscitation.

  15. The application of walking training in the rehabilitation of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Dorota; Dylewicz, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Walking is regarded as one of the most common and utilitarian activities of everyday life. Rehabilitation programs developed on the basis of this form of activity often constitute the primary method of rehabilitating patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper provides a review of literature concerning various forms of walking training, discussing their impact on the parameters of exercise capacity and verifying the training methods with regard to the current guidelines. Attention is drawn to the diversity of the exercise protocols applied during the early and late stages of rehabilitation and pre-rehabilitation programs including: treadmill walking, walking down the corridor, treadmill walking enriched with virtual reality, and walking as an element of training sessions consisting of many different forms of activities. Exercise protocols were also analyzed in terms of their safety, especially in the case of high-intensity interval training. Despite the variety of the available rehabilitation programs, the training methodology requires constant improvement, particularly in terms of load dosage and the supervision of training sessions. PMID:26702291

  16. The application of walking training in the rehabilitation of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dylewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Walking is regarded as one of the most common and utilitarian activities of everyday life. Rehabilitation programs developed on the basis of this form of activity often constitute the primary method of rehabilitating patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper provides a review of literature concerning various forms of walking training, discussing their impact on the parameters of exercise capacity and verifying the training methods with regard to the current guidelines. Attention is drawn to the diversity of the exercise protocols applied during the early and late stages of rehabilitation and pre-rehabilitation programs including: treadmill walking, walking down the corridor, treadmill walking enriched with virtual reality, and walking as an element of training sessions consisting of many different forms of activities. Exercise protocols were also analyzed in terms of their safety, especially in the case of high-intensity interval training. Despite the variety of the available rehabilitation programs, the training methodology requires constant improvement, particularly in terms of load dosage and the supervision of training sessions. PMID:26702291

  17. The New Zealand priority criteria project. Part 2: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, D. C.; Holmes, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Priority criteria developed during a national project were used to conduct an audit of all 662 patients on waiting lists for coronary artery bypass surgery in New Zealand during spring 1996. Based on the observed distribution of priority scores, the cost of providing surgery to all patients down to various levels of priority was estimated. Descriptions incorporating life expectancy and quality of life implications of surgery were developed of the kinds of patients who would or would not receive surgery at each of several possible funding levels. Cardiologists and cardiac surgeons agreed that a threshold of 25 points was a reasonable clinical goal but to work with a threshold of 35, which can be sustained with current levels of funding. All agree that the gap between these clinically preferred and currently afforded thresholds is a subject for wider societal dialogue and decision. The ability to measure the size of the gap between clinical desirability and financial sustainability provides a new transparency to the problem of healthcare resource allocation. PMID:9006478

  18. Combining carotid endarterectomy with off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery is safe and effective

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Arun; Bansal, Atma Ram; Singh, Dilip; Mishra, Manisha; Sharma, Pooja; Kasliwal, Ravi Ratan; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background: We, as neurologists, are frequently consulted to give neurological clearance for surgery in patients who are undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and have suffered from stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in past. Similarly clearance is also sought in another group of patients who, though have not suffered from stroke or TIA, but found to have significant carotid stenosis on routine screening prior to surgery. Cardiac surgeons and anesthetists want to know the risk of perioperative stroke in such patients and should carotid endarterectomy (CEA) be done along with CABG. In absence of any clear-cut guideline, neurologists often fail to give any specific recommendation. Aim: To find out safety and efficacy of synchronous CEA in patients undergoing CABG. Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Out of 3,700 patients who underwent CABG, 150 were found to have severe carotid stenosis of >70%. Out of this, 46 patients with >80% stenosis (three symptomatic and 43 asymptomatic) and one patient with >70% symptomatic carotid stenosis (TIA within last 2 weeks) were taken for simultaneous CEA along with CABG. These three symptomatic carotid patients had suffered from stroke within last 6 months. Results: One patient with asymptomatic near total occlusion of carotid artery suffered from hyperperfusion syndrome. None suffered from ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death during perioperative period. Conclusion: Combining CEA along with CABG is a safe and effective procedure. PMID:26713014

  19. Passion for Life: Lived Experiences of Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Abbasi, Mohammad; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Salehiomran, Abbas; Davaran, Saeid; Norouzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) improves the quality of life, increases survival, and influences the patient's mental and emotional aspects. Little information is available on the lived experience of Iranian patients after this surgery. Understanding the lived experiences of patients will help health professionals with better provision of high quality care. Methods: This hermeneutic phenomenological study aimed to understand the lived experience of patients after CABG. Van Manen's method was used to conduct the study. A semi-structured, face-to-face interview technique was employed to explore the experiences of the patients following surgery. Seven men and 4 women between 49 and 80 years old were interviewed. Results: Passion for life was the main theme extracted from the participants’ interviews. This theme comprised the three sub-themes of receiving attention from family, being hopeful, and being spiritually oriented. Conclusion: The results showed that the participants experienced passion for life after their surgery. This finding reveals that patients tend to find a new perspective on life and their health after surgery.

  20. Employment changes among patients following coronary bypass surgery: social, medical, and psychological correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Zyzanski, S J; Rouse, B A; Stanton, B A; Jenkins, C D

    1982-01-01

    The relations of socioeconomic and psychological factors to resumption of employment following coronary artery bypass surgery were studied using a questionnaire returned by a sample of 426 men and 70 women. The sample was drawn from the membership of Mended Hearts, Inc., a nationwide voluntary organization of persons who have had heart surgery. Preoperatively, more men (92 percent) than women (59 percent) were employed. Return to work rates were high for men (81 percent) and much lower for women (58 percent). The 395 men tended to return to work an average of 3.7 months after surgery whereas the 41 women took an average of 4.8 months. Return to work following surgery was most clearly related to socioeconomic level for both sexes. In addition, for men, those most likely to return had less postoperative morbidity and held jobs requiring little physical exertion. Patients who reported that they were forced into an early retirement represent a particularly vulnerable group in that they were more likely to experience the most postoperative morbidity. As a group, they believed that their physicians had least prepared them to return to work, and they experienced the poorest emotional adjustment. Thus, women and those forced into early retirement represent two potentially high-risk groups of patients who would seem to require additional clinical and psychological management following surgery. PMID:6983084

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector - the Trinity Clip - in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model

    PubMed Central

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Noest, Jappe O.T.; Tulleken, Cornelis A.F.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    To simplify and facilitate beating heart (i.e., off-pump), minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, a new coronary anastomotic connector, the Trinity Clip, is developed based on the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis technique. The Trinity Clip connector enables simplified, sutureless, and nonocclusive connection of the graft to the coronary artery, and an excimer laser catheter laser-punches the opening of the anastomosis. Consequently, owing to the complete nonocclusive anastomosis construction, coronary conditioning (i.e., occluding or shunting) is not necessary, in contrast to the conventional anastomotic technique, hence simplifying the off-pump bypass procedure. Prior to clinical application in coronary artery bypass grafting, the safety and quality of this novel connector will be evaluated in a long-term experimental porcine off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) study. In this paper, we describe how to evaluate the coronary anastomosis in the porcine OPCAB model using various techniques to assess its quality. Representative results are summarized and visually demonstrated. PMID:25490000

  2. Impact of age on improvement in health-related quality of life 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, J; Wiklund, I; Sjöland, H; Karlson, B W; Karlsson, T; Haglid, M; Hartford, M; Caidahl, K

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relief of symptoms and improvement in other aspects of health-related quality of life 5 years after coronary artery by-pass grafting in relation to age. Patients in western Sweden were approached with an inquiry prior to surgery and 5 years after the operation. Health-related quality of life was estimated with 3 different instruments: Physical Activity Score (PAS), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). Prior to surgery patients were approached either in the ward or by post and 5 years after surgery they were approached by post. A total of 1719 patients were available for the survey, of whom 876 (51%) responded to the survey both prior to and after 5 years. Among the 876 respondents 287 were <60 years, 331 were 60-67 years and 258 were >67 years. In terms of physical activity, chest pain and dyspnoea, a similar improvement was observed regardless of age. In terms of health-related quality of life questionnaires, there was an inverse association between age and improvement when using PAS and a similar trend was observed with NHP and PGWB. In conclusion, 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting relief of symptoms and improvement in physical activity was not associated with age, whereas improvement in other aspects of health-related quality of life tended to be less marked in elderly people. Overall age seemed to have a small impact on the improved well-being 5 years after coronary surgery. However, due to the limited response rate the results may not be applicable to a non-selected coronary artery bypass grafting population. PMID:10782941

  3. Choice of Hemodynamic Support During Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Prevention of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yasuyuki; Yaku, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a protocol involving cerebrovascular accident (CVA) risk evaluation and choose adequate hemodynamic support that prevents major CVA. For evaluation of CVA risk, we undertook head computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), chest CT, carotid artery Doppler echo, carotid artery MRA, and echo scanning of ascending aorta during surgery. Cerebrovascular specialists did the physical examinations and reading of images. Hemodynamic support (chemical arrest on pump, on-pump beating, or off pump) was chosen according to the result of risk evaluation. We retrospectively studied 92 cases before (group A; 1997 October to 1998 November) and 91 after (group B; 1998 November to 2001 January) starting protocol. We also studied urgent cases (group C; 9 cases; 1997 October to 2001 January) in which we did not use the protocol. When adequate hemodynamic support was chosen, major CVA (modified Rankin scale grades 3, 4, and 5) incidence decreased from 6.6% (six case; group A) to 0% (p < .05; group B). There were three major CVA cases in group C (p < .05 vs. group B), in which the ascending aorta was clamped. Our protocol eliminated major CVA associated with elective coronary surgery. We need simpler evaluation, however, when we undertake urgent surgery. PMID:16921686

  4. Effects of intraoperative diltiazem infusion on flow changes in arterial and venous grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Ozan; Memeto?lu, Mehmet Erdem; Tekin, Ali ?hsan; Arslan, Ümit; Akkaya, Özgür; Kutlu, Rasim; Gölba??, ?lhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to show the effects of intra-operative diltiazem infusion on flow in arterial and venous grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods Hundred fourty patients with a total of 361 grafts [205 (57%) arterial and 156 (43%) venous] underwent isolated coronary surgery. All the grafts were measured by intraoperative transit time flow meter intra-operatively. Group A (n=70) consisted of patients who received diltiazem infusion (dose of 2.5 microgram/kg/min), and Group B (n=70) didn't receive diltiazem infusion. Results Mean graft flow values of left internal mammary artery were 53 ml/min in Group A and 40 ml/min in Group B (P<0.001). Pulsatility index (PI) values of left internal mammary artery for Group A and Group B were 2.6 and 3.0 respectively (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between venous graft parameters. Conclusion We recommend an effect of diltiazem infusion in increasing graft flows in coronary artery bypass graft operations.

  5. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32?201±$23?059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  6. Using Biomarkers to Improve the Preoperative Prediction of Death in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Leavitt, Bruce J.; Braxton, John H.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; Helm, Robert E.; Klemperer, John D.; Frumiento, Carmine; Sardella, Gerald L.; Ross, Cathy S.; O’Connor, Gerald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The current risk prediction models for mortality following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have been developed on patient and disease characteristics alone. Improvements to these models potentially may be made through the analysis of biomarkers of unmeasured risk. We hypothesize that preoperative biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction are associated with an increased risk of mortality following CABG surgery and the use of biomarkers associated with these injuries will improve the Northern New England (NNE) CABG mortality risk prediction model. We prospectively followed 1731 isolated CABG patients with preoperative blood collection at eight medical centers in Northern New England for a nested case-control study from 2003–2007. Preoperative blood samples were drawn at the center and then stored at a central facility. Frozen serum was analyzed at a central laboratory on an Elecsys 2010, at the same time for Cardiac Troponin T, N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide, high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and blood glucose. We compared the strength of the prediction model for mortality using multivariable logistic regression, goodness of fit and tested the equality of the receiving operating characteristic curve (ROC) area. There were 33 cases (dead at discharge) and 66 randomly matched controls (alive at discharge). The ROC for the preoperative mortality model was improved from .83 (95% confidence interval: .74–.92) to .87 (95% confidence interval: .80–.94) with biomarkers (p-value for equality of ROC areas .09). The addition of biomarkers to the NNE preoperative risk prediction model did not significantly improve the prediction of mortality over patient and disease characteristics alone. The added measurement of multiple biomarkers outside of preoperative risk factors may be an unnecessary use of health care resources with little added benefit for predicting in-hospital mortality. PMID:21313927

  7. Association of Pre-Operative Albuminuria with Post-Operative Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    George, Lekha K.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Lu, Jun L.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Koshy, Santhosh K. G.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect on post-operative outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft(CABG) surgery is not clear. Among 17,812 patients who underwent CABG during October 1,2006-September 28,2012 in any Department of US Veterans Affairs(VA) hospital, we identified 5,968 with available preoperative urine albumin-creatinine ratio(UACR) measurements. We examined the association of UACR<30, 30–299 and >=300?mg/g with 30/90/180/365-day and overall all-cause mortality, and hospitalization length >10 days, and with acute kidney injury(AKI). Mean?±?SD baseline age and eGFR were 66?±?8 years and 77?±?19?ml/min/1.73?m2, respectively. 788 patients(13.2%) died during a median follow-up of 3.2 years, and 26.8% patients developed AKI(23.1%-Stage 1; 2.9%-Stage 2; 0.8%-Stage 3) within 30 days of CABG. The median lengths of stay were 8 days(IQR: 6–13 days), 10 days(IQR: 7–14 days) and 12 days(IQR: 8–19 days) for groups with UACR < 30?mg/g, 30–299?mg/g and ?300?mg/g, respectively. Higher UACR conferred 72 to 85% higher 90-, 180-, and 365-day mortality compared to UACR<30?mg/g (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for UACR?300 vs. <30?mg/g: 1.72(1.01–2.95); 1.85(1.14–3.01); 1.74(1.15–2.61), respectively). Higher UACR was also associated with significantly longer hospitalizations and higher incidence of all stages of AKI. Higher UACR is associated with significantly higher odds of mortality, longer post-CABG hospitalization, and higher AKI incidence. PMID:26548590

  8. Coronary artery bypass grafting in Canada: hospital mortality rates, 1992-1995

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, W A; Quan, H; Brant, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of in-hospital death after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have been studied in many regions of Canada as possible indicators of hospital-specific quality of care. This nationwide study examined observed and risk-adjusted death rates for 23 Canadian hospitals performing CABG. METHODS: Hospital discharge data were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information and were used to identify all CABG procedures performed in Canadian hospitals in fiscal years 1992/93 through 1995/96. Cases from Quebec hospitals were not studied because hospitals in that province do not report to the institute. Observed death rates were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was used to calculate a risk-adjusted death rate for each hospital for the 4-year period studied. Changes over time in hospital-specific death rates were also examined. RESULTS: A total of 50,357 CABG cases were studied, with an overall death rate of 3.6%. Interhospital comparisons showed that average severity of illness varied considerably across hospitals. Despite risk adjustment accounting for this variable severity, there was considerable variation in adjusted death rates across the 23 hospitals, from 1.95% to 5.76% (p < 0.001 for difference across hospitals). For some hospitals, death rates decreased between 1992/93 and 1995/96, whereas for others the rates were stable or increased. INTERPRETATION: Risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital death after CABG vary widely across Canadian hospitals. There may be differences in quality of care across hospitals, and focused quality-improvement initiatives may be necessary in some institutions. PMID:9834717

  9. Charts versus Discharge ICD-10 Coding for Sternal Wound Infection Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Danielle A.; Doherty, Christopher; De Souza, Michael A.; Quan, Hude; Harrop, A. Robertson; Nickerson, Duncan; Rabi, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    Background Sternal wound infection (SWI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this work is to describe the methods used to identify cases of SWI in an administrative database and to demonstrate the effectiveness of using an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) coding algorithm for this purpose. Methods ICD-10 codes were used to identify cases of SWI within one year of CABG between April 2002 and November 2009. We randomly chose 200 charts for detailed chart review (100 from each of the groups coded as having SWI and not having SWI) to determine the utility of the ICD-10 coding algorithm. Results There were 2,820 patients undergoing CABG. Of these, 264 (9.4 percent) were coded as having SWI. Thirty-eight cases of SWI were identified by chart review. The ICD-10 coding algorithm of T81.3 or T81.4 was able to identify incident SWI with a positive predictive value of 35 percent and a negative predictive value of 97 percent. The agreement between the ICD-10 coding algorithm and presence of SWI remained fair, with an overall kappa coefficient of 0.32 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.22–0.43). The effectiveness of identifying deep SWI cases is also presented. Conclusions This article describes an effective algorithm for identifying a cohort of patients with SWI following open sternotomy in large databases using ICD-10 coding. In addition, alternative search strategies are presented to suit researchers' needs. PMID:26396556

  10. Effect of Statin Use on Acute Kidney Injury Risk Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Layton, J. Bradley; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Simpson, Ross J.; Pate, Virginia; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Sturmer, Til; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of cardiovascular surgery. While some non-experimental studies suggest statin use may reduce post-surgical AKI, methodological differences in study designs leave uncertainty regarding the reality or magnitude of the effect. We estimated the effect of pre-operative statin initiation on post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) AKI using an epidemiologic approach more closely simulating a randomized controlled trial in a large CABG patient population. We utilized healthcare claims from large, employer-based and Medicare insurance databases for the years 2000 – 2010. To minimize healthy user bias, we identified patients undergoing non-emergency CABG who either newly initiated a statin within 20 days prior to surgery or were unexposed for 200+ days prior to CABG. AKI was identified within 15 days following CABG. We calculated multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with Poisson regression. Analyses were repeated using propensity score methods adjusted for clinical and healthcare utilization variables. We identified 17,077 CABG patients. Post-CABG AKI developed in 3.4% of statin initiators and 6.2% of non-initiators. After adjustment, we observed a protective effect of statin initiation on AKI (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.96). This effect differed by age: ?65 years, RR=0.91 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.20); <65 years, RR=0.62 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), although AKI was more common in the older age group (7.7 vs. 4.0%). In conclusion, statin initiation immediately prior to CABG may modestly reduce the risk of post-operative AKI, particularly in younger CABG patients. PMID:23273532

  11. Anesthetic management of a patient with polycythemia vera undergoing emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyeongwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera is a chronic progressive myeloproliferative disease characterized by increased circulating red blood cells, and the hyperviscosity of the blood can lead to an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. In a previous survey regarding postoperative outcomes in polycythemia vera patients, an increased risk of both vascular occlusive and hemorrhagic complications have been reported. Aortic surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with the development of a coagulopathy, and as a result, the occurrence of thrombotic complications should be avoided after coronary anastomosis. Thus, optimizing the hemostatic balance is an important concern for anesthesiologists. However, only a few cases of anesthetic management in polycythemia vera patients undergoing concomitant aorta and coronary arterial bypass surgery have ever been reported. Here, we experience a polycythemia vera patient who underwent an emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26634086

  12. A case-controlled evaluation of the Medtronic Resting Heart System compared with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Nozohoor, Shahab; Johnsson, Per; Scicluna, Sara; Wallentin, Per; Andell, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Johan

    2012-05-01

    The Medtronic Resting Heart System (RHS) is a heparin-coated, closed perfusion circuit. Clinical results indicate less haemodilution and reduced complement activation, when compared with a traditional circuit leading to fewer postoperative blood transfusions. We evaluated the potential clinical benefits, including reduced transfusion requirements, when using the RHS compared with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (cCPB). The study group (n = 330) consisted of patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the RHS system during 2005-2009, matched with a control group (n = 609) including patients operated for isolated CABG during 2002-2009, utilizing cCPB. Significantly fewer patients received peri- and postoperative blood transfusions in the RHS group (25 vs. 37%, P < 0.001; mean 1.0 ± 2.6 vs. mean 1.6 ± 2.9 units of packed red blood cells). The incidence of reoperations due to bleeding was low, RHS 2% (n = 8) vs. cCPB 5% (n = 29), with a trend towards no significant difference between groups (P = 0.079). The duration of mechanical ventilation was shorter (mean 7 ± 16 vs. 9 ± 12 h, P < 0.001) for patients in the RHS group. This study demonstrates that CABG performed with the RHS reduces the incidence and magnitude of allogenic blood transfusion and results in a satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:22286599

  13. Learning needs of Chinese patients before undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    You, Gui-Ying; Li, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Hu, Xiao-Lin; He, Li; Wang, Ya-Li; Li, Zhi; Qu, Mo-Ying; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the learning needs of Chinese patients going for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in order to design nurse-led education programs. A self-administered survey was completed by a total of 395 patients prior to the procedure. Face-to-face communication was chosen by 343 (86.8%) patients as the most preferred way of education. Doctor-in-charge was ranked as the most wanted educator by 372 (94.2%) patients, including 191 (45.4%) patients who chose both doctor-in-charge and nurse-in-charge. Interventional cardiologist was preferred by patients with higher education more than those with lower education (63.6 vs. 48.1%, P < 0.05). Learning items such as self-rescue on heart attack, efficiency of PCI and post-procedural medication were regarded as the most important, which could be affected by age, gender and educational level. These findings would help to develop patient preferred programs that involve brief communications with doctors and more structured education activities led by nurses. PMID:25267137

  14. Learning Need of Chinese Patients before Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    You, Gui-Ying; Li, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Hu, Xiao-Lin; He, Li; Wang, Ya-Li; Li, Zhi; Qu, Mo-Ying; Zhang, Qing

    2013-11-16

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the learning needs of Chinese patients going for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in order to design nurse led education programs. A self-administered survey was completed by a total of 395 patients prior to the procedure. Face-to-face communication was chosen by 343 (86.8%) patients as the most preferred way of education. Doctor-in-charge was ranked as the most wanted educator by 372 (94.2%) patients, including 191 (45.4%) patients who chose both doctor-in-charge and nurse-in-charge. Interventional cardiologist was preferred by patients with higher education more than those with lower education (63.6% vs. 48.1%, p<0.05). Learning items such as self-rescue on heart attack, efficiency of PCI and post-procedural medication were regarded as the most important, which could be affected by age, gender and educational level. These findings would help to develop patient preferred programs that involve brief communications with doctors and more structured education activities led by nurses. PMID:24237111

  15. Is the Preoperative Administration of Amiodarone or Metoprolol More Effective in Reducing Atrial Fibrillation: After Coronary Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed

    Onk, Oruc Alper; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of preoperative administration of amiodarone and metoprolol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.The study comprised 251 patients who underwent CABG surgery at our hospital between January 2012 and May 2014. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: amiodarone therapy group (n?=?122 patients) and metoprolol therapy group (n?=?129 patients).In the amiodarone group, the patients received amiodarone tablet orally 1 week before coronary bypass surgery and during the postoperative period. In the metoprolol group, the patients received metoprolol tablet orally 1 week before surgery and during the postoperative period. The AF development rate was retrospectively evaluated between the first 3 days and 4 weeks after surgery.AF developed in 14 patients in the amiodarone group and 16 patients in the metoprolol group 4 weeks after the operation (P?=?0.612).No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Furthermore, hospital charges were similar in both groups (P?=?0.741).The results of the logistic regression analysis showed age, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial diameter, and aortic cross-clamping time to be predictors for postoperative AF.This study demonstrates that amiodarone and metoprolol have similar effects in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. However, larger-scale studies need to be conducted to substantiate these findings. PMID:26469896

  16. Numerical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow and wall shear stress in realistic single, double and triple aorto-coronary bypasses.

    PubMed

    Vimmr, J; Jonášová, A; Bublík, O

    2013-10-01

    Considering the fact that hemodynamics plays an important role in the patency and overall performance of implanted bypass grafts, this work presents a numerical investigation of pulsatile non-Newtonian blood flow in three different patient-specific aorto-coronary bypasses. The three bypass models are distinguished from each other by the number of distal side-to-side and end-to-side anastomoses and denoted as single, double and triple bypasses. The mathematical model in the form of time-dependent nonlinear system of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is coupled with the Carreau-Yasuda model describing the shear-thinning property of human blood and numerically solved using the principle of the SIMPLE algorithm and cell-centred finite volume method formulated for hybrid unstructured tetrahedral grids. The numerical results computed for non-Newtonian and Newtonian blood flow in the three aorto-coronary bypasses are compared and analysed with emphasis placed on the distribution of cycle-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. As shown in this study, the non-Newtonian blood flow in all of the considered bypass models does not significantly differ from the Newtonian one. Our observations further suggest that, especially in the case of sequential grafts, the resulting flow field and shear stimulation are strongly influenced by the diameter of the vessels involved in the bypassing. PMID:23733715

  17. Protocol for the PREHAB study—Pre-operative Rehabilitation for reduction of Hospitalization After coronary Bypass and valvular surgery: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stammers, Andrew N; Kehler, D Scott; Afilalo, Jonathan; Avery, Lorraine J; Bagshaw, Sean M; Grocott, Hilary P; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Metge, Colleen; Nguyen, Thang; Rockwood, Kenneth; Sareen, Jitender; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann; Tangri, Navdeep; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Hassan, Ansar; Duhamel, Todd A; Arora, Rakesh C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterised by reductions in muscle mass, strength, endurance and activity level. The frailty syndrome, prevalent in 25–50% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, is associated with increased rates of mortality and major morbidity as well as function decline postoperatively. This trial will compare a preoperative, interdisciplinary exercise and health promotion intervention to current standard of care (StanC) for elective coronary artery bypass and valvular surgery patients for the purpose of determining if the intervention improves 3-month and 12-month clinical outcomes among a population of frail patients waiting for elective cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, randomised, open end point, controlled trial using assessor blinding and intent-to-treat analysis. Two-hundred and forty-four elective cardiac surgical patients will be recruited and randomised to receive either StanC or StanC plus an 8-week exercise and education intervention at a certified medical fitness facility. Patients will attend two weekly sessions and aerobic exercise will be prescribed at 40–60% of heart rate reserve. Data collection will occur at baseline, 1–2?weeks preoperatively, and at 3 and 12?months postoperatively. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of patients requiring a hospital length of stay greater than 7?days. Potential impact of study The healthcare team is faced with an increasingly complex older adult patient population. As such, this trial aims to provide novel evidence supporting a health intervention to ensure that frail, older adult patients thrive after undergoing cardiac surgery. Ethics and dissemination Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international scientific meetings. The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board has approved the study protocol V.1.3, dated 11 August 2014 (H2014:208). Trial registration number The trial has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a registry and results database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies (NCT02219815). PMID:25753362

  18. Different activation patterns in the plasma kallikrein-kinin and complement systems during coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, U E; Smith-Erichsen, N; Geiran, O; Amundsen, E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    1989-07-01

    Components of the plasma kallikrein-kinin and complement systems were determined in patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Spontaneous kallikrein activity (KK), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), functional kallikrein inhibition capacity (KKI), C3 activation products (C3-act), and the terminal complement complex (TCC) were measured. A marked, transitory increase in KK and a decrease in PKK were found prior to cardiopulmonary bypass just after heparin injection. An additional decline in PKK and KKI during bypass with a return to near control levels in the postoperative period was observed. C3-act increased in all patients during bypass, reaching a peak value at wound closure. The TCC concentration also increased significantly during cardiopulmonary bypass, returned to control levels in the early postoperative period, and then increased again in the late postoperative period. It is concluded that activation of the kallikrein-kinin system started after injection of heparin, prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Activation of both the initial and the terminal complement cascade, however, started only after onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:2800971

  19. Gender as a Moderator between Having an Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery (CABG) Outcomes in Rural Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Tam K.; Voelkel, Emily; Presley, Sherine; Doss, Brendel; Huddleston, Cashuna; Gopaldas, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines gender as a moderating variable between having an anxiety disorder diagnosis and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) outcomes in rural patients. Methods: Using the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, 17,885 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery were identified.…

  20. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... metal stents for angina or acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010:5:CD004587. DOI: ... coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2012:3:CD007224. DOI: ...

  1. XIENCE PRIME Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (EECSS) China Single-Arm Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Angioplasty; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Coronary Occlusion; Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG); Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Ischemia; Stent Thrombosis; Vascular Disease

  2. Thoracic epidural analgesia in obese patients with body mass index of more than 30 kg/m2 for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish; Mehta, Yatin; Sawhney, Ravinder; Vats, Mayank; Trehan, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Perioperative Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is an important part of a multimodal approach to improve analgesia and patient outcome after cardiac and thoracic surgery. This is particularly important for obese patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). We conducted a randomized clinical trial at tertiary care cardiac institute to compare the effect of TEA and conventional opioid based analgesia on perioperative lung functions and pain scores in obese patients undergoing OPCAB. Sixty obese patients with body mass index >30 kg/m2 for elective OPCAB were randomized into two groups (n=30 each). Patients in both the groups received general anesthesia but in group 1, TEA was also administered. We performed spirometry as preoperative assessment and at six hours, 24 hours, second, third, fourth and fifth day after extubation, along with arterial blood gases analysis. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was recorded to assess the degree of analgesia. The other parameters observed were: time to endotracheal extubation, oxygen withdrawal time and intensive care unit length of stay. On statistical analysis there was a significant difference in Vital Capacity at six hours, 24 hours, second and third day postextubation. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second followed the same pattern for first four postoperative days and peak expiratory flow rate remained statistically high till second postoperative day. ABG values and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were statistically higher in the study group up to five days. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was significantly lower till fourth and third postoperative day respectively. Tracheal extubation time, oxygen withdrawal time and ICU stay were significantly less in group 1. The use of TEA resulted in better analgesia, early tracheal extubation and shorter ICU stay and should be considered for obese patients undergoing OPCAB. PMID:20075532

  3. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Remifentanil Versus Paracetamol in Post-Operative Pain Management in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri Fard, Alireza; Babaee, Touraj; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohamad Mehran; Noori, Noor Mohammad; Mahjoubifard, Maziar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain management after cardiac surgery has been based on parenteral long-acting opioids such as morphine. The other alternatives are paracetamol and remifentanil. Objectives: In this prospective, double-blind, randomized study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) paracetamol and remifentanil for post cardiac surgery pain relief. Materials and Methods: One-hundred patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting from May to October 2011, were randomized into two groups after the surgery. For the first group (group R, n = 50, with mean age of 58.16 ± 11.80), the IV-PCA protocol was remifentanil infusion 100 ?g/h; bolus of 25 ?g and lockout time of 15 minutes. In the second group (group P, n = 50, with mean age of 53.8 ± 15.08), patients received paracetamol 15 mg/kg as a bolus at the end of surgery and then IV-PCA protocol was 100 ?g/h, bolus of 25 ?g; and lockout time of 15 minutes. Pain was assessed with visual analog scale score (VAS) in the first 24 hours after surgery for seven times. Results: The trend of pain scores did not have any significantly difference between group R and group P except for hour 8 and hour 18 after surgery that VAS was significantly lower in group P than group R (P = 0.031, P = 0.023, respectively). Respiratory rate (RR) was also statistically lower in group R comparing to group P in all seven evaluating times. The groups were similar in terms of hemodynamic, ABG results (except for PaO2, which was significantly lower in group R than group P at 6 evaluating times), intubation time, renal function tests, and incidences of atelectasis, myocardial infarction or adverse effects. Conclusions: Both PCA techniques provided effective pain scores (< 3) after cardiac surgery; but generally, PCA-paracetamol infusion has a better analgesic effect. PMID:25729675

  4. Impact of Intensive Physiotherapy on Cognitive Function after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Elder Dos Santos; Magario, Rosmeiri; Conforti, César Augusto; Cipriano Júnior, Gerson; Arena, Ross; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos C; Buffolo, Enio; Luna Filho, Bráulio

    2014-11-01

    Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a standard surgical option for patients with diffuse and significant arterial plaque. This procedure, however, is not free of postoperative complications, especially pulmonary and cognitive disorders. Objective: This study aimed at comparing the impact of two different physiotherapy treatment approaches on pulmonary and cognitive function of patients undergoing CABG. Methods: Neuropsychological and pulmonary function tests were applied, prior to and following CABG, to 39 patients randomized into two groups as follows: Group 1 (control) - 20 patients underwent one physiotherapy session daily; and Group 2 (intensive physiotherapy) - 19 patients underwent three physiotherapy sessions daily during the recovery phase at the hospital. Non-paired and paired Student t tests were used to compare continuous variables. Variables without normal distribution were compared between groups by using Mann-Whitney test, and, within the same group at different times, by using Wilcoxon test. The chi-square test assessed differences of categorical variables. Statistical tests with a p value ? 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Changes in pulmonary function were not significantly different between the groups. However, while Group 2 patients showed no decline in their neurocognitive function, Group 1 patients showed a decline in their cognitive functions (P ? 0.01). Conclusion: Those results highlight the importance of physiotherapy after CABG and support the implementation of multiple sessions per day, providing patients with better psychosocial conditions and less morbidity.Fundamento: A cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM) é a opção cirúrgica padrão para pacientes com placas arteriais difusas e significativas. Tal procedimento, no entanto, não é desprovido de complicações pós-operatórias, especialmente distúrbios pulmonares e cognitivos. Objetivo: Comparar o impacto de duas abordagens fisioterapêuticas diferentes nas funções pulmonar e cognitiva de pacientes submetidos a CRM. Métodos: Testes de função pulmonar e neuropsicológicos foram aplicados, antes e após CRM, a 39 pacientes randomizados em dois grupos: Grupo 1 - 20 pacientes-controle submetidos a uma sessão de fisioterapia por dia; Grupo 2 - 19 pacientes submetidos a três sessões de fisioterapia por dia durante recuperação no hospital. Testes t de Student pareado e não pareado foram usados para comparar as variáveis contínuas. Variáveis sem distribuição normal foram comparadas entre os grupos usando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney, e, dentro do mesmo grupo em momentos diferentes, usando-se o teste de Wilcoxon. O teste do qui-quadrado avaliou diferenças das variáveis categóricas. Testes estatísticos com p valor ? 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: As alterações da função pulmonar não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos. Entretanto, o mesmo não ocorreu com a função neurocognitiva, que apresentou declínio no Grupo 1, mas não no Grupo 2 (p ? 0,01). Conclusão: Tais resultados reforçam a importância da fisioterapia após CRM e da realização de múltiplas sessões por dia, o que oferece aos pacientes melhores condições psicossociais e menos morbidade. PMID:25352459

  5. Development of a predictive model for major adverse cardiac events in a coronary artery bypass and valve population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality improvement initiatives in cardiac surgery largely rely on risk prediction models. Most often, these models include isolated populations and describe isolated end-points. However, with the changing clinical profile of the cardiac surgical patients, mixed populations models are required to accurately represent the majority of the surgical population. Also, composite model end-points of morbidity and mortality, better reflect outcomes experienced by patients. Methods The model development cohort included 4,270 patients who underwent aortic or mitral valve replacement, or mitral valve repair with/without coronary artery bypass grafting, or isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. A composite end-point of infection, stroke, acute renal failure, or death was evaluated. Age, sex, surgical priority, and procedure were forced, a priori, into the model and then stepwise selection of candidate variables was utilized. Model performance was evaluated by concordance statistic, Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit, and calibration plots. Bootstrap technique was employed to validate the model. Results The model included 16 variables. Several variables were significant such as, emergent surgical priority (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.9-7.4), CABG + Valve procedure (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-3.0), and frailty (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), among others. The concordance statistic for the major adverse cardiac events model in a mixed population was 0.764 (95% CL; 0.75-0.79) and had excellent calibration. Conclusions Development of predictive models with composite end-points and mixed procedure population can yield robust statistical and clinical validity. As they more accurately reflect current cardiac surgical profile, models such as this, are an essential tool in quality improvement efforts. PMID:23899075

  6. Awake subxyphoid minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting yielded minimum invasive cardiac surgery for high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Go; Yamaguchi, Shohjiro; Tomiya, Shigeyuki; Ohtake, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has become a widely used modality and has received recognized as a minimally invasive surgery with few complications. However, for patients with severely impaired pulmonary function, further considerations have to be given to reduce the complications associated with general anesthesia. We have accumulated experience in awake off-pump surgery combined with high thoracic epidural anesthesia. In this report we describe the use of alternative subxiphoid approach in patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction. A catheter for high thoracic epidural anesthesia was inserted one day before surgery. After obtaining an adequate level of anesthesia, a small subxiphoid incision was made and the pericardium was opened to expose the left anterior descending branch. The conduit for bypass, gastroepiploic artery was accessed through a minilaparotomy, and separated under the same surgical field and anatomozed under beating heart. This procedure was performed in three patients. Patency was confirmed by postoperative angiography in all three cases. All patients were discharged after an uneventful postoperative course. Awake subxiphoid approach has the advantages that both thoracotomy and sternotomy can be avoided thus permitting surgery with extremely low invasiveness. This method is recommended for patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:18356282

  7. Genome-wide association study of acute kidney injury after coronary bypass graft surgery identifies susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Smith, Mark; Li, Yi-Ju; Mathew, Joseph P; Li, Yen-Wei; Ji, Yunqi; Phillips-Bute, Barbara G; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F; Kraus, William E; Kertai, Miklos D; Shah, Svati H; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, serious complication of cardiac surgery. Since prior studies have supported a genetic basis for postoperative AKI, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for AKI following coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The discovery data set consisted of 873 nonemergent CABG surgery patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (PEGASUS), while a replication data set had 380 cardiac surgical patients (CATHGEN). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were based on Illumina Human610-Quad (PEGASUS) and OMNI1-Quad (CATHGEN) BeadChips. We used linear regression with adjustment for a clinical AKI risk score to test SNP associations with the postoperative peak rise relative to preoperative serum creatinine concentration as a quantitative AKI trait. Nine SNPs meeting significance in the discovery set were detected. The rs13317787 in GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 intergenic region (3p21.6) and rs10262995 in BBS9 (7p14.3) were replicated with significance in the CATHGEN data set and exhibited significantly strong overall association following meta-analysis. Additional fine mapping using imputed SNPs across these two regions and meta-analysis found genome-wide significance at the GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 locus and a significantly strong association at BBS9. Thus, through an unbiased GWAS approach, we found two new loci associated with post-CABG AKI providing new insights into the pathogenesis of perioperative AKI. PMID:26083657

  8. Effects of intraoperative external head cooling on short-term cognitive function in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Sirvinskas, E; Usas, E; Mankute, A; Raliene, L; Jakuska, P; Lenkutis, T; Benetis, R

    2014-03-01

    The aim of study was to assess the effects of an intraoperative external head-cooling technique on cognitive dysfunction in the early postoperative period (at the 10th day) in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Patients in Group H (n=25) were cooled with CPB and the intraoperative, external head-cooling technique, patients in Group C (n=25) were cooled only with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to achieve mild hypothermia (33 - 34 °C). Cognitive function was analyzed before the operation and after the surgery using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Modified Visual Reproduction Test from the Wechsler Memory Scale, Trail Making (A/B), WAIS--Digit Span (WDS) and WAIS Digit Symbol Substitution Test (WDSST). The incidence of cognitive impairment at the 10th day after the surgery was 36% (n=9) in Group H and 64% (n=16) in Group C (p=0.048). The temperature during the aortic cross-clamp period was associated with a lower rate of cognitive dysfunction (p=0.05, r(2)=0.09). The intraoperative, external head-cooling technique during the aortic cross-clamp period has a neuroprotective effect and leads to less short-term cognitive function impairment after CABG surgery. PMID:23878011

  9. Chlamydophila pneumonia: Specific mRNA in aorta ascendens in patients undergoing coronary artery by-pass grafting.

    PubMed

    Nyström-Rosander, Christina; Edvinsson, Marie; Thelin, Stefan; Hjelm, Eva; Friman, Göran

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to investigate if Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cp)-specific DNA and mRNA are present in tissue samples from the wall of aorta ascendens in patients undergoing by-pass surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD) that includes stable angina pectoris (SAP, 25 patients) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS, 19 patients). Viable Cp was detected in 8/44 (18%) patients using reversed transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) against bacterial mRNA with detection of cDNA using real-time PCR against the MOMP gene. Cp DNA was detected by nested PCR in 22/44 (50%) patients and by real-time PCR in 13/44 (30%) patients. In total, 24/44 (55%) patients were positive for Cp nucleic acid in any PCR. Antibodies to Cp were detected in 13/24 (54%) Cp PCR-positive and in 15/20 (75%) Cp PCR-negative patients. Nested PCR was run on throat swabs from all patients. No significant differences were noted between SAP and ACS patients regarding PCR results or serology. It has been suggested that Cp may be a 'silent passenger' picked up by the atherosclerotic plaque. Our findings of viable and metabolically active bacteria in aortic tissue add further support to the hypothesis that Cp may have an active role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:16938728

  10. Can preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy predict changes in left ventricular perfusion and function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Johansen, Allan; Grupe, Peter; Haghfelt, Torben; Thayssen, Per; Andersen, Lars Ib; Hesse, Birger

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We wanted to evaluate whether preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) could predict changes in cardiac symptoms and postoperative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS Ninety-two patients with stable angina pectoris (and at least one occluded coronary artery) underwent MPS before, and 6 months after, undergoing CABG. The result of the MPS was kept secret from the surgeons. RESULTS Before CABG, 90% of the patients had angina. After CABG, 97% of the patients were without symptoms. Overall graft patency was 84%. Before CABG, one patient had normal perfusion; in the rest of them the defects were classified as follows: reversible (60%), partly reversible (27%) and irreversible (12%). Following CABG, 33% had normal perfusion; in the rest the defects were reversible in 29%, partly reversible in 12% and irreversible in 26%. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which was normal before operation in 45%, improved in 40% of all patients. The increase in LVEF was not related to the preoperative pattern of perfusion defects. Of 30 patients with normalized perfusion after CABG, 29 (97%) had reversible defects and one patient had partly reversible defects. Of 83 perfusion defects, which were normalized after CABG, 67 were reversible (81%) or partly reversible (12%). Seventy-five percent of all reversible coronary artery territories before CABG were normalized after operation. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that reversible or partly reversible perfusion defects at a preoperative MPS have a high chance of normalized myocardial perfusion assessed by MPS 6 months after operation. Normal perfusion is obtained almost exclusively in territories with reversible ischaemia. Symptoms improved in nearly all patients and LVEF in a significant fraction of the patients, not related to preoperative MPS. PMID:22473665

  11. Relative importance of patient, procedural and anatomic risk factors for early vein graft thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    MCLEAN, R. C.; NAZARIAN, S. M.; GLUCKMAN, T. J.; SCHULMAN, S. P.; THIEMANN, D. R.; SHAPIRO, E. P.; CONTE, J. V.; THOMPSON, J. B.; SHAFIQUE, I.; MCNICHOLAS, K. W.; VILLINES, T. C.; LAWS, K. M.; RADE, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of a wide array of patient demographic, procedural, anatomic and perioperative variables as potential risk factors for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods The patency of 611 SVGs in 291 patients operated on at four different hospitals enrolled in the Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates (RIGOR) study was assessed six months after CABG surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography or clinically-indicated coronary angiography. The odds of graft occlusion versus patency were analyzed using multilevel multivariate logistic regression with clustering on patient. Results SVG failure within six months of CABG surgery was predominantly an all-or-none phenomenon with 126 (20.1%) SVGs totally occluded, 485 (77.3%) widely patent and only 16 (2.5%) containing high-grade stenoses. Target vessel diameter ?1.5 mm (adjusted OR 2.37, P=0.003) and fetnale gender (adjusted OR 2.46, P=0.01) were strongly associated with early SVG occlusion. In a subgroup analysis of 354 SVGs in which intraoperative graft blood flow was measured, lower mean flow was also significantly associated with SVG occlusion when analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted OR 0.984, P=0.006) though not when analyzed dichotomously, <40 mL/min versus ?40 mL/min (adjusted OR 1.86, P=0.08). Conclusion Small target vessel diameter, female gender and low mean graft blood flow are significant risk factors for SVG thrombosis within six months of CABG surgery in patients on postoperative aspirin therapy. This information may be useful in guiding revascularization strategies in selected patients. PMID:22051997

  12. Efficacy of short-term cordyceps sinensis for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Lin, Yu; Li, Yong-Jian; Gao, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanism of CIN remains unknown. There has been little evidence regarding the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on CIN. Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used clinically for the prevention of the progression of renal failure. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of CS in the prevention of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 150 ACS patients were randomly assigned to three groups, basic treatment group (n=51), standard CS therapy group (n=49, corbrin capsule 2 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography), and intensive CS therapy group (n=50, corbrin capsule 3 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography). Renal function was assessed at the time of hospital admission and on days 1, 2, and 3 after PCI. CIN occurred in 13 of 150 patients (8.67%). The incidence of CIN was lower in the CS treatment groups than in the basic treatment group (P<0.05), and a significant decrease in the incidence of CIN in the intensive CS therapy group was shown (P<0.01). In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with CS during the peri-procedural stage in ACS patients undergoing elective PCI has a preventive role against CIN, and intensive CS therapy could be more effective. PMID:25664103

  13. A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Stein, Traci R; Olivo, Erin L; Grand, Sandy Hermele; Namerow, Pearila B; Costa, Joseph; Oz, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events and death in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These risks persist even several months after the procedure. Guided imagery has been used with cardiac surgery patients for some time and with numerous anecdotal reports of considerable benefit. In addition, this therapy is low-cost and easy to implement, and the literature holds ample evidence for its efficacy in symptom reduction in various patient populations. It was thus hypothesized that preoperative use of guided imagery would reduce postoperative distress in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Fifty-six patients scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass graft at Columbia University Medical Center were randomized into 3 groups: guided imagery, music therapy, and standard care control. Patients in the imagery and music groups listened to audiotapes preoperatively and intraoperatively. All patients completed psychological, complementary medicine therapies use, and other assessments preoperatively and at 1 week and 6 months postoperatively. Only preoperative distress was predictive of postoperative distress at follow-up. Use of complementary medicine therapies was high in all groups and this fact, in addition to the small sample size, may have accounted for the lack of significant relationship between imagery and postoperative distress. Regardless, this complementary and alternative medicine therapy remains palatable to patients. Given its efficacy in other patient populations, it is worth exploring its potential utility for this population with a larger sample. PMID:20588130

  14. Transfusion and Bleeding in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: An On-Pump Versus Off-Pump Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Potger, Kieron C.; McMillan, Darryl; Southwell, Joanne; Connolly, Terry; Smith, Kate Kingsford; BNurs, Mark Ambrose

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Blood transfusion rates in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are typically higher compared with off-pump CABG (OPCAB). However, few studies have specifically examined intraoperative hemodilution as a contributing factor. The aim of this retrospective review was to compare the effect of using CPB or OPCAB on red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and postoperative bleeding. The lowest intraoperative hematocrit (Hct) was used as marker of intraoperative hemodilution. We reviewed the perioperative data of all isolated CABG patients at a metropolitan hospital from January 2003 to June 2005. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine whether CPB was an independent predictor of RBC transfusion, reoperation for bleeding, or postoperative chest drainage. Of a total of 1043 patients, there were 433 CPB and 610 off-pump cases. CPB use was not significantly related to increased RBC transfusions (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–1.52; p = .921) and was associated with a lower incidence of reoperations for bleeding (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.8; p = .009). There was less chest drainage over the first 12 hours in patients undergoing CPB (p < .0001); however, total postoperative chest drainage was not significantly related to operative procedure (p = .122). The lowest documented intraoperative Hct was a significant factor in RBC transfusions (OR, 0.89; p < .0001), an increased reoperation rate for bleeding (OR, 0.9; p = .001) and more postoperative chest drainage (log10-transformed: at 12 hours, b = ?0.009, p < .0001; total, b = ?0.006, p < .0001). CPB is not an independent risk factor in the incidence of RBC transfusions and is not associated with increased postoperative bleeding for isolated CABG. However, intraoperative hemodilution is an independent risk factor, with a lower intraoperative Hct associated with more RBC transfusions, increased reoperations for bleeding, and increased postoperative chest drainage. Addressing intraoperative hemodilution is important in minimizing CPB-associated morbidities. PMID:17486870

  15. Comparing the Effects of Morphine Sulfate and Diclofenac Suppositories on Postoperative Pain in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imantalab, Vali; Mirmansouri, Ali; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Farzi, Farnoush; Atamanesh, Hadi; Nassiri, Nassir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Simple and efficient way of pain management after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery is an important aspect of patients' care. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of morphine and diclofenac suppositories on postoperative pain management. Patients and Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial study, 120 patients aged 30-65 years old, undergone CABG, were equally divided into two groups of A (morphine) and B (diclofenac). All patients were anesthetized with intravenous fentanyl 10 ?g/kg, etomidate 0.2 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen 50% and air 50%, propofol 50 ?g/kg/min, fentanyl 1-2 ?g/kg/h and atracurium 0.6 mg/kg/h. Analgesics were administered after the operation at intensive care unit (ICU) and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) was evaluated in both groups in 4-hour intervals after extubation for 24 hours. After extubation in case of VAS > 3, morphine suppository 10 mg (group A) or diclofenac suppository 50 mg (group B) was administered for patients. Results: No significant statistical relationship was found between the two groups regarding gender, age, BMI, paracetamol consumption, length of operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPB) time, and stay time at ICU (P Value ? 0.05). Total dosage of used morphine was 22 ± 8.3 mg in each patient and total dosage of used diclofenac was 94 ± 32.01 mg. Average variation of VAS at measured intervals was significant (P Value ? 0.0001), but these variations were not significantly different when comparing the two groups (P Value = 0.023). Conclusions: Both morphine and diclofenac suppositories reduced pain significantly and similarly after CABG surgery. PMID:25346897

  16. Rare case-series of electrocautery burn following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Niazi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: With an increasing number of off-pump coronary artery surgery procedures in high-risk patients with coagulopathy, including renal failure, hepatic failure and anticoagulant drug-using patients, the frequency of related complications such as repeated exploration for bleeding is also increasing. The associated co-morbidity and repeated use of electrocautery in postoperative bleeding leaves patients susceptible to electrocautery ulcers. In this case series, rare cases of cautery burn with unique causative mechanisms are described. PMID:23669602

  17. Effects of Aspirin Responsiveness and Platelet Reactivity on Early Vein Graft Thrombosis after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gluckman, Tyler J.; McLean, Rhondalyn C.; Schulman, Steven P.; Kickler, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Edward P.; Conte, John V.; McNicholas, Kathleen W.; Segal, Jodi B.; Rade, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine if an incomplete response to and/or inadequate antiplatelet effect of aspirin contribute to saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Background Thrombosis is the predominant cause of early SVG occlusion. Aspirin, which inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 activity and thromboxane generation in platelets, reduces early SVG occlusion by half. Methods Aspirin-responsiveness and platelet reactivity were characterized 3 days and 6 months after CABG in 229 subjects on aspirin monotherapy by; platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and epinephrine; PFA-100 closure time (CT) using collagen/epinephrine (CEPI) and collagen/ADP (CADP) agonist cartridges; VerifyNow Aspirin assay, and; urine levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (UTXB2). SVG patency was determined 6 months after surgery by computed tomography coronary angiography. Results Inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, indicative of aspirin-mediated cyclooxygenase-1 suppression, occurred in 95% and >99% of subjects 3 days and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Despite this, 73% and 31% of subjects at these times had elevated UTXB2. Among tested parameters, only UTXB2 and PFA-100 CADP CT measured 6 months after surgery correlated with outcome. By multivariate analysis, CADP CT ?88 seconds (OR 2.85, P=0.006), target vessel diameter ?1.5 mm (OR 2.38, P=0.01) and UTXB2 ?450 pg/mg creatinine (OR 2.59, P=0.015) correlated with SVG occlusion. CADP CT and UTXB2 in combination further identified subjects at particularly high- and low-risk for SVG occlusion. Conclusions Aspirin-insensitive thromboxane generation measured by UTXB2 and shear-dependent platelet hyper-reactivity measured by PFA-100 CADP CT are novel independent risk factors for early SVG thrombosis after CABG surgery. PMID:21349398

  18. Plasma Concentrations Predict Aortic Expression of Growth-Arrest-Specific Protein 6 in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Aims The tyrosine kinase receptor Axl is expressed in the vasculature, and growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) is its ligand. Plasma Gas6 levels have been shown to be associated with endothelial dysfunction markers and cardiovascular events. We set out to determine the plasma Gas6 levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and investigate the expression of Gas6 and Axl in the aorta. Methods and Results Immunoassays were used to investigate plasma Gas6 levels in CABG patients (n?=?19) and control subjects (n?=?20). The expression of Gas6 and Axl in the injured aorta were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Plasma Gas6 levels were significantly lower in CABG patients than in matched control subjects. In CABG patients, plasma Gas6 levels were negatively correlated with fasting glucose, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels. The levels predicted the operative mortality rate and were positively correlated with plasma soluble Axl (sAxl) levels and Gas6 expression in the aorta. Moreover, Gas6 expression was positively correlated with Axl expression in the aorta. Conclusion We concluded that plasma Gas6 is associated with fasting glucose, endothelial dysfunction markers, sAxl values, and vascular Gas6 expression in CABG patients, and it predicts the operative mortality of these patients. These findings suggest that the Gas6/Axl system is crucial in vascular biology. PMID:24236135

  19. Mutational analysis clopidogrel resistance and platelet function in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Mick; Johnson, Christopher K.; Ferrari, Giovanni; Brizzio, Mariano; Mak, Andrew W.C.; Quackenbush, John; Shaw, Richard E.; Zapolanski, Alex; Grau, Juan B.

    2014-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an oral antiplatelet pro-drug prescribed to 40 million patients worldwide who are at risk for thrombotic events or receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However about a fifth of patients treated with clopidogrel do not respond adequately to the drug. From a cohort of 105 patients on whom we had functional data on clopidogrel response, we used ultra-high throughput sequencing to assay mutations in CYP2C19 and ABCB1, the two genes genetically linked to respond. Testing for mutations in CYP2C19, as recommended by the FDA, only correctly predicted if a patient would respond to clopidogrel 52.4% of the time. Similarly, testing of the ABCB1 gene only correctly foretold response in 51 (48.6%) patients. These results are clinically relevant and suggest that until additional genetic factors are discovered that predict response more completely, functional assays are more appropriate for clinical use. PMID:23462555

  20. Nerve elements of the heart in aorto-coronary by-pass conditions.

    PubMed

    Kulchitsky, K I; Talko, V I

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on 100 dogs with creation of autovenous aortocoronary shunts in the coronary artery. The hearts were examined 1 year following surgery by routine histological, neurohistological, histochemical and electron-microscopic techniques. No severe destructive changes were revealed in the shunting system. The main process develop in the heart very early following surgery and consist in reactive changes in the intramural nerve elements, elevation of the phosphatase activity in the walls of the microcirculatory bed, redistribution of acid and neutral mucopolysaccharides and changes of permeability of the haematohistiocytic barriers; they are an adaptation response of the myocardium to operative stress and new conditions of influx of blood to the cardiac muscle. PMID:160739

  1. Clinical SYNTAX Score Can Predict Acute Kidney Injury following On-Pump but Not Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gursoy, Mete; Hokenek, Abdulkadir Faruk; Duygu, Egemen; Atay, Mehmet; Yavuz, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Background The complexity of coronary artery disease is usually a neglected factor in risk stratification systems. We aimed to analyze the discriminative ability of the clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) for acute kidney injury (AKI) following on- and off-pump coronary artery surgery. Methods A total of 193 patients were reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical procedure (group I: off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, n = 89; group II: on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, n = 104). Preoperative demographic data, the CSS and postoperative renal functions were evaluated. The postoperative AKI classification was made using the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, and End-stage renal disease) criteria. Results Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 of 89 patients (15.7%) in group I and in 29 of 104 patients in group II (27.8%; p = 0.046). The CSS did not vary much between the groups (31.52 ± 13.08 vs. 29.89 ± 15.70; p = 0.638). In group I, the CSS was not different between patients with AKI and those without AKI (30.167 ± 3.93 vs. 31.91± 14.75; p = 0.78). In group II, the CSS was 36.85 ± 18.33 in patients with AKI and 28.02 ± 12.32 in those without, and the difference was significant (p = 0.02). The discriminative ability of the CSS for postoperative AKI using the AUC analysis was 0.500 in group I and 0.840 in group II. Conclusion The CSS may be a simple and successful means of risk prediction of postoperative AKI in on-pump coronary artery surgery.

  2. Biatrial pacing vs. intravenous amiodarone in prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, F; Kazemi-Arbat, B; Golmohammadi, A; Pourafkari, L

    2009-10-01

    This study was aimed to compare the results of post operative biatrial pacing and i.v. amiodarone in prevention of AF. In a single blind randomized clinical trial, 210 patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were randomized either to receive overdrive biatrial pacing, i.v. amiodarone or no intervention. Incidence of AF postoperatively evaluated. Pacing was successful in 83% of patients and 80% of patients in amiodarone group could receive their drug. Twenty and one patients developed AF. Incidence of AF in pace, amiodarone and control group was 10.7, 5.3 and 17.9%, respectively (p = 0.08). Comparing incidence of AF between pacing and control group, the difference was not significant (p = 0.2), but the difference between amiodarone and control groups was significant statistically (p = 0.03). Patients who developed AF were older but their left ventricular ejection fraction was not different with patients without AF. The ICU stay was higher in patients with AF. Use of i.v. amiodarone was more effective than biatrial pacing in prevention of post operative AF and we recommend use of this drug in high risk patients. PMID:20387748

  3. Coronary artery bypass grafts and diagnosis related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 10 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prospective reimbursement of hospitals through the grouping of patients into a finite number of categories (Diagnosis Related Groups, DRGs), is common to many European countries. However, the specific categories used vary greatly across countries, using different characteristics to define group boundaries and thus those characteristics which result in different payments for treatment. In order to assist in the construction and modification of national DRG systems, this study analyses the DRG systems of 10 European countries. Aims To compare the characteristics used to categorise patients receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery into DRGs. Further, to compare the structure into which DRGs are placed and the relative price paid for patients across Europe. Method Patients with a procedure of CABG surgery are analysed from Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain and Sweden. Diagrammatic algorithms of DRG structures are presented for each country. The price in Euros of seven typical case vignettes, each made up of a set of a hypothetical patient’s characteristics, is also analysed for each country. In order to enable comparisons across countries the simplest case (index vignette) is taken as baseline and relative price levels are calculated for the other six vignettes, each representing patients with different combinations of procedures and comorbidities. Results European DRG payment structures for CABG surgery vary in terms of the number of different DRGs used and the types of distinctions which define patient categorisation. Based on the payments given to hospitals in different countries, the most resource intensive patient, relative to the index vignette, ranges in magnitude from 1.37 in Poland to 2.82 in Ireland. There is also considerable variation in how much different systems pay for particular circumstances, such as the occurrence of catheterisation or presence of comorbidity. Conclusion Past experience of the construction of DRG systems for CABG patients demonstrates the variety of options available. It also highlights the importance of updating systems as frequently as possible, to incentivise best practice. PMID:24949279

  4. Poor Sleep Quality in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: An Intervention Study Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbaran, Soheila; Dehdari, Tahereh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Majdabadi, Mahmood Mahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Poor sleep quality (SQ) is common among patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). This study attempted to determine the status of SQ following an intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model in patients with poor SQ after CABG. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, including 100 patients referred to the Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinic of Tehran Heart Center, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of exercise and lifestyle training plus designed intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model) or to the control group (recipient of exercise and lifestyle training). Eight training sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for the intervention group. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors as well as social support and SQ were measured in the intervention group before and one month after the intervention and compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Results: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (24% women) and control (24% women) groups was 59.3 ± 7.3 and 59.5 ± 9.3 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of SQ (p value < 0.001), knowledge (p value < 0.001), beliefs (p value < 0.001), sleep self-efficacy (p value < 0.001), enabling factors (p value < 0.001), reinforcing factors (p value < 0.001), and social support (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Adding an intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to the cardiac rehabilitation program may further improve the SQ of patients. PMID:26157457

  5. Influence of Chronic Kidney Disease on Physical Function and Quality of Life in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yueh-Ting; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Chiu, Cheng-Ming; Chien, Meng-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purposes of this study were (1) to compare body composition, physical function, and quality of life (QOL) between patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and (2) to analyze the factors associated with physical function and QOL domains in these patients. Methods Thirty male post-CABG patients with CKD and 30 matched controls were recruited. All subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition evaluation. Physical function tests included the grip strength test, 30-second chair stand test (30CST), and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Physical activity and QOL were assessed using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL)-BREF, respectively. Results Post-CABG patients with CKD exhibited a lower arm lean mass and higher percent leg fat mass than those without CKD (p < 0.05). The patients with CKD also had lower 30CST scores, 6MWT distances, and QOL domain of social relationships scores than those without CKD after adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05). If NYHA class was considered in the model, NYHA class became the most important factor associated with 6MWT distances (? = ?0.647, p < 0.001) and the QOL domains of psychological health (? = ?0.285, p = 0.027) and environment (? = ?0.406, p = 0.001). Conclusion Post-CABG patients with CKD had worse body composition, physical function, and QOL than those without CKD, and this might be associated with a worse NYHA class. PMID:26648940

  6. The Relationships between Fatigue and Early Postoperative Recovery Outcomes Over Time in Elderly Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Nieveen, Janet; Schulz, Paula; Miller, Connie; Hertzog, Melody; Rasmussen, Doris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite successful coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, some patients continue to experience fatigue following their surgery. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine the relationships of fatigue and early recovery outcomes (psychosocial and physiological functioning, and physical activity) over time (6-weeks and 3-months) among older adult subjects, age 65 years and older, following CABG surgery. Comparison groups were those subjects who had fatigue at 3-weeks after surgery and non-fatigued subjects. DESIGN A prospective, comparative design was used for this secondary analysis study. SAMPLE Subjects in this study were drawn from the control group of subjects enrolled in the larger, parent study. Subjects (N=119) were dichotomized into fatigue (n=66) and non-fatigued (n=53) groups based on their 3-week self-report of postoperative fatigue. RESULTS At 6-weeks after surgery, fatigued subjects had significantly (p<.05) more impaired psychosocial functioning, [role-emotional (t=1.9), social (t=2.6), and mental (t=1.9) functioning], based Medical Outcome Study short form-36 (MOS SF-36). They had significantly (p<.005) higher anxiety (t= ?3.6) and depression (t= ?2.9) mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscale (HADS) scores. Anxiety (t= ?2.3, p<.05) remained significantly (p<.05) impaired at 3-months. At 6-weeks, role physical functioning, measured by the MOS SF-36, was significantly impaired (t=2.4, p<.01). There were no significant differences in physical activity variables as measured by a RT3® accelerometer and self-report diary. CONCLUSIONS Persistent fatigue can hamper early recovery following CABG surgery. Tailored interventions are needed to address fatigue management and improve patient outcomes. PMID:18620100

  7. Hand Grip Strength and Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Index among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sokran, Siti Nur Baait Biniti Mohd; Mohan, Vikram; Kamaruddin, Kamaria; Sulaiman, Mohd Daud; Awang, Yahya; Othman, Ida Rosmini Binti; Victor, Smiley Jesu Priya

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand grip strength (HGS) is a reliable indicator of peripheral muscle strength. Although, numerous studies have investigated the strength of hand grip; little attention has been given to coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, exploring the relationship between HGS and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) index. The current study aimed to evaluate the interaction between HGS and MVO2 index findings before and after cardiac surgery. Methods Twenty-seven patients with CAD had HGS were assessed using handheld dynamometer. HGS for each hand were documented. MVO2 index was assessed using rate pressure product (RPP), which is the product of the heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Repeated measures MANOVA were carried out to estimate the interaction between both hands HGS and MVO2 index before and after surgery. Results There was significant interactions (P<0.001) for both HGS dominant and non-dominant with large effect sizes (HGS dominant×MVO2 index: hp2=0.44; HGS dominant×RPP: hp2=0.49). This signifies that peripheral muscle strength of the upper limb (HGS dominant and non-dominant) had different effects on MVO2 index before and after surgery. The interaction graph shows that the increase in MVO2 index after surgery was significantly greater for peripheral muscle strength of the dominant hand when compared to non-dominant.  Conclusion Patients with CAD had interactions between HGS and oxygen consumption before and after surgery. Hence, HGS might be used as a predictor to assess oxygen consumption among cardiac patients. PMID:26170520

  8. New-onset atrial fibrillation following coronary bypass surgery predicts long-term mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Ha, Hakeem S K; Phan, Steven; Medi, Caroline; Thomas, Stuart P; Yan, Tristan D

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common postoperative complications following cardiac surgery. Recent evidence suggests that postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) may be more 'malignant' than previously thought, associated with follow-up mortality and morbidity. To evaluate the long-term survival of POAF versus No-POAF cohorts following coronary bypass surgery, the current meta-analysis with reconstructed individual patient data was performed. Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to August 2014. Relevant studies with long-term survival data presented for POAF versus No-POAF were identified. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed according to predefined clinical endpoints. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) significantly favoured higher survival in No-POAF over POAF (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19-1.37; I(2) = 96%; P < 0.00001). Individual patient data of 69 518 patients were available for inverted Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. Analysis of aggregate data using Kaplan-Meier curve methods for POAF versus No-POAF groups determined survival rates at the 1-year (95.7 vs 98%), 2-year (92.3 vs 95.4%), 3-year (88.7 vs 93.9%), 5-year (82.6 vs 89.4%) and 10-year (65.5 vs 75.3%) follow-up. Other complications including 30-day mortality, strokes, respiratory failure, pneumonia and hospitalization were significantly higher in the POAF group. New-onset AF following coronary bypass surgery is associated with significantly higher risk of mortality in short- and long-term follow-up. Current evidence suggests the need for stricter surveillance and monitoring of POAF following coronary bypass surgery. PMID:25602053

  9. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting via median sternotomy in a patient with a history of esophagectomy with substernal gastric tube reconstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Masashi, Kawamura; Saito, Tetsuya; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-09-01

    We performed successful off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in a patient with unstable angina caused by triple-vessel disease, who had undergone esophagectomy with substernal gastric tube reconstruction for esophageal cancer 40 years earlier. Preoperative multidetector-row computed tomography was done to evaluate the course of the gastric tube and also that of the gastroepiploic artery, which feeds the gastric tube. Following careful sternal re-entry and adequate dissection, OPCAB was performed safely via a median sternotomy without injuring the gastric tube or causing hemodynamic instability. The patient had an uneventful early postoperative course. PMID:25352011

  10. Sleep Quality and Emotional Correlates in Taiwanese Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients 1 Week and 1 Month after Hospital Discharge: A Repeated Descriptive Correlational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Lin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality is a common health problem for coronary artery bypass graft patients, however few studies have evaluated sleep quality during the period immediately following hospital discharge. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate changes in sleep quality and emotional correlates in coronary artery bypass graft patients in Taiwan at 1 week and 1 month after hospital discharge. Methods We used a descriptive correlational design for this study. One week after discharge, 87 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery completed two structured questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Three weeks later (1 month after discharge) the patients completed the surveys again. Pearson correlations, t-tests, ANOVA and linear multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results A majority of the participants had poor sleep quality at 1 week (82.8%) and 1 month (66.7%) post-hospitalization, based on the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Despite poor sleep quality at both time-points the sleep quality at 1 month was significantly better than at 1-week post hospitalization. Poorer sleep quality correlated with older age, poorer heart function, anxiety and depression. The majority of participants had normal levels of anxiety at 1 week (69.0%) and 1 month (88.5%) as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. However, some level of depression was seen at 1 week (78.1%) and 1 month (59.7%). Depression was a significant predictor of sleep quality at 1 week; at 1 month after hospital discharge both anxiety and depression were significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusion Sleep quality, anxiety and depression all significantly improved 1 month after hospital discharge. However, more than half of the participants continued to have poor sleep quality and some level of depression. Health care personnel should be encouraged to assess sleep and emotional status in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery and offer them appropriate management strategies to improve sleep and reduce anxiety and depression. PMID:26291524

  11. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... great vein will be used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is ... and to the affected coronary artery past the blocked site. The internal mammary artery from the chest ...

  12. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 ?g/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1?g/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  13. Various clinical scenarios leading to development of the string sign of the internal thoracic artery after coronary bypass surgery: the role of competitive flow, a case series

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is the choice for grafting of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). One possible mechanism of the rare graft failure involve the presence of competitive flow. Method 105 patients who had undergone coronary bypass grafting between 1998 and 2000 were included in this observational study. The recatheterizations were performed 28 months after the operations. The rate of patency the LIMA grafts was determined, and the cases with graft failure were analyzed. Results The LIMA graft was patent in 99 patients (94%). Six patients (6%) exhibited diffuse involution of the graft (string sign). The string sign was always associated with competitive flow as the basis of the LIMA graft involution. In one case quantitative re-evaluation of the preoperative coronary angiography revealed merely less than 50% diameter stenosis on the LAD with a nonligated side-branch of the LIMA. At recatheterization in two patients the pressure wire measurements demonstrated only a non-significant decrease of the fractional flow reserve (0.83 and 0.89), despite the 53% and 57% diameter stenosis in the angiogram. Another patient displayeda significant regression of the LAD lesion between the pre- and postoperative coronary angiography (from 76% to 44%) as the cause of the development of the competitive flow. In one instance, a radial artery graft on the LAD during a redo bypass operation resulted in competitive flow in the radial graft due to the greater diameter than that of the LIMA. In a further patient, competitive flow developed from a short sequential part of the LIMA graft between the nonsignificantly stenosed diagonal branch and the LAD, with involution of the main part of the graft to the diagonal branch. Conclusions The most common cause of the development of the string sign of a LIMA graft due to competitive flow is overassessment of the lesion of the LAD. Regression of a previous lesion or some other neighboring graft can also cause the phenomenon. PMID:22289632

  14. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfelder, Thomas; Boutsianis, Evangelos; Schertler, Thomas; Husmann, Lars; Leschka, Sebastian; Poulikakos, Dimos; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS), in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT). Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis warranting further systematic application of the presented methodology on multiple patient datasets. PMID:17897460

  15. Effects of single antegrade hot shot in comparison with no hot shot administration during coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadsadeghi, Pouya; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Superior results will be achieved from cardiac surgery by minimizing the effect of ischemia/reperfusion injury during cross-clamping of the aorta. Different cardioplegia solutions have been introduced, but the optimum one is still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of single antegrade hot shot terminal warm blood cardioplegia (TWBC) on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS In total, 2488 patients who had CABG surgery in Sina Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-control study. They were divided into two groups, those who received cold cardioplegia only and those who received a hot shot following cold cardioplegia. Demographics, and clinical data, such as; premature atrial contraction (PAC) arrhythmia, diabetes treatment, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), were collected and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS There were significant differences found between subjects receiving antegrade hot shot based on direct current (DC) shocks, with regard to; female, EF levels, diabetes treatment (P < 0.050). Those who did not receive the hot shot and were not diabetic received more DC shock (P = 0.019). The prevalence of subjects who did no need DC shock was significantly higher among male subjects who had good EF and acceptable diabetic treatment. Multiple logistic regression showed that PAC arrhythmia did not have a significant effect on receiving DC shock during CAGB [0.84 (0.25, 2.85), (P = 0.780)]. Having poor EF increased the risk of receiving DC shock among subjects by 2.81 [(1.69, 4.69), (P ? 0.001)] (P < 0.001). Among the diabetic subjects, receiving insulin decreased the risk of receiving DC shock by 0.54 (0.29, 0.98) (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION It was concluded that single antegrade hot shot following cold cardioplegia was not particularly effective in the CABG group. TWBC will decrease the need for DC shock. PMID:26405451

  16. Perioperative elafin for ischaemia-reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S R; Lewis, S C; Zamvar, V; Pessotto, R; Dweck, M R; Krishan, A; Goodman, K; Oatey, K; Harkess, R; Milne, L; Thomas, S; Mills, N M; Moore, C; Semple, S; Wiedow, O; Stirrat, C; Mirsadraee, S; Newby, D E; Henriksen, P A

    2015-01-01

    Background Elafin is a potent endogenous neutrophil elastase inhibitor that protects against myocardial inflammation and injury in preclinical models of ischaemic-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether elafin could inhibit myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods and results In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial, 87 patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomised 1:1 to intravenous elafin 200?mg or saline placebo administered after induction of anaesthesia and prior to sternotomy. Myocardial injury was measured as cardiac troponin I release over 48?h (area under the curve (AUC)) and myocardial infarction identified with MRI. Postischaemic inflammation was measured by plasma markers including AUC high-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Elafin infusion was safe and resulted in >3000-fold increase in plasma elafin concentrations and >50% inhibition of elastase activity in the first 24?h. This did not reduce myocardial injury over 48?h (ratio of geometric means (elafin/placebo) of AUC troponin I 0.74 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.15, p=0.18)) although post hoc analysis of the high-sensitive assay revealed lower troponin I concentrations at 6?h in elafin-treated patients (median 2.4 vs 4.1??g/L, p=0.035). Elafin had no effect on myocardial infarction (elafin, 7/34 vs placebo, 5/35 patients) or on markers of inflammation: mean differences for AUC hs-CRP of 499?mg/L/48 h (95% CI ?207 to 1205, p=0.16), and AUC MPO of 238?ng/mL/48 h (95% CI ?235 to 711, p=0.320). Conclusions There was no strong evidence that neutrophil elastase inhibition with a single-dose elafin treatment reduced myocardial injury and inflammation following CABG-induced ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Trial registration number (EudraCT 2010-019527-58, ISRCTN82061264). PMID:26310261

  17. An analysis of limb-threatening lower extremity wound complications after 1090 consecutive coronary artery bypass procedures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T A; Taylor, S M; Crane, M M; Cornett, W R; Langan, E M; Snyder, B A; Cull, D L

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and characterize limb-threatening lower extremity wound or soft tissue complications after coronary artery bypass (CABG) and determine risk factors for their cause. While minor wound problems of the leg after CABG are not uncommon, serious limb-threatening complications, though less frequent, do occur and are often de-emphasized in the surgical literature. A review of 1090 consecutive CABG procedures performed from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 was instituted, which screened for limb-threatening lower extremity wound or soft tissue complications defined as wounds that: required additional surgery for treatment; prolonged the length of stay; or which required lengthy home health nursing for treatment. Minor lymph leaks, leg swelling, infections or wound problems treated as an outpatient were excluded. Of 1090 patients, 54 (5.0%) experienced a limb-threatening lower extremity complication. Complications were categorized as vein harvest incision non-healing (n = 36, 66.7%), decubitus ulceration (n = 11, 20.4%), forefoot ischemia/embolization (n = 10, 18.5%), groin hematoma/abscess (n = 6, 11.1%), severe cellulitis (n = 3, 5.6%), or a combination (n = 12, 22.2%). Statistically significant risk factors by univariate and bivariate analysis for a complication included older age (68 years vs 62 years, p = 0.007), female sex (57% vs 28%, p < 0.001), diabetes (57% vs 33%, p = 0.005) and longer pump time (129 min vs 114 min, p = 0.009). These complications necessitated five major lower extremity amputations and nine revascularization procedures. Chronic lower extremity ischemia from peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was a major contributing factor for the development of wounds in at least 23 (42.6%) of these patients, though suspected in only 10 (43.5%) preoperatively. A non-healing vein harvest incision below the knee of a patient retrospectively found to have inadequate distal circulation for healing occurred in 17 (31.5%) of the total 54 cases. It was concluded that non-healing vein incisions, decubitus ulcers and forefoot ischemic lesions frequently occurring in older diabetic females with undetected pre-existing PVD, comprise the majority of limb-threatening leg complications after CABG. Nearly one-third of the complications may have been avoided had the vein harvest incision not been made at the ankle of a patient with unappreciated PVD. PMID:10406454

  18. Predicting target vessel location on robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft using CT to ultrasound registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Daniel S.; Linte, Cristian; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Barron, John; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Although robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting (RA-CABG) has gained more acceptance worldwide, its success still depends on the surgeon's experience and expertise, and the conversion rate to full sternotomy is in the order of 15%-25%. One of the reasons for conversion is poor pre-operative planning, which is based solely on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) images. In this paper, the authors propose a technique to estimate the global peri-operative displacement of the heart and to predict the intra-operative target vessel location, validated via both an in vitro and a clinical study. Methods: As the peri-operative heart migration during RA-CABG has never been reported in the literatures, a simple in vitro validation study was conducted using a heart phantom. To mimic the clinical workflow, a pre-operative CT as well as peri-operative ultrasound images at three different stages in the procedure (Stage{sub 0}--following intubation; Stage{sub 1}--following lung deflation; and Stage{sub 2}--following thoracic insufflation) were acquired during the experiment. Following image acquisition, a rigid-body registration using iterative closest point algorithm with the robust estimator was employed to map the pre-operative stage to each of the peri-operative ones, to estimate the heart migration and predict the peri-operative target vessel location. Moreover, a clinical validation of this technique was conducted using offline patient data, where a Monte Carlo simulation was used to overcome the limitations arising due to the invisibility of the target vessel in the peri-operative ultrasound images. Results: For the in vitro study, the computed target registration error (TRE) at Stage{sub 0}, Stage{sub 1}, and Stage{sub 2} was 2.1, 3.3, and 2.6 mm, respectively. According to the offline clinical validation study, the maximum TRE at the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was 4.1 mm at Stage{sub 0}, 5.1 mm at Stage{sub 1}, and 3.4 mm at Stage{sub 2}. Conclusions: The authors proposed a method to measure and validate peri-operative shifts of the heart during RA-CABG. In vitro and clinical validation studies were conducted and yielded a TRE in the order of 5 mm for all cases. As the desired clinical accuracy imposed by this procedure is on the order of one intercostal space (10-15 mm), our technique suits the clinical requirements. The authors therefore believe this technique has the potential to improve the pre-operative planning by updating peri-operative migration patterns of the heart and, consequently, will lead to reduced conversion to conventional open thoracic procedures.

  19. Usefulness of the Logistic Clinical Syntax Score in Prediction of Saphenous Vein Graft Failure in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Derya; Cel?k, Omer; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Ak?n, Fatih; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, As?m; Tasbulak, Omer; Ayca, Burak; Erkanl?, Korhan; Bak?r, ?hsan

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the association between the preoperative logistic clinical syntax score (log CSS), saphenous vein graft (SVG) patency, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Of 1875 patients undergoing isolated CABG between 2009 and 2011, 267 patients, who later underwent coronary angiography, were included in the study. The primary end point was at least 1 graft occlusion on the follow-up coronary angiogram. The secondary end point was a composite of MACCE. In multivariate analysis, log CSS was found as a strong predictor of SVG failure (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.94, P = .02; and OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.02-4.75, P = .04, respectively): log CSS was also associated with MACCE (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively). The addition of clinical parameters to the anatomical SYNTAX score, termed as "log CSS", augmented the accuracy and reliability of the prediction of SVG failure and MACCE in patients undergoing CABG. PMID:25385816

  20. Relation of Severe Coronary Artery Narrowing to Insulin or Thiazolidinedione Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Study)

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lombardero, Manuel; Lavis, Victor; Forker, Alan; Green, Jennifer; Korytkowski, Mary; Sobel, Burton E.; Jones, Teresa L.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes continue to die of coronary artery disease (CAD) at rates 2 to 4 times higher than patients without diabetes, despite advances in treatment of cardiovascular disease. The role of glycemic control therapies, independent of their glucose-lowering effects, on cardiovascular disease is a recurring question. We examined the association of glycemic control therapies with extent of CAD as measured by coronary angiogram obtained at baseline in 1,803 subjects in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, documented moderate to severe CAD, and no previous cardiac revascularization procedures. The association between glycemic control therapy use recorded at baseline and percent coronary artery stenosis and myocardial jeopardy index was analyzed by multiple regression models. Insulin use at study entry was associated with 23% fewer highly stenotic lesions (?70%) (p <0.001) and a significantly lower myocardial jeopardy index compared with subjects not on insulin, despite a worse cardiac risk factor profile, more unstable angina, and increased inflammatory markers in insulin users. Subjects taking thiazolidinediones (TZDs) for ?6 months had 17% fewer highly stenotic lesions (p = 0.02) and significantly lower C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels compared with those not taking TZDs. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD showed that treatment with insulin or TZDs was associated with fewer highly stenotic lesions, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other risk factors. PMID:19576321

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and blood is sent through a heart-lung machine. Unlike other forms of heart surgery, the chambers ... chest. These electrodes are connected to an electrocardiogram machine, which will monitor your heart's rhythm and electrical ...

  2. IMPACT-CABG Trial: Implantation of CD133+ Stem Cells in Patients Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery—Presentation of the First Treated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Forcillo, Jessica; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Mansour, Samer; Prieto, Ignacio; Roy, Denis-Claude; Noiseux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The IMPACT-CABG study is the first Canadian randomized-controlled phase II clinical trial aiming to assess the effect of intramyocardial (IM) injections of CD133+-selected stem cells in patients referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with a “chronic” myocardial infarction and persistent left ventricular dysfunction. Patients are followed for 2 years with different imaging techniques including the stress magnetic resonance to evaluate the global and regional myocardial viability. Before the beginning of the randomization, the 5 first patients are treated in an open-label fashion to assess safety and feasibility of the IM CD133+ injections. Herein, we report the first Canadian patient treated with IM injection of CD133+ cells during CABG surgery as part of the IMPACT-CABG trial. PMID:23213603

  3. Proteomic analysis of plasma from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting reveals a protease/antiprotease imbalance in favor of the serpin alpha1-antichymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Cristina; Parolari, Alessandro; Brioschi, Maura; Barcella, Simona; Loardi, Claudia; Centenaro, Chiara; Alamanni, Francesco; Mussoni, Luciana; Tremoli, Elena

    2010-05-01

    We used proteomics to identify systematic changes in the plasma proteins of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) by means of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. It is known that, after CABG, a complex systemic inflammatory responses ensues that favors the occurrence of adverse postoperative complications frequently recognizing inflammation itself and/or thrombosis as the underlying mechanism. We found a marked and persistent postoperative increase in the levels of the serpin-protease inhibitor alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (alpha(1)-ACT) that fully maintains the inhibitory activity blunting its protease substrate cathepsin G. An intraoperative increase followed by a rapid decline in proteases activation was documented, accompanied by a substantial induction of leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein, a protein involved in neutrophilic granulocyte differentiation. Finally, a time-dependent alteration in the expression of haptoglobin, transthyretin, clusterin, and apoE was observed. In conclusion, we showed that after CABG, a protease/antiprotease imbalance occurs with early cathepsin G activation and a more delayed increase in alpha(1)-ACT. As cathepsin G is a serpin involved both in inflammation and coagulation activation, this confirms and expands the concept of a marked dysregulation of both inflammatory and hemostatic balances occurring after CABG. The pharmacologic modulation of this imbalance may be a new therapeutic target to reduce postoperative complications. PMID:20302328

  4. Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiromi; Kaikita, Koichi; Ono, Takamichi; Iwashita, Satomi; Nakayama, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Horio, Eiji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kojima, Sunao; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    Peri-procedural myocardial damage (MD) is associated with increased risk of major in-hospital complications and adverse clinical events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation and CYP2C19-reduced-function gene variants on elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related MD. We measured changes in serum high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) levels, CYP2C19 genotype, and on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation (PA) using VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 system in 91 patients who received stent implantation (stent group). The control group comprised 30 patients who did not receive PCI. Blood samples were obtained before and 24 h after PCI or coronary angiography (CAG). Patients of the stent group were divided into high and low MD groups based on the median value of hs-TnT level at 24 h after PCI. Serum hs-TnT levels were significantly higher 24 h after PCI (86.8 ± 121.5 pg/ml) compared with before PCI (9.4 ± 5.3, p < 0.001), whereas the levels were identical before and 24 h after CAG in the control group. Simple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MD correlated with age (p = 0.014), estimated GFR (p = 0.003), hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.015), baseline serum hs-TnT (p = 0.049), and stent length (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified old age, high hemoglobin A1c level, and long stent, but not CYP2C19 reduced-function allele or high on-clopidogrel PA, as independent predictors of elective PCI-related MD. The present study demonstrated no significant relation between peri-procedural MD and high on-clopidgrel PA associated with CYP2C19 reduced-function allele in patients undergoing elective PCI. PMID:24781308

  5. [In hospital observation of patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation and multivessels coronary artery disease treated with early invasive strategy. Comparison of results of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery by-pass grafting].

    PubMed

    Szygu?a-Jurkiewicz, Bozena; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Szafron, Bartosz; Przybylski, Roman; Chudzik, Bartosz; Osuch, Marcin; Zebala, Marian; Polo?ski, Lech

    2004-08-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) without persistent ST-segment elevation are the main cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare clinical and angiographic parameters as well as in-hospital results of treating 307 consecutive patients with ACS without persistent ST-segment elevation with either PCI or CABG. Inclusion criteria were: rest angina within the last 24 hours, ST-segment depression (> 0.5 mm), T-wave inversion (> 1 mm) in at least two leads, positive serum cardiac markers. PCI was performed in 75.9% of patients and 24.1% of patients underwent CABG. Both groups did not differ as to age, sex, history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, heart failure, smoking and ejection fraction. Positive troponin was significantly more frequent in the PCI group. 51% of PCI patients and 80% of CABG patients had complete revascularization (p = 0.00001). Independent predictors of in-hospital death in the CABG group were: inability to determine culprit vessel during coronary angiography due to lesions' severity (OR 13.65; 95% CI 9.40-15.20; p = 0.007) and heart failure (OR 15.58; 95% CI 12.29-18.01; p = 0.003). In the PCI group these independent predictors were: Braunwald's IIIC unstable angina (OR 5.48; 95% CI 3.10-7.17; p = 0.04) and diabetes (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.07-3.90; p = 0.003). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the CABG group (8.1% vs 1.7% p < 0.01). Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and ACS without ST-segment elevation treated with PCI have better in-hospital outcome than patients assigned to CABG, but the rate of complete revascularization is lower. PMID:15675265

  6. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  7. Predicting reintubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation and death in post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a comparison between artificial neural networks and logistic regression models

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Renata G.; de Souza, César R.; Machado, Maurício N.; Correa, Paulo R.; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Pizzolato, Ednaldo B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, the common complications are the need for reintubation, prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and death. Thus, a reliable model for the prognostic evaluation of those particular outcomes is a worthwhile pursuit. The existence of such a system would lead to better resource planning, cost reductions and an increased ability to guide preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to compare different methods – logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) – in accomplishing this goal. Material and methods Subjects undergoing CABG (n = 1315) were divided into training (n = 1053) and validation (n = 262) groups. The set of independent variables consisted of age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, diabetes, creatinine level, cardiopulmonary bypass, presence of preserved ventricular function, moderate and severe ventricular dysfunction and total number of grafts. The PMV was also an input for the prediction of death. The ability of ANN to discriminate outcomes was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the results were compared using a multivariate LR. Results The ROC curve areas for LR and ANN models, respectively, were: for reintubation 0.62 (CI: 0.50–0.75) and 0.65 (CI: 0.53–0.77); for PMV 0.67 (CI: 0.57–0.78) and 0.72 (CI: 0.64–0.81); and for death 0.86 (CI: 0.79–0.93) and 0.85 (CI: 0.80–0.91). No differences were observed between models. Conclusions The ANN has similar discriminating power in predicting reintubation, PMV and death outcomes. Thus, both models may be applicable as a predictor for these outcomes in subjects undergoing CABG. PMID:26322087

  8. Growth Properties of Cardiac Stem Cells Are a Novel Biomarker of Patients' Outcome After Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    D'Amario, Domenico; Leone, Antonio M.; Iaconelli, Antonio; Luciani, Nicola; Gaudino, Mario; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Manchi, Melissa; Severino, Anna; Shin, Sang Hun; Graziani, Francesca; Biasillo, Gina; Macchione, Andrea; Smaldone, Costantino; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Cellini, Carlo; Siracusano, Andrea; Ottaviani, Lara; Massetti, Massimo; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Crea, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy of bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy is not easily predictable; preoperative clinical conditions may be similar, but the outcome may differ significantly. We hypothesized that the growth reserve of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and circulating cytokines promoting CSC activation are critical determinants of ventricular remodeling in this patient population. Methods and Results To document the growth kinetics of CSCs, population-doubling time, telomere length, telomerase activity, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression were measured in CSCs isolated from 38 patients undergoing bypass surgery. Additionally, the blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were evaluated. The variables of CSC growth were expressed as a function of the changes in wall thickness, chamber diameter and volume, ventricular mass-to-chamber volume ratio, and ejection fraction, before and 12 months after surgery. A high correlation was found between indices of CSC function and cardiac anatomy. Negative ventricular remodeling was not observed if CSCs retained a significant growth reserve. The high concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 systemically pointed to the insulin-like growth factor-1–insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor system as a major player in the adaptive response of the myocardium. hepatocyte growth factor, a mediator of CSC migration, was also high in these patients preoperatively, as was vascular endothelial growth factor, possibly reflecting the vascular growth needed before bypass surgery. Conversely, a decline in CSC growth was coupled with wall thinning, chamber dilation, and depressed ejection fraction. Conclusions The telomere-telomerase axis, population-doubling time, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in CSCs, together with a high circulating level of insulin-like growth factor-1, represent a novel biomarker able to predict the evolution of ischemic cardiomyopathy following revascularization. PMID:24249720

  9. Predicting emergency coronary artery bypass graft following PCI: application of a computational model to refer patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgical backup

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zeeshan; Moscucci, Mauro; Share, David; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical tools to stratify patients for emergency coronary artery bypass graft (ECABG) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) create the opportunity to selectively assign patients undergoing procedures to hospitals with and without onsite surgical facilities for dealing with potential complications while balancing load across providers. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of a computational model directly optimised for cohort-level performance to predict ECABG in PCI patients for this application. Methods Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium registry data with 69 pre-procedural and angiographic risk variables from 68?022 PCI procedures in 2004–2007 were used to develop a support vector machine (SVM) model for ECABG. The SVM model was optimised for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) at the level of the training cohort and validated on 42?310 PCI procedures performed in 2008–2009. Results There were 87 cases of ECABG (0.21%) in the validation cohort. The SVM model achieved an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.86). Patients in the predicted top decile were at a significantly increased risk relative to the remaining patients (OR 9.74, 95% CI 6.39 to 14.85, p<0.001) for ECABG. The SVM model optimised for the AUROC on the training cohort significantly improved discrimination, net reclassification and calibration over logistic regression and traditional SVM classification optimised for univariate performance. Conclusions Computational risk stratification directly optimising cohort-level performance holds the potential of high levels of discrimination for ECABG following PCI. This approach has value in selectively referring PCI patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgery. PMID:26688738

  10. Effect of anti-platelet factor-4/heparin antibody induction on early saphenous vein graft occlusion after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    GLUCKMAN, T. J.; SEGAL, J. B.; SCHULMAN, S. P.; SHAPIRO, E. P.; KICKLER, T. S.; PRECHEL, M. M.; CONTE, J. V.; WALENGA, J. M.; SHAFIQUE, I.; RADE, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Antibodies to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) are capable of causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Recent evidence suggests that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies may be prothrombogenic even in the absence of thrombocytopenia and clinically-recognized HIT. Objectives To determine if induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies is an independent risk factor for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion or adverse clinical outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Patients/Methods Anti-PF4/heparin antibody titers were measured in 368 patients prior to and then 4 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after CABG surgery. Serotonin release assay (SRA) and antibody isotype analysis were also performed on 6-week samples. SVG patency was determined in 297 patients 6 months after surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography. Results Six weeks after surgery, 52% of patients were anti-PF4/heparin seropositive and 9% were SRA positive. Six months after surgery, neither the percentage of occluded SVG (19% vs. 20%, P = NS), the percentage of patients with an occluded SVG (33% vs. 33%, P = NS) nor the incidence of adverse clinical events (21% vs. 24%, P = NS) differed between seropositive and seronegative groups. Neither IgG isotype nor SRA positivity was additionally predictive of SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcome. Conclusion Induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, even those capable of heparin-dependent platelet activation, is not independently associated with early SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcomes after CABG surgery. PMID:19552638

  11. Election Petition Election Information

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Election Petition Election Information v Petitions are due at 5:00pm on Friday, April 3: ____________________________________________ Class Year: _________________ Position: WSA President, WSA Vice President Petition 150 legible

  12. The effect of dalteparin versus unfractionated heparin on the levels of troponin I and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB in elective percutaneous coronary intervention: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangming; Li, Yongjun; Gao, Xiaoli; Wei, Qingmin; Cao, Xuebin; Xiao, Wenliang; Jiang, Ping; Lyu, Xinhu; Liu, Fan; Gu, Guoqiang; Liu, Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dalteparin during an elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure in a large cohort. Materials and methods In this prospective, randomized, open-label design study, 733 patients undergoing elective PCI were divided into an unfractionated heparin group (group 1, 323 patients) or a dalteparin group (group 2, 410 patients). Blood samples were collected before and 18–24?h after the PCI procedure to determine the serum levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and bleeding events during hospitalization were also recorded. Patients with an increased level of serum cTnI before PCI were excluded from the study. Results After PCI, the cTnI values were greater than three times the upper limit of normal in 43 cases (13.3%) in group 1 and 52 cases (12.7%) in group 2, without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.801). An increased creatine kinase isoenzyme MB level of greater than two times the upper limit of normal was found in 10 cases (3.1%) in group 1 and 12 cases (2.9%) in group 2, without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.894). Postoperative bleeding was observed in nine patients (2.8%) in group 1 and six patients (1.5%) in group 2. Postoperative MACEs were observed in two patients (0.6%) in group 1 and two patients (0.5%) in group 2. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to bleeding events or MACEs. Conclusion Our study showed that dalteparin might be as effective and safe as unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation during elective PCI. PMID:24859356

  13. Optimism measured pre-operatively is associated with reduced pain intensity and physical symptom reporting after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ronaldson, Amy; Poole, Lydia; Kidd, Tara; Leigh, Elizabeth; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimism is thought to be associated with long-term favourable outcomes for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Our objective was to examine the association between optimism and post-operative pain and physical symptoms in CABG patients. Methods We assessed optimism pre-operatively in 197 adults undergoing CABG surgery, and then followed them up 6–8 weeks after the procedure to measure affective pain, pain intensity, and physical symptom reporting directly pertaining to CABG surgery. Results Greater optimism measured pre-operatively was significantly associated with lower pain intensity (? = ? 0.150, CI = ? 0.196 to ? 0.004, p = .042) and fewer physical symptoms following surgery (? = ? 0.287, CI = ? 0.537 to ? 0.036, p = .025), but not with affective pain, after controlling for demographic, clinical and behavioural covariates, including negative affectivity. Conclusions Optimism is a modest, yet significant, predictor of pain intensity and physical symptom reporting after CABG surgery. Having positive expectations may promote better recovery. PMID:25129850

  14. Role of gender, smoking profile, hypertension, and diabetes on saphenous vein and internal mammary artery endothelial relaxation in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Andrew Duncan; McKeown, Pascal Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a link between the relaxant responses in saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery (IMA) segments obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and the patients' cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelium-(in)dependent relaxations were assessed by isometric tension studies. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV and gender, smoking profile and history of hypertension but not diabetes appeared to have an influence on these responses. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in both IMA and SV were greater in males than females and relaxant responses in IMA segments were attenuated in smokers, whereas the opposite effect was noted in SV segments. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in SV were lower in patients with hypertension. Endothelium-independent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV. Endothelium-independent responses were greater in male patients' SV segments, but gender played no role in IMA segments. Diabetes had no effect on endothelium-independent responses in IMA, but SV segments from diabetic patients had greater responses. Neither conduit's endothelium-independent response was affected by hypertensive status. The relationship between risk factor status and endothelial responses is multifactorial, with gender, hypertension, diabetes and smoking status all contributing. PMID:20716944

  15. Role of gender, smoking profile, hypertension, and diabetes on saphenous vein and internal mammary artery endothelial relaxation in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Muir, Andrew Duncan; McKeown, Pascal Patrick; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a link between the relaxant responses in saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery (IMA) segments obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and the patients' cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelium-(in)dependent relaxations were assessed by isometric tension studies. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV and gender, smoking profile and history of hypertension but not diabetes appeared to have an influence on these responses. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in both IMA and SV were greater in males than females and relaxant responses in IMA segments were attenuated in smokers, whereas the opposite effect was noted in SV segments. Endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in SV were lower in patients with hypertension. Endothelium-independent relaxant responses were greater in IMA than SV. Endothelium-independent responses were greater in male patients' SV segments, but gender played no role in IMA segments. Diabetes had no effect on endothelium-independent responses in IMA, but SV segments from diabetic patients had greater responses. Neither conduit's endothelium-independent response was affected by hypertensive status. The relationship between risk factor status and endothelial responses is multifactorial, with gender, hypertension, diabetes and smoking status all contributing. PMID:20716944

  16. [Programmed autologous transfusion in coronary surgery: experience with 106 patients].

    PubMed

    Fruchart, M F; Héritier, F; Weiss, P; Simonneau, M; Boulat, C; Bourdarias, J P

    1991-01-01

    Patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery can benefit from Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation (PAB), despite some opinions to the contrary, as a complement of intra-operative blood salvage techniques. We report herein 106 patients eligible for coronary bypass surgery included in our PAB program. We observed a very good tolerance owing to strict exclusion criteria, a close monitoring of vital signs, and as far as we are concerned, to the infusion of a macromolecular solution (Plasmion) in a 1:1 ratio, to maintain intra-vascular volume. We chose a volume replacement because the physiological adaptation to hypovolemia is altered by the beta-blocking and/or vasodilating agents which cannot be discontinued in patients with coronary heart disease. The changes in the hematological parameters are not different from those observed in other patients eligible for PAB. The postoperative hemoglobin level is satisfactory and compatible with a normal myocardial function inasmuch as the cardiopathy has been corrected. The efficiency of PAB is good since overall, 74% of the patients did not require homologous blood, this proportion rises to 84% for patients donating 3 or more units. Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation for patients with coronary heart disease implies a perfect coordination between the Blood Bank physicians and their colleagues from the Cardiology Department. Aside from its well known advantages, PAB allows a stimulation of erythropoiesis, a progressive normovolemic hemodilution perhaps beneficial to patients with coronary heart disease, and finally, a better psychological preparation to surgery. PMID:2015036

  17. Comparison of Outcome of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With Versus Without Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (from the FRANCE 2 Registry).

    PubMed

    Castellant, Philippe; Didier, Romain; Bezon, Eric; Couturaud, Francis; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Chevreul, Karine; Fajadet, Jean; Leprince, Pascal; Leguerrier, Alain; Lievre, Michel; Prat, Alain; Teiger, Emmanuel; Laskar, Marc; Boschat, Jacques; Gilard, Martine

    2015-08-01

    Previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) increases operative risk in conventional valve replacement. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been shown to be successful in high-risk patient subgroups. The present study compared outcome and overall survival in patients who underwent TAVI with and without history of CABG. From January 2010 to December 2011, 683 of the 3,761 patients selected for TAVI in 34 French centers (18%) had a history of CABG. Outcomes (mortality and complications) were collected prospectively according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) criteria. Patients with previous CABG were younger, with higher rates of diabetes and vascular disease and higher logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (29.8 ± 16.4 vs 20.1 ± 13.0, p <0.001) but lower rates of pulmonary disease. Two types of valve (Edwards SAPIEN and Medtronic CoreValve) were implanted in equal proportions in the 2 groups. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates from all causes on Kaplan-Meier analysis (9.2% vs 9.7%, p = 0.71; and 19.0% vs 20.2%, p = 0.49, respectively) did not differ according to the history of CABG. There were no significant differences in the Valve Academic Research Consortium complications (myocardial infarction, stroke or vascular, and bleeding complications). On multivariate analysis, CABG was not associated with greater 1-year post-TAVI mortality. In conclusion, previous CABG did not adversely affect outcome in patients who underwent TAVI, which may be an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and history of CABG. PMID:26071993

  18. Sex, clinical symptoms, and angiographic findings in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation [BARI] 2 Diabetes trial).

    PubMed

    Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera; Magee, Michelle F; Lopes, Neuza; Adler, Dale S; Kip, Kevin E; Schwartz, Leonard; Groenewoud, Yolanda A; Jacobs, Alice K

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have reported differences in presenting symptoms and angiographic characteristics between women and men undergoing evaluation for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We examined the relation between symptoms and extent of CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and known CAD enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Of 1,775 patients (533 women, 30%, and 1,242 men, 70%), women were more likely than men to have angina (65% vs 56%, p <0.001) or an atypical angina/anginal equivalent (71% vs 58%, p <0.001). More women reported unstable angina (17% vs 13%, p = 0.047) or were in a higher Canadian Cardiology Society class compared to men (Canadian Cardiology Society classes II to IV 78% vs 68%, p = 0.002). Fewer women than men had no symptoms (14% vs 22%, p <0.001). Women had a lower mean myocardial jeopardy index (42.5 ± 24.3 vs 47.9 ± 24.3, p <0.001), smaller number of total significant lesions (2.3 ± 1.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.8, p <0.001), and fewer jeopardized left ventricular regions (p <0.001 for distribution) or long-term occlusions (29% vs 42%, p <0.001). After adjustment for relevant covariates, the odds of having CAD symptoms were still higher in women than men (odds ratio for angina 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.69; odds ratio for atypical angina 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.96). In conclusion, in a high-risk group of patients with known CAD and diabetes mellitus, women were more symptomatic than men but had less obstructive CAD. These data suggest that factors other than epicardial CAD severity influence symptom presentation in women in this population. PMID:21276585

  19. Emotional Processes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgeries with Extracorporeal Circulation in View of Selected Indicators of the Inflammatory Condition

    PubMed Central

    P?otek, W?odzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Material/Methods Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47–63 years, 6 women – 11.5% and 46 men – 88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. Results A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Conclusions Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition. PMID:25573296

  20. Evaluation of brain lesions in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting using MRI with the emphasis on susceptibility-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Furmanek, Mariusz Ireneusz; Smaga, El?bieta; Juraszy?ski, Zbigniew; Zieli?ski, Tomasz; Che?stowska, Sylwia; Ku?mierczyk, Mariusz; Szpakowski, Eugeniusz; Mierzy?ska, Anna; Walecki, Jerzy Micha?

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at risk of strokes and neurocognitive disorders. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the clinical utility of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) MRI in detection of new brain lesions in patients after CABG. We assessed the incidence and types of brain lesions and correlated the data with neurological examinations in groups of patients who underwent on-pump and off-pump CABG. Material and methods Patients underwent a neurological examination and MRI before, 6-20 days after and 6 months after the CABG. Fifty-one patients (43 men, mean age 63.12 years) were analyzed. Results Fifteen (29.4%) patients underwent on-pump CABG, 36 (70.6%) off-pump CABG. On postoperative scans new lesions were detected in 12 (23.5%) patients. Ischemic lesions (visible on diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) were detected in 4 patients, in 6 lesions were visible on SWI, in 1 case lesions were visible on SWI and DWI. Hemorrhagic stroke was observed in 1 patient. In the group of patients who underwent on-pump CABG, new brain lesions were observed in 60.0% of patients vs. 8.3% of those who underwent off-pump CABG (p < 0.0001); these changes more frequently were multiple (p < 0.0013) and located infratentorially (p < 0.0218). Lesions visible on SWI were observed only in patients undergoing on-pump CABG (p = 0.00005). In all patients (except for 1 with stroke), lesions visible in MRI were clinically silent. Conclusions The use of SWI enables one to detect lesions occurring in the brain after CABG, invisible in other sequences. On-pump CABG is associated with a greater risk of clinically silent brain damage compared to off-pump CABG. PMID:26336470

  1. The protective effect of topical rifamycin treatment against sternal wound infection in diabetic patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Fatih; Kuzgun, Ahmet; Ulucan, Seref; Keser, Ahmet; Akpek, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of topical rifamycin SV treatment against sternal wound infection (SWI) in diabetic patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods One hundred and fifty-nine diabetic patients who were scheduled to undergo isolated on-pump CABG surgery were included. Eight were excluded for various reasons. Of the 151 patients, 51 were on insulin therapy and 100 were on oral anti-diabetics. The risk of mediastinitis was assessed using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2004 guideline update for CABG surgery. According to the risk scores, patients were divided into two comparable groups: the rifamycin group (n = 78) received topical rifamycin treatment after on-pump CABG surgery, and the control group (n = 73) received no topical treatment. Results Deep sternal wound infection (mediastinitis) was not observed in either group (0/78 vs 0/73, p = 1.0). No superficial sternal wound infection was observed in the rifamycin group, however, it did occur in one patient in the control group (0/78 vs 1/73, p = 0.303). Wound culture was performed and coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed. The infection regressed on initiation of antibiotic therapy against isolated bacteria and the patient was discharged after a full recovery. Conclusion Although the difference in rate of superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) in the rifamycin and control groups was not statistically significant, locally applied rifamycin SV during closure of the sternum in the CABG operation may have had a protective affect against SWI. PMID:24687038

  2. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  3. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated? Treatments for coronary heart disease include ... plaque Relieving symptoms Widening or bypassing clogged arteries Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Your doctor may recommend heart- ...

  4. Yoga based cardiac rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass surgery: One-year results on LVEF, lipid profile and psychological states – A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Nagarathna; Parachuri, Venkateshwara Rao; Swarnagowri, M.V.; Babu, Suresh; Chaku, Ritu; Kulkarni, Ravi; Bhuyan, Bhagavan; Bhargav, Hemant; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the long term effects of yoga based cardiac rehabilitation program with only physiotherapy based program as an add-on to conventional rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on risk factors. Methods In this single blind prospective randomized parallel two armed active control study, 1026 patients posted for CABG at Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Bengaluru (India) were screened. Of these, 250 male participants (35–65 years) who satisfied the selection criteria and consented were randomized into two groups. Within and between group comparisons were done at three points of follow up (i.e. 6th week, 6th month, and 12th month) by using Wilcoxon's signed ranks test and Mann Whitney U test respectively. Results Yoga group had significantly (p = 0.001, Mann Whitney) better improvement in LVEF than control group in those with abnormal baseline EF (<53%) after 1 year. There was a better reduction in BMI in the yoga group (p = 0.038, between groups) in those with high baseline BMI (?23) after 12 months. Yoga group showed significant (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon's) reduction in blood glucose at one year in those with high baseline FBS ?110 mg/dl. There was significantly better improvement in yoga than the control group in HDL (p = 0.003), LDL (p = 0.01) and VLDL (p = 0.03) in those with abnormal baseline values. There was significantly better improvement (p = 0.02, between groups) in positive affect in yoga group. Within Yoga group, there was significant decrease in perceived stress (p = 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.001), depression (p = 0.001), and negative affect (p = 0.03) while in the control group there was reduction (p = 0.003) only in scores on anxiety. Conclusion Addition of yoga based relaxation to conventional post-CABG cardiac rehabilitation helps in better management of risk factors in those with abnormal baseline values and may help in preventing recurrence. PMID:25443601

  5. Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-499 Provide an Early Indication of Perioperative Myocardial Infarction in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Youxiu; Du, Juan; Cao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yaohua; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) were important for many biological and pathological processes, and they might be potential biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to determine the release patterns of miRNAs in cardiac surgery and to analyze the ability of miRs to provide early prediction of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty on-pump CABG patients were recruited in this study; and miR-499, miR-133a and miR-133b, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were selected for measurement. Serial plasma samples were collected at seven perioperative time points (preoperatively, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after declamping) and were tested for cTnI and miRs levels. Importantly, miR levels peaked as early as 1–3 hours, whereas cTnI levels peaked at 6 hours after declamping. Peak plasma concentrations of miRs correlated significantly with cTnI (miR-499, r?=?0.583, P?=?0.001; miR-133a, r?=?0.514, P?=?0.006; miR-133b, r?=?0.437, P?=?0.05), indicating the degree of myocardial damage. In addition, 30 off-pump CABG patients were recruited; miR-499 and miR-133a levels were tested, which were significantly lower in off-pump group than in on-pump group. A prospective cohort of CABG patients (n?=?120) was recruited to study the predictive power of miRs for PMI. The diagnosis of PMI strictly adhered to the principles of universal definition of myocardial infarction. The data analysis revealed that miR-499 had higher sensitivity and specificity than cTnI, and indicated that miR-499 could be an independent risk factor for PMI. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that circulating miR-499 is a novel, early biomarker for identifying perioperative myocardial infarction in cardiac surgery. PMID:25111390

  6. The Effect of Reciting the Word “Allah” on Pain Severity After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Morteza; Fayazi, Sadigheh; Ghaderi, Musab; Naseri, Marjan; Adarvishi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most expressed complains following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is chest wall pain. Due to side effects of opioids used commonly for pain relief after heart surgeries, it is important to use low-cost and non-pharmacological methods independently or combined with palliatives to alleviate pain and consequently prevent undesirable drug adverse e?ects. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Hazrate Zahra’s praises, which is one of the most known praises among Muslims in which the word “Allah” is repeated 100 times, on pain severity after CABG surgery. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was performed on 80 patients in Busheher Bentolhoda Hospital, Iran, in 2013. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Patients were randomly assigned into intervention (n = 40) and control (n = 40) groups. In intervention group, we asked patients to recite Hazrate Zahra’s praises (AS) as one of the most known praises among Muslims in which the word “Allah” is repeated 100 times. In the control group, patients received routine procedures of hospital. Pain was assessed before and immediately after the intervention in three days after the operation in the both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using descriptive and analytic (Chi-square and independent and paired sample t test) statistical methods. Results: There was a significant difference regarding pain severity after the intervention between the two groups during three days after the operation (respectively P ? 0.001, P ? 0.001 and P ? 0.003), but no significant difference was found between the two studied groups before the intervention. Moreover, a significant difference was seen before and after recitation in the intervention group during three days after the operation (for three days P ? 0.001), while in control group no significant difference was revealed before and after the intervention (respectively P = 0.493, P = 0.541 and P = 0.119). Conclusions: Reciting the word “Allah” as a non-pharmacological, low-cost and non-invasive method with no side effects can be effective on pain relief after CABG surgery. PMID:25729678

  7. What Is Coronary Bypass Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart.org/answersbyheart to learn more. Knowledge is power, so Learn and Live! Do you have questions ... Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 What are the Symptoms of High Blood ...

  8. Quantification of Fat Mobilization in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization Using Off-pump and On-pump Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ajzan, Ahmed; Modine, Thomas; Punjabi, Prakash; Ganeshalingam, Kandeepan; Philips, Gary; Gourlay, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Fat mobilization during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a recognized risk of the procedure. Intravascular mobilization of fat emboli subsequent to CPB has been implicated in some of its recognized pathophysiologies, particularly with regard to cerebral embolic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fat mobilization is still a real issue in modern perfusion practice and to determine whether off pump coronary artery bypass techniques minimize this risk. Thirty patients undergoing routine elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were divided into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) procedures, and group 2 underwent CABG supported with CPB. Blood samples were taken from the CPB patients at the beginning, middle, and end of the procedure, from the suction line, from the arterial line, and from the venous line for measurement of fat emboli present. Samples were taken at corresponding time-points from the OPCAB patients for similar measurements. Fat emboli were counted manually using Oil red O staining and light microscopy. The fat emboli were sized using calibrated microspheres as a visual size contrast. No fat emboli were observed in any of the blood samples taken from the OPCAB patients. There were fat emboli present in all samples taken during CPB from all sources. The count was highest in the suction system and lowest in the venous blood and tended to increase during CPB. There was an absence of large fat emboli in the venous blood, which tends to indicate that the larger fat emboli lodge in the microvasculature. OPCAB surgery eliminates the risk of fat embolization in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. The suction system is the major source of fat emboli during CPB, and despite the multiple filtration components of the CPB system, fat emboli of various and significant sizes do reach the patient. Fat embolization remains a risk in routine elective CABG surgery. Cardiotomy suction should be eliminated where possible. PMID:16921682

  9. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Myocardial Ischemia (HUC-HEART Trial). A Study Protocol of a Phase 1/2, Controlled and Randomized Trial in Combination with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Can, Alp; Ulus, Ahmet Tulga; Cinar, Ozgur; Topal Celikkan, Ferda; Simsek, Erdal; Akyol, Mesut; Canpolat, Ugur; Erturk, Murat; Kara, Fadil; Ilhan, Osman

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which may be obtained from the bone marrow, have been studied for more than a decade in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD). Adipose tissue-derived MSCs have recently come into focus and are being tested in a series of clinical trials. MSC-like cells have also been derived from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord stroma, or HUC-MSCs. The HUC-HEART trail (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02323477) is a phase 1/2, controlled, multicenter, randomized clinical study of the intramyocardial delivery of allogeneic HUC-MSCs in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. A total of 79 patients (ages 30-80) with left ventricle ejection fractions ranging between 25 and 45% will be randomized in a 2:1:1 pattern in order to receive an intramyocardial injection of either HUC-MSCs or autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) in combination with coronary arterial bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The control group of patients will receive no cells and undergo CABG alone. Human HUC-MSCs will be isolated, propagated and banked in accordance with a cGMP protocol, whereas the autologous BM-MNCs will be isolated via aspiration from the iliac crest and subsequently process in a closed-circuit cell purification system shortly before cell transplantation. The cell injections will be implemented in 10 peri-infarct areas. Baseline and post-transplantation outcome measures will be primarily utilized to test both the safety and the efficacy of the administered cells for up to 12 months. PMID:26123356

  10. Nebivolol in preventing atrial fibrillation following coronary surgery in patients over 60 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Kaynak, Murat; Dönmez, Köksal; Disli, Olcay Murat; Battaloglu, Bektas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a common complication after cardiac surgery, with an incidence as high as 20-50%. Increased age is associated with a significant increase in postoperative atrial fibrillation risk. This common complication is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of nebivolol in preventing atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass surgery in patients over 60 years of age. Methods In this prospective randomized study, 200 patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery bypass surgery were divided into two groups. The first group was administered with nebivolol and the second group was administered with metoprolol. Treatment was initiated four days prior to surgery, and patients were monitored for atrial fibrillation until discharge. Forty-one patients recieved 50 mg metoprolol succinate daily, which was initiated minimum 4 days before surgery. Results Demographic data were similar in both groups. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in both groups was similar, with no significant difference being identified [n=20 (20%); n=18 (18%), P=0.718; respectively]. There were not any mortality at both groups during study. Inotropic agent requirement at ICU was similar for both groups [n=12 (12%), n=18 (18%), P=0.32]. Conclusion We compared the effectiveness of nebivolol and metoprolol in decreasing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, and determined that nebivolol was as effective as metoprolol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation at patients. Nebivolol may be the drug of choice due to its effects, especially after elective coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:25714213

  11. [A case of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, mitral regurgitation and congestive heart failure successfully treated by Batista operation, coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement; usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Okoshi, T; Ueda, K; Neya, K; Suzuki, Y; Nakajima, H; Akasaka, T; Kaminaga, T

    2002-01-01

    A 75-year-old man diagnosed as having ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation underwent left ventricle volume reduction operation (Batista), coronary bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement because myocardial infarction had developed at lateral, inferior and small area of apex wall, not at interventricular septum. Left ventricular endodiastolic volume index and left ventricular endosystolic volume index decreased from pre-operative values of 155, and 128 ml/m2 to post-operative values of 113, and 82 ml/m2, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from a pre-operative value of 17% to a post-operative value of 27%. This evaluation was performed by myocardial scintigraphy (quantitative gated spect: QGS). This method was bloodless and useful for determination of indication of left ventricle volume reduction surgery including Batista operation and pre- and post-operative evaluation of this type of surgery. Today, Batista operation is, generally speaking, performed for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. In this case, however, Batista operation was applied to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and was very effective. PMID:11797415

  12. Photo-consistency registration of a 4D cardiac motion model to endoscopic video for image guidance of robotic coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Eddie

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper is registration of a 4D preoperative motion model of the heart to the video view of the patient through the intraoperative endoscope. The heart motion is cyclical and can be modelled using multiple reconstructions of cardiac gated coronary CT. We propose the use of photoconsistency between the two views through the da Vinci endoscope to align to the preoperative heart surface model from CT. The temporal alignment from the video to the CT model could in principle be obtained from the ECG signal. We propose averaging of the photoconsistency over the cardiac cycle to improve the registration compared to a single view. Though there is considerable motion of the heart, after correct temporal alignment we suggest that the remaining motion should be close to rigid. Results are presented for simulated renderings and for real video of a beating heart phantom. We found much smoother sections at the minimum when using multiple phases for the registration, furthermore convergence was found to be better when more phases are used.

  13. Arterial and venous coronary pressure-flow relations in anesthetized dogs. Evidence for a vascular waterfall in epicardial coronary veins.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, P N; Baer, R W; Vlahakes, G J; Hanley, F L; Messina, L M; Hoffman, J I

    1984-08-01

    The coronary circulation of anesthetized dogs was tested for the presence of vascular waterfalls by manipulating coronary arterial and coronary venous pressures. The left main coronary artery and the coronary sinus were cannulated, and relationships between coronary artery pressure, coronary sinus pressure, and coronary flow were studied. Experiments were conducted during diastolic arrests, under steady state conditions, in the absence of autoregulation. Relations of coronary flow to coronary sinus pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the coronary sinus. When the great cardiac vein was cannulated, relations of great vein flow to great vein pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the great vein, indicating that waterfall behavior can occur in epicardial veins other than the coronary sinus. In dogs on right heart bypass, with the coronary sinus and great vein uncannulated, the relationship between right atrial pressure and coronary sinus pressure showed a waterfall pattern, indicating that the waterfall is not an artifact of venous cannulation. In the right heart bypass experiments, venous waterfall behavior was seen in beating hearts as well as during diastolic arrests. We conclude that a vascular waterfall is present in epicardial coronary veins which can significantly influence coronary blood flow. PMID:6611215

  14. Lower Loading Dose of Prasugrel Compared with Conventional Loading Doses of Clopidogrel and Prasugrel in Korean Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating Pharmacodynamic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Guo, Long Zhe; Park, Min Kyu; Yi, So Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although prasugrel allows for rapid and potent platelet inhibition, the efficacy and safety of lower doses of prasugrel for patients of East Asian ethnicity has not yet been investigated. We compared the effect of a lower loading dose (LD) of prasugrel with conventional LDs of clopidogrel and prasugrel in Korean patients. Subjects and Methods Forty-three Korean patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly administered LDs of clopidogrel 600 mg, prasugrel 30 mg or prasugrel 60 mg prior to coronary angiography. Platelet reactivity was assessed at baseline and at the time of peak platelet inhibition using light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the VerifyNow assay, and multiple electrode aggregometry. Results Although baseline platelet reactivity between the groups showed no significant differences, at the time of peak platelet inhibition, the prasugrel 30 mg (18.9±10.0%) and 60 mg groups (13.8±10.8%) showed significantly more potent platelet inhibition than the clopidogrel 600 mg group (52.9±15.8%; p<0.001) by LTA. However, there were no significant differences between the prasugrel 30 mg and 60 mg groups (p=0.549). Conclusion The loading effect of prasugrel 30 mg was more potent than clopidogrel 600 mg and was not significantly different from prasugrel 60 mg. PMID:25469140

  15. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Patients’ Companions on Severity of Pain in the Patients Undergoing Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Sied Saeed; Rast, Fazlola; Momennasab, Marzieh; Ghazinoor, Mahmood; Dehghanrad, Fereshteh; Mousavizadeh, Sied Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain on mid sternotomy incision site after Coronary Artery Bypass  Graft  Surgery (CABG) is a common problem that causes sleep disturbance, delayed wound healing, and increased use of analgesic drugs. Massage therapy which is mostly performed by healthcare providers is a non-pharmacological approach for managing this pain. The present study aimed to determine the effect of massage therapy by patient’s companion on the severity of pain in post CABG patients. Methods: In this randomized single-blind clinical trial, 70 post CABG patients were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received massage by one of their relatives who was trained by an expert nurse. The control group, on the other hand, received routine care. The pain intensity was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and immediately, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after the intervention. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (version 16) and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc test (Scheffe). Results: At the beginning of the study, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the pain severity. In the intervention group, the pain severity significantly decreased in all the four time points after the intervention (P=0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in this regard in the control group. Conclusion: Massage therapy by patient’s companion trained by a nurse was an effective strategy for pain management in post CABG patients. This could also promote the patient’s family participation in the process of care. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201208218505N3. PMID:25349854

  16. Factor XII Deficiency and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Factor XII deficiency is a laboratory finding in patients who normally do not present with bleeding tendencies. This deficiency is important in the patient undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass because activated clotting times are not helpful in determining proper levels of heparin anticoagulation and its reversal. We present a case of a patient with factor XII deficiency that had coronary artery bypass grafting and cardiopulmonary bypass using heparin for anticoagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass was successfully carried out by monitoring heparin concentration ensuring adequate heparinization during the procedure. Results from activated clotting time, heparin dose–response, and heparin protamine titration are given. Heparin anticoagulation in patients with factor XII deficiency can be safely carried out with heparin concentration monitoring. PMID:26357792

  17. Coronary Angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Angiography? Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test ... and narrows the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The ...

  18. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  19. Relationship of High?Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Periprocedural Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Low?Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Below 70 mg/dL

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao?Lin; Guo, Yuan?Lin; Zhu, Cheng?Gang; Xu, Rui?Xia; Qing, Ping; Wu, Na?Qiong; Jiang, Li?Xin; Xu, Bo; Gao, Run?Lin; Li, Jian?Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent data showed inconsistent association of high?density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL?C) with cardiovascular risk in patients with different levels of low?density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL?C) or intensive statin therapy. This study sought to determine the relationship of HDL?C with periprocedural myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) across a range of LDL?C levels, especially in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. Methods and Results We enrolled 2529 consecutive patients with normal preprocedural cardiac troponin I (cTnI) who underwent elective PCI. The association between preprocedural HDL?C and periprocedural myocardial injury was evaluated across LDL?C levels, especially in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. The HDL?C level was not predictive of periprocedural myocardial injury across the entire study cohort. However, among patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL, a 1 mg/dL increase in HDL?C was associated with a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 1×upper limit of normal (ULN) (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.004), a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 3×ULN odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.022), and a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 5×ULN (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.017). The relation between plasma HDL?C level and risk of postprocedural cTnI elevation above 1×ULN, 3×ULN, and 5×ULN was modified by LDL?C level (all P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions Higher HDL?C levels were associated with reduced risk of periprocedural myocardial injury only in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. PMID:25572484

  20. Complication after arterial bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dizon, M; Wallach, P; Matfin, G; Adelman, H M

    1998-10-15

    A 57-year-old man experienced sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory distress 10 days after undergoing four-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The surgery was performed after cardiac catheterization had shown right coronary artery dominance and the presence of lesions occluding 40% of the mid right coronary artery, 20% of the left main coronary artery, and 99% of the lower left anterior descending artery and its first diagonal branch. The patient had initially presented with acute dyspnea following an episode of crushing, nonradiating pain in the left chest and was diagnosed as having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction after cardiac enzyme testing. His hospital course before and immediately after CABG was uneventful. The first sign of difficulty was detected one week after surgery, on day 17. An echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion, moderate to severe concentric thickening of the left ventricle, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.60 (normal, 0.67 +/- 0.08), normal valves, and normal segmental wall motion. The pleural chest pains began two days later, on day 19. PMID:9793541

  1. Endoscopic versus open radial artery harvest and mammario-radial versus aorto-radial grafting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: protocol for the 2?×?2 factorial designed randomised NEO trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery has, since the 1990s, gone through a revival. Observational studies have indicated better long-term patency when using radial arteries. Therefore, radial artery might be preferred especially in younger patients where long time patency is important. During the last 10 years different endoscopic techniques to harvest the radial artery have evolved. Endoscopic radial artery harvest only requires a small incision near the wrist in contrast to open harvest, which requires an incision from the elbow to the wrist. However, it is unknown whether the endoscopic technique results in fewer complications or a graft patency comparable to open harvest. When the radial artery has been harvested, there are two ways to use the radial artery as a graft. One way is sewing it onto the aorta and another is sewing it onto the mammary artery. It is unknown which technique is the superior revascularisation technique. Methods/Design The NEO Trial is a randomised clinical trial with a 2?×?2 factorial design. We plan to randomise 300 participants into four intervention groups: (1) mammario-radial endoscopic group; (2) aorto-radial endoscopic group; (3) mammario-radial open surgery group; and (4) aorto-radial open surgery group. The hand function will be assessed by a questionnaire, a clinical examination, the change in cutaneous sensibility, and the measurement of both sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. All the postoperative complications will be registered, and we will evaluate muscular function, scar appearance, vascular supply to the hand, and the graft patency including the patency of the central radial artery anastomosis. A patency evaluation by multi-slice computer tomography will be done at one year postoperatively. We expect the nerve conduction studies and the standardised neurological examinations to be able to discriminate differences in hand function comparing endoscopic to open harvest of the radial artery. The trial also aims to show if there is any patency difference between mammario-radial compared to aorto-radial revascularisation techniques but this objective is exploratory. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01848886. Danish Ethics committee number: H-3-2012-116. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2007-58-0015/jr.n:30–0838. PMID:24754891

  2. Effect of Preoperatively Continued Aspirin Use on Early and Mid-Term Outcomes in Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery: A Propensity Score-Matched Study of 1418 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fucheng; Wu, Hengchao; Sun, Hansong; Pan, Shiwei; Xu, Jianping; Song, Yunhu

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, effect of preoperatively continued aspirin administration in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is less known. We aimed to assess the effect of preoperatively continued aspirin use on early and mid-term outcomes in patients receiving off-pump CABG. Methods From October 2009 to September 2013 at the Fuwai Hospital, 709 preoperative aspirin users were matched with unique 709 nonaspirin users using propensity score matching to obtain risk-adjusted outcome comparisons between the two groups. Early outcomes were in-hospital death, stroke, intra- and post-operative blood loss, reoperation for bleeding and blood product transfusion. Major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction or repeat revascularization), angina recurrence and cardiogenic readmission were considered as mid-term endpoints. Results There were no significant differences among the groups in baseline characteristics after propensity score matching. The median intraoperative blood loss (600 ml versus 450 ml, P = 0.56), median postoperative blood loss (800 ml versus 790 ml, P = 0.60), blood transfusion requirements (25.1% versus 24.4%, P = 0.76) and composite outcome of in-hospital death, stroke and reoperation for bleeding (2.8% versus 1.6%, P = 0.10) were similar in aspirin and nonaspirin use group. At about 4 years follow-up, no significant difference was observed among the aspirin and nonaspirin use group in major adverse cardiac events free survival estimates (95.7% versus 91.5%, P = 0.23) and freedom from cardiogenic readmission (88.5% versus 85.3%, P = 0.77) whereas the angina recurrence free survival rates was 83.7% and 73.9% in the aspirin and nonaspirin use group respectively (P = 0.02), with odd ratio for preoperative aspirin estimated at 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.04, P = 0.08). Conclusions Preoperatively continued aspirin use was not associated with increased risk of intra- and post-operative blood loss, blood transfusion requirements and composite outcome of in-hospital death, stroke and reoperation for bleeding in off-pump CABG. Preoperative aspirin use tended to decrease the hazard of mid-term angina recurrence. PMID:25706957

  3. Election Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Kids learn by doing, which, experts agree, is the only real way to teach citizenship. This article presents election-year activities that stress action. These activities will show students what it means to be a good citizen. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  4. Election '08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Every four years, the presidential election campaign unfolds, and the position of the candidates on education is predictable: They are in favor of it. Something else is easy to predict: In every presidential campaign, hot-button issues--some important and some infuriatingly not--suck up most of the oxygen, and the hoped-for focus on education…

  5. A multicenter, randomized trial of percutaneous coronary intervention versus bypass surgery in high-risk unstable angina patients. The AWESOME (Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study #385, angina with extremely serious operative mortality evaluation) investigators from the Cooperative Studies Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Sethi, G; Sacks, J; Grover, F; Sedlis, S; Esposito, R; Ramanathan, K B; Weiman, D; Krucoff, M; Duhaylongsod, F; Raya, T; Pett, S; Vernon, S; Birjiniuk, V; Booth, D; Robinson, C; Talley, J D; Antckli, T; Murphy, E; Floten, H; Curcovic, V; Lucke, J C; Lewis, D; Barbiere, C; Henderson, W

    1999-12-01

    This multicenter, prospective randomized trial was designed to test the hypotheses that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a safe and effective alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with refractory ischemia and high risk of adverse outcomes. As a comparison of revascularization strategies, the trial specifically allows surgeons and interventionists to use new techniques as they become clinically available. After 42 months of this 72-month trial, 17,624 patients have been screened and 2022 met eligibility requirements: 341 have been randomized to either CABG or PCI, and the remaining 1681 are being prospectively followed in a registry. The 3-year overall survival of patients in the registry and randomized trial is comparable. To enhance accrual into the randomized trial, site visits were conducted, a few low-accruing hospitals were put on probation and/or replaced, eligibility criteria were reviewed at annual meetings of investigators, and the accrual period was extended by 1 year. These data demonstrate that a prospective randomized trial and registry of coronary revascularization for medically refractory high-risk patients is feasible. PMID:10588300

  6. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  7. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  8. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  9. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  10. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to cannulate the vessels, perfuse the coronary arteries, and to interconnect the catheters and cannulas with an oxygenator. The device includes accessory bypass equipment....

  11. Isolated huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery in a 22-year-old patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Pontailler, Margaux; Vilarem, Didier; Paul, Jean-François; Deleuze, Philippe H

    2015-03-01

    A 22-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with acute chest pain. A computed tomography scan and coronary angiography revealed a partially thrombosed huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite medical treatment, the patient's angina recurred. The patient underwent a coronary bypass grafting operation and surgical exclusion of the aneurysm. Postoperative imaging disclosed good permeability of the 3 coronary artery bypass grafts and complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm. PMID:25742828

  12. Coronary artery surgery: now and in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J C; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    In coronary artery surgery the superiority of the internal mammary artery graft in 10-year survival was documented in 1986. In 1999 it was demonstrated that death, reoperation and percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty were more frequent in patients undergoing single rather than bilateral internal mammary artery grafting. Today coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is challenged by the success story of modern interventional cardiology. The Syntax Study, however, clearly underlined the better outcome for patients with triple-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of repeat revascularization. Another point of ongoing discussion is the comparison between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery revascularization techniques. Even if mixed results exists in the literature, in experienced hands the combination of aortic no-touch and total arterial revascularization, probably leads to the superiority in off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of significantly decreased rates of mortality, stroke, major adverse cardiac and cerebral vascular events. Coronary artery surgery in the next decade will be influenced by the further progression of minimally invasive surgical principles and by a variety of other factors. The role of robotics and hybrid surgery has yet to be defined. Alternatives within surgery will not only need to move to a less disruptive strategy (e.g. from on-pump to off-pump bypass) but also have to secure sustained innovation, as we can be sure that the current coronary artery bypass grafting activity will change substantially. PMID:23439278

  13. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on gastrointestinal perfusion and function.

    PubMed

    Gaer, J A; Shaw, A D; Wild, R; Swift, R I; Munsch, C M; Smith, P L; Taylor, K M

    1994-02-01

    Gastric mucosal tonometry was used to determine the adequacy of gastrointestinal perfusion in 10 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive either pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients showed a reduction in gastric mucosal perfusion during bypass, manifested by a reduction in the gastric mucosal pH, which occurred independently of variations in the arterial pH. In the group of patients receiving nonpulsatile flow, this reduction was significantly greater (p < 0.05). Cardiopulmonary bypass using nonpulsatile flow is associated with the development of a gastric mucosal acidosis, which may have implications for the development of postoperative complications. PMID:8311598

  14. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to die. This is a "heart attack" or myocardial infarction . WHAT CAN HAPPEN WHEN BLOCKAGES OCCUR IN THE ... pectoris , or ultimately even a heart attack or myocardial infarction . In some cases, particularly in individuals with diabetes ...

  15. Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Near-normal glycemic control does not reduce cardiovascular events. For many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little benefit from any revascularization procedure over optimal medical therapy. For multivessel coronary disease, randomized trials demonstrated the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting over multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with treated DM. However, selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy requires a multidisciplinary team approach ('heart team'). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of various medical therapies and revascularization strategies in patients with DM. PMID:26567979

  16. Recurrent angina caused by coronary subclavian steal syndrome confirmed by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Paulo Cury; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Scudeler, Thiago Luis; Nakamura, Debora; Giorgi, Maria Clementina P; Hueb, Whady

    2015-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare cause of recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass grafting. Identification of the myocardial ischemic region is crucial because it guides revascularization interventions to improve symptoms and myocardial ischemia. Positron emission computed tomography (PET) with rubidium might be a helpful tool because it identifies ischemia, localizes more precisely the ischemic region, and evaluates coronary flow reserve. Here, we report a case of recurrence of angina after coronary artery bypass grafting caused by an obstruction in the left subclavian artery and consequently by coronary steal syndrome confirmed by PET. PMID:25952243

  17. Coronary arteriovenous fistula between left circumflex artery and superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Khulbey, Sanjeev Kumar; Agarwal, Sanjay; Dikshit, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    A 52-year old man presented with exertional angina and shortness of breath and was diagnosed with double-vessel coronary artery disease with a large coronary artery fistula between the left circumflex artery and superior vena cava. He was managed with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with closure of the fistula. PMID:26034225

  18. The Coronary Baroreflex in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, K.; Ward, M.; Nair, U.; Hainsworth, R.; Drinkhill, M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Previous studies have identified the presence of coronary baroreceptors in animal models. We set up a study to explore the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans, which was performed with isolated, graded aortic root perfusion in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. With ethical approval 12 patients with normal coronary arteries, aged 58–75 (mean 69) years undergoing mitral valve surgery were recruited to the study with informed consent. Those with aortic valve incompetence, coronary, or peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus were excluded. They were randomized to have their coronary perfusion pressure set low at 50 mmHg for 90 seconds and then adjusted high to 80 mmHg for 90 seconds (group L–H) or the reverse sequence (group H–L). Average arterial pressure and approximately constant systemic flow over 30-second periods were used to calculate vascular resistance (SVR). The first six experiments followed initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping but before the delivery of cold blood cardioplegia; the blood temperature for these experiments was kept at 32°C. The remaining six were conducted prior to removal of the aortic cross clamp at 37°C. Coronary sinus blood samples were analyzed to exclude myocardial ischemia. Coronary sinus blood samples showed insignificant variation in oxygen saturation, lactate, and troponin T. Three patients were excluded because of unstable blood pressure. In the (L–H) group SVR reduced in 4 of 4 remaining patients (mean ?9.4%, range ?3.9 to ?19.6%). In the (H–L) group SVR increased in three patients (mean +2.0%, range 1.1 to 3.7%) but decreased in two (?8.9% and ?15.8%). These preliminary results, although not statistically different, suggest the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans. The reflex vascular responses are similar to those previously reported in animal models. PMID:16350386

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mokhberi, Vahid; Bagheri, Babak; Navidi, Seyfollah; Amini, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare and important cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Various etiologies are thought to be responsible for this condition, among which underlying atherosclerosis seems to be the most common. SCAD is predominant in women and is usually diagnosed via coronary artery angiography. Therapeutic interventions include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary artery intervention, and surgery based on lesion characteristics. We describe a 36-year-old woman with SCAD presenting with acute chest pain to Fatemeh-Zahra Hospital, Sari, Iran. The patient had no current atherosclerosis risk factors and had given birth 6 months previously. Coronary angiography was performed due to the persistence of the chest pain after initial management, and a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery was observed. She underwent coronary artery bypass graft and was discharged in good condition. PMID:26697091

  20. Monitoring Microemboli During Cardiopulmonary Bypass with the EDAC® Quantifier

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John E.; Wells, Christopher; Akers, Tom; Frantz, Paul; Garrett, Donna; Scott, M. Lance; Williamson, Lisa; Agnew, Barbara; Lynch, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Gaseous emboli may be introduced into the bypass circuit both from the surgical field and during perfusionist interventions. While circuits provide good protection against massive air embolism, they do not remove gaseous microemboli (GME) from the bypass circuit. The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the incidence of GME during bypass surgery and determine if increased GME counts were associated with specific events during bypass surgery. In 30 cases divided between 15 coronary artery bypass grafts and 15 valve repairs, GME were counted and sized at the three locations on the bypass circuit using the EDAC® Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Roanoke, VA). A mean of 45,276 GME were detected after the arterial line filter during these 30 cases, with significantly more detected (p = .04) post filter during valve cases (mean = 72,137 ± 22,113) than coronary artery bypass graft cases (mean = 18,416 ± 7831). GME detected post filter were significantly correlated in time with counts detected in the venous line (p < .001). Specific events associated with high counts included the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, heart manipulations, insertion and removal of clamps, and the administration of drugs. Global factors associated with increased counts post filter included higher venous line counts and higher post reservoir/bubble trap counts. The mean number of microemboli detected during bypass surgery was much higher than reported in other studies of emboli incidence, most likely due to the increased sensitivity of the EDAC® Quantifier compared to other detection modalities. The results furthermore suggest the need for further study of the clinical significance of these microemboli and what practices may be used to reduce GME incidence. Increased in vitro testing of the air handling capability of different circuit designs, along with more clinical studies assessing best clinical practices for reducing GME activity, is recommended. PMID:21114224

  1. Evidence of Systemic Cytokine Release in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Halter, Jeffrey; Steinberg, Jay; Fink, Gregory; Lutz, Charles; Picone, Anthony; Maybury, Rubie; Fedors, Nathan; DiRocco, Joseph; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Nieman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can progress to an acute lung inflammation known as postperfusion syndrome. We developed a two-phase hypothesis: first, that SIRS, as indicated by elevated cytokines post-CPB, would be correlated with postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (Phase I), and second, that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is predominantly released from the heart in CPB patients (Phase II). Blood samples were collected from patients undergoing CPB for elective cardiac surgery. In seven patients (Phase I), arterial samples were drawn before, during (5 minutes and 60 minutes), and after CPB. In 14 patients (Phase II), samples were collected from the coronary sinus, superior vena cava, and a systemic artery at the times indicated previously. Samples were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-? were assessed in Phase I and IL-6 assessed in Phase II. In Phase I, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were elevated after CPB, but only IL-6 concentrations correlated with lung function. In summary, Phase I data demonstrate that increased IL-6 levels at the end of CPB correlate with reduced lung function postoperatively. In Phase II, IL-6 elevation was similar at all sample sites suggesting that the heart is not the major source of IL-6 production. We suggest that IL-6 be implemented as a prognostic measure in patient care, and that patients with elevated IL-6 after CPB be targeted for more aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy to protect lung function. PMID:16350379

  2. Relation between coronary artery stenosis and myocardial purine metabolism, histology and regional function in humans.

    PubMed

    Flameng, W; Vanhaecke, J; Van Belle, H; Borgers, M; De Beer, L; Minten, J

    1987-06-01

    In 54 patients undergoing elective or emergency aortocoronary bypass grafting, angiographic and electrocardiographic changes were studied. Five patients with unstable angina and five patients with evolving myocardial infarction were included. High energy phosphate metabolism and the histologic appearance of the myocardium were analyzed in transmural biopsy specimens acquired at the time of surgery. In patients without anterior infarction on the electrocardiogram, severe stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery resulted in a reduction of anterior wall motion that was associated with a partial depletion of the adenylate pool. Mitochondrial function, however, remained intact: the adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio, the energy charge and the creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio were in the normal range. Histologic assessment demonstrated viable myocardium with a high incidence of atrophic cells. In evolving myocardial infarction, 170 minutes of acute coronary artery obstruction resulted in anterior wall akinesia associated with a decrease of the sum of the adenylates to 52% and of creatine phosphate to 16% of their normal value (p less than 0.05). The nucleosides accumulated; their major fraction (91%) was inosine. The adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio increased from 0.14 +/- 0.04 to 0.49 +/- 0.20 (p less than 0.01) and the energy charge decreased from 0.924 +/- 0.021 to 0.660 +/- 0.169 (p less than 0.01). Ultrastructure examination revealed irreversible cell damage in at least the subendocardial layer. These results suggest that the energetic base of reduced contractility due to severe coronary artery stenosis is different from that in acute coronary obstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3584715

  3. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  4. Inter-individual differences in cytokine release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Isigkeit, A; Hasselbach, L; Ocklitz, E; Brückner, S; Ros, A; Gehring, H; Schmucker, P; Rink, L; Seyfarth, M

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) leads to a systemic inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines (e.g. IL-6, TNF-?, IL-1? and sIL-2R). The objective of the following study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo cytokine responses and white blood cell counts (WBC) of patients with high versus low cytokine secretion after a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Twenty male patients undergoing elective CABG surgery with CPB under general anaesthesia were enrolled in the study. On the day of surgery (postoperatively), serum levels of TNF-? and IL-1? were significantly higher in patients of the high IL-6 level group compared to the respective values in the patient group with low IL-6 levels. The inter-individual differences in IL-6 release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB were accompanied by differences in the release of other cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-1? and sIL-2R. To understand whether genetic background plays a role in influencing cytokine plasma levels under surgical stress, we examined the distribution of polymorphic elements within the promoter regions of the TNF-? and IL-6 genes, and determined their genotype regarding the BAT2 gene and TNF-? intron polymorphisms. Our preliminary data suggests that regulatory polymorphisms in or near the TNF locus, more precisely the allele set 140/150 of the BAT2 microsatellite marker combined with the G allele at ?308 of the TNF-? gene, could be one of the genetic constructions providing for a less sensitive response to various stimuli. Our results suggest: (1) close relationships between cytokine release in the postoperative period, and (2) inter-individually varying patterns of cytokine release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB. PMID:11472429

  5. Autotransfusion Management During and After Cardiopulmonary Bypass Alters Fibrin Degradation and Transfusion Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Wiefferink, Alice E.C.M.; Weerwind, Patrick W.; van Heerde, Waander; Teerenstra, Steven; Noyez, Luc; de Pauw, Ben E.; Brouwer, René M.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The coagulation-fibrinolytic profile during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been widely documented. However, less information is available on the possible persistence of these alterations when autotransfusion is used in management of perioperative blood loss. This study was designed to explore the influence of autotransfusion management on intravascular fibrin degradation and postoperative transfusions. Thirty patients, undergoing elective primary isolated coronary bypass grafting, were randomly allocated either to a control group (group A; n = 15) or an intervention group (group B; n = 15) in which mediastinal and residual CPB blood was collected and processed by a continuous autotransfusion system before re-infusion. Intravascular fibrin degradation as indicated by D-dimer generation was measured at five specific intervals and corrected for hemodilution. In addition, chest tube drainage and need for homologous blood were monitored. D-dimer generation increased significantly during CPB in group A, from 312 to 633 vs. 291 to 356 ng/mL in group B (p = .001). The unprocessed residual blood (group A) revealed an unequivocal D-dimer elevation, 4131 ± 1063 vs. 279 ± 103 ng/mL for the processed residual in group B (p < .001). Consequently, in the first post-CPB period, the intravascular fibrin degradation was significantly elevated in group A compared with group B (p = .001). Twenty hours postoperatively, no significant difference in D-dimer levels was detected between both groups. However, a significant intra-group D-dimer elevation pre- vs. postoperative was noticed from 312 to 828 ng/mL in group A and from 291 to 588 ng/mL in group B (p < .01 for both). Postoperative chest tube drainage was higher in the patients from group A, which also had the highest postoperative D-dimer levels. Patients in group A perceived a higher need for transfusions of red cells suspensions post-operatively. These data clearly indicate that autotransfusion management during and after CPB suppresses early postoperative fibrin degradation. PMID:17672185

  6. Hybrid coronary revascularization: promising, but yet to take off.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Colombo, Antonio; Margonato, Alberto; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines arterial coronary artery bypass surgery (most commonly minimally invasive) and percutaneous coronary intervention in the treatment of a particular subset of multivessel coronary artery disease. It was first introduced in the mid-1990s, and aspired to bring together the "best of both worlds": the excellent patency rates and survival benefits associated with the durable left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery alongside the good patency rates of drug-eluting stents, which outlive saphenous vein grafts to non-left anterior descending vessels. Although in theory this is a very attractive revascularization strategy, several years later, only one small randomized controlled trial comparing HCR with coronary artery bypass grafting has recently emerged in the medical literature, raising concerns regarding HCR's role and generalizability. In the current review, we discuss HCR's rationale, the current evidence behind it, its limitations and procedural challenges. PMID:25572514

  7. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  8. Fluid distribution kinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Törnudd, Mattias; Hahn, Robert G.; Zdolsek, Joachim H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the isovolumetric distribution kinetics of crystalloid fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting participated in this prospective observational study. The blood hemoglobin and the serum albumin and sodium concentrations were measured repeatedly during the distribution of priming solution (Ringer's acetate 1470 ml and mannitol 15% 200 ml) and initial cardioplegia. The rate of crystalloid fluid distribution was calculated based on 3-min Hb changes. The preoperative blood volume was extrapolated from the marked hemodilution occurring during the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01115166. RESULTS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's acetate averaged 8 minutes, corresponding to a transcapillary escape rate of 0.38 ml/kg/min. The intravascular albumin mass increased by 5.4% according to mass balance calculations. The preoperative blood volume, as extrapolated from the drop in hemoglobin concentration by 32% (mean) at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, was 0.6-1.2 L less than that estimated by anthropometric methods (p<0.02). The mass balance of sodium indicated a translocation from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid space in 8 of the 10 patients, with a median volume of 236 ml. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's solution during isovolumetric cardiopulmonary bypass was 8 minutes, which is the same as for crystalloid fluid infusions in healthy subjects. The intravascular albumin mass increased. Most patients were hypovolemic prior to the start of anesthesia. Intracellular edema did not occur. PMID:25141112

  9. [Two catheters for one coronary perforation].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Lucia; Verdoia, Monica; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Coronary perforation is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of coronary perforation in patients undergoing PCI ranges from 0.1% to 0.5%. The use of long balloon inflation and reversal anticoagulation is associated with high mortality, periprocedural myocardial infarction and emergency coronary bypass surgery. We present a case of severe coronary perforation treated with the dual catheter technique through the radial and femoral approach. The dual catheter technique enabled rapid delivery of a covered stent without losing control of the perforation site. Our patient did not show pericardial effusion, hemodynamic instability or need for emergency bypass surgery. About 1h after PCI, he developed acute stent thrombosis treated with thromboaspiration and biolimus-eluting stent implantation. At 2 years of follow-up, he was asymptomatic without evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. We conclude that the dual catheter technique is a safe and effective approach to treat PCI-induced severe coronary perforation, and may significantly improve patient outcome compared to historical series. PMID:25805096

  10. Splenic artery-to-superior mesenteric artery bypass for chronic mesenteric ischemia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hendershot, Kimberly M

    2004-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a serious vascular condition that if left untreated may progress to acute ischemia resulting in bowel necrosis and high surgical morbidity/mortality rates. Elective intervention has been shown to prevent this progression and relieve symptoms. Current open surgical intervention involves arterial bypass using a vein or synthetic graft conduit with the inflow originating from the aorta or iliac artery. In some circumstances, the splenic artery provides an additional treatment option for revascularization of the superior mesenteric artery. In certain cases, the splenic artery has several advantages over traditional surgical options. The splenic artery is an arterial conduit much like the internal mammary artery used in coronary artery bypass grafting. These grafts are known for their long-term patency and in selected clinical circumstances are preferred over venous grafts. Because the splenic artery has a natural inflow, only a single vascular anastomosis at the outflow vessel (the SMA) is necessary. This lessens the risk of anastomotic stenosis by decreasing the number of anastomoses created and it makes the procedure shorter in duration. The fact that the inflow is provided by the splenic artery makes cross-clamping of the aorta unnecessary, thereby lessening the risk of producing cardiac ischemia and declamping hypotension. A disadvantage is the risk of splenic ischemia with the possible need for splenectomy. The majority of individuals will have adequate collateral supply to the spleen via the short gastric arteries. The risk to the patient of splenectomy versus the benefits of a less complicated arterial reconstruction with avoidance of aortic cross-clamping must be weighed on a case-by-case basis. Preventing the progression to acute mesenteric ischemia with its increased mortality by timely restoration of adequate vascular supply is an important principle in treating patients with CMI. Controversy still exists over the best treatment option for these patients, whether it be antegrade versus retrograde bypass, single-vessel versus multivessel reconstruction, or open surgical repair versus endovascular intervention. In selected patients, the use of the splenic artery can be considered as an additional option for arterial reconstruction of the SMA. PMID:15490046

  11. Complimentary use of epicardial echo imaging and Doppler in quantification of coronary artery stenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Kent L.; Cannon, Scott R.

    1990-08-01

    As more advanced therapeutic procedures are performed on coronary arteries during open chest surgery more advanced diagnostic procedures will be required to define the location and severity of coronary artery disease. This manuscript describes our preliminary experiences in identifying human coronary artery stenoses using epicardial two-dimensional color flow Doppler. Once the lesions were identified we used standard echo Doppler and imaging techniques to define their severity. The accuracy of stenotic cross sectional area calculated using the continuity equation and pressure gradient calculated using the Bernoulli equation were defined using a pulsatile flow model of the coronary circulation. Suggestions about further hardware development required to allow easy clinical application of this technique are described. 1 - CLINICAL NEED FOR INTRA-OPERATIVE EVAUJATION OFCORONARY ARTERIES The severity of coronary artery disease in adults who require coronary bypass surgery has changed significantly in the last ten years. More effective medications used to control angina pectoris and the wide use of percutaneous y artery angioplasty have delayed the timing of surgery until atherosclerotic involvement is more extensive. In addition patients who have had initial coronary bypass operations are now reaching ages at which atherosclerotic involvement of their bypass grafts and native vessels has progressed and reoperation is required. To meet the challenge of coronary arteries with multiple lesions or diffuse disease intraoperative angioplasty devices are being developed. Whether bypass surgery for advanced lesions or reoperation of

  12. Lifesaving Embolization of Coronary Artery Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Patel, Sundip; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun

    2009-09-15

    Coronary artery perforation remains one of the most fearsome complications during cardiac catheterization procedures. Although emergent bypass surgery is the preferred treatment for cases with uncontrollable perforation, endovascular vessel sealing and arrest of bleeding with a combination of balloons, covered stents, or embolic materials have also been proposed. The authors describe a case of emergent lifesaving microcoil embolization of the distal right coronary artery in a patient with uncontrollable grade III guidewire perforation resulting in cardiac tamponade. The relevant literature is reviewed and the merits and limitations of the endovascular approach are highlighted.

  13. Repair of a Mycotic Coronary Artery Aneurysm with an Intact Prosthetic Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mitsugu; Bell, David; Marshman, David

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with a mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm without evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Eight years previously he had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and aortic valve replacement. He presented with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus septicaemia after a prolonged hospital admission. Further investigation revealed a large mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm prompting urgent surgical repair. This case, of a mycotic coronary artery aneurysm in an atherosclerotic native coronary artery, is an extremely rare entity, which is further complicated by the presence of a prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:26475646

  14. Reimplantation of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery in a 65-year-old.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anaïs; Henaine, Roland; Metton, Olivier; Ninet, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous left coronary artery to the pulmonary artery is a rare pathology with a mortality rate of 90% in the first year of life, directly related to left ventricular function and coronary perfusion, although several adult cases have been reported. Surgical correction consists of ligation of the anomalous left coronary artery associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. We describe the exceptional case of a 65-year-old woman who underwent reimplantation of the left coronary artery in the anatomical position without bridging. PMID:24948780

  15. Changing from intensive anticoagulation to treatment with aspirin alone for coronary stents: the experience of one centre in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, N. G.; Ludman, P. F.; Petch, M. C.; Schofield, P. M.; Shapiro, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an elective change in the anticoagulation protocol for patients with coronary stents affected clinical outcomes and length of hospital stay. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of a consecutive series of patients treated with coronary stents over an 18 month period from April 1994 to October 1995. BACKGROUND: Intensive anticoagulation regimens are used in many UK centres to reduce the risk of coronary stent thrombosis. Recent data have called into question the necessity for full anticoagulation and favourable results have been reported with antiplatelet agents alone. The results from a tertiary referral centre were investigated during a period where an elective change in policy was made: an initial 70 patients were treated intensively with intravenous heparin and with warfarin and aspirin; subsequently 94 were treated with aspirin and deployment of a high pressure balloon only. METHODS: Review of case notes, angiograms, and a database of intervention procedures and telephone interview. Classic epidemiological techniques, as well as linear regression and logistic regression, were used to model the outcomes of major procedural complications and length of hospital stay. PATIENTS: 164 patients treated with 196 coronary stents. RESULTS: There were 22 (13.4%) major complications (coronary bypass grafting 11, subacute thrombosis 6, tamponade 2, myocardial infarction 1, death 2). With logistic regression, the risk of major complication was shown not to be affected by anticoagulation (relative risk (RR) 1.03; P = 0.97). Significant determinants of risk included acute vessel closure as an indication for stenting (RR = 80.6; P < 0.001) and sex (male: female RR = 0.19; P = 0.02). The median length of stay (LOS) was 5 days (1-45). Use of a linear regression model showed that anticoagulation added 4.5 days and a major complication added a further 4.5 days to a baseline length of stay of 3.2 days (R2 = 0.32; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This is a report of coronary stenting as part of usual clinical practice in one British tertiary referral centre. In this experience, treatment with aspirin alone is probably as safe as intensive anticoagulation, and has the benefit of reducing length of stay by more than 50% to 3.2 days in an uncomplicated case. Images PMID:8868982

  16. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. PMID:23021329

  17. Perioperative myocardial infarction associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery: improved sensitivity in the diagnosis within 6 hours after operation with 99mTc-glucoheptonate myocardial imaging and myocardial-specific isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A J; Combes, J R; Jacobstein, J G; Alonso, D R; Post, M R; Subramanian, V A; Abel, R M; Brachfeld, N; Kline, S A; Gay, W A

    1979-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate scintigraphic imaging with technetium 99m-labeled glucoheptonate and serum enzyme levels of creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (MB-CPK) in the early diagnosis of perioperative acute myocardial infarction associated with saphenous vein bypass graft operations. Myocardial imaging was done in 27 patients (50% of whom were considered high-risk) before operation and again 5 hours after operation. Four of these patients (15%) had both electrocardiographic and serum MB-CPK evidence of acute myocardial infarction, and all 4 had developed positive postoperative scintigrams. Four other patients had only elevated serum MB-CPK, and scintigrams became positive after operation in 3 of them. In addition, serum MB-CPK 6 hours after operation was 83 +/- 21 mIU/ml (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in patients with positive postoperative scans compared with 24 +/- 5 mIU/ml in those patients with negative postoperative scintigrams (p less than 0.001). Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in the perioperative period is rapid, safe, and atraumatic. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of perioperative acute myocardial infarction, and, when imaging is combined with serum MB-CPK isoenzyme analysis, the reliability of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is enhanced even further. Only 1 of the patients who showed perioperative myocardial damage had acute hemodynamic compromise or obvious impairment of recovery in the immediate postoperative period, and the 30-day mortality of the total group was 4% (1 of 27). PMID:313189

  18. Coronary Obstruction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fábio Sandoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089

  19. Bypass Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  20. Leaking false aneurysm of right coronary saphenous vein graft: successful treatment by percutaneous coil embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, W R; Reid, A W; Dunn, F G

    1992-01-01

    An unusual complication after aortocoronary bypass grafting (CABG) is described in which a false aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery (RCA) developed and caused profuse intermittent bleeding through the sternotomy wound. The aetiology of this condition is uncertain but it could occur whenever a suture line is present especially in the presence of infection. The diagnosis was made non-invasively by a contrast enhanced computed tomogram and was subsequently confirmed by selective coronary bypass angiography. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully obliterated by coil embolisation of the right coronary graft, which stopped the bleeding immediately and was followed by rapid wound healing. PMID:1467059

  1. Reduced cerebral embolic signals in beating heart coronary surgery detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Watters, M P; Cohen, A M; Monk, C R; Angelini, G D; Ryder, I G

    2000-05-01

    Cerebral emboli detected by transcranial Doppler imaging were recorded in 20 patients undergoing multiple-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery, either with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, in a prospective unblinded comparative study. Emboli were recorded continuously from the time of pericardial incision until 10 min after the last aortic instrumentation. The numbers of coronary grafts and of aortic clampings were also documented. Patients undergoing revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass had more emboli (median 79, range 38-876) per case compared with patients having off-pump surgery (median 3, range 0-18). No clinically detectable neurological deficits were seen in either group. Beating heart surgery is associated with fewer emboli than coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Further research is necessary to determine whether a smaller number of emboli alters the incidence of neurological deficit after cardiac surgery. PMID:10844840

  2. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  3. Coronary Angioplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiac Catheterization Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Stents ... up inside your arteries. This condition is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis). Atherosclerosis can ...

  4. Compulsory Elective Theoretical Physics

    E-print Network

    Dutz, Hartmut

    Aug Sep Compulsory Elective Theoretical Physics (physics606 or - if done previously - 1 module out of physics751, physics754, physics755, physics760, physics7501) 7 cp Specialization (at least 24 cp out of physics61a, -61b, -61c and/or physics62a, -62b, -62c) 24 cp Elective Advanced Lectures (at least 18 cp out

  5. Pre-Approved1 Chemical Engineering Technical Electives (NOTE: Technical Electives Engineering Electives Bioengineering Electives)2

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Soil and Environmental Chemistry [S odd] 3 ENSC 444 Watershed Hydrology [F] 2+1 ETME 215 ManufacturingPre-Approved1 Chemical Engineering Technical Electives (NOTE: Technical Electives Engineering Physiology [F] 3 CHMY 311 Analytical Chemistry-Quant Analysis [S] 4 CHMY 371 Phys Chem-Quantum Chem

  6. Measuring Election Performance

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, R. Michael

    2009-12-11

    The 2000 presidential election was one of the closest elections in American history. A margin of about 550,000 votes separated Al Gore from George Bush, only about 0.52% of votes cast. And despite the fact that Gore received ...

  7. Highway 83 Bypass

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Looking east into Minot, ND being flooded by the Souris River. To the left of the photo there is the Highway 83 Bypass and to the bottom of the photo there is Highway 42. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  8. Tryptase and Coronary Heart Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-23

    Acute Coronary Syndrome With ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Acute Coronary Syndrome Without ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Noncritical Coronary Artery Disease With Coronary Stenosis <50%; Aortic Aneurysms

  9. Recent improvement in coronary computed tomography angiography diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alani, Anas; Nakanishi, Rine; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Although invasive coronary angiography has been the gold standard for evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD), it should not be routinely performed as an initial test to assess CAD in subjects with suspected CAD by the recent guidelines, due to cost, invasiveness, and measurable risk. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a rapidly growing, noninvasive imaging modality that developed quickly over the last decade, and its role for evaluation of CAD becomes of great promise with high diagnostic accuracy. Although artifact issues have created some challenges for CCTA, recent advances-including the introduction of more detectors, leading to broader coverage, and faster and higher-definition scanners-allow improved precision and fewer uninterpretable studies. This review article summarizes the current key literature regarding the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in native coronary arteries, stents, coronary artery bypass grafts, lesions with high calcification, and the functional assessment of CAD. PMID:24756932

  10. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major determinant of the long-term prognosis among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is associated with a 2 to 4-fold increased mortality risk from heart disease. Furthermore, in patients with DM there is an increased mortality after MI, and worse overall prognosis with CAD. Near-normal glycemic control for a median of 3.5 to 5 years does not reduce cardiovascular events. Thus, the general goal of HbA1c <7% appears reasonable for the majority of patients. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes, and is an independent cause of excess morbidity and mortality. Statins are effective in reducing major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization. Selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary team approach (‘heart team’). Large scale clinical trials have shown that for many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little prognostic benefit from any intervention over optimal medical therapy (OMT). PCI with drug-eluting or bare metal stents is appropriate for patients who remain symptomatic with OMT. Randomized trials comparing multivessel PCI to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have consistently demonstrated the superiority of CABG in reducing mortality, myocardial infarctions and need for repeat revascularizations. PMID:25091969

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  12. Impact of left ventricular function and the extent of ischemia and scar by stress myocardial perfusion imaging on prognosis and therapeutic risk reduction in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease: Results from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Leslee J.; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Brooks, Maria M.; Althouse, Andrew D.; Sansing, Veronica V.; Beller, George A.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Taillefer, Raymond; Chaitman, Bernard R.; Gibbons, Raymond J.; Heo, Jaekyeong; Iskandrian, Ami E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial demonstrated similar long-term clinical effectiveness of revascularization (REV) and intensive medical (MED) therapy. Comparisons of post-intervention ischemic burden have not been explored but are relevant to treatment decisions. This study examined differences in 1-year stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) abnormalities by randomized treatment. Methods MPS was performed in 1,505 patients at 1-year following randomization. MPS images were analyzed (masked to treatment) by a Nuclear Core Laboratory using a quantitative percent (%) of total, ischemic, and scarred myocardium. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relationship between MPS variables and trial endpoints. Results At 1-year, nearly all REV patients underwent the assigned procedure; while 16% of those randomized to MED received coronary REV. Patients randomized to REV exhibited fewer stress perfusion abnormalities than MED patients (P < .001). CABG patients had more frequent ischemic and scarred myocardium encumbering ?5% of the myocardium when compared to those receiving PCI. Patients randomized to MED had more extensive ischemia and the median % of the myocardium with perfusion abnormalities was lower following REV (3% vs 9%, P = .01). A total of 59% of REV patients had no inducible ischemia at 1-year compared to 49% of MED patients (P < .001). Within the CABG stratum, those randomized to MED had the greatest rate of ischemic (P = .032) and scarred (P = .017) perfusion abnormalities. At 1-year, more extensive and severe stress myocardial perfusion abnormalities were associated with higher 5-year rates of death and a combined endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI) rates (11.3%, 8.1%, 6.8%, for ?10%, 5%-9.9%, and 1-4.9% abnormal myocardium at stress, respectively, P < .001). In adjusted models, selected MPS variables were significantly associated with an increased hazard of cardiac death or MI (hazard ratio = 1.11 per 5% increase in abnormal myocardium at stress, P = .004). Conclusions Patient management strategies that focus on ischemia resolution can be useful to guide the efficacy of near-term therapeutic approaches. A 1-year post-therapeutic intervention myocardial perfusion scan provides important information regarding prognosis in stable CAD patients with diabetes. (J Nucl Cardiol 2012;19:658–69.) PMID:22527794

  13. Long Segmental Reconstruction of Diffusely Diseased Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Using Left Internal Thoracic Artery with Extensive Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Woon; Min, Ho-Ki; Kang, Do Kyun; Lee, Sung Kwang; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

    2015-08-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, a diffusely diseased left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is an obstacle to achieving complete revascularization, consequently leading to the possibility of a poor prognosis. Long segmental reconstruction with or without endarterectomy is a revascularization method for treating diffusely diseased coronary arteries. Herein, we report a successful case of long segmental reconstruction of a diffusely diseased LAD using a left internal thoracic artery onlay patch after endarterectomy. PMID:26290842

  14. Long Segmental Reconstruction of Diffusely Diseased Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Using Left Internal Thoracic Artery with Extensive Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Woon; Min, Ho-Ki; Kang, Do Kyun; Lee, Sung Kwang; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, a diffusely diseased left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is an obstacle to achieving complete revascularization, consequently leading to the possibility of a poor prognosis. Long segmental reconstruction with or without endarterectomy is a revascularization method for treating diffusely diseased coronary arteries. Herein, we report a successful case of long segmental reconstruction of a diffusely diseased LAD using a left internal thoracic artery onlay patch after endarterectomy. PMID:26290842

  15. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the genetic contribution of the leukotriene (LT) pathway to risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 4,512 Caucasian and African American subjects ascertained through elective cardiac evaluation. Of the three previously associated variants, the shorter "3" and "4" alleles of a promoter ...

  16. Receptivity and Bypass Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasseigne, D. G.; Criminale, W. O.; Joslin, R. D.; Jackson, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Problems concerning laminar-turbulent transition are addressed by solving a series of initial value problems. Solutions to the temporal, initial-value problem .with an inhomogeneous forcing term imposed upon the flow are sought. It is shown that: (1) A transient disturbance lying located outside of the boundary layer can lead to the growth of an unstable Tollmein-Schlicting wave; (2) A resonance with the continuous spectrum may provide a mechanism for bypass transition; and (3) The continuum modes of a disturbance feed directly into the Tollmein-Schlicting wave downstream through non-parallel effects.

  17. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality. PMID:26341189

  18. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  19. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., without prejudice to the rights of a party to file objections to the procedural conduct of the election... Direction of Election issued under this section will be issued without prejudice to the right of a party...

  20. Medium bypass turbofan engine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.B.; Jones, J.F.; Dorer, D.K.

    1986-07-08

    A gas turbine engine of the turbofan type is described which consists of: A. a generally tubular axially extending housing assembly defining a radially outer annular bypass duct extending from the inlet end of the housing assembly to the exhaust end thereof; B. an annular burner positioned within the housing assembly radially inwardly of the bypass duct and concentric to the central axis of the housing assembly; C. a low pressure spool assembly including a first shaft journaled on the central axis of the housing assembly, a fan on the first shaft disposed proximate the inlet end of the housing assembly, and a low pressure turbine on the first shaft disposed proximate the exhaust end of the housing assembly; and D. a high pressure spool assembly including a hollow second shaft telescopically received over the first shaft, a high pressure compressor on the second shaft positioned between the fan and the burner, a high pressure turbine on the second shaft positioned between the burner and the low pressure turbine, and an annular rotary slinger on the second shaft positioned between the high pressure compressor and the high pressure turbine and arranged to sling fuel radially outwardly into the burner.

  1. Monitoring the Conjunctiva for Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Tensions and pH During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Irwin K.; Isenberg, Sherwin J.; McArthur, David L.; Del Signore, Madeline; McDonald, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure, for the first time, multiple physiologic parameters of perfusion (pH, PCO2, PO2, and temperature) from the conjunctiva of adult patients during cardiopulmonary bypass while undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Ten patients who underwent either intracardiac valve repair, atrial septal defect repair, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery had placement of a sensor which directly measured pH, PCO2, PO2, and temperature from the conjunctiva. Data were stratified into seven phases (0–5 minutes prior to bypass; 0–5, 6–10, and 11–15 minutes after initiation of bypass; 0–5 minutes prior to conclusion of bypass; and 0–5 and 6–10 minutes after bypass) and analyzed using a mixed model analysis. The change in conjunctival pH over the course of measurement was not statistically significant (p = .56). The PCO2 level followed a quadratic pattern, decreasing from a mean pre-bypass level of 37.7 mmHg at baseline prior to the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass to a nadir of 33.2 mmHg, then increasing to a high of 39.4 mmHg at 6–10 minutes post bypass (p < .01). The PO2 declined from a mean pre-bypass level of 79.5 mmHg to 31.3 mmHg by 6–10 minutes post bypass and even post-bypass, it never returned to baseline values (p < .01). Temperature followed a pattern similar to PCO2 by returning to baseline levels as the patient was re-warmed following bypass (p < .01). There was no evidence of any eye injury or inflammation following the removal of the sensor. In the subjects studied, the conjunctival sensor yielded reproducible measurements during the various phases of cardiopulmonary bypass without ocular injury. Further study is necessary to determine the role of conjunctival measurements in critical settings. PMID:21449229

  2. Contribution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-10-26

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the nonradiating assessment of coronary arteries; to achieve better image quality cardiorespiratory artefacts should be corrected. Coronary MRA (CMRA) at the moment is indicated only for the detection of abnormal coronary origin, coronary artery ectasia and/or aneurysms (class?I?indication) and coronary bypass grafts (class II indication). CMRA utilisation for coronary artery disease is not yet part of clinical routine. However, the lack of radiation is of special value for the coronary artery evaluation in children and women. CMRA can assess the proximal part of coronary arteries in almost all cases. The best results have been observed in the evaluation of the left anterior descending and the right coronary artery, while the left circumflex, which is located far away from the coil elements, is frequently imaged with reduced quality, compared to the other two. Different studies detected an increase in wall thickness of the coronaries in patients with type?I?diabetes and abnormal renal function. Additionally, the non-contrast enhanced T1-weighed images detected the presence of thrombus in acute myocardial infarction. New techniques using delayed gadolinium enhanced imaging promise the direct visualization of inflamed plaques in the coronary arteries. The major advantage of CMR is the potential of an integrated protocol offering assessment of coronary artery anatomy, cardiac function, inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis in the same study, providing an individualized clinical profile of patients with heart disease. PMID:25349650

  3. Contribution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the nonradiating assessment of coronary arteries; to achieve better image quality cardiorespiratory artefacts should be corrected. Coronary MRA (CMRA) at the moment is indicated only for the detection of abnormal coronary origin, coronary artery ectasia and/or aneurysms (class?I?indication) and coronary bypass grafts (class II indication). CMRA utilisation for coronary artery disease is not yet part of clinical routine. However, the lack of radiation is of special value for the coronary artery evaluation in children and women. CMRA can assess the proximal part of coronary arteries in almost all cases. The best results have been observed in the evaluation of the left anterior descending and the right coronary artery, while the left circumflex, which is located far away from the coil elements, is frequently imaged with reduced quality, compared to the other two. Different studies detected an increase in wall thickness of the coronaries in patients with type?I?diabetes and abnormal renal function. Additionally, the non-contrast enhanced T1-weighed images detected the presence of thrombus in acute myocardial infarction. New techniques using delayed gadolinium enhanced imaging promise the direct visualization of inflamed plaques in the coronary arteries. The major advantage of CMR is the potential of an integrated protocol offering assessment of coronary artery anatomy, cardiac function, inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis in the same study, providing an individualized clinical profile of patients with heart disease. PMID:25349650

  4. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The fifteen-day election notice provision applies to a “primary election” at which nominees are chosen. Likewise, the fifteen-day election notice requirement applies to any runoff...

  5. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The fifteen-day election notice provision applies to a “primary election” at which nominees are chosen. Likewise, the fifteen-day election notice requirement applies to any runoff...

  6. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The fifteen-day election notice provision applies to a “primary election” at which nominees are chosen. Likewise, the fifteen-day election notice requirement applies to any runoff...

  7. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The fifteen-day election notice provision applies to a “primary election” at which nominees are chosen. Likewise, the fifteen-day election notice requirement applies to any runoff...

  8. The efficacy of bypassing agents in surgery of hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hee Young; Jang, Hye Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) or IX (FIX) are important issues when managing patients with hemophilia A or B. Advances in bypassing agents such as recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrates (APCC) have enabled the aggressive management of hemophilia with inhibitors during emergency or elective surgery. This study provides an updated evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of bypassing agents in treating perioperative bleeding. Methods We reviewed the records of hemophilia patients with inhibitors who underwent surgery between May 2008 and July 2014 using bypassing agents or high-dose FVIII concentrates at a single center. Results In total, 36 surgeries (24 orthopedic, 12 other) were conducted in 18 hemophilia patients with inhibitors. The median inhibitor titer at surgery was 14 (range, 0.7-1,900) Bethesda units. Most patients had high-responding inhibitors. In total, 25 patients received APCC, 9 with rFVIIa initially. In most cases, bleeding stopped or was well controlled; however, bleeding in 6 patients was controlled using sequential bypassing therapy. Hemostatic efficacy of bypassing agents in various surgeries, based on the final patient outcome, was 94.4% (34/36). Among 5 emergency surgeries, 2 deaths occurred. Conclusion Good control of hemostasis can be achieved using bypassing agents in hemophilia patients with inhibitors who are undergoing surgery. Thorough planning is needed before elective surgery and more active and aggressive management may be needed for emergency surgery. Use of bypassing agents can facilitate safe and successful surgeries in hemophilia patients with inhibitors. PMID:26457285

  9. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UpToDate, Inc. ("UpToDate"), in consideration of the subscription fee and acceptance of this Agreement, grants you a ... or your Institution have agreed to pay subscription fees. At the end of this period, your license ...

  10. What to Expect After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... first. Ongoing Care Care after surgery may include periodic checkups with doctors. During these visits, tests may ... someone else’s. The NHLBI has created a new series of informative, easy-to-read heart attack materials ...

  11. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Most people rotate through and they do fine. Robotic surgery requires a little bit of expertise and ... physician assistant is [Aaron Murstoka]. Head nurse of robotics is [Sara Harrick]. And the rest of these ...

  12. Recovery After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brand name: Diovan), and irbesartan (brand name: Avapro). ? Lipid lowering therapy – Almost all patients are given a medication to lower lipids after CABG. Cholesterol lowering can be beneficial both ...

  13. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  14. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  15. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  16. Pre-Approved1 Engineering Electives for Biological Engineering (NOTE: Technical Electives Engineering Electives Bioengineering Electives)2

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ENSC 345 Soil and Environmental Chemistry [S odd] 3 ETME 215 Manufacturing Processes [F,S] 3 Note 1Pre-Approved1 Engineering Electives for Biological Engineering (NOTE: Technical Electives, will be approved. Note 2: The Bioengineering curriculum includes 10 credits of engineering electives and 8 credits

  17. [English Electives and New Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about multiple-elective programs in high school English classes. These articles include: (1) "Multiple Electives in the English Curriculum" by R. Baird Shuman; (2) "Creative Dramatics: A Natural for the Multiple Electives Program" by Charles R. Duke; (3) "Spotsylvania…

  18. International Electives: Goal Setting

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    I am familiar with #12;Future plans · I want to dip a toe in the water of international work to helpInternational Electives: Goal Setting Stan Houston, Anne Fanning, Dieter Lemke, Lynora Saxinger #12? · 7. Reasonable learning objectives/ goals? · 8. Cultural, social, religious or economic/political

  19. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  20. Bypass diode integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Protective bypass diodes and mounting configurations which are applicable for use with photovoltaic modules having power dissipation requirements in the 5 to 50 watt range were investigated. Using PN silicon and Schottky diode characterization data on packaged diodes and diode chips, typical diodes were selected as representative for each range of current carrying capacity, an appropriate heat dissipating mounting concept along with its environmental enclosure was defined, and a thermal analysis relating junction temperature as a function of power dissipation was performed. In addition, the heat dissipating mounting device dimensions were varied to determine the effect on junction temperature. The results of the analysis are presented as a set of curves indicating junction temperature as a function of power dissipation for each diode package.

  1. Malignant Course of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery Causing Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anantha Narayanan, Mahesh; DeZorzi, Christopher; Akinapelli, Abhilash; Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Smer, Aiman; Baskaran, Janani; Biddle, William P

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest has been reported to occur in patients with congenital anomalous coronary artery disease. About 80% of the anomalies are benign and incidental findings at the time of catheterization. We present a case of sudden cardiac arrest caused by anomalous left anterior descending artery. 61-year-old African American female was brought to the emergency department after sudden cardiac arrest. Initial EKG showed sinus rhythm with RBBB and LAFB with nonspecific ST-T wave changes. Coronary angiogram revealed no atherosclerotic disease. The left coronary artery was found to originate from the right coronary cusp. Cardiac CAT scan revealed similar findings with interarterial and intramural course. Patient received one-vessel arterial bypass graft to her anomalous coronary vessel along with a defibrillator for secondary prevention. Sudden cardiac arrest secondary to congenital anomalous coronary artery disease is characterized by insufficient coronary flow by the anomalous left coronary artery to meet elevated left ventricular (LV) myocardial demand. High risk defects include those involved with the proximal coronary artery or coursing of the anomalous artery between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Per guidelines, our patient received one vessel bypass graft to her anomalous vessel. It is important for clinicians to recognize such presentations of anomalous coronary artery. PMID:26257964

  2. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  3. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section...4250 Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section...4250 Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section...4250 Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section...4250 Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870.4250 Section...4250 Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to...

  8. AGU elects 1986 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eighteen distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of AGU. The total number of Fellows elected each year may not exceed 0.1% of the total membership at the time of election.The newly elected Fellows are John D. Bossier, Office of Charting and Geodetic Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md.Ian S. Carmichael, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley.Paul J. Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany.Dieter H. Ehhalt, Institute of Atmospheric Chemistry, Jülich, and Department of Geophysics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany.Thomas C. Hanks, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.C. G. A. Harrison, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.Stanley R. Hart, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.Charles W. Howe, Department of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder.Charlotte E. Keen, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.T. J. Kukkamäki, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Helsinki.Ronald T. Merrill, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle.Pearn P. Niiler, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.Mervyn S. Paterson, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.Joseph Pedlosky, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.W. R. Peltier, Department of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.Raymond G. Roble, Solar Variability Section, High-Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.David J. Stevenson, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.David A. Woolhiser, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Ariz.

  9. ELECTIVES: Engineering & Science electives On the flowchart, there are four electives labeled: Advanced Science (ADV SCI) Elective, Engineering (ENG) Elective,

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Polymer Materials Engineering 3 hrs. CHE 418 or 518a Tissue Engineering 3 hrs. CHE 438 or 538a Materials 3 hrs. Chemical Engineering (CHE) Electives are: CHE 412 or 512a Polymer Materials Engineering 3 hrs. CHE 418 or 518a Tissue Engineering 3 hrs. CHE 438 or 538a Integrated Circuit

  10. Percutaneous coronary intervention without onsite surgical backup.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Gregory J

    2008-09-01

    Although accepted in several countries abroad, the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without onsite surgical backup is controversial in the United States. Current guidelines from the United States do not endorse elective PCI in facilities without onsite surgical backup but acknowledge that primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is acceptable under carefully regulated and monitored circumstances. This differs from guidelines developed by organizations in other countries. In the United States, data indicate that primary alone or primary and elective PCI without onsite surgery is currently being performed in all but seven states, and the number of patients treated in this setting is increasing. More than 40 articles reporting the outcomes and safety of PCI without onsite surgical backup have been published, but these are from a limited number of centers and are retrospective reviews or prospective registries, which have inherent limitations. Additional studies are currently under way to evaluate PCI's safety and effectiveness in this setting. PMID:18715538

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Preventing Thermal Bypass

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This project highlights the importance of continuous air barriers in full alignment with insulation to prevent thermal bypasses and achieve high energy performance, and recommends use of ENERGY STAR's Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist.

  12. 30 CFR 77.302 - Bypass stacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.302 Bypass stacks. Thermal dryer systems shall include a bypass stack, relief stack or individual discharge stack provided...

  13. 30 CFR 77.302 - Bypass stacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.302 Bypass stacks. Thermal dryer systems shall include a bypass stack, relief stack or individual discharge stack provided...

  14. 30 CFR 77.302 - Bypass stacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.302 Bypass stacks. Thermal dryer systems shall include a bypass stack, relief stack or individual discharge stack provided...

  15. 30 CFR 77.302 - Bypass stacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.302 Bypass stacks. Thermal dryer systems shall include a bypass stack, relief stack or individual discharge stack provided...

  16. 30 CFR 77.302 - Bypass stacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.302 Bypass stacks. Thermal dryer systems shall include a bypass stack, relief stack or individual discharge stack provided...

  17. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  18. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  19. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  20. Report on Registration Systems in American Elections

    E-print Network

    Ansolabehere, Stephen

    2013-06-26

    Voter registration systems are the backbone of election administration in the United States today. These lists facilitate the operation of elections at the precinct level, communications by election officials and candidates ...

  1. The Complexity of the California Recall Election

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, R. Michael

    2003-11-06

    The October 7, 2003 California Recall Election strained California’s direct democracy. In recent California politics there has not been a statewide election conducted on such short notice; county election officials were ...

  2. PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS ADAPTATIONS FOR LONG-TERM SURVIVAL OF BABOONS UNDERGOING PULMONARY ARTERY REPLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Carrie; Grist, Gary; Bert, Arthur; Brasky, Kathleen; Neighbors, Stacy; McFall, Christopher; Hilbert, Stephen L.; Drake, William B.; Cromwell, Michael; Mueller, Barbara; Lofland, Gary K.; Hopkins, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protocols of the baboon (Papio cynocephalusanubis) are limited to obtaining experimental data without concern for long-term survival. In the evaluation of pulmonary artery tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV's), pediatric CPB methods are adapted to accommodate the animals' unique physiology enabling survival up to six months until elective sacrifice. Methods Aortic access was by a 14F arterial cannula and atrial access by a single 24F venous cannula. The CPB circuit includes a 3.3 L/min flow rated oxygenator, 1/4" X 3/8" arterial-venous loop, 3/8" raceway, and bubble trap. The prime contains 700 ml Plasma-lyte, 700 units heparin, 5 ml of 50% dextrose, and 20 mg amiodarone. Heparinization (200 u/kg) targets an activated clotting time of 350 seconds. Normothermic CPB was initiated at a 2.5 L/M2/min cardiac index with a mean arterial pressure of 55–80 mmHg. Weaning was monitored with transesophageal echo cardiogram. Post-CPB circuit blood is re-infused. Chest tubes were removed with cessation of bleeding. Extubation is performed upon spontaneous breathing. The animals were conscious and upright three hours post-CPB. Results Bioprosthetic valves or TEHVs were implanted as pulmonary replacements in 20 baboons: weight = 27.5 ± 5.6 kg, height = 73 ± 7 cm, body surface area = 0.77 m2 ± 0.08, mean blood flow =1.973 ± 0.254 L/min, core temperature = 37.1 ± 0.1°C, CPB time = 60 ± 40 minutes. No acidosis accompanied CPB. Sixteen animals survived, 4 expired. Three died of right ventricular failure and one of an anaphylactoid reaction. Surviving animals had normally functioning replacement valves and ventricles. Conclusions Baboon CPB requires modifications to include high systemic blood pressure for adequate perfusion into small coronary arteries, careful CPB weaning to prevent ventricular distention, and drug and fluid interventions to abate variable venous return related to a muscularized spleno-splanchnic venous capacity. PMID:21114226

  3. Teaching prevention through electives.

    PubMed

    Eckhert, N L; Bennett, N M; Grande, D; Dandoy, S

    2000-07-01

    The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) accreditation standards affirm that the medical school curriculum should include elective courses to supplement the required courses and provide opportunities for students to pursue individual academic interests. The breadth of opportunities in preventive medicine and population health is extensive as students seek rotations at health departments, rural and urban community health centers, community agencies, occupational health sites, schools, and abroad. A growing number of students choose to participate in MD/MPH dual-degree programs. This article describes four prototypes that foster student learning in preventive medicine: population health, international health, American Medical Student Association opportunities, and public health degree programs. These four types of electives enable students to participate in the front lines of preventive services through experiential learning in: community and population health both at home and abroad, continuous quality improvement, organization and behavioral change, interprofessional teamwork, and health care policy. For those with particular interests in population health and preventive medicine, an increasing number of medical schools offer dual MD/MPH programs, either in conjunction with schools of public health or in graduate programs in public health. PMID:10926046

  4. Bayesian Inference on Proportional Elections

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259

  5. Revascularization for coronary artery disease in diabetes mellitus: Angioplasty, stents and coronary artery bypass grafting

    E-print Network

    Aronson, Doron

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to a diffuse and rapidly progressive form of atherosclerosis, which increases their likelihood of requiring revascularization. However, the unique pathophysiology of atherosclerosis ...

  6. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S. Order, B.-M.; Jahnke, T.

    2006-02-15

    The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft.

  7. Compact bypass-flow filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W. G.; Ulanovsky, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Annular filter consisting of stacked rings separates particulates from bypass fluid passing through it in radial direction without slowing down main flow across unimpeded flow of fluid through its center. Applications include fluidized bed reactors, equipment for catalyst operations, and water purification.

  8. Seven-year experience with polytetrafluoroethylene as above-knee femoropopliteal bypass graft. Is is worthwhile to preserve the autologous saphenous vein?

    PubMed

    Sterpetti, A V; Schultz, R D; Feldhaus, R J; Peetz, D J

    1985-11-01

    A 7-year experience with 90 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) femoropopliteal bypass grafts in the above-knee (AK) position is presented. The 5- and 7-year actuarial patency rate was 58.3%. No statistical difference was found between the patency rate of this series and that of a group of 17 AK and 77 below-knee (BK) femoropopliteal bypass grafts performed during the same period with the autologous saphenous vein (ASV). During the follow-up period (range 6 to 84 months, mean 42 months) a new bypass in a more distal location was required in 20 limbs. The ASV was available in seven of the eight PTFE graft failures and in only one of the 12 ASV failures. The 3-year patency rate of these new groups was 58.3% and 16.7%, respectively (p less than 0.02). Eighteen of the 48 deaths occurring during the follow-up period were related to atherosclerotic heart disease, whereas only one patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Five hundred patients randomly selected from our series of myocardial revascularization procedures were reviewed. In five a femorodistal reconstruction was performed before coronary artery bypass, and in only two (0.4%), the ASV was not available. PTFE use in the AK position may be a reasonable alternative to the ASV to preserve it for additional treatment of more distal occlusive disease. There is no evidence that such a need exists for further treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:3877178

  9. Cangrelor: A Review in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    Cangrelor (Kengrexal(®), Kengreal(™)) is an intravenously administered P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is direct-acting and reversible, with a very rapid onset and offset of action. The randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III CHAMPION PHOENIX trial compared the efficacy of intravenous cangrelor with that of oral clopidogrel in patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable angina pectoris, a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite efficacy endpoint of death from any cause, MI, ischaemia-drive revascularization or stent thrombosis in the 48 h following randomization occurred in significantly fewer cangrelor than clopidogrel recipients. The rate of severe or life-threatening non-coronary artery bypass graft-related, GUSTO-defined bleeding at 48 h did not significantly differ between cangrelor and clopidogrel recipients. In conclusion, intravenous cangrelor is an important new option for use in patients undergoing PCI who have not been treated with oral P2Y12 inhibitors. PMID:26201463

  10. Improvement in coronary haemodynamics after percutaneous coronary intervention: assessment using instantaneous wave-free ratio

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Cuculi, Florim; Escaned, Javier; Broyd, Christopher; Foin, Nicolas; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Foale, Rodney A; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada W; Sethi, Amarjit S; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Kaprielian, Raffi R; Khan, Masood A; Baker, Christopher S; Bellamy, Michael F; Hughes, Alun D; Mayet, Jamil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Di Mario, Carlo; Davies, Justin E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) can detect improvement in stenosis significance after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compare this with fractional flow reserve (FFR) and whole cycle Pd/Pa. Design A prospective observational study was undertaken in elective patients scheduled for PCI with FFR ?0.80. Intracoronary pressures were measured at rest and during adenosine-mediated vasodilatation, before and after PCI. iFR, Pd/Pa and FFR values were calculated using the validated fully automated algorithms. Setting Coronary catheter laboratories in two UK centres and one in the USA. Patients 120 coronary stenoses in 112 patients were assessed. The mean age was 63±10?years, while 84% were male; 39% smokers; 33% with diabetes. Mean diameter stenosis was 68±16% by quantitative coronary angiography. Results Pre-PCI, mean FFR was 0.66±0.14, mean iFR was 0.75±0.21 and mean Pd/Pa 0.83±0.16. PCI increased all indices significantly (FFR 0.89±0.07, p<0.001; iFR 0.94±0.05, p<0.001; Pd/Pa 0.96±0.04, p<0.001). The change in iFR after intervention (0.20±0.21) was similar to ?FFR 0.22±0.15 (p=0.25). ?FFR and ?iFR were significantly larger than resting ?Pd/Pa (0.13±0.16, both p<0.001). Similar incremental changes occurred in patients with a higher prevalence of risk factors for microcirculatory disease such as diabetes and hypertension. Conclusions iFR and FFR detect the changes in coronary haemodynamics elicited by PCI. FFR and iFR have a significantly larger dynamic range than resting Pd/Pa. iFR might be used to objectively document improvement in coronary haemodynamics following PCI in a similar manner to FFR. PMID:24047640

  11. 12 CFR 1261.8 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election process. 1261.8 Section 1261.8 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.8 Election process. (a... at least 20 percent of the votes eligible to be cast, the Bank shall continue the election...

  12. 12 CFR 1261.7 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election process. 1261.7 Section 1261.7 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.7 Election process. (a... at least 20 percent of the votes eligible to be cast, the Bank shall continue the election...

  13. Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Delivery, and Postpartum Care Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks • What is a “medically indicated” delivery? • What is ... the baby grow and develop during the last weeks of pregnancy? • What are the risks for babies ...

  14. Pulmonary complications of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Huffmyer, Julie L; Groves, Danja S

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary complications after the use of extracorporeal circulation are common, and they range from transient hypoxemia with altered gas exchange to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with variable severity. Similar to other end-organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation, pulmonary complications are attributed to the inflammatory response, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species liberated as a result of cardiopulmonary bypass. Several factors common in cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation may worsen the risk of pulmonary complications including atelectasis, transfusion requirement, older age, heart failure, emergency surgery, and prolonged duration of bypass. There is no magic bullet to prevent or treat pulmonary complications, but supportive care with protective ventilation is important. Targets for the prevention of pulmonary complications include mechanical, surgical, and anesthetic interventions that aim to reduce the contact activation, systemic inflammatory response, leukocyte sequestration, and hemodilution associated with extracorporeal circulation. PMID:26060028

  15. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  16. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI) while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ? 1%) and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ? 0.01). Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP) and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1). Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity) while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring revascularization. Osteopontin (14 times) and resistin (10 times) were most frequently represented among these diagnostic signatures. The most efficacious protein signature in validation studies comprised osteopontin (OPN), resistin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and interferon ? (IFN?) as a four-marker panel while the addition of either CRP or adiponectin (ACRP-30) yielded comparable results in five protein signatures. Conclusions Proteins in the serum of CAD patients predominantly reflected (1) a positive acute phase, inflammatory response and (2) alterations in lipid metabolism, transport, peroxidation and accumulation. There were surprisingly few indicators of growth factor activation or extracellular matrix remodeling in the serum of CAD patients except for elevated OPN. These data suggest that many symptomatic patients without significant CAD could be identified by a targeted multiplex serum protein test without cardiac catheterization thereby eliminating exposure to ionizing radiation and decreasing the economic burden of angiographic testing for these patients. PMID:23216991

  17. Republished: Antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Thomas; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    The choice and duration of antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is determined by the clinical context and treatment strategy. Oral antiplatelet agents for secondary prevention include the cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibitor aspirin, and the ADP dependent P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor. Aspirin constitutes the cornerstone in secondary prevention of CAD and is complemented by clopidogrel in patients with stable CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Among patients with acute coronary syndrome, prasugrel and ticagrelor improve net clinical outcome by reducing ischaemic adverse events at the expense of an increased risk of bleeding as compared with clopidogrel. Prasugrel appears particularly effective among patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction to reduce the risk of stent thrombosis compared with clopidogrel, and offered a greater net clinical benefit among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Ticagrelor is associated with reduced mortality without increasing the rate of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related bleeding as compared with clopidogrel. Dual antiplatelet therapy should be continued for a minimum of 1?year among patients with acute coronary syndrome irrespective of stent type; among patients with stable CAD treated with new generation drug-eluting stents, available data suggest no benefit to prolong antiplatelet treatment beyond 6?months. PMID:25976494

  18. Closed chest hybrid coronary revascularization for multivessel disease - current concepts and techniques from a two-center experience.

    PubMed

    Bonaros, Nikolaos; Schachner, Thomas; Wiedemann, Dominik; Weidinger, Felix; Lehr, Eric; Zimrin, David; Friedrich, Guy; Bonatti, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combining minimally invasive coronary surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) allows sternal preserving treatment of multivessel coronary disease. The main principle of the technique includes placement of mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and performance of PCI in non-LAD target vessels. This principle is based on increasing data showing equivalent results of PCI with coronary revascularization using saphenous vein grafts in selected patients. Providing that perioperative and long-term results are as good as the results of conventional surgical revascularization, this option seems to be quite appealing for patients and referring cardiologists. This concept has been designed to allow rapid rehabilitation and minimize periprocedural pain under concomitant preservation of the patient's body integrity. Robotically assisted endoscopic approaches for hybrid coronary revascularization set the pace for a closed-chest treatment of multivessel coronary disease. The time point of PCI, the use of different anticoagulation protocols as well as the stent selection are some of the variables, which affect outcome. We additionally report on the midterm results of 130 after-closed-chest hybrid-coronary procedures in two institutions. Hybrid procedures using robotic technology and PCI allow closed chest treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease. Single- and double-bypass grafts are feasible and simultaneous interventions can be performed. The overall safety of the procedure seems to be adequate and perioperative clinical results are satisfactory. Intermediate term survival and freedom from angina are excellent. PMID:21459599

  19. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  20. 2015-2016 FALL TERM ELECTIVE COURSES Restricted ElectiveI Technical Elective

    E-print Network

    Köprülü, Kahraman Güçlü

    in Organic Chem. CHE 461 Polymer Additives, Blends and Composites Restricted ElectiveII CHE 490 Fundamentals Basic Linear Algebra FDE403 Food Biotechnology PHYS 207 Concepts of Modern Physics GEOE 410 Petroleum

  1. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) reduces postoperative anaemia in preoperatively non-anaemic patients undergoing elective or subacute coronary artery bypass graft, valve replacement or a combination thereof: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial (the PROTECT trial)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, P I; Rasmussen, A S; Thomsen, L L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This trial explores whether intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) results in a better regeneration of haemoglobin levels and prevents anaemia compared to placebo in preoperative non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Study Design and Methods The trial is a prospective, double-blind, comparative, placebo-controlled trial of 60 non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The patients were randomized 1:1 to either 1000 mg intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered perioperatively by infusion or placebo. Results Mean preoperative haemoglobin in the active treatment group was 14·3 g/dl vs. 14·0 g/dl in the placebo group. At discharge 5 days after surgery, haemoglobin levels were reduced to 10·7 and 10·5 g/dl, respectively. One month after surgery, haemoglobin concentration had increased to an average of 12·6 g/dl vs. 11·8 g/dl (p = 0·012) and significantly more patients were non-anaemic in the intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000-treated group compared to the placebo group (38·5% vs. 8·0%; p = 0·019). There were no differences in side-effects between the groups. Conclusion A single perioperative 1000 mg dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 significantly increased the haemoglobin level and prevented anaemia 4 weeks after surgery, with a short-term safety profile similar to placebo. Future trials on potential clinical benefits of preoperative treatment with intravenous iron in non-anaemic patients are needed. PMID:25900643

  2. Who Should Run Our Elections? Public Opinion About Election Governance in the United States

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, R. Michael

    Much has been said since the 2000 presidential election regarding the administration of elections in the United States, particularly in regards to how election administrators are selected and to whom they are responsive. ...

  3. In Vivo Comparison Study of FDA-Approved Surface-Modifying Additives and Poly-2-Methoxyethylacrylate Circuit Surfaces Coatings During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ask, Angela; Holt, David; Smith, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this double-blind prospective and randomized study was to examine the effects of surface-modifying additives (SMAs) and poly-2-methoxyethylacrylate (PMEA) circuits on platelet count, platelet function (Sonoclot), postoperative chest tube drainage volume, peri- and postoperative blood product use, extubation time, and intensive care time. Terumo noncoated, Terumo-coated (PMEA), Cobe noncoated, and Cobe coated (SMA) circuits were evaluated to find the most cost-effective way to improve patient outcomes. We aimed to find if an additional charge for a coated CPB circuit would be recovered by reducing other patient costs (blood transfusions, intensive care unit time, and bring back postoperative bleeding). An initial literature review revealed the comparison of PMEA circuits vs. noncoated circuits and SMA circuits vs. noncoated circuits in both adult and porcine models. Both SMA- and PMEA-coated circuits decreased platelet consumption, platelet factor release, and the overall perioperative inflammatory response while on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The question not answered in an initial search was simply, “which coated circuit is best for the patient: SMA or PMEA?” Research comparing the above coated circuits each other was not found. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Thirty patients were scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular repair or replacement surgery. These 30 patients were randomized as 10 patients to Terumo X-Coating (PMEA surface coating) (CT), 10 patients to Cobe Smart-X coating (SMA surface coating; CC), 5 patients to Terumo noncoated tubing (NCT), and 5 patients to Cobe noncoated tubing (NCC). Informed consent was obtained from each patient before surgery. The data showed no statistically significant relationship between platelet counts, platelet function (Sonoclot), postoperative chest tube drainage volume, peri- and postoperative blood products, intensive care unit time, or total hospital length of stay. Analysis revealed statistically significant clinical associations of extubation time and protamine dose with treatment group. This study provided evidence that SMA- and PMEA-coated circuits do not improve platelet consumption or decrease blood product use for patients undergoing CPB. There was statistical significance with a reduction in extubation time and total protamine requirement needed to return activated clotting time (ACT) to baseline post-CPB. Although the use of SMA and/or PMEA circuits during CPB has clinical benefit to the CPB patient, an additional charge for the specialty circuit may not be realized. PMID:16637520

  4. Coronary artery ectasia in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, inflammatory disorders, and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Dahhan, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) or aneurysm is usually defined as dilation ?1.5-fold the normal vessel diameter. It has an incidence of 1.4-5.3% and is associated with a wide variety of etiologies-mainly congenital, atherosclerotic, and inflammatory ones. CAE is very common in sickle cell disease, and possibly sickle cell trait, with an incidence of 17.7%. It is likely related to the inflammatory process associated with hemoglobin S. Prognosis depends mainly on the underlying etiology. Atherosclerotic CAE does not carry additional risks compared to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (ACAD) without ectasia. However, isolated CAE in the absence of ACAD carries an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) due to vasospasm, slower coronary blood flow, and thrombosis, typically within the dilated segments. Due to lack of studies and guidelines, management recommendations are based on personal experiences. Therapy should be tailored to each individual case after assessment of severity, history of complications, underlying etiology, and comorbidities. Treatment of underlying condition and avoidance of exacerbating factors are essential. Medical therapy in general may include antiplatelets, ?-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors statins, and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. In severe CAE or history of MI, the addition of anticoagulation therapy after assessing bleeding risk may be warranted. In acute MI, the large thrombus burden in the dilated segment makes the percutaneous approach very challenging. Aspiration attempts can result in distal thromboembolization. Survival is better in bypass grafting than with medical therapy. Nonetheless, bypass grafting does not improve survival in atherosclerotic CAE. Depending on the physical characteristics of aneurysm, different surgical approaches can be sought; however, the ideal one is unclear. PMID:25677643

  5. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870.4400...4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870.4400...4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870.4400...4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870.4400...4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400 Section 870... § 870.4400 Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. 870.4320 Section 870.4320...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. 870.4320 Section 870.4320...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. 870.4320 Section 870.4320...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. 870.4320 Section 870.4320...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. 870.4320 Section 870.4320...Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and...

  15. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  16. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Take note of these common signs of an acute coronary syndrome: Chest pain or discomfort, which may involve pressure, tightness ... 9-1-1. They’re not being alarmist.” Chest pain caused by acute coronary syndromes can come on suddenly, as is the case ...

  17. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation for Successful Treatment of a Symptomatic Coronary Lesion in a 17-Year-Old Boy After Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Luu, Brigitte; Esmaeili, Anoosh; Schranz, Dietmar; Fichtlscherer, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary stenting is considered a promising treatment option for patients with coronary artery lesions caused by Kawasaki disease (KD). Here, we report the case of an adolescent with KD who successfully underwent implantation of a fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in a Kawasaki-related, highly obstructed coronary artery. Control coronary angiography 6 months later showed a remaining good result without restenosis or development of aneurysm. Cardial MRI and clinical follow-up revealed stable results at 6 and 18 months without any signs of ischemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful implantation of a fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold in a young adult with the history of KD. The case illustrates the feasibility and safety of BVS implantation for the treatment of KD. It remains to be confirmed by further studies, if this approach by this novel material might be a therapeutic alternative to coronary bypass grafting or other coronary interventions. PMID:26063383

  18. 40 CFR 403.17 - Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions. (1) Bypass means the intentional diversion of wastestreams from any portion of an Industrial User... applicable Pretreatment Standards or Requirements. An Industrial User may allow any bypass to occur which... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. (c) Notice. (1) If an Industrial User knows in advance of the...

  19. 40 CFR 403.17 - Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions. (1) Bypass means the intentional diversion of wastestreams from any portion of an Industrial User... applicable Pretreatment Standards or Requirements. An Industrial User may allow any bypass to occur which... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. (c) Notice. (1) If an Industrial User knows in advance of the...

  20. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:25795261

  1. Calcific aorta and coronary artery: two cases of calcific ascending aorta and descending aorta

    PubMed Central

    Idhrees, A Mohammed; Radhakrishnan, Bineesh K; Panicker, Vargheese T; Pillai, Vivek; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aorta is a disease of old age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Here, we present two patients with calcific aorta at different levels. One with a descending porcelain aorta, and modified Bentall's procedure was done. Second is a patient who is having a calcific ascending aorta and coronary artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting from left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending was done for the patient. The calcification and its morbidity had been discussed briefly. PMID:25678909

  2. Causes and Consequences of Elections in Nondemocracies 

    E-print Network

    Seki, Katsunori

    2015-01-21

    ) Constraints on Dissidents Elections delegitimize Electoral fraud can violent challenges. motivate violent ouster. survival. It reveals that electoral benefits are not always guaranteed: Informa- tion collection and information communication through elections...

  3. Effect of Diltiazem on Coronary Artery Flow and Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia and Either Stable Angina Pectoris or Positive Myocardial Ischemic Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Atmaca, Yusuf; Goksuluk, Huseyin; Akbulut, Irem Muge; Ozyuncu, Nil; Ersoy, Nedret; Erol, Cetin

    2015-10-15

    Isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE) may be associated with stable or unstable coronary events despite the absence of epicardial coronary stenosis. Impaired coronary flow dynamics and myocardial perfusion have been demonstrated in stable patients with ectatic coronary arteries. We aimed to assess whether epicardial flow and tissue-level perfusion would be improved by diltiazem in myocardial regions subtended by the ectatic coronary arteries in patients with isolated CAE. A total of 60 patients with isolated CAE were identified of 9,780 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients were randomized to 5 mg of intracoronary diltiazem or saline. Coronary blood flow of the microvascular network was assessed using myocardial blush grade (MBG) technique. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade and TIMI frame count (TFC) were used to assess epicardial coronary flow. MBG (from 2.4 to 2.6, p = 0.02), TIMI flow grades (from 2.4 to 2.8, p <0.001), and TFC (from 35 to 26, p <0.001) were significantly improved after diltiazem, whereas no significant change was noticed after saline (from 2.4 to 2.4, p = 0.86 for MBG; from 2.3 to 2.3, p = 0.71 for TIMI flow grade; and from 35 to 33, p = 0.43 for TFC). Diltiazem provided amelioration of the altered coronary flow dynamics, which was suggested as the pathophysiological influence of CAE. In conclusion, the favorable effects of the diltiazem on myocardial perfusion were observed at both epicardial and tissue levels. PMID:26277295

  4. Coronary vein graft disease: Pathogenesis and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Parang, Pirouz; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Not long after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery was described, several reports presented follow-up angiographic data on large cohorts of patients, demonstrating that approximately one-half of saphenous vein grafts fail within 10 to 15 years of surgery and that graft failure is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Three processes are responsible for vein graft failure. Thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis contribute to graft failure in the acute, subacute and late postoperative periods, respectively. Studies have shown that perioperative antiplatelet therapy can reduce early thrombosis and graft failure. As in native coronaries, intensive lipid lowering can attenuate the process of atherosclerosis in vein grafts. Intimal hyperplasia in the vein graft is thought to be an adaptation of the vein to higher pressures in the arterial circulation. This process is further promoted by the loss of inhibition from the endothelial layer, which is injured during surgery. A new ‘no-touch’ technique for harvesting grafts may be effective in preventing disruption to the endothelial layer, and subsequent intimal hyperplasia and graft loss. Off-pump surgery and endoscopic vein harvesting, which are known to reduce surgical morbidity, have been shown to be no worse than on-pump surgery and open vein harvesting, respectively, in terms of vein graft patency. Various gene therapies can prevent intimal hyperplasia in animal models, but human data obtained so far have been disappointing. Placing an external stent around a vein graft may reduce tangential wall stress and subsequent intimal hyperplasia. PMID:19214303

  5. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  6. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election process. 422.60 Section 422.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.60 Election process. (a) Acceptance of enrollees: General rule....

  7. Speak Out (K-8) [and] Election '80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    These two teaching guides contain step-by-step procedures for an election education program in which all Illinois school children vote for and elect a State animal. The program, mandated by the Illinois State Legislature, is intended to provide students with the unique opportunity to learn about the entire election process through actual voting…

  8. Development of coronary artery stenosis in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The cardiotoxic effects of sorafenib and sunitinib may cause hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) dysfunction and/or congestive heart failure (CHF), and arterial thrombo-embolic events (ATE). Only three cases of coronary artery disease related to sorafenib therapy have been described in the literature, and all were due to arterial vasospasm without evidence of coronary artery stenosis on angiography. Cardiotoxicity is commonly associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as a history of hypertension or coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a patient who experienced an unusual cardiac event after 2?years of sorafenib treatment. A 58-year-old man with mRCC developed acute coronary syndrome (ischemia/infarction) associated with critical sub-occlusion of the common trunk of the left coronary artery and some of its branches, which was documented on coronary angiography. The patient underwent triple coronary artery bypass surgery, and sorafenib treatment was discontinued. He did not have any cardiovascular risk factors, and his cardiac function and morphology were normal prior to sorafenib treatment. Conclusions Further investigation of a larger patient population is needed to better understand cardiac damage due to TKI treatment. Understanding the usefulness of careful cardiovascular monitoring might be important for the prevention of fatal cardiovascular events, and to avoid discontinuation of therapy for the underlying cancer. PMID:22687270

  9. Fiscal Worries Shadow State Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the new class of governors and state legislators to be elected November 4 will inherit financial problems that pose both immediate and long-term threats to existing education programs, while constraining their ability to mount new initiatives. The prospect of a deepening economic slowdown--with state-level budget deficits…

  10. Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.

  11. Nepal's Election: A Peaceful Revolution?

    E-print Network

    International Crisis Group

    2008-07-03

    ................................................................................................................2 B. THE STUTTERING CHALLENGE.....................................................................................................3 C. THE MADHESIS PARTIES: MOTIVATION AMID MUTUAL SUSPICION .............................................4 D... national election with the mix of strategic firmness and tactical flexibility with which they had pursued the armed conflict. Above all, they demonstrated their ability to learn and adapt. B. THE STUTTERING CHALLENGE For their opponents, the picture...

  12. [Coronary thrombosis--pathogenic basis of acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Dúbrava, J; Cagán, S

    1994-02-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, sudden heart death) present an important part of cardiovascular and total morbidity and mortality. The common pathogenetic mechanism of them is the break of integrity of "stable" atherosclerotic plaque through fissure or rupture with following dynamic occlusion of coronary artery. In dynamic occlusion take part coronary vasoconstriction and dominant coronary thrombogenesis. Summary review of pathogenesis of coronary thrombosis aimed at origin of "unstable" atherosclerosis plaque, importance of vessel wall factors, rheologic factors and thrombocytes is presented in the paper. Morphologic and structural characteristics of "primary" atherosclerotic plaque and of coronary artery lesions in concrete acute coronary syndromes are described. From the point of view of clinical practice the authors draw attention to the basic importance of thrombin and residual thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes. Presented pathogenetic aspects of coronary thrombogenesis justify newer therapeutic approaches, which are in the phase of intensive research. PMID:8140759

  13. Coronary revascularization in the elderly with stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Kirill Lenarovich; Bogachev, Aleksandr Andreevich

    2015-01-01

    A proportion of elderly with coronary artery disease is rapidly growing. They have more severe coronary artery disease, therefore, derive more benefit from revascularization and have a greater need for it. The elderly is a heterogeneous group, but compared to the younger cohort, the choice of the optimal revascularization method is much more complicated among them. In recent decades, results has improved dramatically both in surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in very old persons. Despite the lack of evidence in elderly, it is obvious, that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has a more pronounced effect on long-term survival in price of more strokes, while PCI is certainly less invasive. Age itself is not a criterion for the selection of treatment strategy, but the elderly are often more interested in quality of life and personal independence instead of longevity. This article discusses the factors that influence the choice of the revascularization method in the elderly with stable angina and presents a complex algorithm for making an individual risk-benefit profile. As a consequence the features of CABG and PCI in elderly patients are exposed. Emphasis is centered on the frailty and non-medical factors, including psychosocial, as essential components in making the decision of what strategy to choose. Good communication with the patients and giving them unbiased information is encouraged. PMID:26512248

  14. Intraaortic balloon pump support during high-risk coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, F V; Kern, M J; Bach, R; Donohue, T; Caracciolo, E; Flynn, M S; Wolford, T

    1994-01-01

    Intraaortic balloon pump support has been demonstrated to be of clinical benefit when used therapeutically and prophylactically in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Afterload reduction and post-PTCA-enhanced coronary blood flow afforded by diastolic augmentation during intraaortic balloon pumping provides hemodynamic stabilization, attenuates clinical perturbations of myocardial ischemia, and may provide an important 'bridge' to emergent coronary bypass surgery following abrupt vessel closure complicating PTCA. Recent studies demonstrate a reduction in cardiac morbidity and improved coronary artery patency among patients receiving prophylactic intraaortic balloon pumping after establishing infarct artery reperfusion during acute cardiac catheterization for acute myocardial infarction. A modest increase in cardiac output (20-30%), the requirement of a stable, regular cardiac rhythm, peripheral vascular disease and aortic insufficiency limits the use of intraaortic balloon pump support in relatively few patients. These studies demonstrate that intraaortic balloon counterpulsation provides an effective and safe form of mechanical support in many high-risk patients undergoing PTCA. PMID:8205567

  15. Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion as predictors of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ladenheim, M.L.; Pollock, B.H.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Staniloff, H.M.; Forrester, J.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass surgery more than 60 days after testing). Stepwise logistic regression identified only three independent predictors: the number of myocardial regions with reversible hypoperfusion (an index of the extent of hypoperfusion), the maximal magnitude of hypoperfusion (an index of the severity of hypoperfusion) and the achieved heart rate (an index of exercise performance). Both extent and severity were exponentially correlated with event rate (r greater than 0.97 and p less than 0.01 for each), whereas achieved heart rate was linearly correlated with event rate (r = 0.79 and p less than 0.05). On the basis of these data, a prognostic model was defined that employs extent and severity as stress-dependent orthogonal variables. Using this model, the predicted coronary event rate ranged over two orders of magnitude--from a low of 0.4% in patients able to exercise adequately without developing severe and extensive hypoperfusion at a low heart rate (less than 85% of their maximal predicted heart rate). Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion, therefore, are important independent variables of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Neonate With Congenital Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Travis F; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J; Haw, Marcus P

    2016-01-01

    Left main coronary artery atresia (LMCAA) is a rare congenital malformation with a nonspecific and varied clinical presentation. Ventricular dysfunction and mitral insufficiency are expected ischemic consequences in the neonatal period. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) bypass grafting (CABG) is uncommon because of the technical difficulties in performing this procedure in neonates. We describe LMCAA revascularization with a LIMA graft and mitral valve repair in a 7-week-old neonate with successful outcome 1 year postoperatively. PMID:26694277

  17. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Recommendations in Adults: The Northern New England Experience

    PubMed Central

    DioDato, Christian P.; Likosky, Donald S.; DeFoe, Gordon R.; Groom, Robert C.; Shann, Kenneth G.; Krumholz, Charles F.; Warren, Craig S.; Pieroni, John W.; Benak, Arnold; McCusker, Kevin; Olmstead, Elaine M.; Ross, Cathy S.; O’Connor, Gerald T.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Using a regional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) registry, we compared the practice of CPB at eight northern New England institutions to recently published recommendations. We examined CPB practice among 3597 adult patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery from January 2004 to June 2005. Registry variables were used to compare regional CPB practice to recommendations on topics of neurologic protection (pH management, avoidance of hyperthermia, minimizing return of pericardial suction blood, aortic assessment, arterial line filtration), maintenance of euglycemia, reduction of hemodilution, and attenuation of the inflammatory response. We report overall regional practice (regional minimum, maximum). All centers used alpha-stat pH management and arterial line filters. Avoidance of hyperthermia (temperature <37°C) was achieved during 23.4% of procedures (regional minimum, 1.5%; maximum, 83.2%). Minimizing return of pericardial suction blood was achieved in 23.7% of cases (0.7%, 93.6%). Aortic assessment was performed during 45.7% of procedures (1.3%, 98.9%). Maintenance of euglycemia (<200 mg/dL) was accomplished in 82.7% (57.1%, 97.9%) of cases. Hemodilution (hematocrit <23% on CPB) was lower for men 32.4% (20.6%, 52.3%) than women 77.9% (64.7% 88.9%). Men were less likely to receive red blood cell transfusions in the operating room (11.0%; 1.8%, 20.9%) than women (54.6%; 30.1%, 70.6%). In an effort to attenuate the inflammatory response, surface coated circuits were used in 83.3% of procedures (8.8%, 100%). During this time, gaps existed between regional CPB practice and recently published recommendations. We continue to prospectively measure CPB practice relating to these recommendations to monitor and improve the care provided to our patients. PMID:18389661

  18. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

  19. Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary angiography is the current standard method to evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected angina pectoris, but non-invasive CT scanning of the coronaries are increasingly used for the same purpose. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and other lipid and lipoprotein variables are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Small dense LDL particles may be of particular importance, but clinical studies evaluating their predictive value for coronary atherosclerosis are few. Methods We performed a study of 194 consecutive patients with chest pain, a priori considered of low to intermediate risk for significant coronary stenosis (>50% lumen obstruction) who were referred for elective coronary angiography. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were measured including the subtype pattern of LDL particles, and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. Results The proportion of small dense LDL was a strong univariate predictor of significant coronary artery stenosis evaluated by both methods. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and waist circumference only results obtained by traditional coronary angiography remained statistically significant. Conclusion Small dense LDL particles may add to risk stratification of patients with suspected angina pectoris. PMID:21262005

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production following Cardiopulmonary Bypass Was Not Associated with Pulmonary Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tso-Chou; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Che-Hao; Huang, Go-Shine; Wu, Zhi-Fu; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Li, Chi-Yuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes release of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9, contributing to pulmonary infiltration and dysfunction. The aims were to investigate MMP-9 production and associated perioperative variables and oxygenation following CPB. Methods. Thirty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were included. Arterial blood was sampled at 6 sequential points (before anesthesia induction, before CPB and at 2, 4, 6, and 24?h after beginning CPB) for plasma MMP-9 concentrations by ELISA. The perioperative laboratory data and variables, including bypass time, PaO2/FiO2, and extubation time, were also recorded. Results. The plasma MMP-9 concentrations significantly elevated at 2–6?h after beginning CPB (P < 0.001) and returned to the preanesthesia level at 24?h (P = 0.23), with predominant neutrophil counts after surgery (P < 0.001). The plasma MMP-9 levels at 4 and 6?h were not correlated with prolonged CPB time and displayed no association with postoperative PaO2/FiO2, regardless of reduced ratio from preoperative 342.9 ± 81.2 to postoperative 207.3 ± 121.3?mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Elective cardiac surgery with CPB induced short-term elevation of plasma MMP-9 concentrations within 24 hours, however, without significant correlation with CPB time and postoperative pulmonary dysfunction, despite predominantly increased neutrophils and reduced oxygenation. PMID:26273135

  1. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and monitored intensive care period. Near infrared spectroscopic pH decreased significantly during cardiopulmonary bypass, decreased significantly during rewarming, and remained depressed 6 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass. Diabetic patients responded differently than nondiabetic subjects to cardiopulmonary bypass, with lower muscle pH values (p =.02). CONCLUSIONS: Near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and Po2 are sensitive to changes in tissue perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  2. ASI 2015 Election Unofficial Results Election: 2015 Associated Students Inc. Student Government Elections

    E-print Network

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    of Incorporation of Associated Students to bring the Articles of Incorporation into compliance with State law. YES of Incorporation of Associated Students to bring the Articles of Incorporation into compliance with State law Elections The Articles of Incorporation of Associated Students (AS) Total Voters:29511 Choice Votes

  3. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  5. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  6. Bypasses and Reconstruction for Complex Brain Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Harley Brito; Messina-Lopez, Mario; Sekhar, Laligam N.

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery for brain aneurysms is a current relevant technique, as advances in endovascular and stent-assisted coiling have not solved many of the difficulties inherent in the management of complex brain aneurysms. The following review highlights the importance of microsurgical bypass techniques for the management of complex cerebrovascular aneurysms and emphasizes, through two clinical cases, the technical difficulties and indications for bypass surgery. These cases demonstrate that in selected scenarios, bypass microsurgery still offers the only viable treatment for complex aneurysms. PMID:25624977

  7. Chemokines in patients with ischaemic heart disease and the effect of coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Economou, E; Tousoulis, D; Katinioti, A; Stefanadis, C; Trikas, A; Pitsavos, C; Tentolouris, C; Toutouza, M G; Toutouzas, P

    2001-08-01

    Percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) may release inflammatory mediators such as chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin (EOX) are monocyte- and eosinophil-specific chemokines involved in the inflammation and pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 28 patients undergoing elective PTCA, 20 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing coronary angiography and 28 healthy controls were studied. In PTCA patients before the procedure, MCP-1 plasma levels (441+/-64 pg/ml) were similar to those of CAD patients (430+/-24 pg/ml), and significantly higher compared with controls (145+/-17 pg/ml, P<0.01). MCP-1 rose significantly after 3 and 6 months following PTCA (696+/-89 and 876+/-86 pg/ml, respectively, P<0.01 vs. before PTCA). EOX plasma levels (155+/-14 pg/ml) were similar to those of CAD patients (157+/-14 pg/ml), but significantly higher compared with controls (83.2+/-10 pg/ml, P<0.05). EOX rose significantly 24 h (273+/-41 pg/ml, P<0.05) but not 3 months after PTCA (160+/-20 and 158+/-19 pg/ml, respectively). These findings indicate that chemokine-induced monocyte- and eosinophil-specific chemoattraction is stimulated in patients with coronary artery disease. MCP-1 levels remain significantly elevated for at least 6 months following elective PTCA, suggesting an inflammatory stimulation. PMID:11532547

  8. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  9. Frataxin-bypassing Isu1: characterization of the bypass activity in cells and mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Heeyong; Knight, Simon A. B.; Pandey, Alok; Pain, Jayashree; Zhang, Yan; Pain, Debkumar; Dancis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Frataxin is a conserved mitochondrial protein, and deficiency underlies the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s ataxia. Frataxin interacts with the core machinery for Fe–S cluster assembly in mitochondria. Recently we reported that in frataxin-deleted yeast strains, a spontaneously occurring mutation in one of two genes encoding redundant Isu scaffold proteins, bypassed the mutant phenotypes. In the present study we created strains expressing a single scaffold protein, either Isu1 or the bypass mutant M107I Isu1. Our results show that in the frataxin-deletion strain expressing the bypass mutant Isu1, cell growth, Fe–S cluster protein activities, haem proteins and iron homoeostasis were restored to normal or close to normal. The bypass effects were not mediated by changes in Isu1 expression level. The persulfide-forming activity of the cysteine desulfurase was diminished in the frataxin deletion (?yfh1 ISU1) and was improved by expression of the bypass Isu1 (?yfh1 M107I ISU1). The addition of purified bypass M107I Isu1 protein to a ?yfh1 lysate conferred similar enhancement of cysteine desulfurase as did frataxin, suggesting that this effect contributed to the bypass mechanism. Fe–S cluster-forming activity in isolated mitochondria was stimulated by the bypass Isu1, albeit at a lower rate. The rescuing effects of the bypass Isu1 point to ways that the core defects in Friedreich’s ataxia mitochondria can be restored. PMID:24433162

  10. Subcutaneous ureteral bypass device for treatment of iatrogenic ureteral ligation in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caitlin M; Culp, William T N; Palm, Carrie A; Zacuto, Alyse C

    2015-10-15

    Case Description-A 17-week-old spayed female Sphinx was evaluated after a 3-day history of inappetence, lethargy, and vomiting. Three weeks prior, the kitten had undergone routine elective ovariohysterectomy. Clinical Findings-Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate hydronephrosis of the left kidney, and the left ureter was tortuous and dilated from the kidney to the level of the midureter, where it abruptly tapered. No discrete cause of obstruction could be identified. Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the kitten was nonazotemic. Treatment and Outcome-Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the distal portion of the left ureter was irregular with ill-defined margins and abundant scar tissue, likely secondary to iatrogenic ureteral ligation during the ovariohysterectomy (suture was not observed). Intraoperative antegrade pyelography confirmed complete left ureteral obstruction extending distally from the level of the midureter. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device was placed to allow for renal decompression. No complications were encountered in the perioperative period, and the kitten recovered well after anesthesia. The kitten was discharged from the hospital 7 days after initial evaluation and continued to do well after surgery. At long-term follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Clinical Relevance-A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device successfully allowed renal decompression in a kitten with iatrogenic ureteral ligation. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device may be an alternative to historical surgical options in cases of unilateral ureteral obstruction and may result in a good long-term outcome. PMID:26421405

  11. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Rim, Seung Bum (Palo Alto, CA); Kim, Taeseok (San Jose, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA); Cousins, Peter J. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  12. A Medical Outreach Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Amanda; Caldwell, David; Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To design and implement a Medical Outreach Experience elective course and assess its impact on students’ level of confidence in organizing future medical outreach trips, providing population-specific pharmaceutical care, and achieving learning outcomes. Design. A 2-credit hour elective course was designed for second- and third-year pharmacy students. The course was structured to include 3 sections over 1 semester, a 10-week training and preparation phase, followed by a weeklong international outreach experience and post-outreach reflection. Assessment. Student achievement of curricular outcomes was measured using in-class activities, readings, reflections, and longitudinal projects, as well as performance during the outreach trip. Results from pre- and post-course surveys demonstrated significant improvement in student-rated confidence in several components of outreach trip organization and provision of pharmaceutical care. Conclusions. Students completing the course exhibited increased confidence in their abilities to organize and practice on a medical outreach trip. All students met the learning outcomes of the course, which included providing comprehensive patient-specific pharmaceutical care, communicating effectively, promoting health improvement and self-care, thinking critically, and appropriately managing and using resources of the healthcare system. Students agreed that the elective course was a valuable addition to the curriculum. PMID:23716746

  13. Thrust reverser for high bypass turbofan engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matta, R.K.; Bhutiani, P.K.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a thrust reverser for a gas turbine engine of the type which includes an outer wall spaced from the center body of a core engine to define a bypass duct therebetween. The thrust reverser comprising: circumferentially displaced blocker doors, each of the doors being movable between a normal position generally aligned with the outer wall and a thrust reversing position extending transversely of the bypass duct for blocking the exhaust of air through the bypass duct and directing the air through an opening in the outer wall for thrust reversal; each of the blocker doors being of lightweight construction and including a pit in the inner surface thereof in the normal position; means for covering the pit during normal flow of air through the bypass duct to reduce the pressure drop in the bypass duct and to reduce noise. The covering means including a pit cover hingedly mounted at one end thereof on the blocker door and means of biasing the pit cover away from the blocker door to a position providing smooth flow of air through the bypass duct during normal operation.

  14. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-08

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  15. Integrative physiology of coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, F; Goto, M

    1999-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a crucial role for mechanoenergetic interaction between blood flow and myocardial function, which is not uniform transmurally. Thus, highly organized vascular regulations are required for matching local blood flow with myocardial energy requirement. Recently, new technologies to investigate in vivo coronary microcirculation with new knowledge of the signaling molecules for vascular regulation have revolutionized our abilities to understand the integrative regulation of coronary microcirculation. In this review, the mechanical aspects of the interaction between coronary blood flow and myocardium, coronary arte-rial tree and its roles in myocardial blood flow regulation, hierarchical and dynamic control of coronary flow, capillary network and function, function of venous drainage system, and molecular and cellular aspects of integrative coronary blood flow regulation are discussed, focusing on their integrational roles in maintaining coronary microvascular function and cell signaling. PMID:10529484

  16. Anatomy of Main Coronary Artery Location: Radial Position around the Aortic Root Circumference.

    PubMed

    Almuwaqqat, Zakaria; Tranquilli, Maryann; Elefteriades, John

    2012-09-01

    There is a relative dearth of fundamental anatomic information regarding the radial component of right and left coronary ostial location along the circumference of the aortic root. Recent literature has emphasized the importance of this anatomic component in the orientation of coronary buttons for the composite graft operation, especially as regards the use of porcine biological roots or design of novel mechanical or biological composite grafts. Problems in orientation of reattached buttons can lead to life-threatening ischemia. We assessed the radial location of native coronary arteries or coronary artery buttons by high-definition computed tomography scan in 100 patients (75 consecutive aneurysm patients undergoing aortic root replacement [ARR] and 25 control patients undergoing coronary artery bypass). We excluded six patients with unclear coronary anatomy and one with an anomalous origin. The center point of the aortic lumen was located, radii were drawn from there to each coronary ostium, and the angle was computed geometrically. The mean angle between the radii for the right and left coronary ostia was 122.9 degrees. The angle was similar for bicuspid and tri-leaflet aneurysm patients, 121.0 and 122.7 degrees, respectively. The angle was similar for aneurysm patients (121.6 degrees) and for controls (126.5 degrees). The angle showed very little variation among individuals for the overall group (standard deviation [SD] 13.1 degrees), for the aneurysm patients (SD 13.4 degrees), and for the controls (SD 12 degrees). This angle is different from that of the porcine roots (145 degrees) which are commonly used for ARR. The normal human angular separation between the right and left coronary ostia is 122.9 degrees for both aneurysm and control patients. This anatomic relationship is very different from that of porcine aortic roots. This anatomy needs to be borne in mind intraoperatively. This anatomic relationship can be used in the design of novel aortic root biological or composite grafts. PMID:23997554

  17. Combined MR imaging and numerical simulation of flow in realistic arterial bypass graft models.

    PubMed

    Papaharilaou, Y; Doorly, D J; Sherwin, S J; Peiro, J; Griffith, C; Cheshire, N; Zervas, V; Anderson, J; Sanghera, B; Watkins, N; Caro, C G

    2002-01-01

    We report methods for (a) transforming a three-dimensional geometry acquired by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in vivo, or by imaging a model cast, into a computational surface representation, (b) use of this to construct a three dimensional numerical grid for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) studies, and (c) use of the surface representation to produce a stereo-lithographic replica of the real detailed geometry, at a scale convenient for detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) flow studies. This is applied to assess the local flow field in realistic geometry arterial bypass grafts. Results from a parallel numerical simulation and MRI measurement of flow in an aorto-coronary bypass graft with various inlet flow conditions demonstrate the strong influence of the graft inlet waveform on the perianastomotic flow field. A sinusoidal and a multi harmonic coronary flow waveform both with a mean Reynolds number (Re) of 100 and a Womersley parameter of 2.7 were applied at the graft inlet. A weak axial flow separation region just distal to the toe was found in sinusoidal flow near end deceleration (Re = 25). At the same location and approximately the same point in the cycle (Re = 30) but in coronary flow, the axial flow separation was stronger and more spatially pronounced. No axial flow separation occurred in steady flow for Re = 100. Numerical predictions indicate a region in the vicinity of the suture line (where there is a local narrowing of the graft) with a wall shear magnitude in excess of five times that associated with fully developed flow at the graft inlet. PMID:12122276

  18. 4D motion modeling of the coronary arteries from CT images for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong Ping; Edwards, Eddie; Mei, Lin; Rueckert, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for coronary artery motion modeling from cardiac Computed Tomography( CT) images. The aim of this work is to develop a 4D motion model of the coronaries for image guidance in robotic-assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgery. To utilize the pre-operative cardiac images to guide the minimally invasive surgery, it is essential to have a 4D cardiac motion model to be registered with the stereo endoscopic images acquired intraoperatively using the da Vinci robotic system. In this paper, we are investigating the extraction of the coronary arteries and the modelling of their motion from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. We use a multi-scale vesselness filter to enhance vessels in the cardiac CT images. The centerlines of the arteries are extracted using a ridge traversal algorithm. Using this method the coronaries can be extracted in near real-time as only local information is used in vessel tracking. To compute the deformation of the coronaries due to cardiac motion, the motion is extracted from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. Each timeframe in this sequence is registered to the end-diastole timeframe of the sequence using a non-rigid registration algorithm based on free-form deformations. Once the images have been registered a dynamic motion model of the coronaries can be obtained by applying the computed free-form deformations to the extracted coronary arteries. To validate the accuracy of the motion model we compare the actual position of the coronaries in each time frame with the predicted position of the coronaries as estimated from the non-rigid registration. We expect that this motion model of coronaries can facilitate the planning of TECAB surgery, and through the registration with real-time endoscopic video images it can reduce the conversion rate from TECAB to conventional procedures.

  19. Clinical and angiographic features of coronary artery disease after chest irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McEniery, P.T.; Dorosti, K.; Schiavone, W.A.; Pedrick, T.J.; Sheldon, W.C.

    1987-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) developed in 15 patients at a mean of 16 years (range 3 to 29) after chest irradiation. The mean dose of radiation was 42 +/- 7 grays; irradiation was performed for Hodgkin's disease in 9 patients, lymphoma in 2, breast carcinoma in 3 and cystic hygroma in 1 patient. Mean age was 48 years (range 26 to 63) at diagnosis of CAD; 4 patients were younger than 35 years. Nine were women. Ten presented with angina, 3 with acute myocardial infarction, 1 patient with syncope and 1 with dyspnea. Twelve had no more than 2 risk factors of atherosclerosis. At coronary angiography, 8 had at least 50% diameter narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 4 had severe ostial stenosis of the right coronary artery. Eight patients also had valvular heart disease, 4 pericardial disease and 4 complete heart block. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 67 +/- 11% (range 53 to 80%). Nine had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, but surgery was difficult or impossible in 3 because of severe mediastinal and pericardial fibrosis. Radiation-associated CAD is characterized by a high incidence of left main and right ostial coronary disease and often occurs in women with relatively few conventional risk factors for CAD.

  20. [Invasive therapeutic strategies in acute heart failure complicating coronary artery disease: effectiveness and boundaries].

    PubMed

    Poerner, Tudor C; Ferrari, Markus; Brehm, Bernhard R; Figulla, Hans R

    2006-11-01

    Acute heart failure and especially its most severe form, cardiogenic shock, remain the final common pathway to death in a substantial number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Several studies demonstrated that mechanical reperfusion of occluded coronary arteries by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery improves survival in patients with acute MI and cardiogenic shock. There is strong evidence that intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) support and ventricular assist devices can stabilize hemodynamics in these patients so that revascularization procedures can be safely performed. This article provides an overview of the therapeutic strategies for acute MI with cardiogenic shock, with focus on the role and particularities of different devices used as mechanical circulatory support in these patients. PMID:17149680

  1. [Alternative methods in interventional therapy of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; Ge, J; Haude, M; Görge, G

    1995-01-01

    Percutaneous high-frequency coronary rotablation using the rotablator is able to remove arteriosclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (30-80 microns) brass burr drill fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a drill coaxial guide wire is used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft in excess of 150,000-190,000 rpm. High-frequency rotational angioplasty was successful in > 90% of patients, but in about 90% additional PTCA is necessary. No increase of bypass surgery compared to PTCA is observed. CK and CR-MB elevation is more often found than after PTCA. Vessel perforation is rarely observed. All vessels were open at 24-h control. The restenosis rate seems not be increased. The main indications for high-frequency rotational angioplasty are rigid and calcified sclerotic lesions which cannot be passed by conventional balloon catheters. Whether the restenosis rate can be reduced by this method will be judged in part by the COBRA study. In order to avoid acute complications of PTCA and to reduce restenosis rate, coronary stents were developed. Self-expandable and balloon expandable stents are available. It could be demonstrated that these stents can be used as a bail-out system and can block elastic recoil of coronary arteries. The major remaining problem is subacute closure of coronary vessels. In order to prevent thrombosis treatment with coumarine, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyridamol is necessary. Coronary stents can be successfully delivered in more than 90% of the patients. In a highly selected patient group using single stents restenosis rate could be significantly reduced. PMID:7571784

  2. New mechanical devices for treatment of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; Haude, M; Dietz, U; Rupprecht, H J; Zotz, R; Meyer, J

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous high-speed coronary rotablation allows to remove arterio-sclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (15-30 microns) brass burr drill fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a drill coaxial guide wire is used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft at 150,000-190,000 rpm. High-frequency rotational angioplasty was successful in 27 of 28 patients, but in about 34% additional PTCA was necessary. Only one patient went to bypass surgery, and myocardial infarction (CK less than 150 u/l) occurred in only one of 28 patients. No vessel perforation was observed. All vessels were open at 24 h control. The restenosis rate was not increased. The main indication for high-speed rotational angioplasty seems to be rigid sclerotic lesions that cannot be passed by a conventional balloon catheter. Whether restenosis rate can be reduced by this method will be judged in future studies. In order to avoid acute complications of PTCA and to reduce restenosis rate, coronary stents were developed. Self-expandable and balloon-expandable stents are available. It could be demonstrated that these stents can be used as a bail-out system and can block elastic recoil of coronary arteries. The major remaining problem is that of subacute closure of coronary vessels. In order to prevent this, treatment with coumarine, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyridamol is necessary. Coronary stents can be successfully delivered in more than 90% of the patients, as demonstrated by a cooperative study. In a highly selective patient group using single stents, restenosis rate measured 15%, but was higher in patients with multiple stents. PMID:2099035

  3. Election Administration during Natural Disasters and Emergencies: Hurrican Sandy and the 2012 Election

    E-print Network

    Stein, Robert M.

    2013-09-04

    The conduct of elections is constrained by a myriad of factors that vary greatly across the 3,000+ jurisdictions authorized to administered elections in the United States. Among these factors are anticipated and unanticipated ...

  4. Union certification elections in nursing care facilities.

    PubMed

    Palthe, Jennifer; Deshpande, Satish P

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study examines 387 union certification elections conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in nursing care facilities (North American Industry Classification System 623) from January 1999 to December 2001. Unions won 60% of the elections. Service Employees International Union was involved in 42% of the elections. Bargaining unit size significantly impacted union victory. Unions had a better probability of winning elections in the northeast and midwest than in the south. Unlike other industries, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations affiliated unions did not suffer a big labor image in nursing care facilities. Implications for union organizers and administrators of nursing care facilities are discussed. PMID:14672442

  5. Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning.

    PubMed

    Roka, Attila; Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet

    2015-12-01

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy improves morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and electrical dyssynchrony, the rate of nonresponders using standard indications and implant techniques is still high. Optimal coronary sinus lead positioning is important to increase the chance of successful resynchronization. Patient factors such as cause of heart failure, type of dyssynchrony, scar burden, coronary sinus anatomy, and phrenic nerve capture may affect the efficacy of the therapy. Several modalities are under investigation. Alternative left ventricular lead implantation strategies are occasionally required when the transvenous route is not feasible or would result in a suboptimal lead position. PMID:26596808

  6. “Orpheus” Cardiopulmonary Bypass Simulation System

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Pybus, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  7. 32 CFR 48.203 - Election of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Election of options. 48.203 Section 48.203 National Defense...SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.203 Election of options. (a) A member who has...

  8. 32 CFR 48.203 - Election of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election of options. 48.203 Section 48.203 National Defense...SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.203 Election of options. (a) A member who has...

  9. 24 CFR 964.130 - Election procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Election procedures...oversee elections and recall procedures. ...issue election and recall procedures in their...procedures for recall, and term limits...the HA to withdraw recognition of the...

  10. Suggestions for better election security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Warner, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Common Security Mistakes: (1) Electronic voting machines that fundamentally lack security thought and features, including an ability to detect tampering or intrusion, or to be reliably locked or sealed; (2) Failure to disassemble, inspect, and thoroughly inspect (not just test) a sufficient number of voting machines before and after elections in order to detect hardware or software tampering; (3) Assuming that tamper - indicating seals will either be blatantly ripped/smashed open, or else there is no tampering. In reality, even amateurs can spoof most seals leaving (at most) subtle evidence; (4) Inadequate seal use protocols and training of seal installers and inspectors. Failure to show examples of blatantly and subtly attacked seals to seal inspectors; (5) Over confidence in use of a voter verified paper record (VVPR), a VVPR is an excellent security countermeasure, but it is not a silver bullet, especially for an election organization with poor overall security; (6) Little or no insider thr at mitigation; and (7) A poor security culture, including denial and no a priori procedures for dealing with security questions or concerns.

  11. Network strategies in election campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-08-01

    This study considers a simple variation of the voter model with two competing parties. In particular, we represent the case of political elections, where people can choose to support one of the two candidates or to remain neutral. People operate within a social network and their opinions depend on those of the people with whom they interact. Therefore, they may change their opinions over time, which may mean supporting one particular candidate or none. Candidates attempt to gain people’s support by interacting with them, whether they are in the same social circle (i.e. neighbors) or not. In particular, candidates follow a strategy of interacting for a time with people they do not know (that is, people who are not their neighbors). Our analysis of the proposed model sought to establish which network strategies are the most effective for candidates to gain popular support. We found that the most suitable strategy depends on the topology of the social network. Finally, we investigated the role of charisma in these dynamics. Charisma is relevant in several social contexts, since charismatic people usually exercise a strong influence over others. Our results showed that candidates’ charisma is an important contributory factor to a successful network strategy in election campaigns.

  12. Election '94: a population overview.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B

    1994-01-01

    President Bill Clinton has been more outspoken and active than previous presidents in negotiations leading to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. He has put population stabilization at the top of the overall foreign policy agenda, sending to Congress a bill designed to make sustainable development and population stabilization cornerstones of US foreign policy. Moreover, the administration's commitment to solving the population problem is reflected in each of the two budgets submitted to Congress with increased funds requested and received for international family planning and the UN Population Fund. The US now leads the search for new solutions to the problem of rapid population growth. The right-wing conservatism and ignorance of the Reagan-Bush years, however, threatens to return following the November 1994 national elections. Historically, the party which controls the White House loses Congressional seats during mid-term elections. If the Democrats lose up to fifteen seats, the shift will be an historical norm. A Democratic loss of 25 or more seats, however, may pose a serious problem for Clinton. Domestic and international family planning, sex education, health care, abortion, and environmental protection all hang in the balance. During this period of increased partisanship, 36 of the 44 Republicans in the Senate supported a Helms amendment to limit US participation in the Cairo conference. Republican control of the Senate would likely keep the US from carrying out the commitments made at the conference on family planning, women's health coverage, and environmental protection. PMID:12345670

  13. Practice of coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Ischinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written for the cardiologist who performs invasive procedures. Although the book is not meant to substitute for onsite training, the content includes indications, techniques, risks, limitations, complications, and useful tips. The illustrations are good, and include well-reproduced coronary angiograms and angioplasty images, thoughtfully prepared graphics, and tables that summarize large amounts of data in understandable form.

  14. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Devices § 870.4390 Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is used in the blood pump head and which is cyclically compressed by the pump to cause the blood to flow...

  15. Variations in use of cardiology services in a health authority: comparison of coronary artery revascularisation rates with prevalence of angina and coronary mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, N.; Saul, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation between rates of coronary artery revascularisation and prevalence of angina to assess whether use of health services reflects need. DESIGN: Prevalence of angina symptoms determined by postal questionnaire on 16750 subjects (18 to 94 years). Comparison of data on use of coronary artery revascularisation with prevalence of symptoms and mortality from coronary heart disease. SETTING: Health authority with population of 530000. SUBJECTS: Patients admitted to hospital for coronary heart disease; patients who died; and patients undergoing angiography, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft. Cohort of 491 people with symptoms from survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients for relation between variables. RESULTS: Overall, 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.7% to 4.4%) of subjects had symptoms. Prevalences varied widely between electoral wards and were positively associated with Townsend score (r = 0.79; P < 0.001), as was mortality, but the correlation between admission rates and Townsend score was less clear (r = 0.47; P < 0.01). Revascularisation rate and Townsend score were not associated. The ratio of revascularisation to number experiencing symptoms was inversely related to Townsend score (r = 0.67; P < 0.001). The most deprived wards had only about half the number of revascularisations per head of population with angina than did the more affluent wards. In affluent wards 11% (13/116) of those with symptoms had coronary angiograms compared with only 4% (9/216) in poorer wards (chi 2 = 4.96; P = 0.026). Townsend score also inversely correlated with revascularisations per premature death from coronary heart disease (r = 0.55; P < 0.01) and revascularisations per admission for myocardial infarction (r = 0.47; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The use of interventional cardiology services is not commensurate with need, thus exhibiting the inverse care law. PMID:9022488

  16. Federal Aid Adds Twist to Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The massive flow of federal funding into schools has created a new and unfamiliar political dynamic in state elections this fall, with many candidates voicing concerns about the government involvement while acknowledging its role in saving jobs, propping up budgets, and supporting innovations in education. State elected officials have a long…

  17. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  18. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  19. Systematic Review of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Preventing in-Stent Coronary Restenosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Nissi S.; Chen, Hai-Ying; Chu, Jian-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement is a standard treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD). In-stent restenosis after PCI remains a challenging clinical problem. In China, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used for preventing restenosis. This paper systematically reviewed the literature on the effectiveness and safety of CHMs in preventing restenosis after PCI in patients with CAD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared CHMs plus RWM with the same RWM plus placebo in preventing restenosis after PCI. A total of 52 trials (4905 patients) on 34 CHMs met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Ten trials had low risk of bias. Methodological quality of included trials was generally poor. Meta-analysis showed that at the end of at least 3 months' followup, CHMs plus RWM could significantly reduce restenosis rate, cardiac mortality, recurrence rate of angina, acute myocardial infarction, numbers of repeat PCI, and numbers of coronary artery bypass graft. Reported adverse events included gastrointestinal upset, granulocytopenia, and increased alanine transaminase (ALT). CHMs may help prevent restenosis, thus reducing cardiac mortality after PCI. Caution should be exercised in drawing a definitive conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of the trials reviewed. PMID:22454659

  20. Battery Cell By-Pass Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumaw, Susan J. (Inventor); Evers, Jeffrey (Inventor); Craig, Calvin L., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, Stuart D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a circuit and method of limiting the charging current voltage from a power supply net work applied to an individual cell of a plurality of cells making up a battery being charged in series. It is particularly designed for use with batteries that can be damaged by overcharging, such as Lithium-ion type batteries. In detail. the method includes the following steps: 1) sensing the actual voltage level of the individual cell; 2) comparing the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and providing an error signal representative thereof; and 3) by-passing the charging current around individual cell necessary to keep the individual cell voltage level generally equal a specific voltage level while continuing to charge the remaining cells. Preferably this is accomplished by by-passing the charging current around the individual cell if said actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and allowing the charging current to the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level. In the step of bypassing the charging current, the by-passed current is transferred at a proper voltage level to the power supply. The by-pass circuit a voltage comparison circuit is used to compare the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and to provide an error signal representative thereof. A third circuit, designed to be responsive to the error signal, is provided for maintaining the individual cell voltage level generally equal to the specific voltage level. Circuitry is provided in the third circuit for bypassing charging current around the individual cell if the actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and transfers the excess charging current to the power supply net work. The circuitry also allows charging of the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level.

  1. Hepatic and renal effects of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Di Tomasso, Nora; Monaco, Fabrizio; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Although associated with low morbidity and mortality, cardiopulmonary bypass remains a "non-physiologic" device that carries a set of complications. Hepatic and renal impairment are associated with a poor outcome. The knowledge of pathophysiology, risk factors and therapeutic interventions can help the anaesthesiologist in preventing these complications in daily practice. The present narrative review provides an update of the literature on the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on hepatic and renal functions, focussing on markers of hepatic and renal injuries, perioperative strategies in preserving organ function and replacement therapies. PMID:26060027

  2. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  3. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  4. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  5. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  6. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  7. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer. 870.4230 Section... bypass defoamer. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer is a device used in conjunction... entitled “Guidance for Extracorporeal Blood Circuit Defoamer 510(k) Submissions.”...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer. 870.4230 Section... bypass defoamer. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer is a device used in conjunction... entitled “Guidance for Extracorporeal Blood Circuit Defoamer 510(k) Submissions.”...

  9. Bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices. Each of the energy storage devices coupled to a common series connection has an associated bypass unit connected thereto in parallel. A current bypass unit includes a sensor which is coupled in parallel with an associated energy storage device or cell and senses an energy parameter indicative of an energy state of the cell, such as cell voltage. A bypass switch is coupled in parallel with the energy storage cell and operable between a non-activated state and an activated state. The bypass switch, when in the non-activated state, is substantially non-conductive with respect to current passing through the energy storage cell and, when in the activated state, provides a bypass current path for passing current to the series connection so as to bypass the associated cell. A controller controls activation of the bypass switch in response to the voltage of the cell deviating from a pre-established voltage setpoint. The controller may be included within the bypass unit or be disposed on a control platform external to the bypass unit. The bypass switch may, when activated, establish a permanent or a temporary bypass current path.

  10. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  16. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  17. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  18. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  19. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  20. [Autovenous ilicofemoral bypass, 21 years later --a case-review].

    PubMed

    Maresch, M; Mitás, P; Tosenovský, P; Vidim, T

    2006-12-01

    We present the case of patient with autovenous ilicofemoral bypass after 21 years. The indication was traumatic demage of left iliac artery during car accident. The arterial reconstruction was patent for more than two decades with gradual arterialisation of graft. Excessive dilatation has caused the late occlusion of bypass. Ischaemia of the left limb was treated by crossover ilico-femoral bypass. PMID:17407950

  1. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870.4240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870.4240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870.4240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870.4240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870.4240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3545 - Ventricular bypass (assist) device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular bypass (assist) device. (a) Identification. A ventricular bypass (assist) device is a device that assists... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device....

  7. 21 CFR 870.3545 - Ventricular bypass (assist) device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular bypass (assist) device. (a) Identification. A ventricular bypass (assist) device is a device that assists... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device....

  8. 75 FR 71145 - San Joaquin River Restoration Program: Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Register on September 9, 2009 (74 FR 46453). This revised proposal would include measures for the... Bypass Channel and Structural Improvements Project, Merced County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... proposed Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and Structural Improvements Project...

  9. Percutaneous trans-ulnar artery approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty; A case series study

    PubMed Central

    Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Hadizadeh, Mahmood; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary angiography is the gold standard method for diagnosis of coronary heart disease and usually performed by femoral approach that has several complications. To reduce these complications, upper extremity approach is increasingly used and is becoming preferred access site by many interventionists. Although radial approach is relatively well studied, safety, feasibility and risk of applying ulnar approach in not clearly known yet. METHODS We followed 97 patients (man = 56%, mean ± standard deviation of age = 57 ± 18) who had undergone coronary angiography or angioplasty via ulnar approach for 6-10 months and recorded their outcomes. RESULTS In 97 patients out of 105 ones (92.38%), procedure through ulnar access were successfully done. Unsuccessful puncture (3 patients), wiring (2 patients), passing of sheet (2 patients), and anatomically unsuitable ulnar artery (1 patient) were the reasons of failure. In 94 patients (89.52%), the angiography and angioplasty was done without any complications. Five patients (5.1%) hematoma and 11 patients (11%) experienced low-grade pain that resolved with painkiller. No infection, amputation or need for surgery was reported. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that ulnar access in our patients was a safe and practical approach for coronary angiography or angioplasty, without any major complication. Bearing in mind its high success rate, it can be utilized when a radial artery is not useful for the catheterization and in cases such as prior harvesting of the radial artery (in prior coronary artery bypass grafting). PMID:26715936

  10. Persistent Telomere Damage Induces Bypass of Mitosis

    E-print Network

    de Lange, Titia

    Persistent Telomere Damage Induces Bypass of Mitosis and Tetraploidy Teresa Davoli,1 Eros Lazzerini toward aneuploidy in human cancer but a general mechanism for the induction of tetraploidy during a prolonged DNA damage signal due to persistent telomere dysfunction. Live-cell imaging revealed

  11. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen’s vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons. PMID:23010929

  12. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  13. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression. PMID:23227360

  14. [Hybrid surgical intervention in a patient with an aortic arch aneurysm and coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Charchan, E R; Abugov, S A; Puretsky, M V; Kim, S Yu; Skvortsov, A A; Khachatryan, Z R

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein is a clinical case report regarding the use of hybrid technology in surgical treatment of a patient with an aneurysm of the distal portion of the aortic arch and coronary artery disease. The patient underwent a hybrid operation, i.e. debranching of the aortic arch branches, exoprosthetic repair of the ascending aorta, autovenous prosthetic coronary bypass grafting of the branch of the blunt edge of the anterior interventricular artery, stenting of the ascending portion, arch and descending portion of the aorta (stent graft "Medtronic Valiant"). In doing so, we used a non-standard approach to connecting the artificial circulation unit and to choosing the place for establishing proximal anastomoses of autovenous coronary bypass grafts. The early postoperative period was complicated by the development of respiratory insufficiency requiring continuation artificial pulmonary ventilation. The duration of the hospital stay of the patient amounted to 15 days. The check-up multispiral computed tomography showed normal functioning of the reconstruction zones, the stent graft is expanded, with no leak observed. The conclusion was made that hybrid interventions may be considered as an alternative to the classical surgical treatment associated in patients of older age group with a severe course of the postoperative period and high lethality. PMID:26035581

  15. Outcomes after Redo Aortobifemoral Bypass for Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Salvatore T.; Schmit, Bradley M.; Feezor, Robert J.; Beck, Adam W.; Chang, Catherine K.; L.Waterman, Alyson; Berceli, Scott A.; Huber, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients presenting with occluded aortobifemoral bypass(ABF) grafts are managed with a variety of techniques. Redo ABF(rABF) procedures are infrequently performed due to concerns about procedural complexity and morbidity. The purpose of this analysis is to compare mid-term results of rABF to primary ABF(pABF) for aortoiliac occlusive disease(AIOD) to determine if there are significant differences in outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing ABF for occlusive disease between January 2002 and March 2012. A total of 19 patients underwent rABF and 194 received pABF during that time period. Data for an indication and comorbidity-matched case control cohort of 19 elective pABF patients were collected for comparison to the rABF group. Primary end-points included rate of major complications, as well as 30-day and all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points were amputation-free survival(AFS) and freedom from major adverse limb events(MALEs). Results rABF patients more frequently underwent prior extra-anatomic or lower extremity bypass operations compared to pABF(P=.02), however no difference was found in the incidence of in prior failed endovascular iliac intervention(P =.4). By design, indications for the rABF and pABF groups were the same: claudication, N=6/6(31.6%), P =1; critical limb ischemia, N=13/13(78.4%), P=1. Aortic access was more frequently via retroperitoneal exposure in the rABF group(N=13 vs. N=1;P<.0001) and a significantly higher proportion of the rABF patients required concomitant infrainguinal bypass or intra-procedural adjuncts such profundaplasty(N=14 vs. N=5; P=.01). rABF patients experienced greater blood loss (1097±983mL vs. 580±457mL;P=.02), received more intraoperative fluids(3400±1422mL vs. 2279±993mL;P=.01), and had longer overall procedure times(408±102 vs. 270±48 minutes; P<.0001). Length of stay(days±SD) was similar (pABF, 11.2±10.4 vs. rABF, 9.1±4.5;P=.7) and no 30-day or in-hospital deaths occurred in either group. Similar rates of major complications occurred in the 2 groups(pABF, N=6(31.6%) vs. rABF, N=4(21.1%); observed difference 9.5%, 95% confidence interval:-17.6%, 36.7%;P=.7). Two-year freedom from MALE(±standard error mean) was 82±9% vs. 78±10% for pABF and rABF patients(log-rank, P=.6). Two-year AFS was 90±9% vs. 89±8% between pABF and rABF patients(P=.5). Two-year survival was 91±9% and 90±9% for pABF and rABF patients(P=.8). Conclusions Patients undergoing rABF have higher procedural complexity compared to pABF as evidenced by greater operative time, blood loss and need for adjunctive procedures. However, similar perioperative morbidity, mortality and mid-term survival occurred in comparison to pABF patients. These results support a role for rABF in selected patients. PMID:24657290

  16. The Determinants of HMOs’ Contracting with Hospitals for Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J; Escarce, José J; Schulman, Kevin; Hadley, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Objective Selective contracting with health care providers is one of the mechanisms HMOs (Health Maintenance Organizations) use to lower health care costs for their enrollees. However, are HMOs compromising quality to lower costs? To address this and other questions we identify factors that influence HMOs’ selective contracting for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Study Design Using a logistic regression analysis, we estimated the effects of hospitals’ quality, costliness, and geographic convenience on HMOs’ decision to contract with a hospital for CABG services. We also estimated the impact of HMO characteristics and market characteristics on HMOs’ contracting decision. Data Sources A 1997 survey of a nationally representative sample of 50 HMOs that could have potentially contracted with 447 hospitals. Principal Findings About 44 percent of the HMO-hospital pairs had a contract. We found that the probability of an HMO contracting with a hospital increased as hospital quality increased and decreased as distance increased. Hospital costliness had a negative but borderline significant (0.10

  17. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  18. The European System for Electing University Presidents and University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Huaide

    2014-01-01

    The system of electing university presidents in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and the United Kingdom has distinctive characteristics. Almost all university presidents are elected by teachers and students, either directly or indirectly through elections with government approval of the appointment a mere formality. Principles of these elections include…

  19. Mode of Coronary Revascularization and Short term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khoso, Ashique Ali; Kazmi, Khawar Abbas; Tahir, Saqiba; Sharif, Hasanat; Awan, Safia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are two alternative methods for coronary revascularization, but it remains controversial as which one is associated with lower risks of worse clinical outcomes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We determined the mode of coronary revascularization (PCI vs. CABG) which is associated with lower risk of mortality and morbidity in CKD patients. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 159 patients with CKD were enrolled from single center of coronary revascularization at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi between January 2012 and August 2013. All patients with CKD underwent PCI or CABG. The primary outcome was in-hospital composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. We evaluated which mode of coronary revascularization was associated with reduced risks of clinical outcomes. Results: Out of 159 patients with CKD, 85 (53.5%) received PCI and 74 (46.5%) received CABG. The primary finding of this study is that more patients with moderate to severe CKD underwent PCI and more patients with mild to moderate CKD underwent CABG. In both these categories, no difference was observed in clinical outcomes. There are few factors like age, ST- elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and number of coronary artery disease predicted PCI as treatment strategy in patients with moderate to severe CKD. Conclusion: Patients with moderate to severe CKD have similar rates of short term clinical outcomes whether they underwent PCI or CABG. Therefore, PCI can be acceptable and less invasive treatment option alternative to CABG, particularly in patients with moderate to severe CKD. PMID:25674104

  20. A case of left main coronary artery disease in an octogenarian treated surgically and complicated by myocardial infarction: decisions, techniques, rescue and final outcome.

    PubMed

    Kossaify, Antoine; Grollier, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    We report on an octogenarian patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome due to significant left main coronary artery disease and severe ostial stenosis of the left anterior descending artery disease. Emergent bypass graft performed with "beating heart" consisted of left internal mammary graft to the mid left anterior descending artery with an "over-stent" anastomosis. The immediate post-operative phase was simple, however the patient presented on post-operative day 8 with extensive anterior myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Emergent coronary angiogram showed subocclusive anastomotic stenosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on left main, proximal left anterior descending, and proximal circumflex arteries. Subsequently, the patient restored a satisfactory hemodynamic condition. A focus on the importance of decision for management of left main disease especially in octogenarian is presented, along with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:23641159

  1. Acute coronary occlusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, M F; Silverton, N P; Oakley, D; Cumberland, D

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and forty percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures were performed in three centres over a two year period. Acute occlusion of the vessel undergoing angioplasty was seen on 20 (8%) occasions. The cause of occlusion was determined angiographically and in some cases confirmed at the time of emergency open heart surgery. The mechanism of coronary occlusion was arterial dissection in six cases, persisting coronary arterial spasm in seven, and coronary thrombosis in four. In three patients the mechanism could not be determined. Immediate reintroduction of a balloon dilatation catheter was attempted in 10 patients and resulted in restoration of adequate coronary flow in six. The remaining 14 patients underwent open heart surgery as an emergency procedure. Images PMID:3160376

  2. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  3. “Information Survival Skills”: a medical school elective

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Sarah Knox; Hendrix, Ingrid Claire

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed an elective course to assist students in (1) understanding the changing nature of scholarly communication and online publishing, (2) identifying resources and strategies for searching current best evidence, and (3) demonstrating effective communication of information. Setting: The course took place in a medical school in the Southwest. Participants: Second- and third-year medical students participated in the course. Intervention: A pass-fail, undergraduate-level elective was first offered October to December 2006. This 7.5 hour course, developed and co-taught by 2 health sciences library faculty, consisted of hands-on exercises, small group discussion, and didactic lecture. Conclusion: Presenting a medical school elective is one possible outlet for intensive bibliographic instruction. Illustrating the flow of information from creation to management and presentation affords students an opportunity to understand information in context. This elective has been consistently ranked very high in student evaluations and led to new and expanded teaching opportunities. PMID:23133330

  4. Report on Provisional Ballots and American Elections

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Daron

    2013-06-21

    Both empirical and anecdotal data indicate that the use of provisional ballots in U.S. elections is a mixed bag. On the one hand, providing voters whose eligibility is unclear with an opportunity to cast a provisional ...

  5. Retrograde coronary sinus versus aortic root perfusion with cold cardioplegia: randomized study of levels of cardiac enzymes in 40 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraudon, G.M.; Campbell, C.S.; McLellan, D.G.; Kostuk, W.J.; Purves, P.D.; MacDonald, J.L.; Cleland, A.G.; Tadros, N.B.

    1986-11-01

    Myocardial injury was assessed with the use of enzyme indexes in 40 patients randomly assigned to one of two groups undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Twenty patients received cold cardioplegia delivered by retrograde coronary sinus perfusion and 20 received cardioplegic solution by anterograde aortic root perfusion. Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and lactate dehydrogenese isoenzyme 1 and isoenzyme 2 assays were carried out on blood samples obtained from the coronary sinus before aortic cross-clamping and 0, 5, and 30 min after aortic unclamping. Levels of these enzymes were also obtained from venous blood samples before aortic cross-clamping and 3, 8, 14, and 20 hr after aortic unclamping and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic measurements (Swan-Ganz catheter) and radionuclide wall motion studies were also obtained for comparison. There was no overall significant difference between the two groups postoperatively in terms of enzyme indexes, hemodynamic measurements, or results of wall motion studies. We conclude that retrograde coronary sinus perfusion is an alternative to aortic root perfusion in delivering cold cardioplegia. More studies are required to determine which subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease may benefit from retrograde coronary perfusion.

  6. Microemboli from Cardiopulmonary Bypass are Associated with a Serum Marker of Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Robert C.; Quinn, Reed D.; Lennon, Paul; Welch, Janine; Kramer, Robert S.; Ross, Cathy S.; Beaulieu, Peter A.; Brown, Jeremiah R.; Malenka, David J.; O’Connor, Gerald T.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: An increasing number of reports surrounding neurologic injury in the setting of cardiac surgery has focused on utilizing biomarkers as intermediate outcomes. Previous research has associated cerebral microemboli and neurobehavioral deficits with biomarkers. A leading source of cerebral microemboli is the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. This present study seeks to identify a relationship between microemboli leaving the CPB circuit and a biomarker of neurologic injury. We enrolled 71 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at a single institution from October 14, 2004 through December 5, 2007. Microemboli were monitored using Power-M-Mode Doppler in the inflow and outflow of the CPB circuit. Blood was sampled before and within 48 hours after surgery. Neurologic injury was measured using S100? (microg/L). Significant differences in post-operative S100? relative to microemboli leaving the circuit were tested with analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis. Most patients had increased serum levels of S100? (mean .25 microg/L, median .15 microg/L) following surgery. Terciles of microemboli measured in the outflow (indexed to the duration of time spent on CPB) were associated with elevated levels of S100? (p = .03). Microemboli leaving the CPB circuit were associated with increases in postoperative S100? levels. Efforts aimed at reducing microembolic load leaving the CPB circuit should be adopted to reduce brain injury. PMID:20437790

  7. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  8. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and obesity, and others. Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 This video—presented by the ... part of the National Institutes of Health—describes coronary artery disease (CAD), its symptoms and complications, and ways to ...

  9. Does Television Viewership Predict Presidential Election Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The days of surprise about actual election outcomes in the big data world are likely to be fewer in the years ahead, at least to those who may have access to such data. In this paper we highlight the potential for forecasting the Unites States presidential election outcomes at the state and county levels based solely on the data about viewership of television programs. A key consideration for relevance is that given the infrequent nature of elections, such models are useful only if they can be trained using recent data on viewership. However, the target variable (election outcome) is usually not known until the election is over. Related to this, we show here that such models may be trained with the television viewership data in the “safe” states (the ones where the outcome can be assumed even in the days preceding elections) to potentially forecast the outcomes in the swing states. In addition to their potential to forecast, these models could also help campaigns target programs for advertisements. Nearly two billion dollars were spent on television advertising in the 2012 presidential race, suggesting potential for big data–driven optimization of campaign spending. PMID:26487986

  10. 5 CFR 847.912 - If an employee who elects to credit NAFI service under subpart H of this part elects a survivor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...employee who elects to credit NAFI service under subpart H of this part elects...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS...Employees Who Elect To Use NAFI Service To Qualify for an Immediate...

  11. Bypass surgery in limb salvage: inflow procedures.

    PubMed

    Bismuth, Jean; Duran, Cassidy

    2013-04-01

    Proper management of lower-extremity inflow vessel disease is critical to the success of distal interventions. Aortobifemoral bypass is the most effective means of treating aortoiliac disease, but this invasive procedure is not always ideal for a patient population that often has diffuse vascular disease and multiple comorbidities. Technologic advances and increasing experience have fundamentally altered the management algorithm for lower-extremity vascular lesions, and endovascular options have become the first-line therapy for Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Guidelines (TASC) class A and B lesions. In fact, an endovascular first approach is being endorsed even for highly complex TASC C and even TASC D lesions. Other alternatives include minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) options or extra-anatomic bypass procedures. Inadequate outflow can compromise any inflow procedure, but inflow treatment failures are the crux of all limb salvage in patients with lower-extremity vascular disease. PMID:23805336

  12. Coronary revascularization: 2011.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2011-03-01

    Coronary revascularization is a proven method to alleviate the symptoms of ischemic heart disease and improve survival. There have been many improvements in surgical revascularization since its advent > 40 years ago and in balloon angioplasty since its first usage > 30 years ago. Patients will continue to benefit as these surgical techniques continue to undergo further improvements. This article is a testament to the many physicians, surgeons, scientists, industry leaders, and insurers who continue to reinvent how we provide cutting-edge procedures in the most cost-effective manner for our patients. PMID:21474897

  13. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  14. Intra-thoracic desmoid tumour in a patient with a previous aortocoronary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Borzellino, Giuseppe; Minicozzi, Anna Maria; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Iuzzolino, Paolo; Cordiano, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Background Intra-thoracic desmoid tumours with mediastinal invasion are very rare. Although rare they have to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a thoracic mass and therapeutic options have to be weighted since surgical treatment may require wide excision. Case presentation A 48-year-old male diabetic, dyslipidaemic, former heavy smoker with psychiatric illness was operated by sternotomy for a triple aorto-coronary bypass 4 years before, presented with complains of recent onset such as constant and oppressive chest pain. At surgery a mass extending from the aortic arch into the entire anterior mediastinum and to most of the right pleural cavity was found. The mass was separated from sternal periosteum and vessels of aorto-coronary by pass were isolated starting from the aortic arch up to the pericardium. The histological examination revealed aggressive fibromatosis. Conclusion Although technically demanding, radical surgical excision is actually the most indicated therapeutic approach for intra-thoracic desmoid tumours. PMID:16831227

  15. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  16. Assessment of quality of life with the Nottingham Health Profile among patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lukkarinen, H; Hentinen, M

    1997-07-01

    The aim was to describe the quality of life of people suffering from coronary artery disease. The patients had been treated with medication (n = 80), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (n = 100) and coronary artery bypass surgery (n = 100). Of the 280 patients, 189 were men and 91 women. The patients who participated in this study were seriously ill, as nearly half of them had three or more stenosed coronary arteries. Male patients were most numerous in the bypass surgery group and female patients in the angioplasty group. The quality of life was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) instrument relation to an age- and sex-matched general population, the background factors and the severity of the coronary disease. The NHP questionnaire consists of 38 statements on health problems, making up six dimensions of subjective health: physical mobility, pain, sleep, energy, emotional reactions and social isolation. The health-related quality of life of coronary patients before the invasive procedures was significantly poorer on all the six dimensions than the quality of life in an age- and sex-matched general population. The most obvious differences were seen on the following dimensions: energy, pain, emotional reactions, sleep and physical mobility. The smallest differences occurred in social isolation. Both males and females had the lowest value for energy and social isolation in the youngest age group (35-54 years). The index values of emotional reactions in the two youngest groups were significantly higher among females than males, which reflects poor quality of life. The women in the age group of 35-54 years found the manifestation of a serious disease extremely hard to face. Our findings clearly suggest that while choosing the mode of treatment, the patient's quality of life should be considered along with the clinical severity of the disease, especially in the case of young women. From the societal and social points of view, the patient's symptoms and quality of life are even more important than the objective medical outcome. In clinical decision-making, the goal is to integrate the results of health-related quality of life assessments with clinical decisions, and this underlines the need to evaluate whether the treatment given is congruent with the patient's quality of life. On the basis of the present findings, the NHP instrument seems to be applicable to quality of life measurements among coronary patients. It does not, however, necessarily give an accurate and profound view of an individual's overall quality of life. PMID:9231280

  17. A comparative evaluation of femorofemoral crossover bypass and iliofemoral bypass for unilateral iliac artery occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, M M; Hoballah, J J; Jacobovicz, C; Mohan, C R; Martinasevic, M; Ryan, S M; Sharp, W J; Kresowik, T F; Corson, J D

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of extra-anatomic femorofemoral crossover bypass grafting to the anatomic iliofemoral bypass grafting procedure in the treatment of patients with unilateral iliac artery occlusive disease with respect to patency and limb salvage. The records of all patients with unilateral iliac artery disease who underwent revascularization between January 1988 and December 1995 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) were retrospectively reviewed; 108 patients were identified and divided into two groups. Group I (n=68; male/female=44/24) was composed of all patients who underwent a femorofemoral crossover extra-anatomic bypass. All patients who underwent an iliofemoral anatomic bypass constituted group II (n=40; male/female=24/16). The mean age for group I was 60 years (range 28-87) and for group II, 54 years (range 14-86). The medical risk factors between both groups were comparable. Except for the higher incidence of gangrene in group II the indications for surgery were comparable between both groups. A polytetrafluoroethylene graft was used in 88% of group I patients and in 90% of group II patients (NS). In the remaining patients, an autogenous vein conduit was used. Two patients from group I (2.9%) died in the perioperative period (NS). Graft patency was assessed by clinical evaluation, Doppler-derived ankle/brachial indices, and color duplex imaging. The cumulative primary and secondary patency rates, limb salvage, and patient survival were calculated by use of life table analysis (SE<0.1). The need for simultaneous outflow and inflow procedures at the time of surgery was comparable between both groups. The proportion of patients who underwent further revascularization during follow-up was also comparable. The 5-year primary and secondary graft patency rates were 81.7% and 90.3%, in group I and 61.3% and 80.5% in group II. Although the difference between both groups was not significant there was a tendency toward higher rates with femorofemoral bypass. The 5-year survival rates of 80.3% for group I and 73.3% for group II were comparable. These data suggest that there is no significant difference in the long-term results between the femorofemoral crossover bypass grafts and iliofemoral grafts. Both procedures result in acceptable patency and limb salvage rates. The femorofemoral bypass is, however, more attractive, for it can be performed under local anesthesia if needed and does not involve the creation of the retroperitoneal incision necessary with the iliofemoral bypass. PMID:9555928

  18. Effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response syndrome after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Vretzkakis, Giorgos; Mikroulis, Dimitris; Mpakas, Andreas; Kesisis, Georgios; Arikas, Stamatis; Kolettas, Alexandros; Moschos, Giorgios; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Siminelakis, Stavros; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background The establishment of Extracorporeal Circulation (EC) significantly contributed to improvement of cardiac surgery, but this is accompanied by harmful side-effects. The most important of them is systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Many efforts have been undertaken to minimize this problem but unfortunately without satisfied solution to date. Materials and methods Lornoxicam is a non steroid anti-inflammatory drug which temporally inhibits the cycloxygenase. In this clinical trial we study the effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In our study we conclude 14 volunteers patients with ischemic coronary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with EC. In seven of them 16 mg lornoxicam was administered iv before the anesthesia induction and before the connection in heart-lung machine. In control group (7 patients) we administered the same amount of normal saline. Results Both groups are equal regarding pro-operative and intra-operative parameters. The inflammatory markers were calculated by Elisa method. We measured the levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, e-Selectin, p-Selectin) and matrix metaloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) just after anesthesia induction, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, just after the patients administration in ICU and after 8 and 24 hrs. In all patients we estimated the lung’s inflammatory reaction with lung biopsy taken at the begging and at the end of the operation. We calculated hemodynamics parameters: Cardiac Index (CI), Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI), Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI), Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI), Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI), and the Pulmonary arterial pressure, and respiratory parameters too: alveolo-arterial oxygen difference D (A-a), intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) and pulmonary Compliance. IL-6 levels of lornoxicam group were statistical significant lower at 1st postoperative day compared to them of control group (113±49 and 177±20 respectively, P=0.008). ICAM-1 levels were statistical significant lower at the patient admission in ICU, compared to them of control group (177±29 and 217±22 respectively, P=0.014), and the 1st postoperative day compared to them in control group (281±134 and 489±206 respectively, P=0.045). P-selectin levels were statistical significant lower, compared to them in control group in four measurements (97±23 and 119±7 respectively, P=0.030, 77±19 and 101±20 respectively, P=0.044, 86±4 and 105±13 respectively, P=0.06, 116±13 and 158±17 respectively, P=0.000). Conclusions Hemodynamics and respiratory parameters were improved compared to control group, but these differences was not statistical significant. Eosinofil adhesion and sequestration in intermediate tissue of lung parenchyma were significantly lower compared to control group. Also, alveolar edema was not noted in lornoxicam’s group. Lornoxicam reduce the inflammatory response in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting with extracorporeal circulation. This calculated from levels reduction of IL-6, ICAM-1 ??? p-Selectin, and from lung pathologoanatomic examination (absence of alveolar edema, reduce in eosinofil adhesion and sequestration in intermediate tissues). Despite the favorable effect of lornoxicam on the hemodinamics and respiratory parameters these improvement did not seem to be statistical significant. PMID:24672701

  19. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease: Results From a Large Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Marino, Paolo; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, may be of predictive and prognostic value for cardiovascular (CV) events. We evaluated the relationship of NLR with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent coronary angiography. Our population (n = 3738 patients) was divided into NLR quartiles. Higher NLR was associated with aging and established CV risk factors, previous percutaneous coronary revascularization, acute presentation, and more complex pharmacological therapy. The NLR was related to platelet count, white blood cell count, creatinine, glycemia, uric acid, and C-reactive protein (all P = .001) levels but inversely related to hemoglobin (P < .001), total cholesterol (P = .005), and triglycerides (P < .001) levels. The NLR was associated with multivessel disease (P < .001), anterior descending, right coronary arteries (P < .001) or circumflex branch lesions (P = .01), percentage of stenosis (P < .001), coronary calcification (P < .001), and intracoronary thrombus (P < .001) but inversely with in-stent restenosis (P < .001) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (P = .04). The NLR was directly related to the prevalence of CAD (P = .001) and severe CAD (P < .001). In patients undergoing coronary angiography, the NLR is independently associated with the prevalence and severity of CAD. PMID:25818102

  20. Transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of silent ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, P.; Myler, R.K.; Shaw, R.E.; Stertzer, S.H.; Clark, D.A.; Ryan, C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-four asymptomatic patients with positive thallium exercise tests underwent coronary angiography followed by coronary angioplasty (PTCA), as the primary therapy for silent ischemia. The procedure was technically successful in 89% of these patients. Emergency bypass graft surgery was necessary in 2 (3.6%) and q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1 (1.8%) of these. All fifty-four patients have been followed for a mean of 35 months since angioplasty. Of the 48 patients with initially successful PTCA, 12 had either clinical restenosis (9/14 or 19%) or a new lesion (3/48 or 6%) during follow-up, which required a repeat PTCA. At the longest follow-up, 46 (85%) had been successfully treated with on or more PTCA procedures. Two patients (3.6%) had sustained late q-wave myocardial infarction and two additional patients reported angina pectoris. There were no deaths. Angioplasty as a primary therapy for silent ischemia appears efficacious, with success and restenosis rates comparable to those in the symptomatic population. Event-free survival is improved, compared with natural history data for patients with silent ischemia from other studies. Prudent risk/benefit analysis may help to define subgroups most likely to benefit from this intervention.

  1. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  2. 21 CFR 870.4230 - Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4230 Cardiopulmonary bypass defoamer. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4300 - Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4300 Cardiopulmonary bypass gas control unit. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4380 Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4390 Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4350 Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. (a)...

  10. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  11. An Elective Course in Information Mastery

    PubMed Central

    Ference, Kimberly; Nanstiel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design and implement an elective course in information mastery and assess its impact on students' ability to identify information needs and formulate clinically relevant, evidence-based answers. Design A semester-long (15-week) elective course was offered to third-year (P3) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students that outlined the necessary knowledge and skills for using information mastery in evidence-based practice. Assessment Results of a pre- and postcourse survey instrument demonstrated an increase in students' knowledge of information mastery and confidence in and familiarity with the practice of evidence-based medicine in pharmacy. Students who had completed the elective were able to provide higher quality search strategies and evidence-based answers to a clinical question than other P3 students, and P4 students who did not participate in the elective. Conclusion An elective course in information mastery improved students' knowledge and understanding of information mastery as it pertains to practicing evidence-based medicine. PMID:21519410

  12. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease leading to acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most serious and catastrophic of acute cardiac disorders, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year worldwide. Although the incidence of AMI has been decreasing in the US according to the American Heart Association, heart disease is still the leading cause of mortality in adults. In most cases of AMI and in a majority of cases of SCD, the underlying pathology is acute intraluminal coronary thrombus formation within an epicardial coronary artery leading to total or near-total acute coronary occlusion. This article summarizes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these acute coronary syndromes and briefly discusses new approaches currently being researched in an attempt to define and ultimately reduce their incidence. PMID:25705391

  13. [Acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Halna du Fretay, X; Dibon, O; Dupouy, P; Juliard, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation associated with an anomalous connection of a coronary artery, when the latter is the culprit, may be problematic. Anatomic and radiologic knowledge of major congenital coronary abnormalities and some catheterization skills can help the operators not to delay a beneficial coronary reperfusion. The relationship between acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries needs to be analyzed with a large number of cases because the coronary artery disease frequency may vary with the type of coronary anomaly. PMID:26482632

  14. [Digital subtraction angiography of aortocoronary bypass grafts in the early postoperative phase with peripheral vein x-ray contrast media injection].

    PubMed

    Tuengerthal, S; Donhöffner, A; Lang, J

    1985-06-01

    Using a fully digitalised subtraction unit, aortocoronary bypass grafts can be visualised in the early postoperative phase by means of peripheral venous contrast medium injection (57 out of a total of 60 cases). In more than one-half of the cases (31 out of a total of 60), it is possible to outline sharply the bypass grafts from the beginning to their entry into the bridged-over coronary artery, in such a manner that any loops, kinks, stenoses or reduced flow rates can be recognised. This examination is not considered to be an invasive one by the patient, and the cardiosurgeon can welcome it as a valuable additional means of controlling and assessing the results of surgery. PMID:3893854

  15. Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance during On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mentese, Umit; Dogan, Orhan Veli; Turan, Ibrahim; Usta, Sefer; Dogan, Emre; Oztas Mentese, Seda; Demir, Selim; Ozer, Tanil; Aykan, Ahmet Cagri; Alver, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Backround. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in perioperative oxidant-antioxidant balance in ONCABG. Methods. Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) values were assessed preoperatively, at 20 minutes after aortic clamping and at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 48 hours after declamping (reperfusion). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median aortic cross clamping (XC) time: group 1 (XC time < 42 minutes) and group 2 (XC time ? 42 minutes). Results. TOS and OSI values of whole patients at 30 minutes after reperfusion were higher than preoperative values (P = 0.045, P = 0.015), while perioperative TAS levels of the patients were similar to the preoperative levels (P = 0.173). XC time was correlated with TOS levels at 30 minutes after reperfusion (r = 0.43, P = 0.041). In group 2, TOS and OSI values at 30 minutes after reperfusion were higher than preoperative values (P = 0.023, P = 0.048), whereas a significant difference was not found in group 1 (P = 0.601, P = 0.327). Conclusions. Oxidative imbalance and increase in TOS at reperfusion in ONCABG may be associated with XC time. PMID:25302318

  16. Anesthetic management of robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery (TECAB).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Seema P; Lehr, Eric; Odonkor, Patrick; Bonatti, Johannes O; Kalangie, Maudy; Zimrin, David A; Grigore, Alina M

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, TECAB has matured into a reproducible technique associated with low incidence of both mortality and morbidity, as well as superior quality of life, when compared with open CABG surgery. However, TECAB also is associated with important and specific challenges for the anesthesiology team, particularly with regard to the physiologic stresses of OLV, placement of special catheters, and induced capnothorax. As the technology supporting robotic surgery evolves and familiarity with, and confidence in, TECAB increases, the authors anticipate increasingly widespread use of these procedures in an increasingly fragile and problematic patient population who will require the support of a skilled and vigilant anesthesiology team. PMID:23672862

  17. Local Use of Ankaferd Blood Clotter in Emergent Beating Heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Hakan; Atalay, Atakan; Dogan, Omer F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe beeding which requiring massive blood transfusion after emergent beating heart surgery is shown to be 1–3%. Therefore, complications and side effects of transfusion can be seen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Ankaferd blood clotter (ABC) as a new topical herbal blood clotter to decrease mediastinal bleeding in emergent beating heart CABG patients who medicated with clopidogrel and acetyl salisilic acite (ASA) prior to CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: 25 CABG patients received a high dose clopidogrel (600 mgr) and 300 mgr ASA have been included into the study (ABC group). 25 patients have also been included into the study for comparison (placebo group, PG). After the administration of protamine sulphate, a 10 ml of ABC solution has been sprayed to the surgical area including mediastinum and epicardial sac. We compared mediastinal drenaige, reoperation due to tamponade, and required blood and blood products in both groups. Results: The mean amount of bleeding after operation was 230 ml in ABC group, and 490 ml in CG (P=0.001). In ICU, bleeding in ABC group and CG was 410ml and 680ml, respectively (P=0.0022). The mean total bleeding from mediastinum was 530±280 mL and 990±440 mL In ABC and CG group, respectively (P=0.001). The amount of autotransfusion was as follows: 175 mL in ABC group, and 290 mL in CG (P=0.002). No patient needed the surgical revision in ABC group, but four patients (16%) from CG group because of cardiac tamponade. Seventeen patients from CG required blood transfusion due to low hematocrite level postoperatively. In CG, the mean hematocrite level was 17±2,3. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma and platelets in ABC group and CG were as follows: 0.2 and 0 in ABC group, and 0.3and 0.4 in CG. Conclusion: Our study showed that the local use of 10 mL ABC reduces bleeding significantly. Therefore, transfusion requirements of PRBC, platelets, and total blood units in patients on clopidogrel and ASA undergoing emergent beating heart CABG. To provide cardiac tamponade because of excessive mediastinal bleeding and requirement of blood transfusion after emergent CABG patients who previously administered clopidogrel and ASA, we propose local use of ABC solution as a potent coagulant agent. PMID:25834652

  18. Autologous Platelet Gel in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Effects on Surgical Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Vang, See N.; Brady, Chad P.; Christensen, Kevin A.; Allen, Keith R.; Anderson, John E.; Isler, Jack R.; Holt, David W.; Smith, Lynette M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Stimulating the body’s natural healing at the cellular level can be achieved through the application of growth factors located within platelets. Once combined with a mixture of calcium and thrombin, this substance, now referred to as autologous platelet gel (APG), can be applied to surgical wound sites for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of APG on surgical site infection, post-operative pain, blood loss, and bruising. After 30 mL platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was processed, 10 mL PRP was distributed on the sternum after re-approximation and 7 mL PRP before skin closure. Ten milliliters PRP was used on the endoscopic leg harvest (EVH) site. The remaining 3 mL was sent to the laboratory for hematologic testing. Both the control (CTR) and treatment (TRT) groups were well matched, with the exception of ejection fraction and pre-operative platelet count, which was significantly higher in the TRT group. Average platelet count yield was 4.2 ± 0.5 × 103/mcL, white blood count (WBC) yielded 1.9 ± 0.7 × 103/mcL, and fibrinogen yielded 1.2 ± 0.2 mg/dL above baseline. There were no deep or superficial sternal infections. However, one patient from each group did experience a leg infection at the EVH site, which occurred after hospital discharge. More patients in the TRT group experienced less pain on postoperative day (POD) 1 and at the post-operative office follow-up. Blood loss and bruising was less in the TRT group on POD 2; however, there was no statistical significance. The application of APG seems to confer beneficial effects on pain, blood loss, and bruising. However, further studies with a greater sample size are needed to power significant differences. PMID:17486871

  19. Circulating MicroRNAs Characterizing Patients with Insufficient Coronary Collateral Artery Function

    PubMed Central

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Nossent, A. Yaël; van der Laan, Anja M.; Schirmer, Stephan H.; de Ronde, Maurice W. J.; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan; van Royen, Niels; Quax, Paul H. A.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary collateral arteries function as natural bypasses in the event of coronary obstruction. The degree of collateral network development significantly impacts the outcome of patients after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have arisen as biomarkers to identify heterogeneous patients, as well as new therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. We sought to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients with well or poorly developed collateral arteries. Methods and Results Forty-one CTO patients undergoing coronary angiography and invasive assessment of their coronary collateralization were dichotomized based on their collateral flow index (CFI). After miRNA profiling was conducted on aortic plasma, four miRNAs were selected for validation by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in patients with low (CFI<0.39) and high (CFI>0.39) collateral artery capacity. We confirmed significantly elevated levels of miR423-5p (p<0.05), miR10b (p<0.05), miR30d (p<0.05) and miR126 (p<0.001) in patients with insufficient collateral network development. We further demonstrated that each of these miRNAs could serve as circulating biomarkers to discriminate patients with low collateral capacity (p<0.01 for each miRNA). We also determined significantly greater expression of miR30d (p<0.05) and miR126 (p<0.001) in CTO patients relative to healthy controls. Conclusion The present study identifies differentially expressed miRNAs in patients with high versus low coronary collateral capacity. We have shown that these miRNAs can function as circulating biomarkers to discriminate between patients with insufficient or sufficient collateralization. This is the first study to identify miRNAs linked to coronary collateral vessel function in humans. PMID:26331273

  20. Single Center Retrospective Analysis of Conventional and Radial TIG Catheters for Transradial Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vorpahl, Marc; Koehler, Till; Foerst, Jason; Panagiotopoulos, Spyridon; Schleiting, Heinrich; Koss, Klaus; Ziegler, Gunda; Brinkmann, Hilmar; Seyfarth, Melchior; Tiroch, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines favor the radial approach for coronary angiography. Therefore, specialty radial diagnostic catheters were designed to engage both coronary arteries with a single device. However, it is unclear if single catheters are superior to conventional catheters. A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive right radial coronary angiographies to determine catheter use, fluoroscopy time, radiation dosage, and consumption of contrast. Procedures were performed with a single TIG catheter or conventional catheters (CONV). Procedures with coronary artery bypass grafts or ventricular angiographies were excluded. 273 transradial procedures were performed successfully. 95 procedures were performed with CONV and 178 procedures with a TIG. Crossover to additional catheters was higher in TIG (15.2%) compared to CONV (5.3%, p = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time was comparable between CONV and TIG, without crossover (2.2 ± 1.2?min versus 2.3 ± 1.2?min; n.s.), however, greater in the case of crossover for CONV (5.8 ± 0.7) and TIG (7.6 ± 3.0; p = 0.0001). Radiation dosage was similar in CONV and the TIG, without crossover (1419 ± 1075, cGy?cm2 versus 1690 ± 1138; n.s.), however, greater for CONV (2374 ± 620) and TIG (3733 ± 2281, p = 0.05) with crossover. Overall, the amount of contrast was greater in TIG (56 ± 13?mL) versus CONV (48 ± 3?mL; p = 0.0003). CONV femoral catheters may be the primary choice for radial approach. PMID:26435876